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Fundamentals of Manufacturing

Course Agenda
Historical Overview
Manufacturing Process Classification
Primary Processes
Secondary Processes
Primary Processes
Forging
Casting
Powder Metallurgy
Secondary Processes
Drilling
Milling
Turning
Developing a Process Plan
Historical Overview
Manufacturing is the production of goods for use or sale
using:
Labor and Machines
Tools
Chemical and biological processing
Formulation

Evolution of Manufacturing:

Concept of Lean Manufacturing:
Reducing Waste
Increasing Efficiency
Seeking Employee Input

Without Breaks
Shift Changes
Pays or Benefits
Categories of
Manufacturing Processes
Manufacturing
Secondary
Primary Forging, Casting etc
Conventional
Non Conventional
Milling, Turning etc
EDM, AJM etc
Primary Process - Casting
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into
a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to
solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of
the mold to complete the process.
Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise
difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.
Primary Process - Forging
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized
compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which
it is performed: "cold or "hot" forging.
Why use Castings?
We use castings for a wide range of wear parts and components that are too large, complicated,
or otherwise unsuitable for the forging process. We can forge parts up to 50kgs but the sheer
energy required to forge larger items make casting a much more viable alternative.
The casting process better lends itself to making parts where internal cavities are required.
The advantages of casting include:
No real upper size limit in casting weight.
Large range of alloy choices.
As forgings remain solid, custom alloys are far more difficult to get
into production whereas with casting, alloys including Chrome,
Nickel and Moly can be added at the molten stage.
Tooling is often less expensive than forge dies.
Smaller production runs required.
Complicated/complex parts are no problem.
Why use Forgings?
Forging offers uniformity of composition and structure. Forging results in metallurgical re-
crystallisation and grain refinement as a result of the thermal cycle and deformation process.
This strengthens the resulting steel product particularly in terms of impact and shear strength.
Forged steel is generally stronger and more reliable than castings and plate steel due to the fact
that the grain flows of the steel are altered, conforming to the shape of the part.
The advantages of forging include:
Generally tougher than alternatives
Will handle impact better than castings
The nature of forging excludes the occurrence of porosity, shrinkage, cavities and cold
pour issues.
The tight grain structure of forgings making it mechanically strong. There is less need for
expensive alloys to attain high strength components.
The tight grain structure offers great wear resistance without the need to make products
super hard We have found that, on a blank HRC 38-42 forged grinder insert wear/wash
is about the same as a high alloy HRC 46-50 cast grinder insert. The difference being a
HRC 46-50 casting does not have the ductility to handle high impact grinding.
Primary Process Powder Metallurgy
Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered materials, pressing them
into a desired shape or form (compacting), and then heating the compressed material
in a controlled atmosphere to bond the material (sintering).
The powder metallurgy process generally consists of four basic steps: powder
manufacture, powder blending, compacting, and sintering. Compacting is generally
performed at room temperature, and the elevated-temperature process of sintering is
usually conducted at atmospheric pressure
Secondary Process - Drilling
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a
hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is a
rotary cutting tool, often multipoint.
The bit is pressed against the workpiece and rotated at rates
from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This
forces the cutting edge against the workpiece, cutting off chips
from what will become the hole being drilled.
Secondary Process - Drilling
Spot drilling:
The purpose of spot drilling is to drill a hole that will act as a
guide for drilling the final hole. The hole is only drilled part way
into the workpiece because it is only used to guide the beginning
of the next drilling process.
Secondary Process - Drilling
Drilling Deep Holes:
When the depth of the hole being drilled is four times the diameter of the drill itself, remove the
drill at frequent intervals and clean the chips from the flutes of the drill and
from the hole being drilled.
Peck drilling, or the practice of drilling a short distance,
then withdrawing the drill, will reduce the chip packing.
The deeper the hole, the more will be the machining time.
Used when depth of drill is greater than 3 times the drill
diameter.
Breakchip Drilling or high speed peck drilling,
similar to peck drilling but in this case the tool does
not retrieve completely out of the workpiece.
Secondary Process - Drilling
Counterboring This process creates a stepped hole in
which a larger diameter follows a smaller diameter
partially into a hole.
Countersinking This process is similar to
counterboring but the step in the hole is cone-
shaped.
Secondary Process - Drilling
Spot Facing: This process is used for cleaning the top of a
surface so that a fastener can sit on it. This process is
usually done on casting or forging which has uneven top
surface
Tapping This process is used to create internal
threads on a circular hole.
Secondary Process - Drilling
Secondary Process - Drilling
Drilling Tools: Twist Drills
Twist drills are the most common cutting tools used with drilling machines. Twist
drills are designed to make round holes quickly and accurately in all materials.
They are called twist drills mainly because of the helical flutes or grooves that
wind around the body from the point to the neck of the drill and appear to be
twisted (Figure 1). Twist drills are simply constructed but designed very tough to
withstand the high torque of turning, the downward pressure on the drill, and the
high heat generated by friction.
Secondary Process - Drilling
Countersink tools:
Are special angled cutters used to countersink holes
for flathead screws so they are flush with pilot to
guide the cutting action to enlarge a portion of a hole.
Counterbore tools:
Are special cutters that use a pilot to guide the cutting
action to enlarge a portion of a hole. Common uses are for
enlarging a hole to make a bolt head fit flush with the
surface.
Reamers:
Reamers are cutting tools that are used to enlarge a drilled
hole by a few thousandths of an inch for a precise fit.
Secondary Process - Drilling
Some Useful tips:
The drilling process, or complete operation, involves selecting the proper twist drill or cutter for
the job, properly installing the drill into the machine spindle, setting the speed and feed, starting
the hole on center, and drilling the hole to specifications within the prescribed tolerance.
Selecting the Drill:
Proper selection of drill depends on the following
parameters:
The material to be drilled,
The size of that material, and
The size of the drilled hole
Secondary Process - Drilling

Selection of Drill Speed:
Correct speeds are essential for satisfactory drilling. The speed at which a drill turns and
cuts is called the peripheral speed. Peripheral speed is the speed of a drill at its
circumference expressed in surface feet per minute (SFPM). This speed is related to the
distance a drill would travel if rolled on its side.

As a general rule, the harder the material, the slower should be the speed used.

It has been determined through experience and experiment that various metals machine
best at certain speeds; this best speed for any given metal is what is known as its cutting
speed (CS).
If the cutting speed of a material is known, then a simple formula can be used to
find the recommended RPM of the twist drill.
RPM=CSx4/D (Imperial), RPM=CSX320/D (Metric)
RPM = drill speed in revolution per minute
CS = recommended cutting speed
D = diameter of the drill

Secondary Process - Drilling

Selection of Drill Feed:
Feed is the distance a drill travels into the workpiece during each revolution of the spindle.
It is expressed in thousandths of an inch or in millimeters. Hand-feed drilling machines have
the feed regulated by the hand pressure of the operator; thus, the skill of the operator will
determine the best feeds for drilling. Power feed drilling machines have the ability to feed
the drill into the work at a preset depth of cut per spindle revolution, so the best feeding
rate can be determined.
The selection of the best feed depends upon the size of the drill, the material to be drilled,
and the condition of the drilling machine. Feed should increase as the size of the drill
increases.

The feed rate must be reduced when drilling into curved or sloped surfaces, drilling across
another hole or enlarging an already drilled hole.
Excessive feed rate can cause chipping or fracture of the cutting edge as well as splitting of
the drills web.
Overtime the cutting edge of the drill becomes blunt this could result in over sizing of the
drilled hole.

Secondary Process - Drilling
Secondary Process - Drilling
Recommended average feedrates for 2 flutes HSS Drills
Recommended HSS Speeds for common materials
Note:

Remember that the speed and feed calculated using the
manufacturers empirical data (i.e. Tables 1 & 2) are the
optimum parameters. In other words, these are the
maximum speed and feedrate that could be used under
perfect conditions.

Running a tool too slow will only decrease
productivity; however, running a tool too fast with
regard to speed or feedrate will result in accelerated
tool wear or outright failure.


Secondary Process - Drilling
Tool Path Optimization:
Used for a more efficient tool path generation.
Dwell:
You can set the tool delay at depth of cut by number of seconds or revolutions
For the Peck Drill and Break Chip simulated cycles, if you specify a dwell value in seconds or
revolutions, the software generates a DELAY/t or DELAY/REV, r command statement to activate
the desired dwell after the tool has been fed to depth.
Secondary Process - Turning
Lathes:
A lathe is a machine tool that rotates the workpiece against a tool. The spindle is the part of the
lathe that rotates. It is driven by an electric motor through a system of belt drives
and gear trains. Its rotational speed is controlled by varying the geometry of the drive train.
Lathe Specifications
A lathe is generally specified by:

Its swing, the maximum diameter of the
workpiece that can be machined.
The maximum distance between the
headstock and tailstock centres.
The length of the bed.
Secondary Process - Turning
Engine Lathes:
It is the basic, simplest and most versatile lathe. The
machine tool is manually operated that is why it
requires skilled operators. Used for low and medium
production and floor repair works.
Turret Lathes:
These machines are capable of carrying out multiple
cutting operations on the same workpiece.
Several cutting tools are mounted on a tetra-, penta-, or
hexag tailstock. These tools can be rapidly brought into
action against the workpiece one by one by indexing
the turret.
Secondary Process - Turning
Special Purpose Lathes:
These lathe machines are used for applications
such as railroad wheels, gun barrel and rolling
mill rolls. The size of the workpiece is usually large in
these machines.
Automatic Lathes:
In fully automatic lathes, parts are fed and removed
automatically, whereas in semiautomatic
lathes these functions are performed by the operator.
These machines may have horizontal or
vertical spindle and are suitable for medium to high
volume production.
Secondary Process - Turning
Secondary Process - Turning
Work Holding Devices
A 3 jaw self-centering chuck is used for most operations on
cylindrical work-parts. For parts with high length-to-diameter
ratio the part is supported by center on the other end.
Between two centres. The workpiece is driven by a device
called a dog; this method is suitable for parts with high length-
to-diameter ratio.
Collet consists of tubular bushing with longitudinal slits.
Collets are used to grasp and hold bar stock. A collet of exact
diameter is required to match any bar stock diameter.
A face plate is a device used to grasp parts with irregular
shapes.
Secondary Process - Turning
Lathe Chucks
Secondary Process - Turning
Lathe Chucks
Four Jaw Independent Chuck:
The independent chuck has four jaws which are adjusted
individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws. The
chuck face is scribed with concentric circles which are used for
rough alignment of the jaws when chucking round workpieces. The
final adjustment is made by turning the workpiece slowly and using
dial indicators to determine its concentricity and to the desired
tolerances.
Secondary Process - Turning
Lathe Chucks
Universal Scrol 3 Jaw Chuck
The advantage of the universal scroll chuck is its ease of
operation in centering the work for concentric turning. This
chuck is not as accurate as the independent chuck but, when in
good condition, it will centre the work automatically within
0.003 of an inch of complete accuracy
Collet (Collet Chuck)
The collet chuck is the most accurate means of holding small
workpieces in the lathe. The collet chuck consists of a spring
machine collet and a collet attachment which secures and
regulates the collet on the headstock spindle of the lathe. The
spring machine collet is a thin metal bushing with an accurately
machined bore and a tapered exterior. The collet has three
lengthwise slots to permit its sides to be sprung slightly inward
to grip the workpiece.
Secondary Process - Turning
Face Plates
Face Plate:
For turning, facing, boring, threading and similar operations,
jobs of odd shape and size are usually mounted on large face
plate (instead of chuck) being fitted on the spindle nose as
shown in Fig.
The job may be (b) directly clamped on the face plate or (c) in
case of batch or small lot production, in a fixture which is
clamped on the face plate.
Secondary Process - Turning
Cutting Tools
Secondary Process - Turning
NX CAM Turning benefits
Automatic Detection of Cut Regions for roughing and finishing lets you obtain results more
quickly, especially for successive operations.
Teachmode operations allow for maximum flexibility when you want to manually control the
tool to position.
Animation capabilities like material removal display in toolpath replay and 3D display of the In
Process Workpiece.
Better support in creating turning, milling and drilling operations in one programming session
and for one machine tool.
Allows the creation of NC programs for multiple spindle setups. The system enables you to
successively plan your machining process for each individual subspindle group and then to
rearrange the order of operations.
Secondary Process - Turning
NX CAM Turning terminology
Geometry Containment:
Geometry Containment allows you to delimit machining to a
specific area of a part. The containment setting influences the
automatic cut region detection to prevent machining beyond
the specified limits. You can define containment using radial or
axial trim planes, trim points and trim angles.
Avoidance:
Avoidance geometry allows you to specify, activate or cancel
geometry that is used for non-cutting moves before or after a
tool path to avoid collisions with part or clamping devices
Secondary Process - Milling
Milling:
Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by feeding the workpiece
against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges.
Most Commonly used milling machines are Horizontal machining centre(HMC) and Vertical
Machining Centre (VMC).
Vertical Machining Centre:
The plain vertical machines are characterized by a
spindle located vertically, parallel to the column face,
and mounted in a sliding head that can be fed up and
down by hand or power. Modern vertical milling
machines are designed so the entire head can also
swivel to permit working on angular surfaces.
Secondary Process - Milling
Horizontal Machining Centre:
The plain horizontal milling machines column contains
the drive motor and gearing and a fixed position
horizontal milling machine spindle.
Secondary Process - Milling
Conventional Milling (feed movement opposite
to tool rotation):is preferred when milling casting
or forging with rough surfaces.
Characteristics of Conventional Milling:
Width of chip starts from zero and increases.
Tooth meets the workpiece at the bottom of
the cut.
Upward force tends to lift up workpiece.
More power required rubbing provoked by
chip beginning at minimum width.
Surface finish spoiled due to chips being carried
up by the tooth.
Chips fall in front of cutter chip disposal
difficult.
Faster wear on tool than climb milling.
Cutting Methods
Secondary Process - Milling
Climb or Down Milling (feed movement and tool
rotation in same direction):is preferred when milling
heat treated alloys, stainless steel - reduces work
hardening. Climb milling way cause chipping in milling
hot rolled materials due to hardened layer on the
surface.
Characteristics of Climb Milling:
Width of chip starts at maximum and decreases.
Tooth meets workpiece at top of cut.
Easier chip disposal - chips removed behind cutter.
Less wear - increases tool life up to 50%.
Improved surface finish - chips less like to be carried
by the tooth.
Less power required - cutter with high rake angle can
be used.
Cutting Methods
Secondary Process - Milling
Milling that uses entire
cutting edge
Cuts faces parallel to tool
axis
Cuts faces perpendicular to
tool axis
Planar Milling
Planar Milling Profile
Face Milling
Face Milling Area
Milling that cuts in Planar
Levels
Roughing Operation
Finishing Operation
For cutting Steep Walls
Cavity Milling
Rest Milling
Z - Level Milling
Surface Contouring with
Fixed Axis
Surface Contouring with
Variable Axis
Secondary Process - Milling
Planar Milling:
Plain milling, also called surface milling or slab milling, is
milling flat surfaces with the milling cutter axis parallel to
the surface being milled. Generally, plain milling is done
with the workpiece surface mounted parallel to the surface
of the milling machine table and the milling cutter mounted
on a standard milling machine arbor.
Secondary Process - Milling
Face Milling:
Face milling is the milling of surfaces that are perpendicular
to the cutter axis, as shown in Figure 8-30. Face milling
produces flat surfaces and machines work to the required
length. In face milling, the feed can be either horizontal or
vertical.
In face milling, the teeth on the periphery of the cutter do
practically all of the cutting. However, when the cutter is
properly ground, the face teeth actually remove a small
amount of stock which is left as a result of the springing of
the workpiece or cutter, thereby producing a finer finish.
It is important in face milling to have the cutter securely
mounted and to see that all end play or sloppiness in the
machine spindle is eliminated.
Secondary Process - Milling
Angular Milling:
Angular milling, or angle milling, is milling flat surfaces
which are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the axis of
the milling cutter. A single angle milling cutter is used for
angular surfaces, such as chamfers, serrations, and grooves.
Milling dovetails is a typical example of angular milling.
Straddle Milling:
When two or more parallel vertical surfaces are machined
at a single cut, the operation is called straddle milling.
Straddle milling is accomplished by mounting two side
milling cutters on the same arbor, set apart at an exact
spacing. Two sides of the workpiece are machined
simultaneously and final width dimensions are exactly
controlled.
Secondary Process - Milling
Gang Milling:
Gang milling is the term applied to an operation in which
two or more milling cutters are mounted on the same arbor
and used when cutting horizontal surfaces. All cutters may
perform the same type of operation or each cutter may
perform a different type of operation. For example, several
workplaces need a slot, a flat surface, and an angular
groove.
The best method to cut these would be gang milling as
shown in Figure. All the completed workplaces would be the
same. Remember to check the cutters carefully for proper
size
Secondary Process - Milling
Form Milling:
Form milling is the process of machining special contours
composed of curves and straight lines, or entirely of curves,
at a single cut. This is done with formed milling cutters,
shaped to the contour to be cut. The more common form
milling operations involve milling half-round recesses and
beads and
quarter-round radii on workplaces . This operation is
accomplished by using convex, concave, and corner
rounding milling cutters ground to the desired circle
diameter.
Secondary Process - Milling
Secondary Process - Milling
Cavity Milling:
Use Cavity Mill operations to remove large volumes of material.
Cavity Mill is ideal for rough-cutting parts, such as dies, castings,
and forgings. Cavity Mill removes material in planar levels that
are perpendicular to a fixed tool axis. Part Geometry can be
planar or contoured.
Secondary Process - Milling
Z-Level Milling:
Use Z-Level Milling for fixed-axis semi-finishing and finishing. Z-Level Milling
maintains a near constant scallop height and chip load on steep walls and can be
especially effective for high speed machining:
With Z-Level Milling, you can do the following:
Profile the entire part, or specify Steep Containment so that only areas with a
steepness greater than the specified angle are profiled.
Cut multiple levels in one operation.
Cut multiple features (regions) in one operation.
Cut by level (waterline) for thin-walled parts.
Maintain the tool in constant contact with the material. The following options let
you cut an entire region without lifting the cutter.
Level to Level
Mixed Cut Direction

The steepness of the part at any given point is defined by the angle between the tool
axis and the normal of the face. When you specify Steep Containment only areas
with a steepness greater than the specified angle are profiled.

Secondary Process - Milling
Multi Blade Milling:
In Turbomachinery Milling, you use Multi Blade operations
to machine multiple blade parts, such as impellers or
blisks, with or without splitters. Multi Blade Milling
operations are designed specifically for machining blade
type parts. They are the most efficient operations for
machining these types of parts.

Secondary Process - Milling
Cut patterns that remove material in parallel linear passes are:
Zig
Zig - Zag
Zig with Contour
Cut Pattern Categories
Cut patterns that remove a volume of material with a sequence of concentric
cutting passes that can progress inward or outward are:
Follow periphery
Follow Part
Thochoidal
Cut patterns that create one or more finish passes that follow the part walls
within open or closed regions:
Profile
Standard Drive
Secondary Process - Milling
Zig Cut Pattern:
The Zig cut pattern always cuts in one direction. The tool retracts
at the end of each cut, then moves to the start position for the
next cutting pass. Climb (or Conventional) cutting is maintained.
Cut Pattern details
Zig - Zag Cut Pattern:
The Zig Zag cut pattern machines in a series of parallel straight line
passes that cut in opposite directions while stepping over in one
direction. This cut pattern allows the tool to remain continually
engaged during stepovers.
Secondary Process - Milling
Zig with Contour Cut Pattern:
The Zig with Contour cut pattern machines with cuts going in one
direction. Contouring moves along the boundary are added
before and after the linear passes. At then end of the cutting
pass, the tool retracts and re-engages at the start of the
contouring move for the next cut. Climb (or Conventional) cutting
is maintained.
Cut Pattern details
Secondary Process - Milling
Follow Periphery Cut Pattern:
The Follow Periphery cut pattern cuts along offsets from the
outermost edge that is defined by part or blank geometry.
Internal islands and cavities require Island Cleanup or a clean up
profile pass. Climb (or Conventional) cutting is maintained.
Cut Pattern details
Follow Part Cut Pattern:
The Follow Part cut pattern cuts along concentric offsets from all
specified Part geometry. The outermost edge and all interior islands
and cavities are used to compute the tool path. This eliminates the
need for an island cleanup pass. Climb (or Conventional) cutting is
maintained.
Secondary Process - Milling
Trochoidal Cut Pattern:
Limit excess stepover to prevent tool breakage when the tool is fully embedded into a cut.
Avoid embedding the tool. Most cut patterns generate embedded regions between islands and
parts during the engage as well as in narrow areas.
Cut Pattern details
Secondary Process - Milling
The Profile Cut Pattern:
The Profile cut pattern machines along part walls with the side of
the tool to create a finishing pass. The tool follows the boundary
direction.
Cut Order
Cavity Milling and Planar Milling operations order cut traces by
cut region. Islands are treated as a single region, and all islands
are cut at the same level before proceeding to the next level.
Cut Pattern details
Standard Drive Cut Pattern:
The Standard Drive cut pattern creates profiling cuts along the
specified boundaries without automatic boundary trimming or
gouge checking. You can specify whether or not the tool path is
allowed to cross itself. This cut pattern is available in Planar Milling
only.
Secondary Process - Milling
Selecting Milling Cutter
In selecting a milling cutter for a particular job, choose one large enough to span the entire work
surface so the job can be done with a single pass. If this cannot be done, remember that a small
diameter cutter will pass over a surface in a shorter time than a large diameter cutter which is
fed at the same speed.
Selecting Speeds for Milling Cutter
The spindle RPM necessary to give a
desired peripheral speed depends on
the size of the milling cutter. The best
speed is determined by the kind of
material being cut and the size and type
of cutter used, width and depth of cut,
finish required, type of cutting fluid and
method of application, and power and
speed
available are factors relating to cutter
speed.
Secondary Process - Milling
Basic steps involved in developing a Process Plan
The development of a process plan involves a number of
activities :
Analysis of part requirements.
Selection of raw workpiece/material.
Determination of manufacturing operations and their
sequences.
Selection of machine tools.
Selection of tools, work-holding devices and inspection
equipment.
Determination of machining conditions (cutting speed,
feed and depth of cut) andmanufacturing times (setup time,
processing time and lead time).
Developing a Process Plan
Analysis of Part Requirements:
At the engineering design level, the part
requirements are expressed through and as the
part features, dimensions and tolerance
specifications. These, in turn, dictate the
processing requirements. The analysis of the
finished part requirements is therefore the first
step in process planning. First, the design or
geometric features of the parts are analyzed.
Examples of these features are plane, cylinder,
cone, step, edge and fillet. Then, these common
features have to be translated into manufacturing
features, or machining features as in this case.
Developing a Process Plan
Selection of Workpiece:
Selection of raw workpiece is an important element of process planning. It
involves such attributes as shape, size (dimensions and weight) and material.
Determining manufacturing operations and their sequences:
Developing a Process Plan
Selection of Machine tools:
Workpiece-related attributes such as the material, kinds of features to be made,
dimensions of the workpiece, its dimensional tolerances and raw material form;
Machine tool-related attributes such as process capability, size, mode of
operation (e.g. manual, semiautomatic, automatic and numerically controlled),
the type of operation (e.g. turning, milling and grinding), tooling capabilities (e.g.
size and type of the tool magazine) and automatic tool-changing capabilities.
Chapter VIII gives a detailed account of different types of machine tools.
Production volume-related information such as the production quantity and
order frequency.

On the whole, there are three basic criteria for evaluating
the suitability of a machine tool to accomplish an
operation. They are
Unit cost of production
Manufacturing leadtime
Quality.
Developing a Process Plan
Selection of Cutting Tools, Workholding devices, Cutting Speed, Feed, Depth
of Cut, Tool Wear, and Tool Life:
The cutting conditions that determine the rate of metal removal are cutting speed,
feed rate, and the depth of cut.
Tool life is defined as the cutting time to reach a predetermined amount of wear,
usually flank wear. Tool life is influenced most by cutting speed, then by the feed
rate, and least by the depth of cut. When depth of cut is increased to about 10
times greater than the feed, a further increase in the depth of cut will have no
significant effect on the tool life.


Developing a Process Plan
Selecting Cutting Conditions:
The first step in establishing the cutting conditions is to select the depth of cut.
The depth of cut will be limited by the amount of metal that is to be machined
from the workpiece, by the power available on the machine tool, by the rigidity of
the workpiece and the cutting tool, and by the rigidity of the setup. The depth of
cut has the least effect upon the tool life, so the heaviest possible depth of cut
should always be used.
The second step is to select the feed. The available power must be sufficient to
make the required depth of cut at the selected feed. The maximum feed possible
that will produce an acceptable surface finish should be selected.
The third step is to select the cutting speed. Most machining operations are
conducted on machine tools having a rotating spindle. Cutting speeds are usually
given in feet or metres per minute and these speeds must be converted to spindle
speeds, in rpm, to operate the machine.


Developing a Process Plan
Some Basics of CNC Coding
Each block, or program line, contains addresses
which appear in this order :
N , G , X , Y , Z , F , M , S , T ;
This order should be maintained throughout every
block in the program, although individual blocks may
not necessarily contain all these addresses.
Some Basics of CNC Coding
Preparatory Functions G Codes:
Preparatory functions, called G codes, are used to determine the geometry of tool
movements and operating state of the machine controller; functions such as linear
cutting movements, drilling operations and specifying the units of measurement.
Defining Units:
G20 Imperial
G21 Metric
Coordinate System:
G90 Absolute zero command
G91 Incremental Command
Tool Movement:
Feed Function:
Miscellaneous Function: used as an On/Off command
Spindle Speed Function: The spindle speed value specified must fall between
the machine tool RPM range for the command to be effective.
Tool Function:
Some Basics of CNC Coding
G00 Non Linear Interpolation
The G00 code executes a non cutting
movement, at a rapid feedrate, to a specific
co-ordinate position in the working area.
NOTE 1.
The rate of movement is set by the manufacturer of the machine tool. The rate
of movement can be reduced from 100% to 0%, but only in increments of 10%,
by using the feed override controls.
Some Basics of CNC Coding
G01 Linear Interpolation:

The G01 code executes a cutting movement
following a straight line, at a set feedrate.
A G01 command is written in the following
format:
Some Basics of CNC Coding
G02 & G03 Circular Interpolation:

G02 Clockwise interpolation
G03 Anti Clockwise direction
Used with G90 code
G01 X100 Y40 F125 ;
G03 X80 Y60 R-20 ;
G01 X60 ;
G02 X40 Y40 R-20 ;
Some Basics of CNC Coding
G04 - Dwell
The G04 code is used to enter a set time delay into
the program (called a "dwell").
A G04 command is written in the following format:
G04 X _ _ _ _ ;
or G04 P _ _ _ _ ;
where the dwell value is programmed using the address letters X (time in seconds)
or P (time in 1/1000 seconds), followed by a number indicating this
dwell value.
For example :
G04 X1.5 ;
This command is read perform a dwell of 1.5 seconds
duration.
G04 P2500 ;
This command is read perform a dwell of 2.5 seconds
duration.
Some Basics of CNC Coding
Defining Units:
G20 Imperial
G21 Metric
The unit systems of the following items are changed
depending on whether G20 or G21 is set.
1) Positioning commands (X, Y and Z).
2) Incremental movement distances.
3) Feedrates commanded by the F code.
4) Offset values.
G83 - Peck Drilling
G73 High Speed Peck Drilling
G84 Taping
G94 Feed per minute
G95 Feed per Revolution
Some Basics of CNC Coding
Miscellaneous Codes

M00 Program Stop
M02 Program reset
M03 Spindle Reset
M04 Spindle Reverse
M05 Spindle Stop
M06 Automatic Tool Change
M08 Coolant Off
M09 Coolant On
M13 Spindle Forward Coolant On
M14 Spindle Reverse Coolant On