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Finch and Ortiz Lira (1982) A Course in English Phonetics for Spanish Speakers. UK:
Heinemann. Chapter 9
O. Lira, Wrd accent and !entence !tre!!"
#$U%& 'U(%)
1. What i! prminence* What are pr!dic +eat,re!* Which +eat,re! render a !-..a/.e prminent*
2. H0 man- de1ree! + prminence are there in )n1.i!h* 2r3ide 1raphic repre!entatin!.
4. 5,i.d a chart indicatin1 the artic,.atr- and a,ditr- e++ect! + th!e +eat,re! n the !-..a/.e + a
6. What i! the ph-!i.1ica. !i1na. that render! pitch hi1h r .0*
7. What de! the 8, + a !,nd depend n*
9. H0 d 0e percei3e the 8,antit- + a !,nd*
:. Finch and Ortiz Lira !tate: (t i! incrrect t !a- that !-..a/.e! are made prminent /- !tre!!". 2r3ide artic,.atr- and a,ditr- rea!n! +r thi! c.aim. (..,!trate 0ith an e;amp.e.
8. What i! the citatin +rm + a 0rd*
9. (! an accented !-..a/.e a.0a-! prminent* Wh-*
1<. (! a prminent !-..a/.e a.0a-! accented* Wh-*
11. What i! the r,.e + a.ternatin*
12. Wh- are there !ecndar- !tre!!e! in )n1.i!h*
14. H0 man- ,n!tre!!ed !-..a/.e! can there /e a+ter a primar- accent*
16. C.a!!i+- a++i;e! accrdin1 t the e++ect the- ha3e n 0rd accent. 2r3ide e;amp.e!.
17. Which !-..a/.e! are accented in the +..0in1 0rd!* Which !-..a/.e! are prminent in the
+..0in1 0rd!* e;aminatin = te.e1ram = intere!tin1 = ,nhapp- > ,ni3er!it- =
19. %e! a nati3e !pea?er ?n0 the di++erence /et0een accent and prminence* &e!@A. Wh-*
1:. Wh- i! )n1.i!h accent +ree"* (! #pani!h accent +ree"* Wh-*
18. (! )n1.i!h accent +i;ed"* Wh-*
19. %e! the accent,a. pattern + )n1.i!h 0rd! 3ar-* 'i3e rea!n!.
2<. What d -, /!er3e a/,t the cc,rrence + accent in )n1.i!h 0rd! (.? at the e;amp.e!
,nder 9 Accentuation of simple words)
21. What i! the tendenc- a! t 0rd accent in !imp.e 0rd! = n,n!, adBecti3e!, 3er/!*
22. What pr/.em! d #pani!h !pea?er! +ace 0hen the- ha3e t prn,nce p.-!-..a/ic 0rd!*
24. H0 d !,++i;e! a++ect 0rd accent* 2r3ide e;amp.e!.
26. What acti3itie! 0,.d -, !,11e!t t dri.. accent,atin in p.-!-..a/ic 0rd!*
27. Frm,.ate three r,.e! a/,t 0rd accent that -, thin? -,r !t,dent! !h,.d ?n0.
29. What i! a cmp,nd 0rd* What pattern! + accent,atin can the- ha3e (in 1enera. term!)*
2:. Centin c.a!!e! + !in1.e>!tre!!ed cmp,nd! and 1i3e e;amp.e! + each.
28. Centin c.a!!e! + d,/.e>!tre!!ed cmp,nd! and 1i3e e;amp.e! + each.
29. What i! !tre!! !hi+t and 0h- de! it ta?e p.ace* 2r3ide e;amp.e!.
30. Describe the two stress tendencies in the English language, and how they stand in relation to
each other. Provide examples of both tendencies.
31. hy is word accent both !fixed! and !free!"
3#. Describe and exemplify the factors that ma$e a syllable prominent, according to %imson& 'rti(
33. *ow many degrees of prominence are there in English" Provide graphic representations.
3+. hat is the rule of alternation" *ow does it relate to secondary stresses"
3,. -lassify affixes according to the effect they have on word accent. Provide examples.
3.. hat is a compound word" hat patterns of accentuation can they have /in general terms0"
31. 2ention + types of single3accented compounds, explain their accentual pattern and give
examples of each.
34. 2ention + types of double3accented compounds, explain their accentual pattern and give
examples of each.
35. hat is stress shift and why does it ta$e place" Provide examples.
De.ate CcCarth- Ch. 1 t 5r0n and &,.e Ch. 2. What are the cntri/,tin! made /- H-me! and 'rice* 5,i.d a
ta/.e !h0in1 th!e cntri/,tin!.
6<. CcC. CH. 1, p.9 #i1na. the di++erence! /et0een 5riti!h and Emerican %i!c,r!e Ena.-!i!.
61. CcC. CH 1, p.: 2r3ide an e;amp.e + crre!pndence /et0een +rm and +,nctin and anther ne +
62. CcC. CH. 1, p.8 What i! the di!c,r!e ana.-!t intere!ted in*
64. );emp.i+- h0 0e can d thin1! 0ith .an1,a1e. (E,!tin: !peech act!)
66. CcC. CH. 1, p.14>16 What i! a +ramin1 m3e and 0hat i! a tran!actin*
67. CcC. CH. 1, p. 16 Deadin1 act. 4>1
69. CcC. CH. 1, p. 16 H0 de! the term tran!actin re.ate t 5r0n and &,.e chapter 1.
6:. CcC. CH. 1, p. 24>6 What 1enera. cnc.,!in! can -, dra0 a/,t the characteri!tic! + !p?en di!c,r!e*
68. H0 d 5r0n and &,.e cmp.ete the pict,re + !p?en di!c,r!e*
+5. Describe and exemplify the concepts of reference, presupposition, implicature and inference.
,0. hat is the cooperative principle" 6ind examples that show how this principle wor$s.
,1. hat are the features of the context of situation according to Dell *ymes"
72. CcC. CH. 6, p.91 Ecti3it- n rh-thmic /eat!. Chec? 0ith the ?e-.
74. CcC. CH. 6, p. 92 Wh- i! it cntr3er!ia. t c.aim that )n1.i!h and #pani!h ha3e di++erent rh-thm!*
76. CcC. CH. 6, p. 92 C.a!!i+- )n1.i!h 30e.! accrdin1 t 5.in1erF! de+initin! (+,..@red,ced).
77. CcC. CH. 6, p . 99 What i! an intnatina. ,nit and 0hat crre!pndence de! it !h0 0ith theme and
79. Ortiz Lira = A,c.e,! p.acement:de!i1n acti3itie! +r -,r c.a!!mate!.
,1. hat are the grammatical categories which -ruttenden describes as deserving of separate
intonation groups" Provide examples.
,4. hat is 7nucleus placement8" Explain and exemplify the concepts of lexical focussing and
grammatical focussing.
,5. hat is the difference between broad focus and narrow focus"
.0. hat are the exceptions to the rule of broad focus mentioned by -ruttenden"
.1. hat is 7old information8" hat types of old information does -ruttenden mention"
92. CcC. CH. 1, p. 17 What i! an e;chan1e*
94. CcC. CH. 1, p. 19 H0 can 0e identi+- the di++erent m3e!*
96. CcC. CH. 1, p. 1: Ecti3it- 6. Chec? 0ith ?e-.
97. CcC. CH. 1, p. 18 What are the re.e3ant e.ement! + the cn3er!atina. cnte;t*
99. CcC. CH. 1, p. 19 H0 de! c.a!!rm ta.? di++er +rm cn3er!atin! ,t!ide the c.a!!rm*
9:. CcC. CH. 1, p. 2< 2int ,t /,ndarie! in e3er-da- ta.? (pitch and c.a!!rm ta.?)
98. CcC. CH. 1, p. 24>26 What 1enera. cnc.,!in! can -, dra0 a/,t the characteri!tic! + !p?en
99. H0 d 5r0n and &,.e cmp.ete the pict,re + !p?en di!c,r!e*
:<. CcC. CH. 1, p. 29 Ecti3it- n che!i3e item!. Chec? 0ith ?e-.
:1. CcC. CH. 1, p. 2:>28 What de! interpretatin + a te;t in3.3e*
:2. CcC. CH. 6, p. 96 2rminence and 0rd !tre!!, di++erence!. );p.ain.
:4. Cnnect thi! tpic 0ith pattern! + 0rd accent.
:6. CcC. CH. 6, p . 99 Ecti3it- n 0rd !tre!!. Chec? 0ith ?e-.
:7. CcC. CH. 6, p . 1<< Ecti3it-. Chec? 0ith ?e-.
:9. CcC. CH. 6, p . 1<1 What e++ect de! hi1h@.0 pitch ha3e in cn3er!atin*
::. (ntnatin = Ch. 9: %e!i1n acti3itie!
:8. CcC. CH. 6, p . 1<9 'rammatica. apprache!
:9. Lee@Dach = 'rammatica. +,nctin + intnatin: /,i.d chart! 0ith e;amp.e!
8<. CcC. CH. 6, p . 1<: Ettit,dina. apprach.
81. CcC. CH. 6, p . 1<9 What i! the e++ect + narr0@0ide pitch ran1e. 2int t !me ,!e! + the tne!.
82. CcC. CH. 6, p . 112 Ke-
84. CcC. CH. 6, p . 114 $erminatin.
86. CcC. CH. 6, p . 116 Which tne! are re1arded a! /a!ic*
CLASS 19 !,
87. CcC. CH. 7, p . 12< Ecti3it-: adBacenc- pair!.
89. CcC. CH. 7, p . 12< 2r3ide minima. cnte;t data t e;emp.i+- adBacenc- pair! 0here !ecnd pair>part i!
8:. CcC. CH. 7, p . 124 2r3ide e;amp.e! + +..0>,p m3e! in nat,ra. cn3er!atin.
88. CcC. CH. 7, p . 124 %e!i1n a !et + c,e card! +r !t,dent! t de3e.p +,nctin>chain acti3itie!.
89. CcC. CH. 7, p . 129 What are inter3ie0 !t-.e pattern! ,!e+,. +r*
9<. CcC. CH. 7, p . 12: $,rn ta?in1. H0 i! thi! per+rmed*
91. CcC. CH. 7, p . 12: 5ac?>channe..in1. Which are the de3ice!*
92. CcC. CH. 7, p . 128 H0 de! nat,ra. cn3er!atin cmpare 0ith c.a!!rm ta.?* #ee a/3e.
94. CcC. CH. 7, p . 129 What +eat,re! + t,rn>ta?in1 d -, +ind ! in /th )n1.i!h and #pani!h*
5+. Define prominence according to 9ra(il and then explain this notion in your own words /-:
-hapter #0. Exemplify.
5,. ;ccording to 9ra(il, prominence is an act of selection. Explain this idea in your own words and
compare it with the notion of prominence by %imson. *ow do the two approaches differ"
5.. hat is a paradigm" -haracterise the general paradigm and the existential paradigm< exemplify
/op. cit.0
51. Define syntagmatic and paradigmatic organisations of language /op. cit.0
54. ;nalyse the components of the tone unit below according to '=-onnor > ;rnold=s attitudinal
approach and relate them to 9ra(il=s discoursal approach.
55. && she=s been ?EEing that 6@AEBD of hers &&
100. hy doesn=t 9ra(il describe the elements outside the tonic segment in detail"
101. hat=s the difference between =tone= and =tone group=. *ow many tone groups are there in
'=-onnor > ;rnold=s system"
10#. *ow many tones are there in 9ra(il=s system" ;re there any tone groups" Af so, how
1<4.(n 0hat 0a- are, tnicit- and tne G!-!tem!F*
1<6.What de! $ench mean in !a-in1 that intnatin i! cn3entina.*
1<7.%e+ine the three !-!tem! 0hich perate in intnatin. H0 d the three !-!tem! r1ani!e in+rmatin*
1<9.What are the +,nctin! + intnatin*
1<:.%e+ine theme and rheme. What are their !-ntactic crre.ate!*
1<8.);p.ain the cncept + ne,tra. What de! $ench re+er t 0hen he !pea?! + G+,nctina.
1<9.%e+ine mar?ed 2r3ide e;amp.e!.
11<.What are the t0 ?ind! + !tr,ct,ra. de3iatin 0hich a++ect* 2r3ide e;amp.e!.
111.%e+ine chec?in1 ta1! and cp- ta1!. What tne! are a!!ciated 0ith them*
112.Fr the +..0in1 !-ntactic cn!tit,ent!, de!cri/e and e;emp.i+- prce!!e! + !-ntactic di!am/i1,atin:
re.ati3e c.a,!e!
3er/ cmp.ementatin
ne1ati3e 3er/ dmain!
reprt c.a,!e!
c.a,!e cmp.ement!
114.%e+ine ne,tra. tnicit- and /rad +c,!.
116.);p.ain and e;emp.i+- the ntin + ne,tra. tnicit-.
117.What i! mar?ed tnicit-* (denti+- the di++erent e;ceptin! t the r,.e + /rad +c,! mentined /- $ench,
and pr3ide e;amp.e!
11.. hat are the functions of the fall" Describe them from the point of view of the attitudinal
approach and the grammatical approach.
111. Describe the phonetic realisation of the p tone and its functions.
114. Che low drop, the high drop and the long DumpE compare and contrast.
115. Explain the differences in meaning between the high drop and the low drop.
1#0. @elate the low drop and the high drop to 9ra(il=s approach.
1#1. -ompare Cench=s use of the word !dominance! to 9ra(il=s. An what sense&s do these
authors use the term"
1##. -haracterise the uses of the low rise according to the attitudinal and the grammatical
1#3. -haracterise the uses of the high rise according to the attitudinal and the grammatical
1#+. -haracterise the rF tone and its uses in telling moves and as$ing moves.
1#,. -an Cench=s notion of !deference! be eGualled with 9ra(il=s concept of !dominance!"
hy& hy not"
1#.. Describe the uses of the switchbac$.
1#1. ;ccording to Cench, when does the fall rise have the meaning of contrast" hen does it
convey the notion of !implication!"
1#4. *ow does 9ra(il=s system account for the notion of implication as conveyed by the r tone"
1#5. *ow can the fall rise interact with negative statements" Provide examples.
130. *ow can the fall rise interact with statements containing !any!" Provide examples.
131. Define pitch sequence and pitch concord.
13#. Discuss $ey and its meanings.
133. hat is concord brea$ing"
13+. Discuss termination and its meanings.
13.. Draw a chart showing the possible intonations of the different $inds of Guestions
according to the grammatical approach.
131. Discuss intonation of tail Guestions according to the grammatical approach.
134. hat is the typical tone used in Hes& no Guestions, according to the attitudinal approach"
135. ;ccording to the discoursal approach, what factor/s0 determine/s0 the intonation of
1+0. hy does 9ra(il say that there is no such thing as !intonation of Guestions!" hat does
discourse consist of, then"
1+1. Discuss and provide examples of Guestions to chec$ and of Guestions to find out.
1+#. hat is the effect of as$ing as yes&no Guestion with a falling tone, according to the
grammatical and the attitudinal approaches"
1+3. hat is the value of the rF tone in h3 Guestions" Provide examples.
1++. hen can a =Hes&Bo= Guestion ta$e a p tone"
1+,. -an a spea$er as$ a Guestion with referring tone if s&he cannot ma$e any assumptions
about what the answer will be /i.e. if the spea$er has no way of inferring the answer0" Iustify.
1+.. Hou want to as$ for a favour, saying Can you do me a favour? hat tone should you
use" hy"
1+1. hat tone would you use if you offered help or a service, e.g. in Can I help you? ;ccount
for your choice.
1+4. hat is the communicative value of high termination in a Guestion to find out"
1+5. hat is the communicative value of high termination in a Guestion to chec$"
1,0. hat is the usual spea$er orientation in storytelling" Iustify.
1,1. hat tones does a storyteller /or someone reading a story aloud0 use and for what
purposes" %ive examples and explain.
1,#. hat system is available to a spea$er who adopts obliGue orientation" Explain their
1,3. %ive at least 1 examples of exploitation of (ero tone. Explain why this tone is used in
each case.
1,+. hat are the meanings of high $ey and low termination in obliGue orientation" Iustify.