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GEOTECHNICAL

INVESTIGATION
REPORT




Subsurface Investigation for the
PROPOSED CORON POWER PLANT
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Guadalupe
Coron, Palawan






DECEMBER 2013








Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan
_______________________________________________________________


GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION REPORT
Subsurface Investigation for the
PROPOSED CORON POWER PLANT
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Guadalupe
Coron, Palawan


Table of Contents

Page

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
2.0 PROJECT LOCATION AND REGIONAL GEOLOGY 1
3.0 FIELD INVESTIGATION 2
4.0 LABORATORY TESTING 2
5.0 RESULTS OF FIELD DRILLING AND LABORATORY TESTING 3
6.0 EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4
7.0 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 6
8.0 OTHER COMMENTS 7

Appendices
Borehole Location Plan
Idealized Soil Profile
Final Borehole Log and Summary of Test Results
Photographs




Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan

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Geotechnical Evaluation Report
1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This report presents the geotechnical evaluation of the results of
subsurface investigations conducted at the site of the PROPOSED
CORON POWER PLANT located within Brgy. Guadalupe, Coron,
Palawan.

The geotechnical investigation consisted of drilling three (3) boreholes
within the site in order to assess the subsoil conditions and evaluate its
characteristics. The soil samples recovered were then brought to the soil
laboratory for analysis and testing. Laboratory tests on selected soil
samples include:

Soil Classification using the USCS (ASTM D2487)
Grain Size Analysis (ASTM D422)
Atterberg Limits (ASTM D4318)
Determination of Moisture Content (ASTM D2216)

This report presents the field and laboratory procedures adopted in the
investigation as well as the evaluation of the test results for foundation
analysis and design.

Subsurface conditions are presented in the form of idealized soil profiles
and borehole logs that also include the results of the field and laboratory
tests on soil samples.

Soil-Philippines Index Testing, Inc. undertook the geotechnical
investigation at the site, as well as the laboratory testing on the soil
samples, on November 28 to December 2, 2013.

The geotechnical investigation followed the procedures recommended
by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).


2.0 PROJECT LOCATION AND REGIONAL GEOLOGY

The proposed project involves the construction of a Power Plant at Brgy.
Guadalupe, Coron, Palawan.

Based on the geologic map of the Philippines, the Coron formation
consists predominantly of limestone with local interbeds of sandstone
and shale or in places, mainly often jointed, light to dark gray, crystalline,
reefal and in places oolitic and conglomerate. It sometimes contains
abundant radiolarian tests (Sphaerellaria and Dictyomitra) and few
pelagic pelecypods indicating an open marine environment.



Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan

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Geotechnical Evaluation Report
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3.0 FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

The field investigation within the site consisted of drilling three (3)
boreholes. The final depth, water level reading and date of drilling are
presented in Table 1. (Refer to Borehole Location Plan)

Table 1: Summary of Field Investigation

Borehole
Number
Final Depth Water Level Date of Drilling
BH-1 19.80 m 4.60 m 28 29 November 2013
BH-2 19.65 m 2.80 m
29 November 1
December 2013
BH-3 19.70 m 5.30 m 1 2 December 2013

Washboring procedures were employed in order to advance the drill hole
and the Standard Penetration Test was done in order to get the
penetration resistance profile of the underlying soils.

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was done in accordance with
ASTM specifications. For each test, a 2-inch (50.8mm) outside diameter
Spoon Sampler is driven into the soil a distance of 18 (460mm) inches
by means of a 140 lb. (63.5 kg.) driving mass falling free from a height of
30 inches (760mm). The number of blows needed to drive the sampler
18 inches (460mm) is recorded and the number of blows needed to drive
the last 12 inches (305mm) is taken as the N-value. Soil samples were
recovered using the spoon sampler and were then taken to the
laboratory for analysis and testing.

Complementing the field activities is the laboratory testing of the
samples obtained. The results of the field works and laboratory
investigation were then used to establish the parameters for determining
the type of foundation, level of foundation and bearing capacities.


4.0 LABORATORY TESTING

Representative soil samples obtained during drilling were subjected to
the following laboratory tests:

Grain Size Analysis per ASTM D422

This method covers the quantitative determination of the distribution of
particle sizes of soils.



Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan

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Geotechnical Evaluation Report
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Soil was passed through a series of sieves, the weight of soil retained in
each sieve determined and recorded. For each sample analyzed, a
gradation curve was drawn based on the percent finer weight.

Determination of Moisture Content per ASTM D2216

This method covers the laboratory determination of the water (moisture)
content of soil by weight.

The moisture content of a material is defined as the ratio, expressed as
a percentage, of the mass of pore water in a given mass of material to
the mass of the solid material particles.

Atterberg Limit Test per ASTM D4318

This test method covers the determination of the liquid limit, plastic limit,
and the plasticity index of soils.

Liquid Limit of Soils
The liquid limit of a soil is the water content expressed as a percentage
of the weight of the oven-dried soil after attaining the condition between
the liquid and plastic states.

Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils
The plastic limit of a soil is the water content, expressed as a percentage
of the mass of the oven-dried soil after attaining the condition between
the plastic and semi-solid states.

Plasticity Index is defined as the difference between the liquid and
plastic limits of the soil.

Soil Classification Tests per ASTM D2487

This standard describes a system for classifying mineral and organo-
mineral soils for engineering purposes based on laboratory
determination of particle size characteristics, liquid limit and plasticity
index.


5.0 RESULTS OF FIELD AND LABORATORY TESTING

The results of the subsurface investigation reveal that the site subsoil
generally consists of clay, silt and sand of varying consistency and
relative condition. The upper 2.0 to 5.0 meters are generally composed
of interspersed layers of medium dense sand and stiff to very stiff clay.
Beneath this layer, dense to very dense sand and very stiff to hard clay
were encountered, generally persisting until the termination of the
boreholes.
Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan

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Geotechnical Evaluation Report
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Water level was recorded at depths ranging from 2.80 meters to 5.30
meters below ground surface during the field tests.

Tables 2 to 4 present the idealized subsurface condition based on the
results of field and laboratory testing.

Table 2: Idealized subsurface condition at BH-1

Depth, m
USCS
Classification
SPT N-value
Remarks
(Relative Condition
/ Consistency)
0.00 3.00 SC / MH / SC 18 20 Medium dense
3.00 7.45 CL / ML 25 refusal Very stiff to hard
7.45 10.50 SC / ML 45 refusal Dense to very dense
10.50 13.50 CL 26 Very stiff
13.50 19.80 SC / CL refusal Very dense / Hard

Table 3: Idealized subsurface condition at BH-2

Depth, m
USCS
Classification
SPT N-value
Remarks
(Relative Condition
/ Consistency)
0.00 1.00 CL 20 Very stiff
1.00 2.00 SC 15 Medium dense
2.00 10.30
SM SP / SC /
CL
refusal Very dense / Hard
10.30 18.00
SM-SW / SC /
ML
20 43
Medium dense to
dense
18.00 19.65 SC refusal Very dense

Table 4: Idealized subsurface condition at BH-3

Depth, m
USCS
Classification
SPT N-value
Remarks
(Relative Condition
/ Consistency)
0.00 1.96 CL 26 refusal Very stiff to hard
1.96 19.70
MH / ML / CL /
SC / MH
34 refusal
Dense to very dense
/ Hard

Based on these results, geotechnical evaluation was carried out to
obtain the geotechnical parameters necessary for the analysis and
design of foundation and substructures.

Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan

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Geotechnical Evaluation Report
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6.0 EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the foregoing results, the utilization of a shallow foundation
system is evidently feasible.

It is recommended that an integrated shallow foundation system
consisting of spread footings with tie beams be used for the proposed
structures. The depth of foundation shall be at least 1.5 meters from
existing ground level, ensuring adequate footing embedment.

Within the level of medium dense sand/silt or very stiff clay, a net
allowable soil bearing capacity of 150 kPa (3,000 psf) may be adopted
for analysis considering dead and codal live loads. This may be
increased to 200 kPa (4,000 psf) for analysis considering transient loads
such as wind and earthquake.

In general, Terzaghis bearing capacity (general shear failure) theory
was used in the computation of the ultimate bearing capacity, the
equation of which is given as

BN N D N c q q q q
q f c q c ult 2 1
2
1
'
where
ult
q = ultimate gross bearing capacity or soil bearing pressure
' c = cohesion of the soil below foundation level

1
= effective unit weight of soil above foundation level

2
= effective unit weight of soil below foundation level

f
D = depth of footing below lowest adjacent soil surface

N N N
q c
, , = soil-bearing capacity factors, dimensionless terms,
whose values relate to the angle of internal friction, ' .

These factors are given as follows:

, where

= passive pressure coefficient



A factor of safety of 3.0 was adopted to obtain the safe bearing pressure.
Deformation criteria (settlements) were considered in coming up with the
allowable bearing capacity. Estimated settlements are within 25mm to 40
mm.


Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan

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Geotechnical Evaluation Report
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Excavations for Foundation

Recorded water level during the drilling is generally shallow. As such,
provision for dewatering is recommended to ensure that the construction
of footings is undertaken under relatively dry condition.

Moreover, the stability of excavation cuts shall be ensured. Adequate
shoring and bracing shall be provided.


7.0 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

Design of Retaining Structures

In the stability analysis and design of excavation supports or retaining
walls, the following parameters may be used. This generally assumes
the parameters of medium dense sand:

Table 4: Geotechnical Parameters

Angle of friction, 32


Cohesion, c 2 kPa
Unit Weight, 18 kN/m
3


Lateral loads due to surcharge, as well as the dynamic thrust in the
occurrence of an earthquake, shall also be considered in the analysis
and design.

Design of Pavements and Slabs-on-Grade

It is recommended that the subgrade underneath pavements and slabs-
on-grade be compacted to 95% MDD (maximum dry density). The
provision of gravel bedding (crushed aggregates base course), 100 to
150 mm thick, is also recommended to provide a free-draining base
course.

Seismic Design Considerations

In the seismic analysis and design of the proposed structure, a zone
factor of 0.2 is recommended. This is based on the recommendation of
the National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP). As to the soil
type, it will be prudent to consider a soil type S
D
in the analysis
considering the site subsoil conditions.

If the seismic provisions of the NSCP (2010) shall be adopted, the
proximity of near seismic sources shall be considered.

Subsurface Investigation for the Proposed Coron Power Plant
Sitio Tulawa, Brgy. Gudalupe, Coron, Palawan

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Geotechnical Evaluation Report
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8.0 OTHER COMMENTS

The foregoing findings and recommendations are generally based on the
results of the subsurface investigation carried out by Soil-Philippines
Index Testing, Inc. consisting of three (3) boreholes. Should any
difference in the site subsoil conditions be observed during construction,
the undersigned must be informed so that further evaluation and
necessary changes in the recommendations can be made.

The design of pavements, foundation and substructures are beyond the
scope of this report.