10 views

Uploaded by Jane Mcdoe

- CISAK 2013 Paper Templatertsdthyj
- On the Smarandache reciprocal function and its mean value
- On a problem related to function S(n)
- Simon Lectures I
- CLAGETT Intension-Remission Qualities
- Fea Feferman
- Combinatorial Interpretations of Fibonomial Identities
- A Godelian ontological argument improved.pdf
- Pirates & Revolutionaries-
- nishant
- Logos - Book - 111611 0317
- Concepts and Measurement of Vulnerability to Poverty and Other Issues: A Review of Literature
- fevz
- Badiou - On a Finally Objectless Subject
- Induction Tutorial
- Remainders s
- 1836053680000_PH332-22
- natural numbers
- Higher Math
- 3. Maths - IJAMSS - Maximal Solution of Non Classical Differential - S. a. Bishop - Nigeria

You are on page 1of 3

Please write a paper of about eight double-spaced pages on one of the following topics. You

should submit the first draft of the paper on April 18, and the final version, after comments and

corrections, on May 2. Its quite a long list of topics. Im hopeful that somewhere in it (including

Option 11), youll find something youd like to write about. If you have questions or you get stuck, please

talk to Bernhard and/or Vann, and he and/or he will try to help.

1. In Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, Galileo expresses puzzlement: Since it is clear

that we may have one line greater than another, each containing an infinite number of points, we

are forced to admit that, within one and the same class, we may have something greater than

infinity, because the infinity of points in the long line is greater than the infinity of points in the

short line. This assigning to an infinite quantity a value greater than infinity is quite beyond my

comprehension, and he comes to the conclusion that one line does not contain more or less or

just as many points as another, but that each line contains an infinite number. Cantor comes to a

different conclusion, that each line contains just as many points as the other, despite the

difference in length. What do you think?

2. Cantor was worried about the possibility that postulating the actual infinite was blasphemous,

inasmuch as to be infinite is the prerogative of God alone, and one shouldnt ascribe divine

attributes to mere mathematical entities. Cantor responded by distinguishing the transfinite from

the absolutely infinite. The totality of natural numbers and the totality of real numbers are

transfinite. While they arent finite, they arent so large that they cannot be measured by

numbers. On the other hand, if you tried to form the totality of all sets, you would fall into

contradiction. If V were such a set, we would have V(V) f V, because every set of sets is a set,

and so #(V(V)) ##(V), which contradicts the theorem that, for any set S, #(V(S)) >#(S). There is

no set of all sets, because if there were such a set, it would be absolutely infinite, and only God is

absolutely infinite. The transfinite is intermediate between the finite and the absolutely infinite.

Discuss.

3. When he introduced differential calculus to his students, Dedekind appealed to geometric

intuitions. Whereas this approach made perfect sense pedagogically, he says, that it can make

no claim to being scientific, no one will deny. Instead, Dedekind proposed to put the calculus

on a purely arithmetic and perfectly rigorous foundation. Is the arithmetization of the calculus

really needed?

4. The phrase the least natural number not nameable by an English phrase of fewer than thirty

syllables would appear to name the least natural number not nameable by an English phrase of

fewer than thirty syllables, in spite of being an English phrase of only twenty-five syllables.

What gives?

5. Humes principle is the statement that, for any concepts F and G, the number of Fs is equal to

the number of Gs if and only if the Fs and the Gs can be put into a one-one correspondence.

Frege shows how to derive all the familiar laws of arithmetic from Humes principle. But

Humes principle doesnt enable us to prove that J ulius Caesar isnt a number. Does this show

that Humes principle does not suffice as a basis for arithmetic? If so, what more is needed?

6. According to Frege, proper names (like Sir Walter Scott) and definite descriptions (like the

author of Ivanhoe) denote objects, whereas verb phrases (like is witty, is a poet, and wrote

Ivanhoe) denote concepts. But this raises a puzzle. We want to say that the verb phrase is a

horse denotes the concept horse. But the phrase the concept horse is a definite description, so

it denotes an object, if it denotes anything at all. This puzzle causes real problems for our

attempts to talk about concepts coherently, problems that so befuddled Frege that he wound up

concluding that the concept horse is not a concept. Any ideas on how to untangle the knot?

7. Two different diagnoses of the set-theoretic paradoxes have been offered to motivate Zermelo-

Fraenkel set theory. One is the idea that sets are built up in stages and the paradoxes arise

when we consider putative sets that arent constructed at any stage. (The scare quotes are there

because the notion of building up is metaphorical, inasmuch as nobody could literally build up

an infinite set.) A set has to be built at a later stage than all its elements, so we cant have a set

thats an element of itself. The other idea, due mainly to J ohn von Neumann has it that the

paradoxes arise from trying to form sets that are too large. There are just too darn many sets for

there to be a set of all sets. Either principle appears to be enough to block the paradoxes, but

there are differences. On the limitation of size view, theres no reason why we cant have sets

that contain themselves, as long as they arent too large. We might, for instance have a set S with

S ={S}. Do you see a reason for preferring one approach over the other?

8. Ordinarily, we recognize a mathematical statement as true either because we think its self-

evident or because we derive it from axioms was regard as self-evident. However, the Gdel

sentence, which asserts its own unprovability, isnt self-evident, and it isnt derivable from the

axioms. Yet we recognize it as true. How?

9. The Gdel incompleteness theorem has been said to show one of two things: Either the

operations the human mind goes through in proving arithmetical theorems cannot be simulated

by a purely mechanical system; or, if the theorem-proving operations of the human mind can be

simulated by a mechanical system, we cannot know what its program is, since if we knew the

program we could write down and prove the machines Gdel sentence, even though the Gdel

sentence is not a output of the machine. Either way, we see that the human mind is

fundamentally different from a merely mechanical device, since for a mechanical device we can,

in principle, figure out its program by closely examining how its put together. Are you

convinced?

10. Mathematics is sometimes explained as giving us rules for manipulating symbols, in much the

way that chess gives us rules to manipulating pieces on an 8X8 board. A position on the

chessboard might be advantageous for one player or another, but we dont think of a position on

the chessboard as either true or false. In the same way, we shouldnt think of a mathematical

formula as either true or false. Mathematical formulas, it is said, are meaningless strings of

symbols, written down according to specific rules. According to this view, questions like Do

mathematical objects really exist, the way tables and chairs exist? and How can we know the

axioms are true? and How can we know about mathematical objects, when they are abstract

entities isolated from our experience? are misguided, because they suppose that the theorems

are meaningful statements, when they are, in fact, strings of meaningless symbols. Frege

objected that this formalist perspective cant account for the fact that mathematics is so very

useful, in science and in daily life. Do you agree?

11. Think of a good question for this paper. Answer it.

- CISAK 2013 Paper TemplatertsdthyjUploaded byRiko Sampurna Simatupang
- On the Smarandache reciprocal function and its mean valueUploaded byRyanElias
- On a problem related to function S(n)Uploaded byDon Hass
- Simon Lectures IUploaded byMegha Rani Sumanth
- CLAGETT Intension-Remission QualitiesUploaded bylaiagabe
- Fea FefermanUploaded byhuman3178
- Combinatorial Interpretations of Fibonomial IdentitiesUploaded bygermanschultze
- A Godelian ontological argument improved.pdfUploaded byquodagis
- Pirates & Revolutionaries-Uploaded bymellacrousnof
- nishantUploaded byAr Tarun Kumar
- Logos - Book - 111611 0317Uploaded bySteven Kowalski
- Concepts and Measurement of Vulnerability to Poverty and Other Issues: A Review of LiteratureUploaded byADBI Publications
- fevzUploaded byVance Cortez
- Badiou - On a Finally Objectless SubjectUploaded byAda Raquel Caicedo
- Induction TutorialUploaded byshadowpwner
- Remainders sUploaded byskitvikky
- 1836053680000_PH332-22Uploaded bysbhagwat9211
- natural numbersUploaded byOscar Velez
- Higher MathUploaded byGenilson Santos
- 3. Maths - IJAMSS - Maximal Solution of Non Classical Differential - S. a. Bishop - NigeriaUploaded byiaset123
- Journal PaperUploaded bysaif ali
- STUPFF-Law is a FractalUploaded bydanilodsa
- turingUploaded byJiang Yuan Tay

- 2 Modeling MethodologyUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- 2 Modeling MethodologyUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- 2026308Uploaded byJane Mcdoe
- 2 Initial Value ProblemsUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- Tegmark Aaronson ReviewUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- Response Movie 1fghUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- Model Shortcomings and SadnessUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- 24.242_HW11_S14Uploaded byJane Mcdoe
- Johnsone Board EtchingUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- infinityUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- Horwich_WittBayesUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- May 2013Uploaded byJane Mcdoe
- Org CardUploaded byz_o_b_r_a
- Campaign Contributions and FinanceUploaded byJane Mcdoe
- Textbooks Minus 280Uploaded byJane Mcdoe
- GNU Emacs 22 Reference CardUploaded byJeff Pratt
- An Homage to Douglas Engelbart and a Critique of the State of Tech - NYTimes.comUploaded byJane Mcdoe

- lec16Uploaded byadityabaid4
- C2750_C3000D5_QSK78.pdfUploaded byM Adhitya H Rangkuti
- WIPO - Patent MapUploaded byThanh Ha Le
- Dam IssuesUploaded byUsman Farooq
- p460ovh11bUploaded byfluffyfive
- RF and Radio Technology FundamentalsUploaded byAvinash
- Lab Report 5Uploaded byhuda
- Bss21534 Osc Full Rate With Saic MsUploaded byAbdullah
- Chapter 6AUploaded bymaninder_khasria
- Process Capability Analysis Using Confidence Reliability CalculationsUploaded byCompliance Trainings
- Chapter 2 SolutionsUploaded bySanjeev Kumar
- linked listUploaded byMag Creation
- data center cooling.pdfUploaded byGonzalo Prado
- 2720_7Uploaded bySyed Mohd Mehdi
- 2. Industrial Engineering 2009 by S K MondalUploaded bySabyasachi Ghosh
- M Tech Thermal Science (Mechanical) 2013 Scheme & SyllabusUploaded byleksremesh
- LmsUploaded byvipulkondekar
- Current Ratings of Power Semiconductors and Thermal DesignUploaded byIuro Nascimento
- Banker LendingUploaded byInnocent Zee
- Som Kohonen FuzzyUploaded byassnad
- SMAWUploaded bynidhinchandranvs
- Nocturnal CoolingUploaded byHarjeet Singh
- Ambiguity When Performance is Measured by the Securities Market LineUploaded byGursimransi
- Hemodialysis Delivery SystemUploaded byShemae Quilacio
- Power Plant Optimization - Compendium of Case Studies3Uploaded byAtif Ahmad Khan
- J.comp.Elec TunnellingUploaded bysou0310men
- Ncvhdl ManualUploaded byVenkata Kiran
- Ale Fm 6-02.74 1Uploaded byLorenzo
- Lab 8- Concrete Mixing- Slump TestUploaded bygaza man
- Machine DesignUploaded byVikram Borkhediya