Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

MODULE BIOLOGY

PAPER 3
CHAPTER 7:
RESPIRATION
DISEDIAKAN OLEH:
CG. NOR NAZILAH BINTI MOHAMAD ZULDIN
(SM IMTIAZ KUALA BERANG)
ACTIVITY 7.1: STUDYING THE PROCESS OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION
Respiration is a vital process carried out by all living organism. Organisms that
respire aerobically involve the oxidation of glucose in the presence of oxygen to
produce carbon dioxide, water and energy.
Based on the information, design an experiment to demonstrate the process of
aerobic respiration. Your experimental planning should include the following
aspects:
Pr!"#$ S%&%#$#'%: What is the effect of difference number of cocroach
!aerobic respiration" to the height of the coloured li#uid$
O!(#)%*+# , %-# .%/01: to demonstrate the process of aerobic respiration in
cocroach
H12%-#.*.: %he higher the number of cocroach, the higher the height of the
coloured li#uid.
V&r*&!"#..
M&'*2/"&%#0 V&r*&!"# : the presence of aerobic respiration& number of
cocroach
R#.2'0*'3 V&r*&!"# : the height of the coloured li#uid
C'%r""#0 V&r*&!"# : initial level of the coloured li#uid

M&%#r*&". &'0 &22&r&%/.: Water, coloured li#uid, living organism !cocroach",
soda lime, 'aseline, boiling tubes, ())ml beaer, *()ml beaer, capillary tubes,
screw clips, rubber tubings, ruler and wire gau+e.

T#)-'*4/# /.#0: ,easured and record the height of the coloured li#uid in the
capillary tubes using the ruler.
E52#r*$#'%&" 2r)#0/r#:

-. .our boiling tubes labelled / , B, 0 and 1 are prepared.
*. /ll the boiling tubes are filled with e#ual amounts of soda lime.
2. / wire gau+e is placed in the middle of boiling tubes.
3. / cocroach is placed on the wire gau+e in boiling tube /.
(. %he screw clips of both boiling tubes are closed. ,ae sure the system
is air tight by sealing the stoppers with 'aseline.
4. %he initial heights of coloured li#uid in both capillary tubes are
observed and recorded.
5. /fter an hour, the height of coloured li#uid in both capillary are
measured and recorded using ruler.
6. Repeat the step 3 until 5 using difference number of cocroach:
Boiling %ube /: - cocroach
Boiling %ube B: * cocroach
Boiling %ube 0: 2 cocroach
Boiling %ube 1: 3 cocroach
7. %he rate of aerobic respiration are calculated and recorded using
formula8 height& time.
7. /ll the data are record in the table.
Pr#.#'%&%*' , 0&%&:
N/$!#r , *'*%*&" -#*3-%. %-# ,*'&" -#*3-% R&%# ,
))6r&)- , )"/r#0
"*4/*0 ()$)
, )"/r#0
"*4/*0 ()$)
&#r!*)
r#.2*r&%*'
()$$*'
71
)
1
8
3
9
C')"/.*':
%he higher the number of cocroach, the higher the height of the coloured li#uid.
9ypothesis is accepted.

ACTIVITY 7.8: STUDYING THE PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
IN YEAST.
/naerobic respiration is the process of releasing energy from the breadown of
glucose in the absence of oxygen. Yeast can carry out anaerobic respiration in a
glucose solution.
:lucose ;;;< =thanol > 0arbon dioxide > =nergy
%he rate of anaerobic respiration is affected by several factors such as
temperature, p9 values and nutrients.
Based on the above information and e#uation, design a laboratory experiment to
investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration in
yeast.
Pr!"#$ S%&%#$#'%: What is the effect of temperature on the rate of
anaerobic respiration !in yeast"$
O!(#)%*+# , %-# .%/01: %o investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of
anaerobic respiration in yeast.
H12%-#.*.: %he higher the temperature, the higher the rate of anaerobic
respiration !in yeast".
V&r*&!"#..
M&'*2/"&%#0 V&r*&!"# : %emperature
R#.2'0*'3 V&r*&!"# : Rate of anaerobic respiration&&?o of bubbles
released&&%ime taen for lime water to turn chaly
C'%r""#0 V&r*&!"# : 'olume&conc. of yeast
suspension&glucose&p9&%ime taen
M&%#r*&". &'0 &22&r&%/.: Boiling tube, ,anometer&0apillary tube, Water
bath&&Beaer > thermometer,@topwatch, ,arer&thread, Rubber stopper, Ruler,
Rubber tubing, Retort stand, measuring cylinder, Yeast suspension & Yeast,
:lucose solution, Aaraffin oil !Yeast B :lucose C must have"
T#)-'*4/# /.#0: Dsing a ruler to record the change in height of the colored
li#uid&Record the number of bubbles released !after -) minutes" using a
stopwatch
&&0alculating the rate of anaerobic respiration !in yeast" by using the formula :
?umber of bubbles & 0hange in height
%ime taen
&&%ae and record the time taen for the lime water to turn chaly using a
stopwatch
E52#r*$#'%&" 2r)#0/r#:

-. @et up the apparatus as shown in diagram.
*. Alace the boiling tube with -( cm
2
of glucose solution in a beaer at *)
o
0 for (
minutes.
2. /dd -( cm
2
of yeast suspension into the boiling tube.
3. ,ar the initial height of coloured li#uid in manometer.
(. @tart the stopwatch and mar the level of coloured li#uid in the manometer
after -) minutes.
4. Record all data in a table.
5. Repeat step l, 2, 3, ( and 4 by placing the boiling tubes in a water bath at
temperatures of 2)
o
0, 3)
o
0 and ()
o
0.
6. ,ae sure all the Eoints of the apparatus are air tight &&Repeat the experiment
for each temperature to get average readings.
7. Alot a graph of rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast against temperature.
Pr#)&/%*' :
-. =nsure the temperature is stablised at the fixed temperature before taing the
reading if the height of the coloured li#uid&&counting the number of bubbles
released.
*. ,ae sure all the Eoints of the apparatus are air tight &&Repeat the experiment
for each temperature to get average readings.
Pr#.#'%&%*' , 0&%&:
%emperature
!
o
0"
?o of bubbles
released !unit"
%ime taen for
lime water to turn
chaly !min"
Rate of anaerobic
respiration
!min
;-
"
*)
2)
3)
()
C')"/.*':

9ypothesis is accepted. %he higher the temperature, the higher the rate of
anaerobic respiration in yeast.
ACTIVITY 7.:: INVESTIGATING THE DIFFERENCES BET;EEN INHALED
AND E<HALED AIR IN TERMS OF O<YGEN AND CARBON DIO<IDE
CONTENTS.
Fnhaled air is the atmospheric air around us which we
breath in while exhaled air is the air we breath out.
Based on the information, design an experiment to investigate the differences
between inhaled air and exhaled air in terms of their oxygen and carbon dioxide
contents. Your experimental planning should include the following aspects:
Pr!"#$ S%&%#$#'%: 1oes inhaled air contain the same amount of oxygen and
carbon dioxide as exhaled air$
O!(#)%*+# , %-# .%/01: %o investigate the differences between inhaled air and
exhaled air in terms of their oxygen and carbon dioxide contents.
H12%-#.*.: Fnhaled air has a higher percentage of oxygen as compared to
exhaled air. && =xhaled air has a higher percentage of carbon dioxide as
compared to inhaled air.
V&r*&!"#..
M&'*2/"&%#0 V&r*&!"# : Fnhaled air and exhaled air
R#.2'0*'3 V&r*&!"# : percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide
C'%r""#0 V&r*&!"# : initial length of air column
M&%#r*&". &'0 &22&r&%/.: Aotassium hydroxide solution, potassium
pyrogallate solution, G;tube, screw, boiling tubes, rubber tubings, ruler, water
basin and stopwatch.
T#)-'*4/# /.#0: ,easured and recorded the length of air columns occupied
by the gases using G;tube and metre ruler
E52#r*$#'%&" 2r)#0/r#:

-. %he screw of the G;tube is turned in a clocwise direction to the end.
*. %he open end of the G;tube is lowered into the a water basin filled with
water. %he screw is turned slowly in an anticlocwise direction to draw a
length of ( cm of water into capillary tube.
2. %he tube is removed from the water and the screw is turned in an
anticlocwise direction to draw a length of about -) cm of air into the G;
tube.
3. %he open end of the tube is placed in the water to seal the air column
in the tube between the two length of water.
(. %he screw is adEusted so that the air column is positioned in the middle
of tube.
4. %he tube is immersed in a basin of water for about two minutes. %his
must be done before the length of air column is measured.
5. /fter two minutes, the length of the air column is measured and
measurement is recorded as x cm. %he air column is measured while it is
still immersed in the water.
6. %he screw is turned clocwise again to expel some of the water. %he
air column is brought to within * to 2 mm from the end of the tube.
7. %he open end of the tube is dipped into the potassium hydroxide
solution and the screw is turned anticlocwise to draw * to 2 cm of
potassium hydroxide into the capillary tube.
-). %he tube is removed from solution, and by using the screw, the air
column is moved to and fro several times.
--. %he length of air columns is measured, by repeating step 4 and 5. %he
measurement is recorded as y cm.
-*. %he screw is turned clocwise again to expel some of potassium
hydroxide. * to 2 mm of potassium hydroxide into the capillary tube.
-2. Repeat the step method stated step 7 and -) by replaced with the
potassium pyrogallate solution. %he measurement it is recorded as + cm.
-3. Repeat the step - until -2 to investigate exhaled air by changed
inhaled air in step 3 by the air is exhaled through a rubber tubing and
the end of the rubber tubing is pinched firmly and inserted the end of
the rubber tubing into a boiling tube filled with water.
Pr#.#'%&%*' , 0&%&:
I'-&"#0
&*r
E5-&"#0
&*r
I'*%*&" "#'3%- , &*r )"/$' (5 )$)
L#'3%- , &*r )"/$' /2' &00*'3 2%&..*/$
-10r5*0# ."/%*' (1 )$)
L#'3%- , &*r )"/$' /2' &00*'3 2%&..*/$
21r3&""&%# ."/%*' (= )$)
C-&'3# *' "#'3%- , &*r )"/$' 0/# % %-#
r#$+&" , )&r!' 0*5*0# (571) )$
C-&'3# *' "#'3%- , &*r )"/$' 0/# % %-#
r#$+&" , 513#' (17=) )$
P#r)#'%&3# , )&r!' 0*5*0# (>)
P#r)#'%&3# , 513#' (>)
C')"/.*': 9ypothesis is accepted. Fnhaled air has a higher percentage of
oxygen as compared to exhaled air. && =xhaled air has a higher percentage of
carbon dioxide as compared to inhaled air.

ACTIVITY 7.?: STUDING THE EFFECTS OF VIGOROUS E<ERCISE ON THE
BREATHING AND HEARTBEAT RATES.
1uring vigorous exercises such as running, Eumping and waling, the muscle
re#uired more oxygen and glucose to release energy during cellular respiration.
%herefore the rate of respiration will increase.

Based on the information, design an experiment to study the effects of vigorous
exercise on the breathing and heartbeat rates. Your experimental planning
should include the following aspects:
Pr!"#$ S%&%#$#'%: What is the effect of difference vigorous exercise on the
breathing and heartbeat rates$
O!(#)%*+# , %-# .%/01: %o study the effects of difference vigorous exercise on
the breathing and heartbeat rates.
H12%-#.*.:
When the vigorous exercise increased, the breathing and heartbeat rates will
be increase&& when vigorous exercise is running, the breathing and heartbeat
rates will be increase compared to the Eumping, waling and relaxing.
V&r*&!"#..
M&'*2/"&%#0 V&r*&!"# : Resting or vigorous exercise
R#.2'0*'3 V&r*&!"# : Breathing rates and heartbeat rates
C'%r""#0 V&r*&!"# : %he duration of exercise

M&%#r*&". &'0 &22&r&%/.: students, stopwatch

T#)-'*4/# /.#0: 0ounting and Record the number of breath per minute and
the number of heartbeats per minute.

E52#r*$#'%&" 2r)#0/r#:
-. %he experiment is carried out in pairs. Your friend is ased to sit on chair and
relax for ( minute.
*. %he pulse rate is measured by placing two fingers on the underside of your
friend wrist, directly below the base of the thumb. %he number of heart beat
is counted for -( seconds, and then multiplied by four to obtain the number
of heartbeat per minute.
2. %he breathing rate of each student in the group is counted by placing your
palm on your friendHs chest for one minute. %he reading is recorded in a
table.
3. Repeat the step * and 2 are repeat three times to obtain the average reading
of the heartbeat rate and breathing rate.
(. Repeat step -;3 by change the type of exercise for ( minutes such as:
a. Waling
b. Gumping
c. Running
4. /fter ( minutes, the breathing and the heartbeat rates of student are
measured immediately.
5. %he result is recorded in table.

Pr#.#'%&%*' , 0&%&:
conditi
on
Breathing rate (breaths per
minute)
Heartbeat Rate (beats per
minute)
1 2 3
Avera
ge
1 2 3
Averag
e
Relaxi
ng
walin
g
!umpin
g
runnin
g
C')"/.*':
When the vigorous exercise increased, the breathing and heartbeat rates will
be increase &&when vigorous exercise is running, the breathing and heartbeat
rates will be increase compared to the Eumping, waling and relaxing.
9ypothesis accepted.
ACTIVITY 7.@: DEMONTRASTRATING THE EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE
ON LUNGS.
Based on your biological nowledge, plan a laboratory experiment to investigate
the effect of cigarette smoe on our lungs by using the laboratory material and
apparatus lie thermometer, universal indicator and cotton wool after intae
different number of cigarette.
Berdasarkan pengetahuan biologi anda, rancangkan satu eksperimen makmal
untuk menyiasat kesan asap rokok ke atas peparu dengan menggunakan bahan
dan radas makmal seperti termometer, penunjuk universal dan kapas selepas
pengambilan bilangan rokok yang berbeza.
Pr!"#$ S%&%#$#'%:
What are the effect !of cigarette smoe" on the lungs &the colour changes of
cotton wool&the colour changes of universal indicator &temperature after intae
different number of cigarette$
O!(#)%*+#:
%o investigate the effect !of cigarette smoe" on lungs&the colour changes of
cotton wool&the colour changes of universal indicator&temperature after intae
different number of cigarette
H12%-#.*.:
%he higher the number of cigarette intae, the higher the effect !of cigarette
smoe" on the lungs &the colour changes of cotton wool&the colour changes of
universal indicator & temperature
V&r*&!"#.:
M&'*2/"&%#0 V&r*&!"# : %he number of cigarette intae
@moing is the act of inhaling smoe from burning tobacco. 1uring
smoing heat, tar and nicotine are released by cigarette smoe
Merokok ialah satu tindakan menyedut asap dari pembakaran
tembakau. Semasa merokok haba, tar dan nikotin dibebaskan dari asap
rokok.
R#.2'0*'3 V&r*&!"# : %he effect !of smoe cigarette" on lungs&the effect on
the colour changes of cotton wool&the effect on the colour changes of universal
indicator &temperature
C'%r""#0 V&r*&!"# %he time for cigarette lighted !( minutes" && type of
cigarette
M&%#r*&". : 0otton wool, Dniversal indicator, 0igarette,
A22&r&%/. : D;tube& glass tube, %hermometer, Boiling tube, .ilter pump
T#)-'*4/#:
Observe and record the effect of cotton wool, universal indicator and
temperature by using the thermometer.
Pr)#0/r#:
I- : Areparation of material and apparatus
-. 1iagram with ( correct labels.
*. ()ml of universal indicator is measured using measuring
cylinder and poured into thJ test tube& conical flas & bottle .
2. 0onical flas & test tube is connected to D;tube and tap water as
suction pump.
3. %hJ initial temperature of thJ air in D;tube is recorded
thermometer
cigarette
D;tube
0otton
wool
%o suction
pump
Dniversal
indicator
Bottle&
conical
flas&
test tube
(. %hJ initial colour of cotton wool & universal indicator is recorded
4. One cigarette smoe is placed at A
5. %hJ cigarette is lighted up and thJ suction pump is switched on.
I* : Operating constant variable
() ml of universal indicator is measured K
Fnitial temperature *5
)
0 of air is recorded
I2 : Operating manipulated variable
7. Repeat steps 4 to 6 by using *, 2 and 3 cigarettes
I3 : Operating responding variable
6. Record thJ change of colour in cotton wool & universal indicator
& increase in temperature using thermometer after cigarette
stopped burning !in a table".
I( : Arecaution
7. ,ae sure all thJ
Eoinings are air tight &
connected tightly K
R#./"% #52#r*$#'%:
C')"/.*':
%he number
of cigarette
intae !unit"
!,'"
%he effect&the changes !R'"
%emperatur
e !0"
0olour and
smell of
cotton
wool
0olour of
universal
indicator
-
,ore than -
%he higher the number of cigarette intae, the higher the effect !of cigarette
smoe" on the lungs&the colour changes of cotton wool&the colour changes of
universal indicator&&temperature
9ypothesis is accepted