You are on page 1of 8

Plug-in Hybrids and New Energy Storages

Vt Brlica
Faculty of Military Technology
University of Defence in Brno
Brno, Czech Republic
vit.brslica@unob.cz


Abstract The rapid development in batteries chemistry and
technology allows preparing the lithium or Ni-MH cells with
energy density over 360kJ/kg. Plug-in hybrid vehicle PHEV mass
production is prepared with operating range up to 100km and for
longer trips the engine-generator running at optimal efficiency
supplies with constant power battery and motor. The super-
capacitor SC gives better dynamics and efficiency due to
recuperation. The SC based on high voltage and extra high
permittivity dielectric with nanometers thickness can with better
power density (up to 1200kJ/kg), lifetime, efficiency and power
replace batteries. The TiO
2
research discovered the enormous
energy densities (up to 8MJ/kg) comparable to gasoline or
explosives in Quantum battery. High power density and fast
charging early make the generator useless and plug-in hybrid
may be only short episode in electric vehicles history.
Keywords-battery; supercapacitor; plug-in hybride; efficiency;
electric vehicle; battery;
I. INTRODUCTION
The economical and political reasons ask to reduce the oil
dependence; the ecology needs the pollutions and CO
2

reduction. The greatest oil consumer in economy is the
transport and the vehicles supply by electrical energy can solve
both, problems with OPEC countries dependence and clean air.
The actual crisis is an optimal period for new technology
introduction. The electrical vehicle (EV) principle is very old,
in the end of 19
th
century the EV was the record holder with
speed over 100km/h. Only problem was the battery (BAT)
capacity and the short operating range consequently. First EV
had lead acid battery and DC series motor, with optimal
traction characteristic hyperbolic speed vs. torque.
In the last century the battery supplied electrical vehicles
(BEV) had either cheap lead acid, or expensive Ni-Cd
electrochemical battery with nearly equal range. Due to limited
power and energy in their tanks they were used in specific
applications only as is the multistop delivery (dairy, post
office) or in slow speed transport as are golf cart, wheeled chair
etc.
The power electronics development in the end of 60
th
in last
century enabled the lossless power control of DC motors based
on thyristors, twenty years later also for AC motor drives based
on inverters with IGBT and everything was prepared for
successful production of EV. Only the battery chemistry was
the same as 100 years ago. The lithium batteries are on the
market only in last decade mainly used in communication and
information technology e.g. cellular phones or notebooks.
In the last ten years the thousands of hybrid electric
vehicles (HEV) has been produced, where the internal
combustion engine (ICE) (ignition or Diesel) is connected with
low power electric motor (EM). EM has two functions, to help
at start up from zero speed and to recuperate the kinetic energy
of vehicle (E
K
= m v
2
) during braking, when the generated
electrical energy (EE) is stored in battery for next acceleration.
The battery volume and energy is small, the fuel save is evident
only in city transport with often stops. All the Japan HEV
batteries chemistry is nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) without
dangerous cadmium. They are able today to save in one
kilogram 100Wh = 360kJ, but their number of cycles is limited
to 2000 oppositely to super-capacitors with million cycles, but
EDLC (Electrolyte Double-Layer Capacitor) has very low
energy density (2 20kJ/kg) and problems with voltage
distribution between cells.
In next two years, the first PHEV will come in mass
production, as a consequence of rapid development in
chemistry and technology of lithium batteries. They are able
today to save in one kilogram 100Wh = 360kJ that means high
enough power for road transport legal speed limit and they can
be discharged by maximal current in 20 minutes. The
Chevrolet Volt and his derivates can be not only the first, but
also maybe the last PHEV and the next EV model can be fully
battery-supplied electric vehicle (BEV).
The promising technology of high voltage solid dielectrics
super-capacitor based on thin layer (nanometers) with high
permittivity barium titanate announces in last period power
density 1200kJ/kg, which is four times more than
electrochemical battery without looses and with short
recharging time under one minute. But nanotechnologies in
batteries with lithium chemistry can be also competitive.
Tesla Car Company started last year the production of the
BEV, which was designed few years ago, therefore the used
lithium battery is from old technology and all the battery
consists from 6,831 small cells near to AA size.
From epochal invention of memristor, studying its structure
with TiO
2
at higher voltage, very interesting energy densities
(8MJ/kg) near to gasoline or explosives have been discovered
and new patent application promises simple manufacturing.
With such energy storage no ICE is not more necessary and
even the heating of passenger compartment can be supplied
from electrical energy storage, moreover the efficiency of
capacitor is very high even at very fast charging. And the
lifetime of capacitors is nearly million cycles comparing with
thousands cycles at modern LiFePO
4
batteries.
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, Czech Republic
978-1-4244-2601-0/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE 516
II. HEV AND PHEV
A. Mild hybride parallel drive
The fuel consumption of ICE vehicle in the city transport
with typical traffic lights stops is at least 50% higher than in
constant speed trip in country. The main reason of this increase
is the energy dissipation in brakes, where the kinetic energy is
changed into thermal energy. The electric drive enables the
recuperation, when the EM runs as generator and the generated
energy can be saved in battery. This energy is in the following
acceleration used again, of course, without losses in EM
inverter and BAT. EM also helps the ICE at low speed, where
the ICE has no torque from the principle Fig.1.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0 4000 8000 12000
Speed [RPM]
T
o
r
q
u
e

[
N
m
]
TESLA
Lotus V
Lotus III
Lotus I

Figure 1. Torque vs. speed for ICE + gearbox compared with EM
From described purposes the battery is only for very low
energy volume and moreover it is cycled only in 20 to 30
percent of its capacity. Therefore its life is much more than
2000 cycles which is value for full cycles and it reaches
hundreds thousands. The EM returns the energy from
recuperation in low speed range only, so it can be low power,
the high torque is reached by gear ratio as is described in Fig.2.
The torque M is given by power P and angular speed :
P = M (1)
The angular [s
-1
] and rotational n [r.p.m.] speeds are bind
by formula:
= 2 n/60 (2)
Diesel 50kW,
100Nm, 5000rpm
EM 5kW,
10Nm, 5000rpm
100Nm,
500rpm
Gear
box
Battery
Generator
5kW


Figure 2. HEV parallel configuration example
HEV is not an EV; its engine is directly connected to
wheels and permanently controlled by throttle to drive vehicle
in real traffic. The EM plays in here only auxiliary role.
Heating in HEV is realized from cooling system of engine,
which runs permanently and always produce enough energy.
B. Plug in hybride serial drive
The disadvantage of BEV is its very limited radius, but
from statistics results, that 80% of drivers do not drive daily
more than 60km. For occasional long trips they can either buy
second car, or their car should be the mix of BEV and HEV.
The principal diagram of PHEV is in Fig.3, where to the
BEV components the ICE and generator are added. As sound
from PHEV name the main source of energy is the battery
charged during the night from house plug. Only in the case of
longer trip the ICE starts and runs at constant speed and power
that means at optimal efficiency it recharges the battery and
supplies the EM.

Diesel 20kW,
40Nm, 5000rpm
EM 50kW,
100Nm, 5000rpm
Battery
10kWh
Generator
20kW


Figure 3. PHEV serial configuration example
The generator (and ICE) power must be chosen regarding to
battery parameters. The constant speed is not strict condition,
because the optimal efficiency area is very wide and the
optimum is very flat Fig.4. The variable speed generator can
work permanently with average power and its power as well as
ICE power can be smaller, with lower price and mass.


Figure 4. Diesel performance map of fuel consumption
The PHEV with constant speed generator (Chevrolet Volt),
which is running only time-to-time has one disadvantage,
which is not very important in California, but it is fundamental
in Canada.
517
Heating in the cabin must be supplied from BAT, which
shortens the commute range. Having better batteries these 2 or
3 kilowatts can be neglected, but if the total battery capacity is
16kWh, the influence of heating in the energy budget can be
crucial. [1]
III. POWER AND ENERGY
The ICE maximal torque and power characteristics have
been described in Fig.1. Its parameters can be only reduced by
aging or miss-function of components. The torque M increase
is realized by gearbox ratio

1
=
2
(
2
/
1
) (3)
The gearbox can be realized with mechanical steps, or
continues variable transmission. The zero torque at zero speed
is solved by friction clutch or hydrodynamic pump, when the
engine kinetic energy is transformed to vehicle energy. That
means, the ICE must have before vehicle move-up increased
speed over idle run. Comparing the torque characteristic of
EM, it has full torque from zero speed; moreover its torque can
be easily increased at least to 200% for short time (overload),
which is absolutely impossible at ICE.
A. Traction forces and power
To keep the vehicle at constant speed on the horizontal
plane supposes, that at least two forces must be compensated
the rolling resistance force F
r
and the aerodynamic one F
w
. The
first one depends on the rolling friction factor k
r
and can be
described by formula:
F
r
= k
r
G (4)
Where G [N] is the gravitational force dependent on the
vehicle mass m, and acceleration of gravity g = 9,81m s
-2
:
G = m g (5)
The aerodynamic resistance force depends on the frontal
cross-sectional area of car S
x
[m
-2
], its shape, which can be
described by aerodynamic coefficient C
x
and moreover this
force is speed dependent according to formula:
F
w
= C
x
S
x
v
2
(6)
Where the is the air density value, which is dependent on
the humidity, temperature and the elevation above sea level,
but it can be assumed approximately = 1.2 kgm
-3
. The modern
car bodies reach the C
x
= 0.20. The survey of steady-state
power for important speed range, supposing the rolling friction
coefficient k
r
= 0.02, is in Table I.
The movement equation compares the propulsion force F
T
to the resistive forces and in the equilibrium the speed is
constant. The traction force F
T
[N] on the driven wheels
circumference can be divided at least in three components:
F
T
= F
r
+F
w
+ F
a
(6)
The difference in forces is the accelerating force F
a
, which
causes the speed change. The acceleration a (or deceleration at
negative sign) is the ratio of force and mass m.
F
a
= m a (7)
The vehicle speed is time function of acceleration
v(t) = a(t) dt (8)
The propulsion power can be easily calculated from force
and speed, which are both the function of time:
P(t) =F v(t) (9)
The typical parameters of modern passenger car are in
Table I.
TABLE I. TYPICAL VEHICLE PARAMETERS
kr Cx Sx m PMAX
0.02 0.33 2m
2
2000kg 100kW

The uphill run increases the potential energy, stored in the
vehicle mass and position over sea, which must be supplied
from the power source. The uphill gradient H/L usually does
not exceed 12% (16% on local road) and it is equal to sine of
gradient angle [] by formula
sin = H/L (10)
Where L is for the length of route and H is for the ascended
height. This traction force component F
S
can be described by
formula:
F
S
= G sin (11)
The power for fast uphill run is often the biggest
component of all traction forces. Oppositely the low power
results in slow speed in the slope according to (9) and delay of
other transport (typically the heavy trucks with low power to
mass ratio).
B. Adhesion and traction force limiting
From Fig.1 can be deduced, that increasing the torque and
traction force can be unlimited, which can cause the unlimited
acceleration, but from the practice is known, that at higher
torque the wheels start to slip. The adhesion limit depends on
the road surface and tire; it can be calculated from braking
distance, which is very dependent on the weather, temperature
and eventual water on the road.
The standard braking traces are in Table II when all four
wheels do the braking, while in traction are usually used only
518
two wheels. The torque limit cannot be surpassed without
special equipments, which are used in sport.
TABLE II. BRAKING TRACES ON VARIABLE ROAD SURFACE
Speed km/h 50 60 80
Trace [m] 14 20 35
Time [s] 2.02 2.40 3.15 DRY
Acceleration [ms
-2
] 6.89 6.94 7.05
Trace [m] 19 28 49
Time [s] 2.74 3.36 4.41 RAIN
Acceleration [ms
-2
] 5.08 4.96 5.04
Trace [m] 64 93 165
Time [s] 9.22 11.2 14.9 ICE
Acceleration [ms
-2
] 1.51 1.49 1.50

From these data the maximal traction force can be
calculated using (7), which can be attained only with 4WD (for
wheels in drive). The maximum traction force is:
F
T MAX
< 7 m (12)
It confirms the acceleration of sporty EV Tesla Roadster,
which is 5.16ms
-2
as can be seen in Table III. Calculation is
done by (8) supposing constant acceleration, when v = a t. The
second row is measured for new traction control.
TABLE III. TESLA ROADSTER ACCELERATION
Speed Time Acceleration
m.p.h. km/h m/s s ms
-2

65 104 28.89 5.6 5.16
60 96 26.67 3.9 6.84
C. Calculations
The forces from (4) and (6) respectively (11) can be tabular
calculated and the power from (9) can be charted in graph
Fig.5. Besides this power another power is necessary for
supplying the auxiliary onboard equipment (monitor, lighting,
ventilation, servos, control system) and for covering the losses
in all the drive chain. The comparison of these components
converted on the energy per kilometer can be observed in Fig.6.
TESLA Roadster
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 50 100 150 200
Speed [km/h]
P
o
w
e
r

[
k
W
]

Figure 5. Power vs. speed for EV Tesla Roadster
TESLA ROADSTER
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 50 100 150 200 250
Speed [km/h]
E
n
e
r
g
y

[
W
h
/
k
m
]
TOTAL
drive
air
tires
auxil

Figure 6. Energy consumption per km vs. speed for Tesla Roadster
Very interesting result is that up to 80km/h the aerodynamic
resistance (air) is lower than rolling resistance (tire), which is
practically constant. The drive-chain losses can be reduced if
no differential gear will be used and for one driven axis two
EM will be used, with controlling system, which at drive by
constant speed only one wheel will drive. Such system was
verified 40 years ago on EMA-1, which was designed not by
automotive engineers, but by specialist for EM and drives.
EMA-1 was built in 1968 in Czechoslovakia by group of
enthusiasts from research institute with limited budget. Lead
acid SLI batteries 88Ah, total voltage 96V, mass 276kg,
supplied 2 DC machines, 2kW each. EV with total mass 860kg
has maximal speed 50km/h and range 30 50km. Picture from
archive is in Fig.7.

Figure 7. Czech EV from 1968 EMA-1
The concept of two EM drives for one axis is in Fig.8. Non-
supplied asynchronous motor AM has only mechanical losses
and the one wheel drive was used also in economy runs in
seventies. In case of braking (recuperation) or accelerating the
resting motor is promptly switched to its inverter. Motors with
permanent magnets are suitable only for slow drives with one
motor, because they cannot be de-excited.
AM 1
AM 2

Figure 8. Two Motor Drive of Axis
519
With exception of very low speed or stop the auxiliary
power is negligible. Because of nonlinear grow of aerodynamic
force, the vehicle range decreases with the speed as is in Fig.9.
TESLA ROADSTER
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 50 100 150 200 250
Speed [km/h]
R
a
n
g
e

[
k
m
]

Figure 9. Range vs. speed for TESLA Roadster
IV. ENERGY STORAGE
First EV has been built in the 1835 and 1936 respectively;
the speed record 105km/h was also reached with EV in 1899
with lead acid battery. Edison tried to build EV with his Ni-Fe
batteries without commercial success. From the year 1903
when Ford established 146km/h speed record, the petrol ruled
the vehicles power supply, because of its very high energy
density, which is about 36MJ/L = 10kWh/L, because the petrol
density is only 0.72kg/L the mass density value is over
14kWh/kg. Also the charging power is enormous, if filling the
tank by speed 2L/s the 60L tank can be full in 30s and
supplying power is 72MW.
Two parameters must be watched if looking for optimal
battery, the energy density and the power density. Survey of
suitable batteries for EV is in Table IV.
TABLE IV. STANDART BRAKING TRACES
Lead-Acid (Ni-MH) Lithium-Ion
First Use
Commercial
1859 1989 1991
Current
Automotive Use
Traditional 12-
volt batteries
For todays
generation of HEV
Under
development for
PHEV and BEV
Strengths
Long proven in
automotive use;
Price
Twice the
energy/weight as
lead-acid
About twice the
energy content of
Ni-MH -
Weaknesses
Heavy; low
energy/weight
ratio for EV
High cost (four
times the cost of
lead-acid);
Expensive until
production
volume
Energy
density (Wh/kg)
30-40 65-70 100-150
Recyclability Excellent Good Very Good
A. Electrochemical Batteries
1) Lead acid: The first in history secondary battery (1859),
mass produced for ICE starting in all vehicles, for emergency
power supply and UPS (uninterruptible power supply), it is
very cheap, with number of full cycles about 400, but special
construction for traction has increased number of cycles to
2000. The sulphuric acid electrolyte is very corrosive and the
lead is only metal, which resists in this medium. The sealed
construction and gel electrolyte allow using this battery in any
position without danger of stain or effusion. Its energy density
is up to 40Wh/kg, due its price it is very popular for EV
drives, but the operating range is very limited and the lifetime
less than 5 or 10 years respectively. Another disadvantage is
the danger of sulphatizing, which can be prevented by
immediate charging after run, that means the battery cannot be
left discharged.
2) Nickel or Alkaline battery: The alkalic electrolyte with
NaOH or KOH is less aggressive and Edison realized the first
alkaline secondary cell with Nickel and Iron electrodes so
called Ni-Fe battery. Nickel cadmium Ni-Cd is an improved
chemistry with higher power density. The voltage of cell is
only 1.2V, but the lifetime of such battery with minimal
maintenance is about 20 years. It is mostly used in railway
wagons and in hand tools. The toxic cadmium was about 20
years ago (1989) successfully substituted by metal hydrides in
so-called Ni-MH cells, with better energy density. This
chemistry is used in Japan HEV.
Na-MCl2 chemistry has similar parameters with Ni-MH
and also Ni-Zn is from the same family with similar
gravimetric density but weaker volumetric density.
3) Lithium battery: Very reactive lithium has highest
potential, but the technology was mastered only in 1991 (by
Sony). The lithium ion cells LiCoO
2
with rated voltage 3.75V
are widely used in cellular phones and notebooks; the battery
with serial connected cells must have electronic balancing
system to avoid the overcharge at any cell. In last few years
the big cells for traction are produced, with capacity up to
2000Ah and new chemistry LiFePO
4
(lithium iron phosphate)
Table V. Comparing to lead acid the fast discharge of lithium
battery does not decrease the capacity, but the energy is lower
due to joule losses in internal resistance.
TABLE V. COMMERCIAL LITHIUM BATTERIES DEVELOPMENT
Li-ion LiCoO2 LiMn2O4 LiFePO4
Model IRC-18650J IMR26700 ANR26650M1
Voltage 3.75V 4.2 - 2.5V 3.3V
Capacity 2.4Ah 3.0Ah 2.3Ah
Energy
density
188Wh/kg
520Wh/L

285Wh/L

Power
density

1500W/kg
at 20s

Discharge 4.0A max 70 - 120A pulse
Charge 2.4A max 10A
x L 18.24x65mm 26.4x70mm 26x65mm
Mass 47g 47g 70g

Stanford university researchers have developed a new
Lithium battery chemistry that has 10 times the capacity of
todays Lithium batteries. It will be 10 less costly because the
battery pack will be 10 times smaller with 10 times less
520
material. Stanford battery will allow 10 times more EV to be in
service with a given supply of Lithium.
A new way to make lithium iron phosphate batteries cuts
costs by lowering the temperature. Manthiram's method
involves mixing commercially available chemicals lithium
hydroxide, iron acetate, and phosphoric acid in a solvent, and
then subjecting this mixture to microwaves for five minutes,
which heats the chemicals to about 300 C. The process forms
rod-shaped particles of lithium iron phosphate. The highest-
performing particles are about 100 nanometres long and 25
nanometres wide.
As reported in [13] in LiFePO
4
structure a material with
high lithium bulk mobility has been done by creating a fast ion-
conducting surface phase through controlled off-stoichiometry,
the rate capability equivalent to full battery discharge in 1020s
can be achieved, comparable to those of supercapacitors.
The theoretical specific energy of lithium thionyl battery is
1420Wh/L (explosive TNT has 1920Wh/L)
A lithium-titanate battery is a modified lithium-ion battery
that uses lithium-titanate nanocrystals on the surface of its
anode instead of carbon. This gives the anode a surface area of
about 100 square meters per gram, compared with 3 square
meters per gram for carbon, allowing electrons to enter and
leave the anode quickly. This makes fast recharging possible
and provides high currents when needed
4) Other chemistries: In last forty years after the
renaissance of EV many new electrochemical batteries have
been studied, but they did not convince. High temperature NaS
has good parameters, but bad maintenance, Zn-Br needs two
tanks for pumping electrolyte, which stores the energy as the
vanadium battery, suitable more for stationary applications.
Special category is Ag-Zn chemistry with super performance,
but due to limited silver cannot be widespread system and is
used only in special military application.
B. Super Capacitors (SC)
The super-capacitors are revolutionary technology, which
can compare to electrochemical batteries in energy density and
have much better power density. Comparison with classical
capacitors can be seen in Table VI.
TABLE VI. CAPACITORS COMPARISON FOR 1MJ STORAGE
1MJ = 0.3kWh Mass Volume Price Time C.
[kg] [m
3
] USD [s]
Electrostatic 200,000 140 700,000 10
-9

Electrolytic 10,000 2.2 300,000 10
-4

Electrochemical 100 0.1 15,000 1

1) EDLC (Electrolyte Double Layer Capacitor): The
construction of EDLC is very similar to electrochemical
battery with electrolyte, separator and two electrodes from
active carbon. The capacitance can be calculated from
electrode surface S, distance between electrodes d and
permittivity by formula:
C = S / d (12)
The polarized electrolyte molecules are in touch with
extremely great surface of carbon, but limiting is the voltage,
which must be under the threshold of electrolysis. Low voltage
decrease the energy E, which is given by formula:
E = C U
2
(13)
Aqueous electrolyte limit is only 0.8V, the organic
acetonitrile limit is 2.8V and ionic liquids are studied with
supposed voltage 8V or more. Ten times higher voltage gives
hundred times higher energy.
2) Solid dielectrics: Another way how to reach high
capacitance according to (12) is the permittivity increase. The
volumetric energy density e [J/m
3
] in capacitor dielectric can
be calculated from permittivity and electric field E [V/m] as
follow:
e = E
2
(14)
That means not only high permittivity but also thin
dielectric layer (nanometers) with high electric strength leads to
high-energy SC.
Texas EEStor Company is developing a new type of SC
that can hold ten times more energy in the weight of typical
batteries, at a fraction of the cost. They have an agreement with
ZENN electric cars to produce SC for EV. From January 2008
Lockheed Martin - U.S. military equipment manufacturer has
announced a partnership with EEStor to develop miltary energy
applications. Patents [14, 15] describe the SC construction,
based on alumina coated barium titanate particles with relative
permittivity /
0
= 29,000 embedded in PET plastic with
breakdown voltage 580V/m. Multilayer construction realized
by printing technology produces 100 layers element thick
1mm, size 0.58cm
2
and 31,351 elements create the 52.22kWh
unit with mass 127kg at 3,500V. The capacitance is 30.693F.
Picture from patent document is in Fig.10.

Figure 10. EEStore construction from 31,351 parallel elements
Although the samples have proposed properties, the mass
production is till this time unsuccessful.
521
C. Quantum Battery (QB)
The surprising energy density promises the discovery of
quantum effect on TiO
2
sample measured by Swiss inventor
described in patent application [18]. The rutile crystals 15nm
length absorb at 180V energy with density 8 12MJ/kg. It is
very optimistic, but without working prototype and with the
theory of photon resonance only. Author describes cheap
technology with possible market price 15USD/kWh. Low self-
discharge about 6.3 % per month and long durability would be
optimal for EV.
V. FIRST NEW GENERATION EV EXPERIENCE
First 500 cars Tesla Roadster are made and used by their
owners, while Chevrolet Volt is up today only testing and
developing prototype that means it can utilize much newer
technologies, which are growing very fast, every year brings
some breakthrough technology. Four-year difference is
essential. Tesla producer has chosen Lotus car to rebuilt its
drive to electric one with asynchronous motor and fix one step
gear. The parameters comparison can be seen in Table VII.
TABLE VII. BEV AND PHEV PARAMETERS COMPARISON
Tesla Chevrolet Mitsubishi
Roadster Volt iMiEV
AC Motor 185kW 120 47kW
375Nm 320 180Nm
AM AM PMSM
14.000rpm 7500rpm
370V 320V 330V
Battery 56kWh 16kWh 16kWh
180kg
Generator --- 53kW ---
Maximal speed 80/140 130km/h
Maximal cruise 64+960 160 km
1080kg
80% SOC 30min

If comparing Tesla EM maximal power 185kW with power
90kW for maximal speed 200km/h (Fig.5), the power reserve is
extremely high and therefore the acceleration can be kept on
the acceleration limit (12) up to speed 100km/h Table III.


Figure 11. Chevrolet Volt Chassis Last Version (2008)
Chevrolet's Volt is the first series hybrid concept car shown
by a major manufacturer. Its 1,0-liter, 3-cylinder turbocharged
engine runs an onboard 53kW generator that recharges a
16kWh lithium-ion battery made of 80 four-volt cells. Main
components distribution on the chassis is in Fig.11. The
engine-generator from my point of view has typical handwrite
of car engineers and not only its size, but also its location under
front hood with long exhaust pipe. Guessingly 200kg mass can
be replaced by another battery with more than twice longer
range. The small generator for occasional long trips could be
situated in backside trunk, or in tender, which could be hired.
The fix mounting of ICE needs all the servicing as standard
ICE vehicle, oppositely to BEV, which needs no regular
service.
Because of rapid evolution in battery technology GM newly
opened advanced battery laboratories (3,000 square meters).
Opel Ampera is a Twin sister car to the Chevy Volt. The
other leading European producers are preparing their program
in EV. New producers like Fiskers, Aptera, Th!in and many
other are small companies involved in EV development and
they can bring some revolutionary solutions, because in big
companies are strong restrictions based on tradition.
Mitsubishi is leading Japan Company in preparing EV with
lithium batteries. Its small car iMi with ICE has its twin with
electric drive, which is presently in long time tests over all
Japan. The main parts arrangement can be seen on Fig.12.

Figure 12. Mitsubishi iMiEV through view
A. Chinese production
China is the leading country in production and usage of
electric bikes and mopeds. Expensive crude oil caused the
higher number of electric two wheel vehicles than petrol ones.
Chinese cars are still restricted by European administration, but
their quality grows up very fast.
BYD's first plug-in hybrid for the Chinese market is the
F6DM mid-sized sedan introduced in the second half of 2008.
Top speed is 160 km/h, with a range of 100 km in all-electric
mode and 430 km total after the gas engine kicks in. A fully
electric version called the F6E is planned for 2009. It is a 5-
seater with an acceleration of 0 to 100km/h of around 10
seconds. Top speed should be 160km/h, and the battery pack,
located under the rear seats, is based on BYDs own LiFePO
4

522
technology. Range per charge should be 300 km and BYD
projected battery has a life of 2 000 cycles, for a lifetime range
of about 600 000 km. F6E can also take a fast charge that can
bring the battery to 80% SOC in about 15 minutes. Israel tests
now first samples to reduce its dependence on oil.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
This year (2009) will be sold in USA 345,000 HEV, which
is 2% from all sales. The up to date crisis can faster bring new
technology in the automotive industry based on results of many
laboratories and universities that offer new battery technology
(Table VIII) for new generation of electric vehicles without any
oil dependence with higher power and longer operational
radius. New technologies must increase the stored energy and
the speed of charge and discharge. They must also lengthen
cycle life to 15 years or 250 000 km the average life of a
vehicle and keep the cost as low as possible.
TABLE VIII. LITHIUM CHEMISTRIES SURVEY
Chemistry Company
Doped lithium nanophosphate A123
Manganese spinel LG / NEC
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide Panasonic
Lithium manganese oxide Hitachi
Lithium cobalt oxide Commercial offer
Lithium titanate spinel Altair Nano
Lithium iron phosphate Lishen
Lithium manganese titanate EnerDel

The higher well-to-wheal efficiency helps reduce CO
2

emissions and electric tank decreases the dependence on oil
import from non-reliable countries. New kinds of super
capacitors with solid dielectric can be fast charged in the times
comparable to gas filling.
Fast charging is not the problem of vehicles, but of
distribution net, which has no problem with nigh charging, but
power peaks from few minutes charging may be dangerous and
cause the collapse of power system. Fast charging and batteries
with capacity for about 300km range reject the PHEV from
mass production and it can be suitable for some special
purposes e.g. transport out of civilization or long distance
transport with more drivers. The driver needs also some rest
after 3 hours and during his rest his EV can be partially
recharged for next 200km.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport
Financial Support, Program No. OC169 for COST Action 542,
is acknowledged.
REFERENCES

[1] V. Brlica, Co-generative Power Source for Electric Car, Proceeding
of VPPC 2005, Chicago IL USA, Sept. 2005, Illinois Institute of
Technology, IEEE Cat. No.: 05EX1117C, (CD-ROM) ISBN 0-7803-
9281-7
[2] V. Brlica, Super-capacitor integration into hybrid vehicle power
source, In Proceeding of International Conference on Renewable
Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ'08). Santander (Spain) 2008, p. 6.
ISBN 978-84-611-9290-8.
[3] Altairnano, NanoSafe Battery Technology, ALTI 070404, pp. 4, In web
Altairnano.com
[4] I. Buchmann, How to prolong lithium-based batteries,
BatteryUniversity.Com http://www.batteryuniversity.com/
[5] D. Stober, Nanowire battery can hold 10 times the charge of existing
lithium-ion battery, Stanford News service, December 18, 2007
[6] K. Fehrenbacher Reva to Boost Range with Lithium-Ion Battery,
Earth2tech, http://earth2tech.com/2009/01/05/ January 5, 2009
[7] Total Lithium-Ion Battery Sales Forecast to Double By 2012 to
US$13.1B In Green car congress, http://www.greencarcongress.com/
28.11.2008
[8] K. Candace, et al., High-performance lithium battery anodes using
silicon nanowires, Nature Nanotechnology 3, 31 35 pp., December
16, 2007,
[9] N. Soinoff, Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to
Market, Scientific & Technical Information,
http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/Spinoff2008/t_1.html
[10] D. Deguzman, The race for car lithium battery is on, Green
Chemicals, http://www.icis.com/blogs/green-chemicals/ January 7, 2009
[11] C. Miller, Electric-Car Battery Makers Seek Federal Funds, December
26, 2008, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/12/26/electric-car-battery-
makers-seek-federal-funds/
[12] R. Parker, Chevy Volt Battery Over-engineered Due To Unknowns,
http://www.futurepundit.com/archives/cat_energy_batteries.html, April
13, 2009
[13] Byoungwoo Kang & Gerbrand Ceder, Battery materials for ultrafast
charging and discharging, Nature 458, 190-193, March 12, 2009
[14] R. D. Weir, et al., Electrical-energy-storage unit (EESU) utilizing
ceramic and integrated circuit technologies for replacement of
electrochemical batteries, United States Patent 7,033,406, April 25,
2006
[15] R. D. Weir, et al., Utilization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) plastic and
composition-modified barium titanate powders in a matrix that allows
polarization and the use of integrated-circuit technologies for the
production of lightweight ultrahigh electrical energy storage units
(EESU), United States Patent 7,466,536, December 16, 2008
[16] G. Ehrenber, G. Scott et al., Nanoparticle ultracapacitor, United States
Patent Application 20080316678 Kind Code A1, December 25, 2008
[17] M. A. Ilyanok,. Quantum Supercapacitor, United States Paten
7,193,261 B2, March 20, 2007
[18] R. Eisenring, Method of storing electricity in quantum batteries,
United States Patent Application 20080016681 Kind Code A1, January
24, 2008
[19] 2009 Tesla Roadster Technical Specifications,
http://www.teslamotors.com/performance/tech_specs.php
[20] Chevy Volt: Reasons For Use and Cost Of Operation http://gm-
volt.com/chevy-volt-reasons-for-use-and-cost-of-operation/
[21] EEStore Energy storage unit, http://bariumtitanate.blogspot.com/



523