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Laboratory N 04: TESTING

TRANSFORMERS

Cristian Camilo Daz Pieros, Crystian Geovanny Numpaque.
School of Electrical Engineering, La Salle University Bogot, Colombia.
ccdiaz19@gmail.com
cnumpaque07@unisalle.edu.co


ABSTRACT

The transformer is a static electromagnetic induction
machine, designed to transform a current system
variables in another system or systems of currents,
voltages and currents which usually so different, but
equally often. For if importance and applicability in this
laboratory will focus their study and the various tests
that are possible make the transformer, in order to have
maximum efficiency in power electronic circuit.

KEYWORDS:

Transformer, tests, nominal current, nominal voltage,
power.


OBJECTIVES
OVERALL OBJECTIVE
Routine testing a distribution transformer.


SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Taking data from each of the tests made.

Based on the results obtained to determine how
efficient the transformer with that job.

I. INTRODUCTION


The invention of the transformer and the simultaneous
development of alternative power sources to always
removed restrictions concerning strain levels. At present
machines transformers are essential in power systems
worldwide. Since the transformers which are at the
output of each power plant generator to the down
transformers which have the function of reducing the
voltage level so that people can use it in each of its
electrical and electronic equipment. In a word
processors are the fundamental part of the branch of
Electrical Engineering

II. THEORICAL FRAMEWORK

A transformer is a device which changes an alternating
electric power voltage level to another electric power
voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. The
transformers are comprised of two or more wire coils
usually copper, wrapped around a ferromagnetic core.
These coils do not have an electrical coupling between
if but a magnetic coupling. According to its end use
several types of transformers which before putting into
service must undergo certain tests to ensure reliability
and proper operation lifetime. This is why now be
described tests are performed on typical distribution
transformer.

RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT OF WINDINGS

This test is to measure the electrical resistance of each
of the windings of the transformer in order to calculate
the copper losses by Joule effect. There are two ways to
perform this test. One is by the Wheatstone bridge of
which involves connecting each winding to the bridge
and seek a balance between the known resistances in
order to determine the value of the winding resistance.
The other method is the voltage drop of which is to
connect each of the windings to a DC voltage source
and measuring voltage and current values flowing
through the winding, then applying Ohm's Law
determines the value of winding resistance. Below are
diagrams of each of the methods described above.


FIG N 01. WHEATSTONE BRIDGE.




FIG No 02. VOLTAGE DROP METHOD

MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMATION RATIO

This test aims to determine the relationship between the
number of turns of the primary winding and the number
of turns of the secondary winding. Several methods
exist to determine the relationship however is the most
used method voltmeter which consists of injecting an
AC voltage by the high-side winding and a voltmeter to
measure the voltage of another output winding, then the
relationship between the voltage input and output
supply the voltage transformation ratio of the
transformer.
CHECKING POLARITY

The objective of this test is to determine the angular
displacement in degrees between the vector
representing the neutral line voltage to a high voltage
phase and the vector representing the line to neutral
voltage of a phase of low voltage. For this test method
is used inductive discharge, which involves placing a
multimeter measuring current between the high-voltage
terminals and circulate a current through this winding
so as to produce a small positive bias to close the circuit
excitation. Then connect the ends of the multimeter to
the winding down. By opening the drive circuit a
voltage is induced in the winding of which will produce
a low deviation in the instrument. If the deviation is the
same as in the previous case, it is said that the polarity
is additive, otherwise it is said to subtractive. Below is
the outline for the method described above.



FIG N 03. INDUCTIVE DISCHARGED METHOD
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

This test is intended to find the voltage which is
achieved with the rated current to flow through one of
the windings of the transformer when the other winding
is shorted. Below is the outline of this test.


FIG No 04.SHORT CIRCUIT TEST

MEASUREMENT OF LOAD LOSSES

The equivalent resistance and reactance are measured
by an ammeter, a voltmeter and a wattmeter, as shown
in Fig. N 05 secondary is shorted and regulated in
tension until I1 V1 reaches its full load value. I2 then
also has its full load value because:



No power supplied, accordingly, the power absorbed in
the whole becomes lost, which is almost completely
reduced to copper loss, because the variation in the iron
loss.



FIG No 05. CIRCUIT FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF LOAD
LOSSES.

VACUUM TEST.

In this assay determining the iron loss, and the current
load power factor and the parameters of the equivalent
circuit of the parallel branch. The assay is performed by
applying rated voltage nominal frequency, preferably a
low-voltage winding and with the other windings open
I'0 current is measured and the power absorbed and P'0
applied voltage U1, Figure 6.




FIG N 06. VACUUM TEST CIRCUIT.


APPLIED VOLTAGE TEST

This test is used to check the dielectric strength of the
insulation to ground and between windings. Is
performed by applying a sinusoidal alternating voltage,
nominal frequency value and defined by the rules, to a
given winding, while the remaining core earthed. Fig N
07.


FIG No 07. APPLIED VOLTAGE TEST.


The voltage is gradually applied, it is maintained for 60
seconds and then it is reduced also gradually. If the
dielectric is not pierced, the test is considered
satisfactory. If a failure occurs, the high current flowing
drives an overcurrent relay TE off the transformer and
the transformer must disarm tested, repair and retest.

INDUCED VOLTAGE TEST.

To check for interturn insulation must be applied
between them a voltage nominal, but this would
increase the flux density in the core and lead to degrees
of very high saturation, with a corresponding increase in
the power consumption. Saturation can be avoided, and
even reduce, if working a frequency higher than the
nominal, in effect, for a given applied voltage if
frequency increases, low magnetic induction. For this
reason it is often available in the testing laboratories,
rotating equipment that voltages of a few hundred Hertz
to perform these tests. This tension is TE elevated by a
transformer, and is gradually applied to one of the
transformer windings under test, it is maintained for 60
seconds and then the also reduces gradually.





FIG No 08. INDUCED VOLTAGE TEST..

The voltage applied to one of the windings, it is also
applied to the induction other windings of the
transformer. If no insulation failure, the test is
considered satisfying. If a fault occurs, the processor
must be disassembled, repaired and repeat assay. The
voltage to be applied is given in the rules and is a
function of the nominal voltage transformer.


MATERIALS:

Single-phase transformer
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Meger
Wheatstone bridge.
Drivers


III. RESULTS


OPEN-CIRCUIT TEST.

After feeding the transformer winding high,
experimental data of voltage, current and power for the
open circuit test are obtained:

Vin
(V)
Vca
(V)
Ica
(A)
Pca
(W)
15 16 0.18 16

TABLE N. 01. RELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA
IN THE OPEN-CIRCUIT TEST.

These values were calculated characteristic values of
resistance and shunt branch current transformer:









SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

After feeding the transformer winding high and low
short-circuit winding, experimental data of voltage,
current and power for the short circuit test are obtained:


Vin
(V)
Vcc
(V)
Icc
(A)
Pcc
(W)
15 9 0.1 19

TABLE N 02. RELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA IN THE
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST.



These values were calculated characteristic values of
resistance and the branch current transformer series:



As a result of the two previous tests, the approximate
equivalent circuit seen from the high-winding for the
transformer is analyzed:



MEASURE OF THE RESISTANCE OF THE
WINDINGS


Inominal
(A)
Imax de prueba
(W)
1 0.1

TABLE N 03. I nominal RATIO TEST AND IMAX.



V
(V)
I
(A)
Resistencia
()
0.53 0.348 1.52

TABLE N 04. EXPERIMENTAL DATA CONNECTION AND
CALCULATION OF HIGH WINDING RESISTANCE.



V
(V)
I
(A)
Resistencia
()
0.847 0.355 2.36

TABLE N 05. EXPERIMENTAL DATA CONNECTION AND
CALCULATION OF LOW WINDING RESISTANCE.


TRANSFORMATION RATIO.


Vp
(V)
Vs
(A)
15 16

TABLE N 05. EXPERIMENTAL DATA VOLTAGE IN AND
VOLTAGE OUT.


a =Vp/Vs = 15V/16V= 0.99


CHECKING POLARITY

Winding fed with a low voltage source, that is made use
of the inductive discharge method. To determine the
polarity of the transformer, put a bridge between the
left-side terminals of the transformer and a voltmeter
was placed between the right-side terminal thereof, after
feeding the winding with a low DC voltage value of
15V. Since the output voltage was greater than that of
the applied voltage is 2.24 V, it was shown that the
polarity of the analyzed is additive.










IV. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

With respect to the results obtained revealed the
following. Regarding open circuit tests it was found that
the impedance value of the shunt branch was very high,
this result allowed corroborate the information in the
book with respect to the high impedance value in that
branch, since this high value does not allow a large
current to flow through that branch magnetization,
allowing the magnetization losses are low. Furthermore
in the short circuit test was found that the value of the
impedance of the series branch was low, thus it is found
that by this branch in the copper losses by Joule effect
are lower, thus allowing the greater percentage of power
reaches the load and not lost in the transformer.




V. CONCLUSIONS


By means of the short circuit test and open circuit, the
achievement determine the approximate equivalent
circuit of the transformer. Identifying shunt branch and
the branch of arousal respectively.

Regarding the resistance of the windings, it was found
that high winding offers less resistance than the winding
floor, which is clear to say that the winding of high
caliber is smaller compared to low, and moreover that
of high will most laps compared to low.

The transformation ratio found was about 1, which
actually corresponds to the expected value, since it
implemented a 1:1 ratio.

It was shown that the polarity of the analyzed is
additive since the voltmeter reading was greater than
that of the applied voltage, ie 24.2 V.


VI. REFERENCES



[1] NORMA TECNICA COLMBIANA NTC 375

[2] NORMA TECNICA COLMBIANA NTC 471

[3] NORMA TECNICA COLMBIANA NTC 837


[4] NORMA TECNICA COLMBIANA NTC 1005.

[5] NORMA TECNICA COLMBIANA NTC 1031.

[6] NORMA TECNICA COLMBIANA NTC 3445.