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Aircraft Stability and Control

Stability of Flapping Wing MAVs




Submitted to: Dr. Hesham Ibrahim
Due Date: 6 JUNE 2012


Nabiya Hilal 200821018
Roshan Akthar 200821027
Sidra Younis 200822099

Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 2 6 June 2012
Abstract

Stability is essential to flying and is usually assumed to be especially problematic
in flapping flight. If so, problems of stability may have presented a particular hurdle to
the evolution of flapping flight. However, various flapping flight aircrafts have been
researched like MAVs and NAVs. MAVs allow military personnel to pursue
reconnaissance objectives and deliver payloads without placing soldiers in dangerous
situations, and could also be used for civilian purposes such as chemical agent
detection at hazardous sites or crop dusting. As seems to be the path taken by most
technology, an effort to reduce the size while maintaining a viable and useful UAV has
been underway since the start of the century. These systems involve highly complicated
physics surrounding the flapping wing motion and unusual characteristics due to a
flapping requirement not normally associated with conventional aircraft.

To that end this study focuses on examining the various models and physical
parameters of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) that are considered in various other
studies. This particular study primarily also focuses on determining the stability in
flapping wings Micro aerial vehicles aircraft (MAVs) by analyzing static and dynamic
models with certain variation in various parameters. According to the results, the aircraft
achieved the static stability by incorporating a dummy tail in it such that the destabilizing
effect of the wing was compensated with the stabilizing effect from the tail. Stability
derivatives have also been used to calculate the dynamic response of the aircraft under
specific conditions. The results observed are highly in line with the theory and
calculations reveal a statically stable aircraft exhibiting dynamic stability also under
different configuration parameters. The approach in terms of static stability of the aircraft
also takes into account the assumption that the aircraft behaves similar to the fixed wing
aircraft in the forward flight. Using the empirical coefficients, the aircraft was designed
using stability techniques. However, current stability concepts in aircraft design are
limited to the fixed wing aircraft field. The aerodynamics of the flapping wing flight has
also been discussed wherein the variation of forces has been analyzed with a variation
of the flapping angle.
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 3 6 June 2012
Table of Contents

1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 8
2. Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) ............................................................................................. 9
3. Literature Review ...............................................................................................................10
4. Geometrical Analysis .........................................................................................................14
5. Static Stability ....................................................................................................................18
5.1. Results for Static Stability of Flapping Wing MAV ....................................................19
6. Dynamic Stability................................................................................................................21
6.1. Dynamic Model ...................................................................................................... ..22
6.2. Results for Dynamic Stability of Flapping Wing MAV ...............................................25
7. Longitudinal Approximations...............................................................................................29
7.1. Results for Longitudinal Approximations ..................................................................32
8. Conclusion, Shortcomings and Future work .......................................................................34
9. References ........................................................................................................................35
APPENDIX










Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 4 6 June 2012
List of Figures

Figure 1: The microbat (Davenport, 2007) .................................................................................. 9
Figure 2: Body Frame Coordinate system (Davenport, 2007) ....................................................14
Figure 3: Ellipse shape wing .....................................................................................................14
Figure 4: Parameters position ...................................................................................................15
Figure 5: Wing Contribution to Static Stability ...........................................................................19
Figure 6: Tail Contribution to Static Stability ..............................................................................20
Figure 7: Static Stability of MAV ................................................................................................21
Figure 8: Flow at the wing (Davenport, 2007) ............................................................................23
Figure 9: Stroke Variation with Time .........................................................................................25
Figure 10: Stroke Direction Variation .........................................................................................26
Figure 11: Lift Coefficient Curve ................................................................................................27
Figure 12: Drag Coefficient Curve .............................................................................................28

List of Tables

Table 1: List of Parameters .......................................................................................................17
Table 2: Longitudinal Derivatives ..............................................................................................31


Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 5 6 June 2012
NOMENCLATURE

Symbol Description

Sx Total area of surface x (x = w for wing, x = t for tail) (m
2
)
Sexp,x Total exposed area for surface x (m
2
)
A Aspect ratio
Tail taper ratio

LE
Tail leading edge sweep (rad)

C/4
Tail quarter chord sweep (rad)
Cw Wing root chord length (m)
Crt Tail root chord length (m)
Ctt Tail tip chord length (m)
c
t
Tail mean chord length (m)
bw Total wingspan (m)
bt Total tailspan (m)
cht Horizontal tail volume coefficient
Lt Distance between wing and tail aerodynamic centers (m)
Lf Length of fuselage (m)
Mcg Resultant moment about the aircraft center of gravity (Nm)
Lx Total lift at surface x (N)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 6 6 June 2012
Xp Position p on the aircraft; measured from the nose of the aircraft
q Dynamic pressure (kg/ms
2
)
qt Tail dynamic pressure (kg/ms
2
)
Fluid density (kg/m
3
)
V
2
Square of ambient fluid velocity (m
2
/s)

Cmcg Moment coefficient about the center of gravity
CLx Lift coefficient for surface x
M Mach number
Dx Fuselage diameter at x
CLx Coefficient of lift derivative for surface x
CDx Coefficient of drag derivative for surface x
CD
0
Parasite drag constant
CL Coefficient for empirical lift coefficient derivative
CD Coefficient for empirical lift coefficient derivative
Cf Coefficient derivative function
m Aircraft mass (kg)
g Gravitational constant (9.8 m/s
2
)
Ixx Specific principle moment of inertia (m
2
)

eq
Equivalent angle of attack at the wing (rad)
Aircraft and tail angle of attack (rad)

0t
Tail incidence angle (rad)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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0
Wing pitch angle; control input (rad)
Veq Equivalent fluid velocity at the wing mean chord (m/s)



















Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 8 6 June 2012
1. Introduction

Flapping wing flight is a relatively new area of study in engineering. Researchers
are looking to flapping flight as a potential source for the next generation of surveillance
vehicles. Recently, micro-air vehicles (MAVs) have gained a lot of interest of both
aerospace engineers and biologists studying animal flight. Potential applications for
MAVs, both military and civilian, are numerous. MAVs may employ fixed wings, rotary
wings or flapping wings. Flapping wings of the MAV are used for stability and lift
generation. An ornithopter is an aircraft that uses flapping wing motion to fly. This type
of flight offers potential advantages over fixed-wing flight, such as maneuverability, at
slow speeds (1-40m/s). Natural ornithopter range in size from small flying insects to
large birds, and flap their wings from about 5 to 200Hz. (Zbikowski. 2004). In this
regard, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with their flapping wings are becoming
increasingly important on the modern military and civilian scene.

While biological inspiration suggests that flapping wing flight offers unique
performance benefits, aerodynamists put forth the point that as the wings are reduced in
size, a transition to low Reynolds number aerodynamics occurs, resulting in decreased
aerofoil performance. Most previous studies of flapping wing flight revolve around
understanding and defining the aerodynamic effects associated with the unsteady
characteristics of a flapping wing. However, even after an adequate model or
approximation is made to account for these phenomena, the stability of the aircraft can
still be in question. Aircraft stability is not only dependent on its aerodynamic
characteristics like lift and drag, but also on the geometric aspects of the aircraft.
Therefore, this study aims at developing a straightforward and feasible approach to
design a stable flapping wing aircraft. Also it develops an approach to design a statically
stable flapping wing aircraft while analyzing the dynamic stability trends at the same
time as well as to analyze the trade-offs between stability and lift of a flapping wing
MAV, if any.


Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 9 6 June 2012
2. Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs)

The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) defines a Micro Air
Vehicle (MAV) as an aircraft limited in all of its dimensions to 15 cm (McMichael, 1996).
This size limitation is meant to allow the vehicle to operate in a confined space such as
those presented by an urban canyon or building interior. While any type of aircraft could
theoretically be adapted to fit the MAV definition, rotor craft and flapping wing designs
are particularly well adapted for the high agility and maneuverability requirements of this
difficult operating environment. Furthermore, for concealment in plain sight, flapping
wing designs are particularly well-suited in that they can mimic designs we see in nature
and thereby have the potential to hide in plain sight. Of particular interest in
demonstrating these capabilities are recent developments in highly agile, hover
capable, flapping-wing aircraft that mimic small fliers in nature such as Aerovironment's
Nano Hummingbird. (Nano Hummingbird, 2011)


Figure 1: The microbat (Davenport, 2007)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 10 6 June 2012
Examining the desired flight capabilities presented by Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency (DARPA), it is evident that an aircraft that meets these
objectives would be ideal for use in the current urban warfare environment. Like many
previous technologies that began as military concepts, a capable and effective MAV
would undoubtedly find civilian uses as well; a MAV could be sent down mine shafts to
determine oxygen levels or one with thermal imagery capabilities could be used in
search and rescue missions in hazardous or inaccessible locations. The requirements
and constraints of the project are:

Requirements

Fly using flapping wing technology
Be structurally sound

Constraints

Frequency (20 Hz)
Weight: close to 10 g
Wingspan: less than 8 cm
Slow flight: 10 m/s

3. Literature Review

Scientific exploration into the aerodynamics of flapping-wing flight is limited, but
has recently been on the rise.

Orlowki (Orlowski, 2011) analyzed the flight dynamics, stability, and control of a
model flapping wing micro air vehicle with a focus on the inertial and mass effects of the
wings on the position and orientation of the body. A multi-body, flight dynamics model is
derived from first principles. He predicted that the multi-body model predicts significant
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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differences in the position and orientation of the flapping wing micro air vehicle, when
compared to a flight dynamics model based on the standard aircraft, or six degree of
freedom, equations of motion. He concluded that the linear momentum effects of the
wings are always important in terms of the inertial position of the flapping wing micro air
vehicle. Above a flapping frequency of approximately 30-40 Hz, the mass and inertial
effects of the wings on the orientation of the body can be neglected.

Evans (Evans, 2001) did an experimental investigation into the stability of a
flapping wing micro air vehicle in which a three-degree of freedom force balance was
designed and constructed to measure the forces and moments exhibited by a set of
flapping wings through 180' of rotation at varied free-stream velocities. A total of four
case studies were performed, and each revealed the vehicle had inherent stability. The
presence of a tail on the vehicle produced only marginal effects. He concluded that the
importance thing was the placement of the vehicle center of gravity with respect to the
wings. A preferred distance of 3.5 cm from the c.g. to the leading edge aft the wings
allowed for stable flight under all cases studied.

Davenport (Davenport, 2007) used experimental data to estimate the flight
capabilities of a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle (NAV), estimate the power required to
provide such flight, and develop a controller approach for future use in the design of this
aircraft. He used the empirical coefficients, the aircraft was designed using stability
techniques. He concluded that the power required by both wings during the steady level
flight was 1.65 W.

Leonard (Leonard, 2011) studied the equations of motion are modeled through a
quasi co-ordinate Lagrangian scheme while the aerodynamic forces are calculated
using quasi steady potential flow aerodynamics. He calculated the stability of the trim is
calculated and examined using stroke-averaged and Floquet theory and concluded that
Inflow and viscosity were found to have large effects on the stability of the system and
models accounting for the two should be included in future flight dynamic models.

Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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Bierling (Bierling, 2009) presents a flight dynamic model for flapping wing insects
and/or MAVs. It assumes a rigid-body fuselage with wings that are attached at a single
rotating joint (that move with a prescribed motion). The aerodynamic model used in his
analysis is a quasi- steady model. A spline interpolation was used to approximate the
observed data for the wing kinematics and this data was used to generate the final
equations of motion (added to the nonlinear equations already derived from the Newton-
Euler equations). A trim algorithm was used to calculate the periodic steady-state and
Floquet analysis used to calculate flight dynamic modes and stability to small
perturbation. The stability estimates from Floquet analysis were close to those from the
stroke-averaged analysis except for slight differences in the lateral eigenvalues and the
hovering case. This means that the quasi-steady approach may be used for
simplification of the dynamics when necessary. In general the results pointed towards
unstable or slightly unstable eigenvalues necessitating active control but also providing
opportunities for high maneuverability. Bierling also concluded that the close agreement
between the quasi-steady analysis and the Floquet results might be due to the low wing
mass of the Drosophila model and that larger wing masses would create larger
differences in the two analyses. The results neglect certain unsteady affects as part of
the quasi-steady assumption and the results are only valid for the Drosophila wing with
corresponding flapping frequency and Reynolds number.

Meirovitch and Tuzcu (Meirovitch, 2005) formulate the equations of motion for a
flexible aircraft, integrating together dynamics, structural vibrations, aerodynamics, and
controls. Of particular interest to this thesis was the formulation of the dynamic
equations of the aircraft, treated as a multi-body system using quasi-coordinates. The
motions of the body are broken into six degrees of freedom (based on the body axes
attached to the un-deformed fuselage) and combined with deformations of the flexible
components.

Deng et al. (Deng, 2006) worked on mathematical modeling of flapping flight
MAVs in the inch size range. In this particular work they worked on the full system
dynamic models, with particular emphasis on their differences with respect to traditional
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 13 6 June 2012
fixed and rotary wing MAVs. The particular models included the wing-thorax dynamics,
aerodynamics (full flapping model at low Reynolds number), body dynamics, and a
biomimetic sensing system. The mathematical models were derived from analytic
solutions, empirical models, and biological data. These are integrated into algorithms for
wing aerodynamics, body dynamics, actuator, dynamics, external environment, and
flight control, which together make up the Virtual Insect Flight Simulator (VIFS).

Sun and Xiong (Sun and Xiong, 2005) studied the longitudinal flight stability of
hovering bumblebees using eigenvalue analysis to solve the equations of motion. The
aerodynamic derivatives necessary for the analysis were computed using computational
fluid dynamics (CFD). For longitudinally-disturbed motion they identified three natural
modes though the instabilities arising from these modes were all such that the growing
time was much greater than the wing beat period and as such the bumblebee would
have plenty of time to adjust wing motion. Sun and Xiong also explain the physical
meaning of these motions and how the bee could easily overcome the instability that
arises from the unstable mode.

Doman et al. (Doman, 2010) developed a method of controlling a flapping wing
micro air vehicle through varying the velocity profiles of each wing. This was
accomplished through the use of a split cycle parameter that shifted the peak of the
flapping cycle while maintaining the same period. Through theoretical analysis and
simulation this method of control is shown the be capable of control over the vertical
and horizontal body forces as well as the rolling and yawing moment when just
controlling each wing's flapping frequency and the split cycle parameter.





Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 14 6 June 2012
4. Geometrical Analysis



Figure 2: Body Frame Coordinate system (Davenport, 2007)

In the analysis the wing taken is designed to be a flat-plate airfoil with a surface
area that resembles half of an ellipse. Assuming that sideslip, fluid velocity along the y-
axis, is negligible and that all maneuvers will be about the pitch axis, in the xz-plane, it
is immediately apparent that a vertical tail is not necessary for this model.



Figure 3: Ellipse shape wing


Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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The aspect ratio for the wing is calculated using formula:



Here the value of the aspect ratio using properties of one wing is half of the value
when both wings are considered. For this study, the aspect ratio was calculated for one
wing and that ratio was also used for the tail. With a known chord length and wingspan,
the area of a full ellipse (since both wings are used) was calculated by using the above
equation such that Sw = 0.002945

, and the aspect ratio, A = 3.82.





Figure 4: Parameters position

is the resultant moment about the center of mass,

and

are the lift


forces generated by the wing and tail respectively, and

, and

are the
positions of the aircraft center of mass, aerodynamic center of the wing, and
aerodynamic center of the tail measured from the nose of the aircraft respectively. The
moment about the center of gravity is found using equation:



Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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, and

are defined by the following equations:




Where,

is the moment coefficient about the center of mass,

is the wing
coefficient of lift,

is the tail coefficient of lift, and q is the dynamic pressure and is


the ambient fluid density and

is the ambient fluid velocity Dividing by

, the eq.
becomes



The dynamic pressure ratio can be approximated as

= 0.9 for most cases. If


the derivative is taken with respect to the aircraft angle of attack, , the moment
equation becomes



The partial derivative term here arises since the coefficient of lift of the tail cannot
be directly differentiated with respect to the aircraft angle of attack , due to upwash or
downwash effects that arise from the deflection of the ambient fluid as it flows over the
wing. In other words, the angle of attack at the tail is not the same as the angle of attack
of the aircraft, and also changes in an unknown manner with respect to aircraft angle of
attack variations.
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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Here the coefficient of lift derivatives are taken to be C
Lw
= 5.244 and C
Lt
=
5.136. From empirical plots in (Raymer, 1999), the partial derivative term can be
conservatively estimated as



Other parameters include:

Table 1: List of Parameters
Parameters Symbol Data
Aircraft length (m)

0.075
Wing Area (m x m)

0.000736
Tail Area (m x m)

0.0000944
Mass (kg) M 0.01
Wing Root Chord (m)

0.0125
Wingspan (m)

0.075
Tail span (m)

0.027
Tail Root Chord (m)

0.005
Tail Tip Chord (m)

0.002
Wing Lift Coefficient Derivative

5.244
Tail Lift Coefficient Derivative

5.136
Aircraft positions

0.0234525

0.02567
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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0.0722025
Specific principle Moment of Inertia

0.00117
Frequency f 20 Hz
Weight W 10g
Velocity V 10m/s


5. Static Stability

A flapping aircraft may be said to be inherently stable if the forces acting on it
tend to restore it to equilibrium without any modification of the flapping cycle (Smith,
1952). For example, for an aircraft to be inherently stable in pitch, a disturbance from
equilibrium must passively induce an opposing pitching moment, so the inequality


must be true at equilibrium, where M is the total pitching moment about the centre of
gravity and

is the overall angle of attack, defined as the angle between the


longitudinal body axis and the oncoming flow vector.
The kind of stability expressed by the equation, referring only to the direction of
the initial response, is termed static stability. Static stability is necessary for dynamic
stability, which refers to the damping of a disturbance over time.
Consider the case when Cm

= 0; for every change in the angle of attack the
aircraft is in static equilibrium as there are no net moments about the center of mass. If
Cm

> 0, there will be a net moment in the same direction so as to further increase the
angle of attack, and therefore the system will become unstable. Therefore, it is desirable
to have Cm

< 0, so for every change in the angle of attack, the aircraft will have a
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 19 6 June 2012
moment in the opposite direction to try and drive the resultant aircraft moment back to
zero.
Strictly speaking, a static analysis of stability cannot be applied where flapping or
deformation of the flight surfaces occurs, because dynamic changes in the forces could
couple with the aircraft's natural modes of motion. Such coupling is unlikely to occur if
the frequency of flapping or aero-elastic flutter is sufficiently high compared to the
aircraft's natural frequencies of motion. The dynamically changing forces will then
exhibit no resonance with the aircraft's gross motion and we may consider them to be
replaced by a quasi- static force like that on a rigid gliding body.

5.1. Results for Static Stability of Flapping Wing MAV


Figure 5 - Wing Contribution to Static Stability
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
C
m

Angle of Attack (degrees)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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Figure 5 represents the calculated wing contribution to the static stability of the
flapping wing MAV. As seen from the figure, the wing was found to have a destabilizing
effect with Cm

> 0.


Figure 6 - Tail Contribution to Static Stability

Figure 6 represents the calculated tail contribution to the static stability of the
flapping wing MAV. As seen from the figure, the tail was found to have a stabilizing
effect with Cm

< 0 and Cm
0
> 0, which must be greater than zero for static stability.
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
C
m

Angle of Attack (degrees)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 21 6 June 2012

Figure 7 - Static Stability of MAV
Figure 7 represents the C
m
curve of the flapping wing MAV. As seen from the
figure, the MAV is statically stable with Cm

< 0 and Cm
0
= 0.0144, which must be
greater than zero for static stability.
6. Dynamic Stability
There are many challenges involved in the study of flapping wing flight. At low
speeds, there is a lack of significant lift generated from oncoming airflow. Hence, lift and
thrust must be generated predominantly from flapping.

For an aircraft to be dynamically stable, it is essential that it be statically stable
with respect to changes in both attitude and velocity. However, flapping-wing flight
introduces oscillations to the system that appear as large sinusoidal disturbances. As
-20
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
C
m

Angle of Attack (degrees)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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the frequency of flapping changes, both the mean of the forcing input from the wings
and the amplitude, frequency, and phase of individual sinusoidal components of the
forcing input from the wings vary nonlinearly.

The nonlinearity of the ornithopter system, as well as forcing input to the system,
creates difficulty for stability and control of the ornithopter. The forcing input created by
a wings flapping motion is also vibrational and semi-periodic. However, stability and
control of nonlinear systems via vibrational, oscillatory, or periodic inputs has been
intensively researched.
Consider while driving a car, if a hand is held out of window and is held still, no
lift force will act on it. But under the same situation when it is held at any upward angle,
there will be a force felt up. An increased force is observed with an increasing the angle
of attack. As known, the coefficients of lift and drag are a function of angle of attack.
Others factors like aspect ratio, taper ratio and wing sweep also affect the derivatives
but are usually considered negligible. This is the reason the derivatives like lift and drag
coefficients are important in the analysis.
6.1. Dynamic Model
The dynamic model of the flapping wing MAV is given by empirical relations. The
mathematical model can be written up by following the sequence of equations.
The flapping velocity is given by


Where, is the stroke or the flapping angle,

is the halfway span of the wing from the


wing tip, and is the flapping frequency.
The equivalent velocity at the thin airfoil changes with any change in the flapping
velocity

in addition to the changes of the body velocities

and

given as


Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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Now we define sn is a signum function that determines the sign of the flapping velocity
throughout the stroke. In other words, if the wing is in the upstroke, sn = 1 and if it is in
the downstroke sn = -1. Mathematically,


The effective angle of attack

is given as a function of all the velocities




Figure 8 - Flow at the wing (Davenport, 2007)

In this equation,

is an input to the system which corresponds to the angle of


the wing measured from the x-axis, and is the inflow angle. The negative sign has to
be applied to the velocity

since a positive

is along a negative x-axis in a normal


Cartesian coordinate system.
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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Now, the flapping coefficient, is also derived as


Using theses given equations, the lift and drag for the wing are computed as:


The terms for the lift and drag on the tail and wing are


With these given equations, overall forces and moments acting on the MAV can be
generated:



Now, if we use the small angle of attack theory, we can assume that

and

, and,

is the pitching moment.


Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 25 6 June 2012
6.2. Results for Dynamic Stability of Flapping Wing MAV


Figure 9 - Stroke Variation with Time

The graph shows the variation in the stroke angle with time. Since the frequency
is taken to be 20 Hz, one stroke cycle is expected to be completed in 0.05 seconds. As
can be seen, the initial position of the flapping wings is at -90 degrees. In a span of
0.025 seconds, it move to 90 degrees, and returns to -90 in the next 0.025 seconds.
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
p
s
i

(
r
a
d
)

t (s)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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Figure 10 - Stroke Direction Variation

Figure 10 represents the graph showing the upstroke and down stroke of the
wings. As discussed earlier, the angle from -90 to 90 degrees represents the upstroke.
The second part of the cycle is the movement from 90 to -90 degrees, defining the down
stroke of the wing. This is obtained by the signum function.






-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
S
t
r
o
k
e

D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

t (s)
Upstroke
Downstroke
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
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Figure 11 - Lift Coefficient Curve

The graph in Figure 11 shows the lift coefficient variation with time. As can be
seen, at time 0, and flapping angle of -90 degrees, there is a small amount of inherent
lift. Until an angle of 0 degrees, it decreases and rises to a maximum at 90 degrees of
flapping. During the downstroke, the lift decreases until about 0 degrees and increases
at -90. The lift generated by the downstroke motion is higher than that generated by the
upstroke motion. This is obvious since a downstroke motion increases the force in the
upward direction.




0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
C
L
w

t (s)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 28 6 June 2012

Figure 12 - Drag Coefficient Curve

The curve generated for the drag is shown in Figure 12. The graph matches the
general trends of drag curves. As is notice, drag is at a maximum at a stroke angle of -
90 degrees and is the least at 90 degrees angle.
3.504
3.506
3.508
3.51
3.512
3.514
3.516
3.518
3.52
3.522
3.524
3.526
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
D
r
a
g

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
c
e
n
t

t (s)
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 29 6 June 2012
7. Longitudinal Approximations

Most aircraft display two basic longitudinal modes that are excited whenever the
aircraft is disturbed from longitudinal equilibrium (Cook, 1997). One mode,the phugoid
is lightly damped in conventional aircraft and consists of a slow rise and fall
representing an interchange between kinetic and potential energy, during which the
angle of incidence remains approximately constant. The other mode is short period
heavily damped in conventional aircraft and of much shorter period, consisting mainly of
fast pitch oscillations. Reduced order approximations are available for both modes
(Cook, 1997).

The equations used to calculate frequency and damping ratio for phugoid and
short period are:

Long period (Phugoid)

Frequency:



Damping Ratio:



Short Period

Frequency:

Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 30 6 June 2012



Damping Ratio:



Time to halving or doubling the amplitude:



Number of cycles to doubling or halving the amplitude:



Equations used to calculate longitudinal stability derivatives are


Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 31 6 June 2012



Where,
The parameters for the calculation of these derivatives used are taken from
experimental values obtained for a Micro Air Vehicle from reference sources.

Table 2: Longitudinal Derivatives
Parameter Value
C
Lu
0
C
Du
0
C
mu
0
C
L
8.7162
C
D
0.2329
C
m
-0.3347
C
L0
-0.2443
C
D0
0.0836
C
m0
0.0144
C
mq
-6.0391

Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 32 6 June 2012
7.1. Results for Longitudinal Approximations

Mid-Stroke (Flap Angle = 0 degrees)
Phugoid (Long Period):
Complex roots with real part negative
Under damped exponentially decaying sinusoidal motion
Eigenvalues -0.008 I 0.399
T half 86.63 s
N half 5.49
Period 15.75 s

Short Period:
Complex roots with real part negative
Under damped exponentially decaying sinusoidal motion
Eigenvalues -0.038 I 0.465
T half 18.24 s
N half 1.35
Period 13.51 s




Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 33 6 June 2012
UpStroke & Downstroke (Flap Angle = 45 degrees & 90 degrees)

Phugoid (Long Period):
Complex roots with real part negative
Under damped exponentially decaying sinusoidal motion
Eigenvalues -0.038 I 0.466
T half 18.24 s
N half 1.35
Period 13.48 s

Short Period:
Two negative distinct real roots
Over damped exponentially decaying motion
Eigenvalues -0.028 , -5.684








Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 34 6 June 2012
8. Conclusion, Shortcomings and Future work

The report consists of stability analysis limited to static and longitudinal behavior.
The static stability analysis does not consider the effect of the flapping angle at an
instantaneous time. Future efforts can be made to realize a relation between the static
stability and the change in flapping angle.
Also, the lateral stability of a flapping wing aircraft was extremely complex consisting
of unfamiliar parameters and seemed to be beyond the scope of this course. Hence,
analysis was conducted to determine just the longitudinal stability of the aircraft using
stability derivatives.
The pitch angle of the wings is expected to change with varying flapping angle due
to change in velocity. However, the analysis was considered a fixed value of pitch angle
for the ease of MATLAB coding. The definition of the order of arrays seemed to pose a
problem since experience of working with MATLAB was limited.
In addition, the use of the signum function to define the motion of the flapping wings
is inaccurate. A continuous analytical velocity function of the wing can be substituted
into the calculation of
eq
instead of using the s
n
v
f
term that causes discontinuities and
irregularities in the results.
The dynamic model could also be improved by quantifying a number of terms that
were neglected in this study. Fuselage lift and drag, forces due to sideslip, damping,
and the inertial terms corresponding to the actual aircraft shape and its wings could be
modeled to enhance the system model.
Neglected vortex effects which is one of the main factors in determining the behavior
of flapping wings, means aerodynamic quantification is not as accurate.
Overall, the report discusses a simplistic flapping wing MAVs stability in order to
gain a better knowledge about a technology newly developed and still being perfected.


Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 35 6 June 2012
9. References

Bierling, T. and Patil, M., Nonlinear Dynamics and Stability of Flapping-Wing Flight,
International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics, 2009.

COOK, M. V. (1997). Flight Dynamics: Principles. London: Arnold.

Davenport, W, 2007, DEVELOPMENT, MODELING, AND SIMULATION OF A NANO
AERIAL VEHICLE USING EMPIRICAL DATA, UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI-ROLLA.

Deng, X., Schenato, L., Wu, W. C., and Sastry, S. S., Flapping Flight for Biomimetic
Robotic Insects: Part I - System Modeling, IEEE Transaction on Robotics , Vol. 22, No.
4, August 2006, pp. 776-788.

Evans, M, 2001, Stability of Flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle, University of Toronto.

Leonard, B, 2011, Flapping Wing Flight Dynamic Modeling, Blacksburg, Virginia

McMichael, J. M. and Francis, M. S., Micro Air Vehicles - Toward a new Dimension in
Flight, Tech. rep, Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency TTO Document, 1996.

Meirovitch, L. and Tuzcu, I., Integrated Approach to the Dynamics and Control of
Maneuvering Flexible Aircraft, Tech. rep., NASA and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, 2005.

Nano Hummingbird, Website, 2011.
Orlowski, C, 2011, Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles: An Analysis of the Importance of
the Mass of the Wings to Flight Dynamics, Stability, and Control, The University of
Michigan

Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 36 6 June 2012
R. Zbikowski, Sensor-rich feedback control: a new paradigm for flight control inspired
by insect agility, Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 19
26, 2004.

Raymer, D, Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, 3rd Ed., AIAA Educational Series,
1999.

SMITH, J, (1952), The importance of the nervous system in the evolution of animal
flight, Evolution 6, 127}129.

Sun, M. and Xiong, Y., Dynamic flight stability of a hovering bumblebee, The Journal
of Experimental Biology , Vol. 208, 2005, pp. 447-459.

T. N. Pornsin-Sirirak, S. W. Lee, H. Nassef, J. Grasmeyer, Y. C. Tai, C. M. Ho, and M.
Keennon, Mems wing technology for a battery-powered ornithopter, 2000, pp. 799
804.



















Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 37 6 June 2012
APPENDIX

FLAPPING DYNAMICS MATLAB CODE

%Cdu=0;
%Cd0=.0836;
%u0=10;
%m=.01;
%S=.000736;
%------------------------------------------

%CLu=0;
%CL0=.2443;
%CDa=-.2329;
%CLa=8.7162;
%Cma=-.3347;
%------------------------------------------

%c=.0125;
%------------------------------------------

%Xwdot=0;
%Zwdot=0;
%Iy=.00117;
%Mu=0;
%Xq=0;
%Zq=0;

Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 38 6 June 2012
%Cmad=-6.23;
%Cmq=-6.0391;
%------------------------------------------
%------------------------------------------
%------------------------------------------
t=0:.01:.05;
a=5;
freq=sin(2*20*t*3.142);
lc=.0375;
psi=(-90/57.3)*cos((7200*t)/57.3);
%------------------------------------------
vf=2*lc*20*psi;

sn=sign(freq);
snmanual=[0 1 1 -1 -1 0];
vz=[10*sin(a/57.3)];
vx=[10*cos(a/57.3)];
Veq=(vx.^2+vf.^2+vz.^2).^0.5;

cf=1+cos(4*3.142*20*t);

Vztot=(vf.*snmanual);
Beta=atan((Vztot+vz)/(-vx));

Alphaeq=((a/57.3)*snmanual)-Beta;
sw=.000736;
Veq2=Veq.^2;
Stability of a Flapping-Wing MAV Aircraft Stability & Control
Dr. Hesham Ibrahim 39 6 June 2012
L1=.5*1.225*3.41445*sw*cf(1)*Alphaeq(1)*Veq2(1);
L2=.5*1.225*3.41445*sw*cf(2)*Alphaeq(2)*Veq2(2);
L3=.5*1.225*3.41445*sw*cf(3)*Alphaeq(3)*Veq2(3);
L4=.5*1.225*3.41445*sw*cf(4)*Alphaeq(4)*Veq2(4);
L5=.5*1.225*3.41445*sw*cf(5)*Alphaeq(5)*Veq2(5);
L6=.5*1.225*3.41445*sw*cf(6)*Alphaeq(6)*Veq2(6);
L=[L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6];
Cl=[L1*(.5*1.225*Veq2(1)*sw)^-1 L2*(.5*1.225*Veq2(2)*sw)^-1
L3*(.5*1.225*Veq2(3)*sw)^-1

L4*(.5*1.225*Veq2(4)*sw)^-1 L5*(.5*1.225*Veq2(5)*sw)^-1
L6*(.5*1.225*Veq2(6)*sw)^-1];

Dw=0.5*1.225*Veq2*CD*Cf*Alphaeq*sw
Cd=Dw/(0.5*1.225*Veq^2*sw)


Lt=0.5*1.225*V^2*CLt*(20)*st
Dt=0.5*1.225*V^2*[CD0+CLt*(20)^2]st

Fx=Dw*cos(Beta)+Lw*sin(Beta)+Dt*cos(20)-Lt*sin(20)
Fz= Lwcos(Beta)-Dw*sin(Beta)+Dt*sin(20)+Lt*cos(20)
My=(Lw*cos(Beta)-Dwsin(Beta)*Xacw-[Dt*sin(20)+Lt*cos(20)]*Xact