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API 650 Load Combinations

George L. Morovich
13 Flower Tuft Ct.
The Woodlands, TX 77380
AGENDA ITEM: 650-472 Load Combinations
HANDLED BY: Randy Kissell (SG Design)
PH: 919-644-8250 FX: 919-644-8252
SOURCE: API Fall Meeting 1998 SGD discussions.
PURPOSE: Using API 650's current level of risk of tank failure due
to loads, provide a method for combining new loads, such as
external pressure, with current loads, such as wind, and provide
rules for combining currently considered loads (for example, snow
and seismic).
IMPACT: Some designs would be more costly and some would be
less costly than current designs. By making the risk of tank failure
more uniform, however, the overall cost of owning and operating
tanks will decrease.
JUSTIFICATION: Provided with previous ballots.
PROPOSED CHANGE: See the following proposed revisions to
3.2.1 Loads
Loads are defined as follows:
(a) Dead Load (DL) : the weight of the
tank or tank component, including any
corrosion allowance unless otherwise noted.
(b) Stored Liquid (F): the load due to
filling the tank to the design liquid level (see with liquid with the design specific
gravity specified by the purchaser.
(c) Hydrostatic Test (Ht ): the load due
to filling the tank with water to the design
liquid level.
(d) Minimum Roof Live Load (Lr):
1.0 kPa (20 lb/ft2) on the horizontal projected
area of the roof.
The minimum design live load was 25psf. Separately the
Standard referred to the ability of a tank to handle -1 water
column negative pressure.
Also there was discussion of the ability of a roof to support the
live load from 2 repair plates.
(e) Snow (S): The ground snow load shall be
determined from ASCE 7 Figure 7-1 or Table 7-1 unless
the ground snow load that equals or exceeds the value
based on a 2% annual probability of being exceeded (50
yr mean recurrence interval) is specified by the
purchaser. The design snow load shall be 0.84 times the
ground snow load. Alternately, the design snow load
shall be determined from the ground snow load in
accordance with ASCE 7. The design snow load shall be
reported to the purchaser.
Unbalanced Snow Load
(f) Wind (W): The 3 sec gust design wind
speed shall be determined from ASCE 7 Figure 6-
1 unless the 3 sec gust design wind speed (that
equals or exceeds the value based on a 2%
annual probability of being exceeded (50 yr mean
recurrence interval)) is specified by the purchaser.
The design wind pressure shall be 0.86 kPa (18
lbf/ft2) on vertical projected areas of cylindrical
surfaces and 0.72 kPa (15 lbf/ft2) on vertical and
horizontal projected areas of conical or doubly
curved surfaces multiplied by (V/190)2
((V/120)2)*, where V is the 3 sec gust wind speed.
The 3 sec gust wind speed shall be reported to the
*Fastest mile wind speed times 1.2 is approximately equal to 3 sec
gust wind speed.
(g) Design Internal Pressure (Pi): shall not
exceed 18 kPa (2.5 lbf/in2).
(h) Test Pressure (Pt): as required by F4.4 or
(i) Design External Pressure (Pe): shall not be
less than 0.25 kPa (1 in. of water). This
standard does not contain provisions for
external pressures greater than 0.25 kPa.
(j) Seismic (E): seismic loads determined in
accordance with sections E.1 through E.3.
NOTE: New Appendix V (a later revision) addresses (i)
External pressures exceeding the limit indicated here.
AGENDA ITEM: 650-608 Design Loads for Aluminum
Dome Roofs
DATE: June 7, 2006
CONTACT: Randy Kissell, TGB Partnership
PH: 919-644-8250 FX: 919-644-8252, email:
To allow reduced live loads for aluminum domes where
allowed by ASCE 7
To revise snow and wind loads on aluminum domes to
those in ASCE 7
SOURCE: Committee member request
Reduce cost where reduced live loads are allowed by
Reduce the likelihood of failures when aluminum domes
are subjected to snow or wind loads.
Minimum Roof Live Load
ASCE 7 section 4.9.1 prescribes minimum roof live loads as a
function of the tributary area of a structural member and the
rise-to-span ratio of dome roofs. The maximum ASCE 7 roof
live load value of 20 psf is conservatively prescribed by API
650 3.2.1(d). This value may be reduced to as little as 12 psf
for structural components with large tributary areas in domes
with large rise-to-span ratios. This ballot proposes to allow
lower minimum roof live loads where allowed by ASCE 7, but
no less than 15 psf. (AWWA D100 specifies 15 psf where the
snow load doesnt govern.) This would only reduce the design
load in regions where the ground snow load was small.
Wind Loads
ASCE 7-02 (Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures) provides wind pressures for dome roofs
in Figure 6-7. Dome pressures are a function of the tank-
height-to-diameter ratio, distance from the windward edge,
and roof profile. These were used in agenda item 650-472
to provide the wind pressure for doubly curved surfaces,
and this ballot proposes to apply these to aluminum domes,
since the ASCE 7 pressure is more accurate than the
current G. provisions.
G.4.1.3 General buckling The allowable
buckling pressure pa shall equal or exceed p
where p is the greater of:
a) the dead load plus the minimum roof live
b) the dead load plus twice the ASCE 7 flat roof
snow load.
G. Uniform Load Roof panels shall be
one piece aluminum sheet (except for
skylights as per G.8.4). The roof shall be
designed to support a uniform load of 3 kPa
(60 lbf/ft2) over the full area of a panel.
G. Concentrated Load The roof shall
be designed to support two concentrated
loads 1100 N (250 lbf), each distributed over
two separate 0.1 m2 (1 ft2) areas of any
G. Application The loads specified in
G. and G. shall not be applied
simultaneously or in combination with any
other loads.