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Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Branch : CIRCUIT BRANCHES


Sem./Year : II SEM / I YEAR
Subject code : ME2151
Subject Name : BASIC CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Staff In-Charges : V.Vasugi / R.Shanthi

NOTES OF LESSON

Unit III INTRODUCTION TO POWER PLANTS & BOILERS

1. Subject introduction & Overview

Introduction to the subject, ‘Power Plant Engineering’

Power plant is an assembly of equipments that generates and delivers electrical energy by
using the available energy.

Overview of the lesson plan


Overview of the question pattern

2. Layout of Steam Power Plant

Working principle of steam power plant


Water is converted into steam which expands in turbine to produce mechanical power
which in turn operates the generator, thus producing electrical energy
Essential components
Boiler, turbine, condenser, feed water pump, boiler mountings and accessories, Fuel and
Ash handling systems
Advantages of steam power plant
Can be located nearer to load center – hence less transmission losses
Construction & commissioning requires less time than hydel
Power generation does not depend on natural phenomena
Fuel used is cheap
Disadvantages of steam power plant
Fossil fuel may be exhausted in future
Efficiency decreases with time
Air pollution problems
Transportation of fuel and ash disposal
Cost of power generation is high
Cannot be used as peak load plant

3. Layout of Hydel Power Plant

Working principle of hydro-electric power plant


Potential energy of water stored at high elevations converted into mechanical energy in
hydraulic turbines which in turn operates the generator, thus producing electrical energy
Essential components of hydel power plant
Catchment area
Water reservoir
Dam- Storage dams,
Diversion dams
Detention dams
Overflow dams
Non-overflow dams
Masonry dams
Fill dams
Trash rack
Fore bay
Surge Tank
Penstock
Spillway
Water turbine
Draft tube
Advantages of hydel power plant
Operating cost and running cost is less than thermal plant
Water is renewable source of energy and free of cost
No problem of fuel and has handling, no pollution
Efficiency does not change with age
Quick start-up and stoppage

Disadvantages of hydel power plant


High capital cost
Site selected is usually away from the load center
Availability of water depends on nature
Construction and commissioning time is high

4. Layout of Diesel & MHD Power Plants

Working principle of diesel power plant


Diesel as fuel
Similar to steam power plant except that the turbine is absent and the generator is directly
coupled with the engine shaft
Essential components of diesel power plant
Diesel engine
Air intake system
Exhaust system
Fuel supply system
Engine starting system
Lubricating system
Engine cooling system
Governing system
Advantages of diesel power plant
Higher thermal efficiency than thermal plant
Wide range of fuels can be used
Easy fuel handling
Simple layout, easy to install
Quick to respond to load variations
Initial investment is less than other plants
Disadvantages of diesel power plant
Diesel cost is high
Does not work satisfactorily under continuous overload conditions
Noise pollution
Maintenance cost is high
Capacity limited to 50 MW
Life less than steam power plant
Field of applications of diesel power plant
Industries of small power requirement
Peak load plants in combination with other power plants
Mobile power plants- transporting systems- rail road, ships, automobiles and air crafts
Stand by power plants- emergency services
Frequent power cut areas
Central power stations

Principle of MHD power generation


Based on faradays law of electromagnetic induction
Simple magneto hydro dynamic power plant
Open cycle & Closed cycle MHD plants
Advantages of MHD plants
Thermal efficiency is high compared to steam plant
Large amount of power generation is possible
Reduced energy losses due to direct conversion
Absence of moving parts – so less maintenance cost
Pollution less in open cycle and nil in closed cycle
Disadvantages of MHD plants
High frictional losses due to movement of gases
Large magnet is required
Erosion of exposed surfaces due to carry away ashes

5. Layout of Nuclear Power Plant

Nuclear fission and chain reaction


Nuclear fusion
Nuclear fission
Controlled and Uncontroled chain reactions
Difference between fusion and fission reactions
Working principle of nuclear power plant
Energy released by the split-up of nucleus into two or more smaller nuclei is used to
generate steam and subsequently electrical energy
Essential components of nuclear power plant
Nuclear reactors
Reactor core
Moderator
Control rods
Reflector
Thermal shielding
Coolant
Biological radiation shield
Advantages of nuclear power plant
Water is cheap and multipurpose usage
Reactor is more compact and higher power-density ratio
Steam is free from contamination
Fuel is used efficiently
Disadvantages of nuclear power plant
High primary loop pressure is required and leak proof vessel
High capital cost, expensive preparation of fuel element
Poor thermal efficiency due to secondary circuit

6. Layout of Gas Turbine Power Plant

Working principle of gas turbine power plant


Essential components of gas turbine power plant
Advantages & Disadvantages of gas turbine power plant

7. Combined Power Cycles

Working principle of combined power cycles


Advantages of combined power cycles

8. Comparison and Selection, Load Duration Curves

Nuclear power plant Vs Thermal power plant


Nuclear power plant is more economical
Less man power required for nuclear power plant
Less space required for nuclear power plant
Capital cost, Operating cost are less for nuclear power plant
Cost for waste disposal less in nuclear plant
Maintenance cost is less for thermal plant
Gas turbine power plant Vs Thermal power plant
Ash disposal totally nil in gas turbine plant
Less space required and compact in size for gas turbine plant
Gas turbine plant located near by load center
Thermal power plant located near by availability of water
Gas turbine plant desirable for peak load
Thermal plant desirable for base load
Gas turbine plant is more economical for operating conditions below load factor
Gas turbine plant can be brought into peak load quickly
Gas turbine power plant Vs Diesel power plant
Maintenance cost & fuel cost is less for gas turbine plant
Initial cost is low and less space required for gas turbine plant
Gas turbine plant has poor part load efficiency against diesel plant
Diesel power plant is comparatively quick to respond to load variations
Comparison of steam power plant with hydel power plant
Comparison of thermal power plant with diesel power plant
Selection of power plants, factors to be considered
Load curves & Load duration curves
Load curves
Graphical representation –load(kW) Vs time (hours)
Daily load curve
Monthly load curve
Annual load curve
Load duration curve
Rearrangement of daily load curve in descending order of magnitude

9. Steam Boilers and Cycles

Steam boilers & boiler cycles


Rankine cycle
Reheat cycle
Regenerative cycle

10. High Pressure and Super Critical Boilers

Modern features & Advantages of high pressure boilers


Lamont boiler
Loeffler boiler
Benson boiler
Velox boiler
Super critical boilers

11. Fluidised Bed Boilers

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems


Advantages of FBC syatems
Classification of fluidized bed boilers
Atmospheric fluidized bed combustors (AFBC)
Atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustors
Atmospheric circulating fluidized bed combustors
Pressurised fluidized bed combustors (PFBC)

STEAM POWER PLANT

12. Fuel and Ash Handling

Out Plant Handling


Inplant Handling
Coal delivery
Unloading
Coal preparation
Coal transfer
Outdoor storage
Covered storage
Weighing and Measuring
Ash handling
Requirements of Ash Handling Systems
Mechanical system
Hydraulic system
Pneumatic system
Steam Jet syatem

13. Combustion Equipment for burning coal

Combustion equipments for burning coal


Stoker firing method for solid fuels
Pulverised firing method for pulverized fuels
Hand firing
Stokers firing
Pulverised firing

14. Mechanical Stokers

Advantages of stoker firing


Disadvantages of stoker firing
Classification of Mechanical stokers
Overfeed stokers
Underfeed stokers

15. Pulverisers
The types are
Ball mill
Ball and race mill
Impact or Hammer mill
Bowl mill

16. Electrostatic Precipitator

Principles of ElectroStatic Precipitator


Components of ESP
Merits of ESP
Demerits of ESP

17. Draught – different types

Natural Draught (Chimney Draught)


Artificial Draught
Forced Draught
Induced Draught
Balanced Draught

18. Surface Condenser Types

Functions of surface condensers


The types are
Down flow surface condensers
Central flow surface condensers
Inverted flow surface condensers
Evaporative surface condensers
Regenerative surface condensers
Advantages and disadvantages

19. Cooling Towers

The types are


Principles of cooling towers
Atmospheric cooling towers
Natural draught cooling towers
Mechanical draught cooling towers
NUCLEAR AND HYDEL POWER PLANTS

20. Nuclear Energy – Fission, Fusion Reaction


Nuclear fusion
Nuclear fission
Controlled and Uncontroled chain reactions
Difference between fusion and fission reactions

21. Types of Reactors,


Pressurized water reactor (PWR)
Boiling water reactor (BWR)
Fast breeder reactor (FBR)

22. Pressurized water reactor

Components and working principle


Advantages
Disadvantages

23. Boiling Water Reactor

Principle and construction of BWR


Advantages
Disadvantages

24. Waste Disposal and safety

Solid waste
Liquid waste
Gaseous waste
24. Hydel Power Plant – Essential Elements
Essential elements
Catchment area
Water reservoir
Dam- Storage dams,
Diversion dams
Detention dams
Overflow dams
Non-overflow dams
Masonary dams
Fill dams
Trash rack
Fore bay
Surge Tank
Penstock
Spillway
Water turbine
Draft tube
Advantages and Disadvantages

25. Selection of Turbines

Factors to be considered are


Working head
Specific Speed
Part load efficiency
Cavitation
Maximum Efficincy
Type of water available
Runaway speed
Overall cost of the plant

26. Governing of Turbines

Governing of impulse turbine


Governing of Reaction turbine

27. Micro Hydel developments

Construction and principle of operation


Advantages of micro hydel power stations

DIESEL AND GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

28. Types of Diesel Plants, Components

According to the construction


Stationary diesel power plant
Package diesel power plant
Barge mounted diesel power plant
Gas turbine operated diesel power plant
According to stroke
two stroke and four stroke engines
According to speed
According to cooling system
Components of a diesel power plant
Diesel engine
Air intake system
Exhaust system
Fuel supply system
Engine starting system
Lubricating system
Engine cooling system
Governing system

29. Selection of Engine Type

Factors to be considered are


Power requirement
Speed
Cooling systems
Maintenance factors
Control system
Altitude
Temperature
Drive type
Starting equipment
Humidity
30. Applications

Diesel engine power plants find applications in:


Industries of small power requirement
Peak load plants in combination with other power plants
Mobile power plants- transporting systems- rail road, ships, automobiles and air crafts
Stand by power plants- emergency services
Frequent power cut areas
Central power stations

31. Gas Turbine Power Plant


Working principle
Advantages of gas turbine power plants
Disadvantages
Applications

32. Fuels

Natural gas
Liquid fuels
Residual fuels
Furnace oil
Boiler fuel oil

32. Gas Turbine Material

Special material with necessary cooling arrangement


Turbine rotor disc
Outer surface- austenitic steel with 12-18% Chromium, 8-12% Nickel
Central portions-Ferrite steel with high creep strength
Turbine rotor blade
Stainless steel &Nimonic alloys
Combustion Chamber
Nimonic 75 alloy
Compressor
Centrifugal compressor- Aluminium alloy
Axial flow compressor-Titanium alloy
Properties required for blade material
33. Open and Closed Cycles

Open cycle
Principle of operation – Gases leaving the turbine –exhausted to atmosphere
Schematic
T-s Diagram
Efficiency
Closed cycle
Principle of operation- Gases leaving the turbine- re-used after cooling
Schematic
T-s diagram
Efficiency

34. Reheating – Regeneration and Intercooling

Brayton cycle
Working principle
P-V and T-s diagram
Reheating
Arrangement
Effect-Increase in efficiency
T-s diagram
Regeneration
General arrangement
Effect- reduction in the mass of fuel in the combustion chamber
T-s diagram
Efficiency
Inter cooling
General arrangement
Effect- reduction in power requirement for compressor
T-s diagram
Efficiency

35. Combined Cycle

Combination of reheating, regeneration and inter cooling


T-s diagram
Efficiency

UNIT – IV
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

Introduction
Classification of IC engines
Engine construction
IC engines components and its functions
Terminology of IC engines
Working of four stroke cycle engines
Working of four stroke cycle (petrol) SI Engine
Valve timing diagram for a four-stroke cycle CI engine (diesel engine)
Valve timing diagram for a four stroke CI engine
Two stroke cycle engine
Working of two stroke cycle SI Engine (petrol engine)
Port timing diagram for two stroke CI engine
Comparison of two stroke and four stroke engines
Comparison of SI and CI engines
Fuel supply system in SI (petrol) engines
Fuel pumps
Carburettor
Functions of carburettor
Types of carburettor
Simple carburettor
Defects in a simple carburetor
Solex carburettor
Solved problems in carburetor
Fuel supply systems in CI (diesel) engine
Methods of fuel injection
CAV fuel injection pump
Fuel injector
Types of nozzles
Fuel filter (petrol)
Diesel fuel filters
Ignition system of IC engines
Battery ignition system or coil system
Magneto ignition system
Comparison of magneto and coil ignition system
Electronic ignition system
Transistorised ignition system
Performance calculations
Commercial tests
Thermodynamic tests
Efficiencies of IC engine
Specific fuel consumption(SFC)
Heat balance sheet
Performance curves
problems
Fuels
Types of fuels
Calorific value of fuel
Combustion of fuels
Generalised combustion equation for any hydrocarbon fuel
Stochiometric air-fuel ratio
Actual air-fuel ratio
Determination of air supplied per kg of fuel
Solved problems
Knocking
Pre-ignition
Knocking phenomenon in CI engines or diesel knock
Comparison of knock in SI and CI engines
Lubrication system in IC engines
Properties of lubricant
Methods of lubrication
Cooling systems
Air-cooling
Water cooling
Thermostat in cooling system
Exhaust gas analysis
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system
Treating the exhaust gas
Air pollution and its control
Air pollutants
Diesel engine emission
SI engine emission
Pollution control
Redesigning the combustion chamber
Resetting valve timing
Changing in cooling system
Changing the fuel supply system
Evaporative emission control of SI engine
Evaporative emission control system for CI engine
Crankcase emission control
Positive crankcase ventilation
Problems for practice
UNIT-V
REFRIGERATION AND AIRCONDITIONG

Introduction to refrigeration
Vapour compression refrigeration system
Superheating and Sub cooling of refrigerant
Performance calculations
Solved problems
Vapour absorption refrigeration system
Ammonia-water system
Lithium bromide system
Vapour compression Vs Vapour- absorption system
Psychrometry
Introduction
Psychrometric properties
Dalton’s law of partial pressure
Psychrometric chart
Solved problems
Cooling load calculation in A/c system
Fresh air and Room air mixture-By pass factor
Apparatus dew point
Heat load estimation
Determination of air quantity
Solved problems
Air conditioning systems
Summer air conditioning system
Winter air conditioning system
Room AC system or Unitary AC system
Central A/c system
Problems for practice