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CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING

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3. QUALITY

Rev. 2002

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SECTION 3 QUALITY

Table of Contents
1. Chemical Characterization..................................................................... 3.1
1.1 Ignition Loss ................................................................................... 3.1
1.2 Silica Ratio...................................................................................... 3.1
1.3 Alumina-Iron Ratio ......................................................................... 3.1
1.4 Lime Saturation............................................................................... 3.1
1.5 Total Alkalies as Na2O .................................................................... 3.1
1.6 Percent Liquid ................................................................................. 3.2
1.7 Bogue Formulas .............................................................................. 3.2
1.8 Lafarge K 1450 Burnability Index.................................................... 3.2
1.9 Other Indicators............................................................................... 3.4
1.10 57 Clinker Average.......................................................................... 3.4
2. Particles Size Distribution....................................................................... 3.5
2.1 Rosin-Rammler Number.................................................................. 3.5
2.2 Specific Surface Area ...................................................................... 3.5
2.3 Blaine Surface Area......................................................................... 3.6
3. Grindability............................................................................................. 3.6
3.1 BB10 Test ....................................................................................... 3.6
3.2 Bond Formula ................................................................................. 3.7
3.3 Parameters Affecting the Clinker Grindability.................................. 3.7
4. Sulfate...................................................................................................... 3.8
4.1 Clinker Sulfates ............................................................................... 3.8
4.2 Sulfate Addition .............................................................................. 3.8
4.3 Water Spray .................................................................................. 3.10
5. Others Quality Issues............................................................................ 3.10
5.1 Cement Strength............................................................................ 3.10
5.2 Color ............................................................................................. 3.10
5.3 Microscopy ................................................................................... 3.11
6. 10 Basic Facts on Clinker...................................................................... 3.12
7. Raw Mix & Clinker Uniformity ........................................................... 3.13
7.1 TYTP Indicators............................................................................ 3.13
7.2 Lafarge Corp Results ..................................................................... 3.13
8. ASTM Standards .................................................................................. 3.14

Index - i
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1. Chemical Characterization

In the following formulas:


S = SiO2, M = MgO, A =Al2O3, K = K2O,
F = Fe2O3, N = Na2O3, C = CaO
when not specified: % is in weight in the raw
mix.
Raw feed density: 2700g/l.

SECTION 3 QUALITY

Ignition loss = 0.786 * C + 1.092M + combined


H2O+ organic matter.
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
% CO2 =

LSF vs C3S
120
R2 = 0.9485

100

S
(2.3 to 3.1)
A+ F
If SR high, hard to burn, low coating (wall
losses), poor clinker reactivity, higher SHC.

90
80

SR =

y = 0.3367x + 71.6

110

44
%CaO
56

1.2 Silica Ratio

100 * ( C + 0.75 M )
2.8 S + 1.18 A + 0.65 F
It takes MgO into account (when MgO <
2%).

KSt III =

LSF

100C
2.8 S + 1.1 A + 0.7 F

where:
A includes ( TiO 2 + P2 O 5 )

1.1 Ignition Loss

KSt I ( Kuhl ) =

70
60
0

20

40

1.3 Alumina-Iron Ratio

A
(1.3 to 2.0 )
F
If AR high with low F then lower liquid
phase, poor viscosity.

AR =

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5 0
-10
-15
-20

1.4 Lime Saturation

100 120

bc vs C3S
y = -0.2734x + 21.552
2
R = 0.9606

bc

(On Raw Mix analyses, except C3S)


C 3 S = 4.07 C (7.6 Ssol + 6.72 A + 1.43 F )
It is the potential C3S content of clinker
when the free lime is zero and calculation
LOI=0.
- It is the only lime saturation criterion
considered in the TYTP.

60 80
C3S

20

40

60

80

100 120

C3S

1.5 Total Alkalies as Na2O

100C
LSF =
2.8 S + 1.18 A + 0.65 F
100 * ( 2.8 S + 1.65 A + 0.3 F C )
S + A+ F + C
It should range between 4 and +4
depending on ashes and quality target.

bc =
-

Total as Na 2 O eq = Na 2 O + 0.658 K 2 O

Rule of thumb
+ 0.1% Total Alkalies in clinker : -0.5 to -1MPa
at 28days.

3.1
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SECTION 3 QUALITY

1.6 Percent Liquid

1.7 Bogue Formulas

a) Calculation (Lea & Parker)

(On clinker bases, ref. Les Cahiers Techniques).


The formulas considered in the TYTP are:
a) Formulas
C 3 S = 4.07 C (7.6 Ssol + 6.72 A + 1.43 F )
C 2 S = 8.6 Ssol 5.07 A + 1.08 F 3.07 C 1
C 3 A = 2.65 A 1.69 F
C 4 AF = 3.04 F
with:
C 1 = CaO Free CaO ( 0.7 SO3 )
Ssol= soluble silica (silicate form only)
And F may be modified as:
F = Fe 2 O3 Mn2 O3

@ 1338C
A/F<1.38:

% liquid = 8.2 A 5.22 F + M + N + K

A/F>1.38 :
% liquid = 6.1 F + M + N + K
PL at 1338C influences the clinker granulation.

@ 1400C
% liquid = 2.95 A + 2.25 F + M + N + K
@ 1450C
% liquid = 3 A + 2.25 F + M + N + K
1450 C is most frequently used within Lafarge.
Optimum at 1450C: 25%.
@ 1470 C
% liquid = 1.13 C 3 A + 1.35 C 4 AF + M + N + K
b) Liquid phase impact
If liquid phase too high:
Clinker porosity
Grindability (harder)
1-day strength
If liquid phase too low:
C3S formation speed
Clinker granulation
Liquid Phase Constituent Impact
% free CAO
14
12
10
8
6

C3A C4AF K2O


18 % 5 %

1%

18 % 5 %

b) SO3 combination

Step #1:
K 2O
< 1.176 not all SO3 combined as
If
SO3
K 2 SO4 then SO3 in K 2 SO4 = 0.85 K 2 O
Step #2:
Remaining SO3 = SO3 SO3 in K 2 SO4
Na 2 O
If
< 1.176 not all SO3
SO3 ( remaining )
combined as Na 2 SO4 :
SO3 in Na s SO4 = 1.292 Na 2 O
Step #3:
CaO combined with SO3
= 0.7 * (SO3 (SO3 in K 2 SO4 + SO3 in Na 2 SO4 ))

0%

5 % 18 % 1 %

1.8 Lafarge K 1450 Burnability Index

5 % 18 % 0 %

a) Calculation
This index is representative of the ability of the raw
material to combine.
The sample is heated
(1000C/h) in a lab furnace at 1450 C for 30
minutes. After burning, the remaining free lime is
measured. The ability to combine is determined by
the reaction time of the following reaction:
C 2 S + C C3 S

4
2
0
1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550
temperature C

3.2
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8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Heat consumption
difference (%)

If we accept that this reaction can occur only after


all C 2 S is formed:

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180 200


Lafarge K

d[C ]

= k [C 2 S ] [C ]
dt
with:
[C2S] is the C 2 S concentration at t
[C] is the lime concentration at t
k is a constant (function of temp).

[C o ] [C ] = [C 2 S o ] [C 2 S ]

56
172
with:
[C] is the concentration of lime at t
-

[C2S] is the concentration of C2S at t

[C ] + c = [C2 S ]
56

172

with: c is the bc relative at 100% clinker:

[ ]

[C ] + c . C o
1
K=
ln o
3.07 c
C + c [C ]

S + A+ F +C
= bc.
100 LOI
c

with:
[Co] = CaO - 1.87 SiO2
[C] = The remaining free lime in a lab test
in which the raw material is burned for 30
minutes at 1450C
Rule of thumb
K < 30:
30 < K < 45:
45 < K < 70:
70 < K < 100:

SECTION 3 QUALITY

100 < K < 140:


140 < K:

Very good burnability


Excellent burnability

b) Parameters influencing the Burnability


(ref. Cahiers techniques)
K1450 change
40
0
-40
-80
+1 % +1.3 % +0.2 % +3 %
+0.1 % +0.4 %
fluor sol. Na2O Ex.SO3 Fe2O3
P2O5 quartz
equiv.
> 63

Rules of thumb
K 2 SO4 improves the burnability;
+1% SO3 lower the combination temperature
by 60C;
+1%
increases the combination
K2O
temperature bu 35C;
increase from 2 to 3% of silica reject at 63
microns lower the K1450 by 30 points (cf
graph);
+ 0.3% CaF2 addition in the raw mix (or 0.23F
in the clinker) improves the K1450 by 10 to 60
points, lowering the burning temp by 30 to
130C. Unfortunately, it lengers the setting time
by 40min +/-20min (for+0.1%F in the clinker).
Impact of fineness
Free Lime = [C ] 1.89 + 0.48( LSF 100 ) +
2.84 (SR 1.8 ) + 0.27 Q45 + 0.12C125 + 0.12 Aq 45
where:
- Q45 = % quartz >45 m
-

C125 = % calcite >125 m

Aq45 = % non quartz, acid insoluble >45


m (excluding dolomite)

Rule of thumb:
%(quartz>63m)<2%, %(quartz>45m)<2.5%

Very bad burnability


Bad burnability
Medium burnability
Good burnability

3.3
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Effects of % 100 m rejects
Quartz type raw mix

% free CaO
6
5

SECTION 3 QUALITY

Effects of % 100 m rejects


Marl type raw mix

% free CaO
6
5

25 %

3
10 %

25 %

0
1350

10 %
0
1350
1400

5%
1400

1450

1500
1550
temperature C

1450

1500
1550
temperature C

1.9 Other Indicators


Burnability Factor
C3 S
BF =
C 4 AF + C 3 A
- Higher BF, harder to burn
- Generally BF increases with SR

1.10

Hydraulic Module
S + A+ F
HM =
C+M
Cementation Index
2.8 S + 1.1 A + 0.7 F
Cl =
C + 1.4 M

57 Clinker Average

The results obtained from 57 production clinkers including 2 white cements and 4 Oil-Well cements are
reported below:
S/(A+F)

Minimum
Average
Maximum

Raw Mix
K 1450
21
75
324

2.1
2.9
7.8

2.1

Alite
%
45.6
66.0
81.1

Alite/C3S

Minimum
Average
Maximum

C3 S
%
43.0
61.9
75.9

Minimum
Average
Maximum

C4AF
%
0.8
9.3
16.8

Ferrit.
%
0.0
8.9
15.0

Minimum
Average
Maximum

S/(A+F)

A/F

Exc. HTS, SB

Total Na2O Sol. Na2O


%
%
0.06
0.01
0.17
0.07
0.40
0.19

A/F
Exc. OW, SB

Liq. phase
At 1450 %
10.5
24.0
29.4

-0.8
5.3
10.2

Free CaO
%
0.05
0.68
2.2

0.15
0.93
1.91

C3 A
%
0.0
7.6
12.6

Alum.
%
0.7
5.2
11.0

P2O5
%
0.01
0.12
0.39

Mn2O3
%
0.01
0.06
0.19

kk SO3
%
0.2
0.84
2.5

0.6
2.0
11.6

0.7

Belite
%
0.7
15.0
35.0

Belite/C2S

0.9
1.07
1.4

C2 S
%
1.9
15.7
31.5

MgO
%
0.39
1.80S
4.53

Fluor
%
0.02
0.08
0.19

TiO2
%
0.10
0.23
0.39

2.7
3.6

Total K2O
%
0.25
0.74
1.40

1.7
2.9

nc

Sol. K2O Tot.Na2O eq Sol.Na2O eq Exc.SO3


%
%
%
/t. alk. %
0.11
0.27
0.08
-0.63
0.54
0.66
0.43
-0.01
1.19
1.00
0.87
1.73

Exc.SO3
/s. alk. %
-0.16
0.29
1.86

3.4
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SECTION 3 QUALITY

2. Particles Size Distribution


2.1 Rosin-Rammler Number
The Rosin-Rammler curve mathematically approximates most powder particle size distributions:
n

or

n ln

R = 100e

d
do

100
R

= n (In( d ) In( d o ))

d = particle size (m)


R = % retained at d
do = particle size (m) @ R = 100/e, approx. 36.8%
n = Rosin-Rammler number
The formula allows PSD data to be represented as a straight line by plotting:

(In (In 100 )) vs. In (d)

R
-

n can be calculated by the slope of the least squares line.


The higher the RR#, the steeper the PSD as more particles are found into a narrow size range.

Rules of thumb
RR# for high efficiency separator cement: 1.1 - 1.2
- RR# for Sturtevant circuit (raw or cement): 0.9 - 1.0
- RR# for open circuit cement: 0.8 - 0.9,
dO = 12-36 m
+ 0.15 point #RR increases the water demand by 2-3% (ref. Les Cahiers Techniques)

2.2 Specific Surface Area

The following can calculate the Specific Surface Area (SSA). For particles assumed to be spheres:
4
S i = 4ri2
M i = ri3 p
3
Si = the particle surface area
-

M i = the particle weight

ri = the particle radius


= the specific density of particles
For a granulometry with n number of particles
Str = ni * Si = ni * 4ri2

Str =

3 M tr
ri

Mtr = ni *

4 3
ri
3

3.5
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16
j =0

R j R j +1
d j + d j +1

do = 0.1 m
d6 = 4 m

d1 = 0.3 m
d7 = 6 m
Ri
d2 = 1 m
d8 = 8 m
- di =
d3 = 1.5 m
d9 = 12 m
d4 = 2 m
d10 = 16 m
d5 = 3 m
d11 = 24 m
The 0-3 m fraction of normal Portland cement accounts for 60% of total surface.
-

6f

SSA =

SECTION 3 QUALITY

=
=
=

Form factor (close to 1)


Specific density of cement (g/cm3)
% retained at di
Particle size (m)

d12= 48 m
d13 = 64 m
d14 = 96 m
d15 = 128 m
d16 = 196 m

2.3 Blaine Surface Area

SSB = Blaine Surface Area (in cm2/g). Its a permeability test. SSB is inversely proportional to the ability to
pass air through a bed of particles. The correlation between calculated SSA and SSB is:
SSA = 807 + 1.2 * SSB
For cements with n=1 Anselm found:
where:
4
36.8 * 10
- do, n Rosin-Rammler distribution
SSA =
- = specific density = 3.2 x103 kg/m3
do * n *

Rules of thumb (Les Cahiers Techniques)


The Blaine specific surface correlates well (r2 = 0.92) with the % passing 10 m (same for 8 m):
+ 1 % passing 10 m = + 10.8 m2/kg
+ 100 m2/kg SSB
+4 to + 15 MPa (pure cements).
Warning: Cement sulphate addition must be increased with SSB: +100 m2/kg
+ 0.5 to +0.6% SO3.
2% gypsum results in +10m2/kg at 370m2/kg SSB.

3. Grindability
3.1 BB10 Test
Idea:
Correlate the number of revolutions of a lab mill for a given fineness with the industrial energy to obtain the
same fineness. The material is crushed to everything passing 3.15 mm. The number of mill revolutions is
measured to obtain a given fineness. Revolutions are converted to industrial power consumption.
Lab Mill Characteristics:
Diameter: 40 cm
Length: 12 cm
Speed: 55 rpm
Ball volume load: 14 %
Ball weight: 10 kg

Material load: 1kg


Balls: 20-25 mm : 2.5 kg
20-35 mm : 3 kg
50 mm : 4.5 kg

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SECTION 3 QUALITY

Lafarge Data
25 Canadian clinkers @ 3500 Blaine averaged 55.7 kWh/t and 35 French averaged 50.7 kWh/t. Typical
results are 48-60 kWh/t.
BB10
kWh/t
Minimum
Average
Maximum

for 250 m2/kg


kWh/t
21
29.2
43

for 300 m2/kg


kWh/t
30
39.8
56

for 350 m2/kg


kWh/t
39
51.8
68

for 400 m2/kg


kWh/t
49
65.3
83

3.2 Bond Formula


Lab Mill Characteristics
Diameter:
30.5 cm
Length:
30.5 cm
Ball weight:
20 kg
Material quantity:
700 cm3
Speed:
70 rpm
Formula

10
d p 80

10
d f 80

d p 100 0.23 P 0.82 *

dp100 is the sieve with 100% passing feed material


dp80
80% feed material
df80
80% finish material
P is the production (g/rev of mill) of product at the level
the circulating load is requested.
Wi is the Bond work index.

44.5

Wi =

Developed to predict energy requirements of 2.44m diameter, wet, closed circuit, ball mill at a fineness of
either 65 mesh (220 m) or 100 mesh(150 m).
Pre-crush feed to #6 (3.35 mm). Maintain 700g sample in test mill. Turn mill 100-150 rev.
Remove undersize (dp100 65 or 100 mesh) and replace with fresh feed (300 400 g). 1st cycle is now
completed. Repeat procedure until steady state is reached. Typically 6-8 cycles so that 200 g are removed at
each cycle, which equals 250% circulating load or 30% of P.

3.3 Parameters Affecting the Clinker Grindability

In the statistical study of the 57 clinkers, grinding energy was correlated with different parameters.
1 point increase of
a variation of
W250 (kWh/t)
W300
W350
W400

produces

C3S

Exc SO3 /tot.alk. (%)

-0.3
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7

4
4
5
5

CaOl
(%)
-0.9

D75 alite
(m)
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2

Alite C3S
x100
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3

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SECTION 3 QUALITY

4. Sulfate
4.1 Clinker Sulfates

Possible forms of sulfates and alkalies:


- as alkali sulfates (small crystals of a few m) inserted between the clinker phases
- as S and alkalies inserted in the crystal structures of silicate and aluminate phases
Clinker rich in alkalies and
poor in sulfates
rich in sulfates
Little alkali sulfates
Much alkali sulfates
Uncombined alkalies:
Little uncombined alkalies:
N and K in orthorhombic C3A
Little K and N in cubic C3A
K in C2S
Little K in C2S
Inversed monoclinic C3S
Rhomboedric C3S
Some sulfur in the uncombined alkalies
S in silicates
and
aluminates
N and K in
orthorhombic
C3A
Workability
problems,
plastic
shrinkage

alkali sulfates
Cubic C3A

orthorhombic
C3A

alkali
sulfates
Cubic C 3A

alkali
sulfates
Cubic C3 A

Clinker sulfate content


Increase of early-age
strengths

Clinker harder
to grind

On the basis of the content of sulfur with respect to alkalies, and the relative proportions of
sodium and potassium, alkali sulfates may be found under different forms:
-

Thenardite : Na 2 SO4 . This sodium sulfate is rarely seen in clinker.


Aphthitalite : Na 2 SO4 3 K 2 SO4 . Its composition may vary to (3 Na 2 SO4 K 2 SO4 ) .
Arcanite : K 2 SO4 . It is observed when the SO3 / K 2 O molar ratio ranges between 1 and 2.
Calcium langbeinite: 2 CaSO4 K 2 SO4 . This phase is encountered when the SO3 / sodium equivalent*
molar ratio is greater than 2 and the sodium percentage low vis--vis potassium.
Anhydrite: CaSO4 . It shows up only when the SO3 / sodium equivalent* molar ratio is greater than 3.

4.2 Sulfate Addition

Gypsum and/or anhydrite - sulfates are added to control the setting process of the cement, primarily the rapid
setting of the C3A component.
a) False set:
Early development of stiffness without the evolution of much heat. It can be dispelled and plasticity
regained by further mixing without the addition of water [also called "grap set", "premature stiffening",
"hesitation set", "rubber set"].
b) Flash set:
Early development of stiffness usually with considerable evolution of heat. It cannot be dispelled nor
plasticity regained by further mixing without adding water [also called "quick set"]. Reaction is:
C 3 A + nH 2 O + C C 4 A( H 2 O )n .

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SECTION 3 QUALITY

c) The Chemistry of False and Flash Set

Components
Hemihydrate and the anhydrites are the dehydrated forms of gypsum.
CaSO4 . 2 H 2 O
- Gypsum
- -hemihydrate (plaster of Paris)
CaSO4 .0.5 H 2 O
- Soluble anhydrite ( CaSO4 .III)
CaSO4 . ( 0.001 _ 0.5 ) H 2 O
- Insoluble (natural) anhydrite
CaSO4
They react differently than gypsum when added to cement.
Reactions
4.5
4

Sulfate solubility

2.5
2

80
% Dehydr.

SO3 solution
(g/l)

100

Gypsum
Hemihydrate
Soluble Anhydrite
Natural Anhydrite

1.5
1
0.
0
1 2. 6 1 2 3
Time - Minutes

60
40
20
0

00 00 00 0 00
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

3.5

60

80

100

120
140
Temp. C

160

180

Dehydration in the milling process can be thought as beginning at about 80 C. However, gypsum
dehydration is also a function of the time and % humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. Hemihydrate
reacts differently than gypsum or anhydrite when water is added to cement, due to the differences in
solubility. In the case of too much hemihydrate, which dissolves very quickly and in substantial quantities in
the mix water, false set will occur. While too much hemihydrate will cause false set, not having enough SO3
available in solution will cause much more serious flash set.

The following table gives schematic diagrams of


the structure development of cement. The lattice
work represents the ettringite crystallization, the
platelets - tabular monosulphate and the rectangles
- secondary gypsum.

Available
sulphate in
solution
Low
C3A

Hydration time
10 min

Normal
set
set
Accelerated
set
set

set
Flash
set

Low
SO3
set

Low
C3A

workable

High
SO3
workable

High
C3A

3 hours

Low
SO3
workable

High
C3A

1 hour

Type
of
set

set

set
False
set

High
SO3
set

set

set

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SECTION 3 QUALITY

Optimum sulfate

S = 1.2(% sol Na 2 O equiv.) + 0.2 (% Al 2 O3 ) + 6.2 10 3 ( BSS ) 0.7 .


The sulfate content roughly corresponds to the optimum for 3-day strengths.

4.3 Water Spray

One method to control the mill temperature and thus gypsum dehydration is through the use of water spray.
For reasons of cement quality (C3S hydration), the water vapor dew-point temperature in the mill air must
not exceed about 70 C. The decomposition enthalpy of crystalline water in gypsum is much less (628
kJ/kg) than the evaporation enthalpy of water (2257 kJ/kg).
Thus theoretically one can:
Reduce Preliminary Hydration - use anhydrite (no crystalline water) instead of gypsum and keep the
water spray constant. This will decrease the water content of the air. The mill outlet temperature will
increase in this case.
Reduce The Mill Outlet Temperature - use anhydrite and increase the water spray, keeping the dew-point
constant. The preliminary hydration will remain the same because the water content of the air remains
constant.
Reduce Temperature and Preliminary Hydration - use anhydrite and substitute some, but not all, of the
crystalline water for more water spray.

5. Others Quality Issues


5.1 Cement Strength

Theoretical water required to totally hydrate the cement: 35% weight of cement.
Warning: Here, MPa are French standard (1.45 French MPa= 1 US/Can MPa)
Parameters influencing the cement strength
1-d fc 2-dfc
A variation of? Mpa
Strength is produced by (MPa) (MPa)
an increase of 1 point of:
Sol Na2Eq (%)
Tot Na2Eq (%)
C3S (%)
C2S(%)
C3A (%)
C4AF (%)
MgO (%)
SO3/totAlk Excess
FcaO (%)
D75Belite (m)

7-d fc
(MPa)

28-d fc
(MPa)

Compressive strength (MPa)


80

60

10

10

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.7

-1.1
1.1
1.1
-0.2

-1.0
1.3

-0.8

-10
0.6
0.5

-0.3

C2S

50
40

Hydration of pure phases


according to Boque and Lerch

30

-0.5
-0.6
1.5

20

-0.3

C12A7
C3A

10
0

-0.2

C3S

70

C4AF
7 28

90

180

360 days

5.2 Color
If % Fe 2 O3 is combined with Blaine specific surface (m2/kg), it is possible to explain 97% of the observed
color variations.

3.10
Rev. 2002

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

5.3 Microscopy
a) Interpretation
Case
1) Raw Mix
Raw mix fineness

Raw Mix
Homogeneity
Lime saturation
Of raw mix
Raw mix chemistry

Observations

Siliceous rejects
Shaly rejects
Calcareous rejects
Heterogenous
Homogenous
Overdosage
Underdosage
Alkalies

Belite ring around empty pores


Belite ring around pores filled with celite
Tight-grain free lime patches
Wide patches of belite that can exceed 500 m
Alite and belite side by side, without belite patches
High free lime content with no or little belite
Little or no free lime, high belite content
Orthorhombic C3 A in needles if alkalies in crystal structure.
Cubic C3 A if alkalies in alkalie sulfate form.

2) Burning
Under burning

Low Temperature
Rapid Zone Passage

Over burning

High Temperature
Slow zone passage at
high To
Reduced

Atmosphere
3) Cooling
Cooling rate

Very high (quenching)


Slow
Very slow

High porosity (homogenous), much free lime dispensed, poorly


shaped minute alite crystals.
Heterogeneous porosity, belite separated from lime by a thin alite
streak.
Low porosity, large alite and small pointe alite crystals,
ferroaluminate needles, amoeboid belite
Large fused alite crystals (cannibalism)
Ferroaluminate inclusions in alite, and lime on pore edges.
Aluminates and ferroaluminates highly intermingles, fissured
belite, and periclase in small crystals.
Good separation between aluminates and ferroaluminates, belite
borders around alite.
Belite shredded, spongy and mono striated, belite and periclase
linkage even in clinker having less than 2% MgO.

b) Parameters Having an Impact on the Crystal Size


Diameter reduction (m )

alite :

belite :

10
8
6
4
2
0
+ 0,4% 1
Sol.Na O
2

Equiv.

1
-1%1
Norm al
Exc SO 3 ./ hard
T ot. alk.
burning

+1
1%
Free CaO

+1
4%
C 3A

3.11
Rev. 2002

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

6. 10 Basic Facts on Clinker


Warning: Here, MPa are French standard (1.45 French MPa= 1 US/Can MPa)
1) Raw mix rejects
The reduction of raw mix rejects reduces the burning temperature and the cement
grinding energy:
100 m R in raw mix: 20%
10% - 4 kWh/t on both raw mix & cement
grinding.
This is particularly the case for siliceous rejects. This action is also rather favorable
to strengths.
2) Heat profile
A short profile helps grindability and strength development. Slow cooling adversely
affects strengths and workability.
Clinkering level: 30 min. 60 min. - 3 to - 10 MPa in the laboratory.
3) Burning
Production uniformity requires an oxidizing atmosphere because a reducing
atmosphere
atmosphere promotes volatilization "cyclic" operation, sulfate and alkali
fluctuations, thus a non uniform clinker:
SO3 variation in clinker from 1 to 4 % variation in % alkali sulfates
possibility of large strength variations at 1 day.
4) Free lime content An increase in clinker free lime content reduces both initial and final setting times
+ 1 % free CaO - 50 min on average (- 10 - 100 min depending on
clinker).
Similarly, the addition of lime shortens both initial and final setting time.
5) Clinker C 3 S
An increase in clinker C 3 S content (to the detriment of C 2 S ) improves strengths at
content
1, 2, 3 and 7 days:
+ 10% C 3 S + 2 to + 5 MPa
At 28 days, the increase is less noticeable since there is also a contribution from
C2 S .
6) Clinker C 2 S
At constant Blaine specific surface, grinding energy increases with C 2 S content.
content
Inversely it reduces with an increase in C 3 S :
7)
8)

9)

Clinker alkali
content
Clinker alkalies
and sulfates

Alkali saturation

10) Excess Sulfate /


alkalies

+ 10 % C2S + 5 kWh/t for 350 m2/kg SSB


Alkalies always work against 28-day strengths no matter what form they are:
+ 0.1 % Na2O equiv. - 1 MPa
At optimum sulfate content for early ages, soluble alkalies, in particular in the form
of sulfates, improve early strengths:
+ 0.1 % Na2O equiv. + 0.5 1.5 MPa
Strengths improve with an increase in the C 3 A content.
Alkali molar saturation by clinker SO3 facilitates control over workability:
Alkali saturation water demand and fluidity and early-age fc.
If clinker SO3 is increased beyond alkali molar saturation, a clinker fineness and
grinding energy increase can be observed.
+ 1 % excess SO3 + 4 to 5 kWh/t.

3.12
Rev. 2002

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

7. Raw Mix & Clinker Uniformity


7.1 TYTP Indicators
KFUI =

1
N

i =1

(C 3 S i C 3 ST )2
N

Target: Lafarge Corp < 10, Group < 14

(C3 S i C3 S average )2

CUI .(clkC 3S ) =

SO3
KSUI =
100

fCaO.UI =

1 + x SO3

1
N

i =1

Target < 16
Target < 10

fCaO

Target < 1

0.1 + 0.2 x fCaO3

KFUI measures the ability to follow a raw mix C3S target. Clinker uniformity indicators measure the
variation from an average.
Use first scheduled grab sample per day, with no calculation if there is less than 10 days production.
Exception: Lafarge Corp. recommends KFUI calculation based on all samples.
Indicators are calculated on a monthly and annual (12-month rolling average) basis for kiln main product
only. The 12MRA KFUI is an average of the monthly results weighted by clinker tonnage, while clinker
12MRAs use 12-month variances and averages (C3S, SO3, f-CaO).
Combining indices for an aggregate plant index is done by weighting clinker tonnage.

7.2 Lafarge Corp Results

BTH
BFD
ESW
KAM
RMD
SEA
STC
WSK
All CDN
ALP
DAV
FDA
JPA
PDG
SCK
WHL
All U.S.
All N.A.

Kiln Pf
1998
86.1
87.7
94.7
91.5
79.0

>98% SUI <2.0 KFUI


1999 1998 1999 1998
82.3 1.8
1.4 12.0
95.1 1.5
2.8 14.0
100.2 1.6
1.9
8.2
95.4 2.5
2.1 19.9
82.6 2.2
1.9
7.7
93.5
91.9 1.0
1.4
7.6
90.6
89.0 1.7
1.5
6.9
91.1
92.8 1.6
1.6
9.8
89.0
96.2 1.8
2.0 14.0
94.8
98.1 2.1
2.0 11.2
87.7
2.5 10.0
101.0 101.4 2.9
88.0 2.2
2.7 10.1
95.8
92.1 2.0
3.2
4.1
85.8
88.3 3.4
2.7 13.3
90.9
98.0 2.9
2.0
8.9
95.8
94.8 2.2
2.3 11.4
93.3
93.9 2.0
2.0 10.8
91.6

<10
1999
11.8
12.4
6.8
13.3
18.3
19.2
12.6
5.7
11.5
11.6
9.5
14.3
20.8
5.4
18.7
7.6
12.4
12.0

KSUI
1998
14.1
9.5
7.1
6.2
13.2
15.0
12.2
12.0
19.1
11.8
15.5
27.8
19.9
23.4
16.1
19.0
16.2

<10 Idx F.L. <1.0 CUI <16


1999 1998 1999 1998 1999
13.0
0.7
0.9 17.9 12.3
10.3
2.8
0.9 15.3 21.4
7.2
1.0
1.2
4.8
4.9
11.1
4.4
2.1
4.9
6.5
10.3
3.4
2.2 16.0 17.9
17.8
3.3
23.3
17.2
1.4
1.3 15.0 7.1
12.3
1.5
1.6
5.8
6.7
11.9
1.4
1.4 12.5 10.6
19.7
2.5
2.0 23.4 11.9
14.4
0.9
0.9 15.4 16.0
15.5
2.6
2.5 11.4 15.9
24.1
2.3
1.9 18.8 23.7
22.2
2.1
2.6 13.7 16.7
27.4
4.1
3.6 24.5 41.4
17.4
1.4
1.5
9.3
5.7
19.8
2.2
2.0 18.4 16.4
16.3
1.9
1.7 16.1 13.8

3.13
Rev. 2002

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

8. ASTM Standards
Comparison of Portland Cement Specifications
Updated - Nov. 21, 2000
CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS

ASTM

NORMAL
(I/10)
AASHTO

MODERATE (II/20)
CSA

ASTM

AASHTO

Si02, min., %

20.0
6.0

ASTM

AASHTO

CSA (a)

CSA

SULFATE RESISTAT
(V/50)
ASTM
AASHTO
CSA

6.0

Fe203, max., %

CSA

LOW HEAT
(IV/40)
ASTM
AASHTO

20.0

Al203, max., %

HIGH EARLY (III/30)

6.0

Mg0, max., %

6.0

6.5

6.5

6.0

6.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

5.0
2.5

S03, max. % when:


C3A is 8% (7.5% for CSA) or less

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.5

3.5

3.5

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.3

2.3

C3A is more than 8% (7.5% for CSA)

3.5

3.5

3.5

(g)

(g)

(g)

4.5

4.5

4.5

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

Loss On Ignition, max., %

3.0

3.0

3.0 (e)

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0 (e)

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

Insoluble Residue, max., %

0.75

0.75

1.5

0.75

0.75

0.7

0.75

0.75

1.5

0.7

0.75

0.75

0.7

5.5

5 (k)

5 (k)

3.5

C3S, max., %

0.75

C2S, min., %

0.75

35 (h)

55

35 (h)

40 (h)

C3A, max., % (d)

0.60 (b)

0.60 (b)

40 (h)

15

15

7 (h)

7 (h)

0.60 (b)

0.60 (b)

0.60 (b)

0.60 (b)

7.5

(C4AF+2(C3A), or
(C4AF+C2F) as applicable, max., %
Na20+0.658 K20, max. %

25 (k)
0.60 (b)

0.60 (b)

Limestone, max., %

5 (a)

25 (k)

0.60 (b)

0.60 (b)

5 (a)

Comparison of Portland Cement Specifications


Updated - Nov. 21, 2000
ASTM

NORMAL
(I/10)
AASHTO

Min. value, any one sample,


m2/kg
Max. value, any one sample,
m2/kg
Air Permeability Test (n):

160

150

Min. value, any one sample,


m2/kg
Max. value, any one sample,
m2/kg
Average value, min., m2kg

280

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS

CSA

ASTM

MODERATE
(II/20)
AASHTO
CSA

ASTM

HIGH EARLY
(III/30)
AASHTO
CSA (a)

ASTM

LOW HEAT
(IV/40)
AASHTO
CSA

ASTM

SULFATE RESISTAT
(V/50)
AASHTO
CSA

Wagner Turbidimeter (n):


160

230

260

150

160

230

280

260

150

160

230

280

260

150
230

280

260

420

420

420

420

280

280

280

280

3.14

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM
Average value max., m2/kg

SECTION 3 QUALITY

400

Minimum Passing 45um Sieve, %


Soundness (autoclave expansion),
max.,%
Time of Setting (o):

400
72

400

400

72

72

0.80

0.80

1.0

0.80

0.80

1.0

0.80

0.80

1.0

0.80

0.80

1.0

0.80

0.80

1.0

Minimum not less than, min.

45

45

45

45

45

60

45

45

45

45

45

90

45

45

60

Maximum not more than, min.

375

375

360

375

375

360

375

375

250

375

375

360

375

375

360

Vicat Test -

Gillmore Test Int. set, not less than, min.

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

Fin. set, not more than, min.

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

600

Air Content of Mortar (i), max.,


volume %
Comressive Strength, psi (MPa):

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

1740
(12.0)

1800 (12.4)

1-day minimum
1-day maximum

13.5 MPa
36 MPa (v)

3-day minimum

1740(12.0 1800 (12.4)

3-day maximum
7-day minimum

2760(19.0 2800 (19.3)

7-day maximum
28-day minimum
28-day maximum
28-day, C.V., max., %

14.5
MPa
32.5
MPa
20.0
MPa
40.0
MPa
26.5
MPa
51.0
MPa
8

1450(10.0)

2470(12.0)

1500(10.3)

2500 (17.2)

14.5
MPa
32.5
MPa
20.0
MPa
40.0
MPa
26.5
MPa
51.0
MPa
8

3480(20.0) 3500 (24.1)

24.0 MPa

8.5 MPa 1160(8.0) 1200 (12.3)

14.5 MPa

2180(15.0) 2200 (15.1)

32.5 MPa
(v)
20.0 MPa

43.0 MPa
(v)
1020(7.0)

38.0 MPa

1000 (6.9)

2470(17.0) 2500 (17.2)

25.0
MPa

3050
(21.0)

3000 (20.7)

60.0 MPa
(v)

51.0 MPa
(v)
8

91-day minimum

40.0 MPa
(v)
26.5 MPa

33.0
MPa

Heat of Hydration:
7-day,

max.,

kJ/kg

290 (70)
(p)

(cal/g)
28-day, max., kJ/kg
(cal/g)
Paste False Set (early stiffening),
min., %
Sulfate Expansion, (j):
14-day, max. %

50 (x)

50 (x)

0.020

0.020

290(70) (p)

50 (x)

0.020

50 (x)

0.020

0.020

300 (s)

50 (x)

0.020

50 (v)

0.020

0.020

250 (60)
(q)
290 (70)
(q)
50 (v)

0.020

250 (60)
290 (70)

0.020

0.020

275

50 (v)

50 (v)

0.020

50 (v)

0.020

0.020

0.040 (t)

0.040 (t)

Sulfate Resistance:
14-day, max., %

0.050 (s)

0.035

3.15

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

Foot notes on Comparison of Portland Cement Specifications


(a)

CSA A5 recognizes the existence of an optimum carbonate addition for some Portland cements. Therefore, a maximum of 5% addition of
limestone is permitted for Type 10 and Type 30 cement.

(b)

This optional limit may be specified when the cement is to be used in concrete with aggregates that may be deleteriously reactive.

(d)
(e)

For C3A calculation, ASTM, AASHTO and CSA use Al2O3 only without TiO2 and P2O5.
A loss on ignition of 3.5% is allowed for Type 10 and Type 30 Portland cements provided that such cements when tested in accordance with
the CSA Standard, but at a furnace temperature of 550oC, show a loss in mass of no more than 3.0%.

(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(n)

The optional limit for heat of hydration shall not be requested when this optional limit is specified.
Not applicable.
Does not apply when the heat of hydration limit is specified.
ASTM & AASHTO allow 16-22% air in Types IA, IIA, IIIA.
Required if SO3 exceeds the table limits.
Does not apply when the sulfate resistance limit is specified.
Either of the two alternative fineness methods may be used at the option of the testing laboratory. However, in the case of ASTM, the
turbidimeter is the referee method; average value shall be determined on the last consecutive five samples from a source.

(o)

The purchaser should specify the type of setting time test required. In case he does not so specify, the requirements of the Vicat test only
shall govern; CSA only specifies Vicat test.
The optional limit for the sum of the C3S and C3A shall not be requested when this optional limit is requested. These strength requirements
apply when either heat of hydration or the sum of C3S and C3A requirements are requested.

(p)

(q)
When heat of hydration limit is specified, it shall be instead of the limits of C3S, C2S and C3A.
(s)
The requirement of either heat of hydration or sulfate resistance may be specified at the option of the purchaser.
(t)
Optional, it shall be instead of the limits of C3A and C4AF+2C3A.
(v)
This value indicates requirement to be specified at the option of the purchaser.
CTS - Products and Quality,
Nov. 21, 2000

3.16

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM
ASTM Optional Physical Requirements
Cement Type
Fineness Max for AASHTO **
Wagner
Blaine
False set final penetration min (%)
Heat of hydration
7 days max (Ical/g)
28 days max (cal/g)
Compressive strength min (psi)
28 days

Ia

II

4000
2200
50

50

4000
2200
50

50

70
-

70
-

4000

3200

Sulphate expansion 14 days max (%)

IIa

III

IIIa

IV

50

50

4000
2200
50

4000
2200
50

60
70

0.045

4000 3200
3200* 2560*
-

Apply when either the heat of hydration or C3S + C3A are specified.

**

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

ASTM Standard Physical Requirements


Cement Type
Air content of motar
Max %
Min %
Fineness min
Turbidimeter (m2/kg)
Air permeab (m2/kg)
Compressive strength min (psi)
1 day
3 day
7 days
28 days
Setting time
GilmoreInitial set min (min)
Final set max (h)
VicatInitial set min (min)
Final set max (h)

I
12
-

Ia
22
16

II
12
-

IIa
22
16

III
12
-

IIIa
22
16

IV
12
-

V
12
-

160
280

160
280

160
280

160
280

160
280

160
280

1800

1450

1450
2800

1200

2250
-

1200
800*
2000
1350
-

1800
3500

2800
-

1500
1000*
2500
1700
-

1000

2200

2500

3000

60
10
45
8

60
10
45
8

60
10
45
8

60
10
45
8

60
10
45
8

60
10
45
8

60
10
45
8

60
10
45
8

When optional heat of hydration or chemical limit on C3S + C3A is specified.

ASTM Optional Chemical Requirements


I
Ia
-

II
Iia
-

III
IIIa
8

IV
Iva
-

V
Va
-

C3 S

High sulphate resistance

C3 A + C3 S

58

Moderate heat of hydration

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

Cement Type

C3 A

Na2O + 0.658 K 2O

Remarks
Moderate sulphate resistance

0.60 Low-alkali cement

3.17

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

Comparison of Blended Hydraulic Cement Specifications


ASTM C-1157-94a and C-595-94a, AASHTO M240-92, and CSA-A362-93
10/27/94
CEMENT TYPE
Slag content, %

ASTM C-1157-94a
GU

HE

MS

HS

ASTM C-595-94a
MH

LH

L(SM)

IS

<25

25-70

AASHTO M240-92

>70

Pozzolan content, %

L(PM)

15-40

I(SM)

IS

<25
<15

IP

25-70

CSA-A362-93

>70

>40?

L(PM)

15-40

10SM

10S

<25
<15

IP

25-70

10F

<15

>40?

10FM

15-40

Silica fume content, %

10SF

<10

CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS
SiO2, min., %

Al 2O3, max., %

CaO, max., %

6.0

6.0

6.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

4.0 (d)

4.0 (d)

4.0 (d)

4.0 (d)

4.0 (d)

4.0 (d)

MgO, max., %
SO3, max., %

3.0 (d)

3.0 (d)

4.0 (d)

3.0 (d)

3.0 (d)

4.0 (d)

5.0
3.0 (e)

3.0 (e)

Sulfide S, max, %

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

Insoluble Residue, max., %

1.0

1.0

4.0

1.0

1.0

4.0

1.0

5.0

3.0 (e)

3.0 (e)

4.5

6.0

3.5

2.0

Loss On Ignition, max., %

5.0

3.0 (e)

1.0

Water Soluble Alkali, max., %

0.03 (l)

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

0.03 (l)

3.18

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

Comparison of Blended Hydraulic Cement Specifications (continued)


ASTM C-1157-94a and C-595-94a, AASHTO M240-92, and CSA-A362-93
10/27/94
CEMENT TYPE
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Air permeability test:
Max. retained on 45m Sieve, %
Autoclave contraction, max., %
Autoclave contraction, max., %
Time of Setting:
Vicat test Minimum not less than, min.
Maximum not more than, h.
Air content of mortar, max., volume
%
Compressive Strength, min., MPa
(psia):
1-day
3-day
7-day
28-day

Heat of hydration:
7-day, max., kJ/kg (cal/g)

287-day, max., kJ/kg (cal/g)

Paste false set (early stiffening),


min, %
Water requirement, max, wt.% of
cement
Drying shrinkage, max., %

ASTM C-1157-94a
MS
HS
MH

GU

HE

b
b

b
b

b
b

b
b

0.80
0.80

0.80
0.80

0.80
0.80

45
7
b

45
7
b

45
7
b

ASTM C-595-94a
S
L(PM)
IP

LH

L(SM)

IS

b
b

b
b

b
b

b
b

b
b

b
b

0.80
0.80

0.80
0.80

0.80
0.80

0.80
0.20

0.80
0.20

0.80
0.20

45
7
b

45
7
b

45
7
b

45
7
12

45
7
12

45
7
12

AASHTO M240-92
S
L(PM)
IP

I(SM)

IS

b
b

b
b

b
b

b
b

b
b

b
b

0.80
0.20

0.80
0.20

0.80
0.20

0.50
0.20

0.50
0.20

0.50
0.20

45
7
12

45
7
12

45
7
12

45
7
12

45
7
12

45
7
12

CSA-A362-93
10S 10FM 10F

10SF

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

24.0

0.50
0.20

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

45
7
12

45
6

45
8

45
6

45
8

45
6

12.0

9.0

12.0

9.0

12.0

18.0

15.0

18.0

15.0

13.0

26.0

26.0
(j)

26.0

26.0
(j)

26.0

10SM

b
b

b
b

0.50
0.20

0.50
0.20

45
7
12

45
7
12

12
(1740)
12
24
10
8
7
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
(1740) (3480) (1450) (1160) (1015)
(1800) (1800)
(1800) (1800)
(1800) (1800)
(1800) (1800)
20
17
15
12
7
19.3
19.3
4.1
19.3
19.3
10.3
19.3
19.3
4.1
19.3
19.3
10.3
(2900)
(2465) (2175) (1740) (1015) (2800) (2800) (600) (2800) (2800) (1500) (2800) (2800) (600) (2800) (2800) (1500)
28
28
20
22
17
24.1
24.1
10.3
24.1
24.1
20.7
24.1
24.1
10.3
24.1
24.1
20.7
(4060)
(4060) (2900) (3190) (2465) (3500) (3500) (1500) (3500) (3500) (3000) (3500) (3500) (1500) (3500) (3500) (3000)
(m)
(m)
(m)
290
(70)

250
(60)
290
(70)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

251
(60)
(f)
293
(70)
(f)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

293
(70)
(f)
335
(80)
(f)

251
(60)
(f)
293
(70)
(f)

64

300
(g)

64

0.15

300
(g)

0.15

3.19

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING


VADE-MECUM

SECTION 3 QUALITY

Comparison of Blended Hydraulic Cement Specifications (continued)


ASTM C-1157-94a and C-595-94a, AASHTO M240-92, and CSA-A362-93
10/27/94
CEMENT TYPE

GU

HE

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Mortar expansion(I):
14-day, max. %
8-week, max. %
Sulfate resistance at 6 months:
Moderate resistance, max., %

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

High resistance, max., %

ASTM C-1157-94a
MS
HS
MH

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

0.10
0.05

0.020
0.060

LH

L(SM)

IS

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

ASTM C-595-94a
S
L(PM)
IP

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

AASHTO M240-92
S
L(PM)
IP

I(SM)

IS

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

0.020
0.060

10SM

CSA-A362-93
10S 10FM 10F

10SF

0.020
0.060
0.10(k 0.10(k 0.10(k 0.10(k 0.10(k
)
)
)
)
)
0.05(k 0.05(k 0.05(k 0.05(k 0.05(k
)
)
)
)
)

Sulfate resistance at 1 year:


Moderate resistance, max., %
High resistance, max., %
0.10
(a)
Any amount of SO3 up to the maximum amount that causes an expansion of 0.020% at 14 days of water immersion when tested by C 1038.
(b)
No limit, but test results shall be reported on all certificates requested from the manufacturer.
(c)
If the purchaser has requested the manufacturer to state in writing the composition of the blended cement purchased, the composition of the cement furnished shall conform to that shown in the statement within the
tolerances of +/-3% for SiO2 and CaO, and +/-2% for Al2O3.
(d)
When optimum SO3 tested by C563 exceeds a value 0.5% less than the specified limit, and additional amount of SO3 is permissible provided that, when the cement with the additional calcium sulfate is tested by
C265, the calcium sulfate in the hydrated mortar at 24+/-0.25 h, expressed as SO3, does not exceed 0.50g/L. When the manufacturer supplies cement under this provision, he will, upon request, supply supporting data
to the purchaser.
(e)
This limit may be exceeded provided that the cement exhibits expansion not in excess of 0.020% at 14 days when tested in accordance with Clause 7.5.5 of CSA-A5.
(f)
Applicable only when moderate (MH) or low (LH) heat of hydration is specified, in which case the strength requirements shall be 80% of the values shown in the table.
(g)
Applicable at the purchasers option, when moderate heat of hydration is required, the heat of hydration shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C186. Errors in C186 test can occur when testing blended
hydraulic cements, due to the effect of oxidation of sulfides in slags or loss on ignition or due to incomplete solubility of fly ash or silica fume in nitric acid. The magnitude of these errors is unknown at this time.
(i)
To be applied only at the purchasers request and should not be requested unless the cement will be used with alkali-reactive aggregate.
(j)
When moderate heat of hydration is required, the minimum 28-day strength requirements shall be 80% of the value shown and the 91-day strength shall be a minimum of 26.0 MPa.
(k)
Applicable at purchasers option. The sulfate resistance shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1012. If expansion is greater than 0.05% at 6 months but less than 0.10% at one year, then the cement will
be considered to be high sulfate resistance.
(l)
Applicable only when the cement is specified to be nonstaining to limestone.
(m)
Optional.
CTS Products and Quality, October 27, 1994

3.20