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CHOOSING A LINE SIZE AND

WALL THICKNESS
LESSON OUTCOMES
At the end of todays lecture, students should
be able to:
Describe effect of velocity to size liquid, gas and
two-phase pipeline
Determine ID using velocity equations
Describe standards and requirements used to
calculate wall thickness of pipe
Determine wall thickness of pipe using standards.
LECTURE OUTLINE
Selection criteria
Line size criteria focus on VELOCITY
Wall thickness criteria
Example


SELECTION CRITERIA
TWO-PHASE LINE
LIQUID LINES
GAS LINES
VELOCITY PRESSURE DROP
LINE SIZE
ANSI B 31.1 ANSI B 31.3 ANSI B 31.4
LOCATION CLASS
1,2,3 AND 4
TEMP DERATING
FACTOR,T
DESIGN FACTOR,F
ANSI B 31.8
STANDARDS AND
REQUIREMENTS
WALL THICKNESS
SELECTION CRITERIA
LINE SIZE CRITERIA
PRESSURE DROP
Important for long flowline
Important for flowline between equipment operating
at the same or nearly the same pressure
Equivalent length and elevation changes to be
considered

VELOCITY
Below maximum to prevent erosion, noise or water
hammer
Above minimum to minimize surging and transporting
sand or solid particles
LINE SIZE CRITERIA (contd..)
Erosional Flow

Liquid droplets impact the wall with enough force
to erode the metal and exposing it to the fluid
and allowing more corrosion to occur

Fluid erosion occurs when V >

2 1
) (
m
e
C
V

=
LINE SIZE CRITERIA (contd..)
LIQUID LINE
GAS LINE
Max velocity 15 ft/s
and min velocity is
3 ft/s
Sized to maintain a
velocity sufficient to
keep solid particles
from depositing
Fluid velocity in oilfield
unit:

Max velocity 60-80 ft/s
and min velocity is
10-15 ft/s
Sized to minimize liquid
settling out and effect of
noise and corrosion
Pressure less than 1000
psi, erosional velocity is
not significant
Gas velocity in oilfield
unit:


VELOCITY
2
1
012 . 0
d
Q
V =
P d
TZ Q
V
g
2
60 =
Standards and Requirement

ANSI B 31.3 - Power Piping.
This standard deals with steam and is required by the U.S Coast Guard on
all rigs

ANSI B 31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping.
This standard is required by the US Minerals Management Service for
offshore platform in federal, state waters and offshore facilities in other
parts of the world

ANSI B 31.4 Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping System.
This standard is normally used in onshore oil production facilities

ANSI B 31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System.
This standard is normally used for gas lines in onshore production
facilities and when transporting or distributing gas.


WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA
General Hoop Stress Formula for Thin
Wall Cylinders
WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA
WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA (contd..)
ANSI B 31.3

(

+
+ + =
Tol PY SE
Pd
t t t
o
th c
100
100
) ( 2
WALL THICKNESS CRITERIA (contd..)
ANSI B 31.8

) ( 2 FETS
Pd
t
o
=
STEPS TO CHOOSE A LINE SIZE AND WALL
THICKNESS
i. Determine the max and min velocity
allowable for specific fluid types
ii. Find pressure drop of the system
iii. Determine the I.D of pipe relative to the
velocity
iv. Determine pressure drop in the pipeline
v. Find the wall thickness based on the
standard
vi. Choose the appropriate pipeline size from
the standard

EXAMPLE CALCULATION
A gas with specific gravity of 0.85, viscosity of 3 cp and compressibility
factor of 0.67 flows at a rate of 23 MMscfd in a pipeline.
The pipeline is laid at Gobi Desert.
The inlet pressure of the gas is 900 psi at a temperature of 80
o
F.
The length of the pipeline is 7000 ft.
The gas flows to a dehydrator that operates at 800 psi. The rated pressure of
the pipeline is 1480 psi. The pipe is seamless and the minimum yield
strength is 35000 psi.
Determine the appropriate line size and wall thickness based on ANSI B 31.8