0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

10 Aufrufe8 Seitens,s,s,s,

Jun 05, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

s,s,s,s,

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

10 Aufrufe

s,s,s,s,

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Protect and Defend: A Thriller
- A Hundred Summers
- Walking Disaster: A Novel
- The Day the World Came to Town: 9/11 in Gander, Newfoundland
- The Worst Hard Time: The Untold Story of Those Who Survived the Great American Dust Bowl
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Beginning of Everything
- Fault Lines
- Island of the Lost: An Extraordinary Story of Survival at the Edge of the World
- The Fireman: A Novel
- Indianapolis: The True Story of the Worst Sea Disaster in U.S. Naval History and the Fifty-Year Fight to Exonerate an Innocent Man
- Shock Wave
- Smoke Screen: A Novel
- Ilium
- The First Hostage: A J. B. Collins Novel
- Anathem
- The Girl Who Came Home: A Novel of the Titanic
- Restore Me

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

ASSESSING THE 3D IRREGULAR SPEAR BUILDING WITH

NONLINEAR STATIC PROCEDURES

R. Pinho

1

, R. Bento

2

, C. Bhatt

2

1

Dept. of Structural Mechanics, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia 27100, Italy

2

Instituto Superior Tcnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

2

Email: rui.pinho@unipv.it, rbento@civil.ist.utl.pt, cbhatt@civil.ist.utl.pt

ABSTRACT

The employment of Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSP) in the seismic assessment of existing structures (or

design verification of new ones) has gained considerable popularity in the recent years, backed by a large

number of extensive verification studies that have demonstrated its relatively good accuracy in estimating the

seismic response of buildings that are regular in plan (and hence can be analysed by means of planar 2D frame

models). The extension of such use to the case of plan-irregular structures, however, has so far been the object

of only restricted scrutiny, which effectively ends up by limiting significantly the employment of NSPs to

assess actual existing structures, the majority of which do tend to be irregular in plan. In this work, therefore,

four commonly employed nonlinear static procedures (CSM, N2, MPA, ACSM) are applied in the assessment

of the well-known SPEAR building, an irregular 3D structure tested in full-scale under pseudo-dynamic

conditions, and subjected to bi-direction seismic loading. Comparison with the results obtained with nonlinear

dynamic analysis of a verified model of the structure then enables the evaluation of the accuracy of the different

NSPs.

KEYWORDS: Seismic assessment, 3D irregular SPEAR building, Nonlinear Static Procedures

1. INTRODUCTION

The extension of the use of Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSP) to the case of plan-irregular structures has so far

been the object of only restricted scrutiny (Chopra and Goel, 2004; Fajfar et al., 2005; Moghadam and Tso,

2000; Penelis and Kappos, 2002), which effectively ends up by limiting significantly the employment of NSPs

to assess actual existing structures, the majority of which do tend to be irregular in plan. In addition, such few

studies have typically concentrated on the application and verification of a single NSP approach, thus not

providing useful elements of comparison between the different methodologies available.

In this work, therefore, four commonly employed nonlinear static procedures (CSM, N2, MPA, ACSM) are

applied in the assessment of the well-known SPEAR building, an irregular 3D structure tested in full-scale

under pseudo-dynamic conditions, and subjected to bi-direction seismic loading. Comparison with the results

obtained with nonlinear dynamic analysis of a verified model of the structure then enables the evaluation of the

accuracy of the different NSPs.

2. CASE STUDY THE SPEAR BUILDING

The building selected for the current work is the so-called SPEAR building built to full-scale and then tested

within the European research project SPEAR (Fardis and Negro, 2006), so as to represent typical old

The 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

constructions in Southern Europe without specific provisions for earthquake resistance. Its geometry and all the

issues concerned with modelling and modelling validation are described in a poster presentation entitled

Modelling of the horizontal slab of a 3D irregular building for nonlinear static assessment (Bhatt et al., 2008),

also presented in this conference.

2.1. Dynamic Properties

The modal properties, in terms of periods and effective modal mass percentages, of the SPEAR building are

reported in Table 2.1, attesting the torsion-dominated characteristics of this structure; no pure translational

modes are present, the response of the building cannot be reasonably evaluated using separate 2D models for

each orthogonal direction.

Table 2.1 Periods and effective modal mass percentages

Translation mode along X Translation mode along Y Torsional mode

T

[sec]

UX (%) UY (%)

T

[sec]

UX (%) UY (%)

T

[sec]

UX (%) UY (%)

1st modes 0.62 60.47 7.82 0.44 3.14 31.60 0.53 23.48 42.98

2nd modes 0.22 7.41 0.77 0.14 0.35 7.86 0.18 2.82 3.91

3. NUMERICAL STUDY - DESCRIPTION

3.1. Seismic Action

In this study, seven bi-directional semi-artificial ground motion records from the SPEAR project were

considered (Table 3.1); these had been fitted to the EC8 elastic design spectrum (Type 1 soil C). The ground

motions were scaled for intensity levels of peak ground accelerations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3g. For the NSPs

the response spectra used are the median of the response spectra defined, compatible with the accelerograms

adopted (Figure 1).

Table 3.1 Ground motion records considered (Fardis and Negro, 2006).

Earthquake Name Station Name

Imperial Valley 1979 Bonds Corner

Loma Prieta 1989 Capitola

Kalamata 1986 Kalamata Prefecture

Montenegro 1979 Herceg Novi

Friuli 1976 Tolmezzo

Montenegro 1979 Ulcinj2

Imperial Valley 1940 El Centro Array #9

3.2. Considered Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs)

As mentioned above, the accuracy of existing NSPs in assessing the seismic response of the irregular SPEAR

building is herein scrutinised through a comparison with the results of incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis.

The NSPs may be split into two main groups.

The first set of NSPs comprises the pioneering Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM), introduced by Freeman and

collaborators (1975 and 1998) and implemented in ATC-40 guidelines (1996), and the equally innovative N2

method suggested by Fajfar and co-workers (1988 and 2000) and later included in Eurocode 8 (CEN, 2005).

These first proposals are characterised by their simplicity and usually consider a first mode and/or uniform load

The 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

0.00

50.00

100.00

150.00

200.00

250.00

300.00

350.00

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

T (sec.)

disp. (mm)

EC8

Compatible X

Compatible Y

Figure 1 Median displacement spectra compatible with the accelerograms used for 0.2g

distributions in computation of the pushover/capacity curve. Each one of these two approaches was considered

in two modalities; N2/Extended N2 and CSM-ATC40/CSM-FEMA440. The Extended N2 method (Fajfar et al.,

2005) consists of an extension to the 3D space of the original N2 method, whilst the CSM-FEMA440 variant

features the improved MDOF-to-SDOF transformation rules given in the FEMA-440 report (ATC, 2005).

The second group features the more recent proposals of Chopra and Goel (2002 and 2004) on a Modal

Pushover Analysis (MPA), of Kalkan and Kunnath (2006) who propose an Adaptive Modal Combination

Procedure (AMCP) and of Casarotti et al. (2007) introducing the Adaptive Capacity Spectrum Method

(ACSM). All of them present improvements with respect to their predecessors, such as the inclusion of higher

modes contribution, the consideration of progressive damage, and alternative definitions of reference node; the

latter can result very opportune in 3D analysis. Unfortunately, however, time constraints did not allow the

authors to develop an adaptive pushover algorithm that would consider each single higher mode in independent

fashion, for which reason no results for the AMCP method will be given in the subsequent sections, most

regrettably.

3.3. Structural analyses carried out

Two types of pushover analyses were carried out: the so-called conventional force pushover and the

Displacement-based Adaptive (DAP) pushover algorithm (Antoniou and Pinho, 2004). For the former, lateral

forces were applied to the structure in the form of two load patterns, uniform and modal. In the latter case, the

displacements were applied on all mass nodes of the structure and spectral scaling was considered. In both

cases, the force/displacement loads were applied independently in the two horizontal positive/negative

directions. For each of the resulting eight loading cases, the target displacement was evaluated with the larger

value in each direction being chosen.

For the nonlinear dynamic analysis, the aforementioned seven bidirectional semi-artificial ground motion

records were employed in 4 different configurations: X+Y+, X+Y-, X-Y-, X-Y+. The results in terms of top

displacements, interstorey drifts and top rotation in the two directions were calculated and compared for all

seismic intensity levels, and for all nonlinear static (N2, Extended N2, MPA, CSM-ATC40, CSM-FEMA440,

ACSM) and dynamic analysis methods.

4. NUMERICAL STUDY - RESULTS

The results obtained in the performed analyses are presented in this section. The monitored nodes are

schematically represented in Figure 2, where SE represents the stiff edge, FE the flexible edge and CM the

centre of mass. A central node corresponding to the central column, was named as node C.

The 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

Figure 2 Monitored nodes

The preliminary comparison between the N2 and the Extended N2 methods showed clearly that the latter leads

to better response predictions, hence all subsequent N2 results will refer to this approach (termed also as N2

torsion). Similarly, the CSM-FEMA440 proved also to be a much improved version with respect to its

CSM-ATC40 predecessor, and was thus adopted on all subsequent stages of the work.

4.1. Pushover curves

Exemplificatively, some of the obtained pushover curves are plotted in Figure 3 against the median dynamic

analysis results; (i) maximum top floor displacement against maximum base shear (max Displ vs. max BS) in a

given direction independent of time at which they occur, (ii) maximum base shear against the corresponding, in

time, displacement value (Displ vs. max BS), (iii) maximum displacement against the corresponding base shear

(max Displ vs. BS).

0.00

100.00

200.00

300.00

400.00

500.00

600.00

0 50 100 150

d (mm)

Base Shear

(kN)

Modal -

Uniforme -

Max d vs. Corres. BS

Max d vs. Max BS

Corres. d vs. Max BS

DAP -

0 50 100 150

d (mm)

Modal + Uniforme +

Max d vs. Corres BS Max d vs. Max BS

Corres d vs. Max BS DAP +

Figure 3 Pushover curves in X and Y direction

The pushover curves for the X direction are quite similar in the positive and negative direction. Some

differences were on the other hand found in the Y direction, mainly due to the behaviour of column C6. From

the results obtained it is also possible to notice that, in general the pushover curves fall close to the time-history

points max Displ vs. max BS, Displ vs. max BS and max Displ vs. BS.

The 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

4.2. NSP/Dynamic analysis prediction ratios

A good manner in which to get a quick overview of how the different NSPs perform is to compute ratios of the

values obtained with the latter for different response parameters and the corresponding median estimates

coming from the dynamic analysis (Casarotti et al., 2007); clearly, ideally one would hope such ratios to tend to

unity.

In Figure 4, such ratios are given for the top displacements in the Y direction, at the FE, SE and CM locations,

being readily observed that, in general, all NSPs lead to reasonably close predictions at the Centre of Mass. For

the Flexible and Stiff Edges, on the other hand, the performance of the different methods is not consistent

throughout the entire set of intensities, though perhaps one may identify the N2 and ACSM approaches as being

those that lead to better response estimates. In general, all the NSPs lead to non-conservative values. The

exception is the ACSM, for almost all the seismic intensity levels. Similar ratios were computed for other

response quantities, such as interstorey drift, base shears, all in both X and Y directions, leading to similar

observations and conclusions.

SE

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30

IntensityLevel (g)

CM

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30

IntensityLevel (g)

FE

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30

IntensityLevel (g)

CSM FEMA

N2 t ors i on MPA ACSM

Figure 4 Top displacements in the Y direction

The 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

4.3. Torsional rotation

In order to appreciate how well a given method is reproducing the torsional response of the building structure, it

is customary to normalise the edge displacement values with respect to those of the centre of mass.

Exemplificatively, the X-direction torsional response for an intensity level of 0.1g and the Y-direction torsional

response for an intensity level of 0.2 g are shown in Figure 5, where it is noticed that the N2 and ACSM

approaches again seem to feature a slight advantage with respect to the other methods, even if then both

over-estimate significantly the Flexible Edge response of Figure 5(b).

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

SE CM FE

u/u

CM

N2 torsion

CSMFEMA

MPA

ACSM

THmedian

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

SE CM FE

u/u

CM

N2 torsion

CSMFEMA

MPA

ACSM

THmedian

(a) X direction, intensity 0.1g (b) Y direction, intensity 0.2g

Figure 5 Normalized displacements at the top of the building

4.4. Storey drifts

A final insight into the prediction of the local response by the different approaches can be obtained through the

inspection of the storey drifts profiles given by the different NSPs. In Figure 6, in the previous page, it is

therefore observed that all methods manage to correctly reproduce the correct response mechanism for intensity

levels of 0.05g, 0.10g and 0.20g. However, the ACSM is the only method able to lead to conservative results.

This latter response parameter seems to confirm once again that from an overall viewpoint all Nonlinear Static

Procedures tend to lead to similar results.

5. CONCLUSIONS

In the current endeavour, the effectiveness with which four commonly employed Nonlinear Static Procedures

(CSM, N2, MPA, ACSM) are able to reproduce the actual dynamic response of the well-known SPEAR

building was assessed. The comparisons with the results obtained with nonlinear dynamic analysis of a verified

model of the structure seemed to show that, overall, all NSPs tend to lead to reasonably satisfactory results.

In addition, it was also observed that the Adaptive Capacity Spectrum Method (ACSM) apparently managed to

follow slightly better the change of response characteristics with the increase of seismic intensity, most likely

because of the fact that such method uses:

an adaptive displacement pushover (DAP) that takes into account the stiffness degradation and the period

elongation by incrementally updating the applied lateral displacement pattern, and by considering the

influence of higher modes;

an equivalent SDOF structural displacement built on the current deformed pattern, avoiding any reference to

a specific structural node. This means that each location contributes to the equivalent system displacement at

that particular step, without reflecting any given (elastic or inelastic) invariant pattern.

The 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

X direction Y direction

0.05g

SE

0

1

2

3

0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008

Storey

C

0

1

2

3

0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008

Storey

0.10g

C

0

1

2

3

0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020

Storey

FE

0

1

2

3

0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020

Storey

0.2g

FE

0

1

2

3

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06

Storey

SE

0

1

2

3

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06

Storey

Figure 6 Storey drifts in nodes C, FE and SE for different intensity values

The results obtained in this study with the proposed static procedure seem to grant some validity in employing

pushover analysis in the context of performance-based seismic assessment of 3D irregular buildings. They also

seem to be in-line with similar studies carried out for plane frames (Pinho et al., 2008a) and bridges (Pinho et

al., 2008b). Nonetheless, given the preliminary nature of this study, it is obviously advocated that additional

work considering different 3D buildings must be carried out before any definitive conclusions and

recommendations might be made.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and

Technology (Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Portugal) through the research project

The 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

POCI/ECM/59306/2004 and through the PhD scholarship SFRH/BD/28447/2006 granted to Carlos Bhatt. In

addition, the authors would also like to note that part of the current work was carried out under the financial

auspices of the Italian Department of Civil Protection, through the 2005-2008 framework programme

established with the European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE).

REFERENCES

Antoniou S., Pinho R. (2004). Development and verification of a displacement-based adaptive pushover procedure,

Journal of Earthquake Engineering 8:5, 643-661.

Applied Technology Council (ATC) (2005). Improvement of Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures, FEMA 440

Report, Redwood City, CA.

Applied Technology Council (ATC) (1996). Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, vol. 1 and 2, Report

No. ATC-40, Redwood City, CA.

Bhatt C., Pinho R., Antoniou S., Bento R. (2008). Modelling of the Horizontal Slab of a 3D Irregular Building for

Nonlinear Static Assessment, Proceedings of the 14

th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China,

Paper no. 05-01-0159.

Casarotti C., Pinho R. (2007) An Adaptive Capacity Spectrum Method for assessment of bridges subjected to earthquake

action, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 5:3, 377-390.

Casarotti C., Bruno V.I., Pinho R. (2007). An Adaptive Capacity Spectrum Method for the assessment of reinforced

concrete buildings, Proceedings of the 12th Italian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Pisa, Italy, Paper no. 185.

(in Italian)

Chopra A.K., Goel R.K. (2002). A modal pushover analysis procedure for estimating seismic demands for buildings,

Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 31, 561-582.

Chopra A.K., Goel R.K. (2004). A modal pushover analysis procedure to estimate seismic demands for unsymmetric-plan

buildings, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 33, 903-927.

Comit Europen de Normalisation (CEN) (2005). Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance - Part 2:

Bridges, EN 1998-2, Brussels, Belgium.

Fajfar P. (2000). A nonlinear analysis method for performance-based seismic design, Earthquake Spectra 16:3, 573-592.

Fajfar P., Fischinger M. (1988). N2 A method for non-linear seismic analysis of regular buildings, Proceedings of the

Ninth World Conference in Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan, Vol. 5, 111-116.

Fajfar P., Marusic D., Perus I., 2005, Torsional effects in the pushover-based seismic analysis of buildings, Journal of

Earthquake Engineering 9:6, 831-854.

Fardis M.N., Negro P. (2006). SPEAR Seismic performance assessment and rehabilitation of existing buildings,

Proceedings of the International Workshop on the SPEAR Project, Ispra, Italy.

Freeman S.A. (1998). Development and use of capacity spectrum method, Proceedings of the Sixth U.S. National Conf.

Earthquake Engineering, Seattle, Oakland, USA.

Freeman S.A., Nicoletti J.P., Tyrell J.V. (1975). Evaluation of existing buildings for seismic risk A case study of Puget

Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington, Proceedings of U.S. National Conference on Earthquake

Engineering, Berkley, USA., pp. 113-122.

Kalkan E., Kunnath S.K. (2006). Adaptive Modal Combination Procedure for nonlinear static analysis of building

structures, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering 132:11, 1721-1731.

Moghadam A.S., Tso W.K. (2000). Pushover analysis for asymmetric and set-back multistorey buildings, Proceedings of

the 12th Word Conference in Earthquake Engineering, Upper Hutt, New Zealand, paper 1093.

Penelis G.G., Kappos A.J. (2002). 3D Pushover analysis: The issue of torsion, Proceedings of the 12th European

Conference on Earthquake Engineering, London, UK, paper 015.

Pinho R., Marques M., Monteiro R., Casarotti C. (2008a). Using the Adaptive Capacity Spectrum Method for seismic

assessment of irregular frames. Proceedings of the 5th European Workshop on the Seismic Behaviour of Irregular and

Complex Structures, Catania, Italy, Paper no. 21.

Pinho R., Monteiro R., Casarotti C., Delgado R. (2008b). Assessment of continuous span bridges through Nonlinear Static

Procedures. Earthquake Spectra, in press.

SeismoSoft (2006). SeismoStruct - A computer program for static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of framed structures.

Available online from URL: www.seismosoft.com.

- Thomas PaulayHochgeladen vontoma cristian
- Seismic Design Manual - Google SearchHochgeladen vonchondroc11
- CIE 619 Chapter 1 Introduction HandoutHochgeladen vonSahil Kaushik
- On the Analysis of Masonry Structures Without Box BehaviorHochgeladen vonozgur11
- 201133 Seismic Design of StructureaHochgeladen vonlmokhtar
- 490 NOTES CH 5*Hochgeladen vonJoseph Daguio Jr
- Performance Evaluation of Vertically Irregular Rc Frames Using Nonlinear Static ProceduresHochgeladen voncontrerasc_sebastian988
- Application and Assessment of Equivalent Linear Analysis Method for Conceptual Seismic Retrofit Design of Háros M0 Highway BridgeHochgeladen vonJózsef Simon
- Course Nonlinear L1B UAMHochgeladen vonVick Thor
- Provid Akis 2008Hochgeladen vonJosé Antonio Alarcón León
- 08-01-0038Hochgeladen vonRyan Rakhmat Setiadi
- Slides by FEMA-Structural Analysis for PerformanceHochgeladen vonPongpasin Kamolchavarat
- CAD33Hochgeladen vonVikram
- 20030108Hochgeladen vonGokul Krishnan K G
- 9781482271645_previewHochgeladen vonMichiel Angelo Albaladejo Peroja
- seismic.pdfHochgeladen vonElmer Freddy Torrico Rodriguez
- 02_Non-Linear Time History Analysis of Tall Steel Moment Frame Buildings in LS-DYNAHochgeladen vonAnonymous atZc0NC
- COMPARISON OF DAMAGE INDEXES IN NONLINEAR TIMEHochgeladen vonAsroy Benny Noor Harahap
- Ansys&Civilfem Pres01 IntroHochgeladen vonFurtado23
- CetHochgeladen vonroyal1414
- Earthquake and Best of CAEHochgeladen vonOkolo Obinna
- EFFECTIVE LOCATION OF SHEAR WALL ON PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING FRAME SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOAD.pdfHochgeladen vonaltaf_h5
- Effect of FRP wrapping in seismic performance of RC buildings with and without special detailing -A case study.pdfHochgeladen vonlangxuzeng
- Effect of FRP wrapping in seismic performance of RC buildings with and without special detailing – A case studyHochgeladen vonlangxuzeng
- Analysis of damping in earthquake response of cable-stayed bridges (Atkins, Wilson).pdfHochgeladen vonDiego Alejandro Sequera
- US-Chile Workshop Agenda v6-8.26.16.docxHochgeladen vondvegaucentral
- Coupled Wall Fox Sullivan BeyerHochgeladen vonmajmjud
- 13190.00 Long Beach City Hall Peer Review Summary.pdfHochgeladen von...?
- earthquakesHochgeladen vonJoseph Noonan
- Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect.pdfHochgeladen vonSATYAJIT PAL

- EDUCATION-WATER EMULSIONS IN SITU AND THEIR APPLICATION FOR WATER SHUT-IN PRODUCTION WELLSHochgeladen vonImpact Journals
- English BooksHochgeladen vonductility
- structural engineeringHochgeladen vonPrasad Ganesh Sansare
- 101 Taipei TowerHochgeladen vonductility
- 7 Stress TransformationsHochgeladen vonductility
- AssignmentHochgeladen vonductility
- 352_new_york_minutes_4-17-05.docHochgeladen vonductility
- Suggested BooksHochgeladen vonductility
- BooksHochgeladen vonductility
- 地震力量分散裝置於國道埔鹽系統交流道橋梁之應用 EnglishHochgeladen vonductility
- m2368 CalviHochgeladen vonJimmy Domingo
- Slab Overlapping With I-girder Top FlangeHochgeladen vonductility
- Column Stub DetailHochgeladen vonductility
- Anchorage Block SectionHochgeladen vonductility
- Write Theses TwoHochgeladen vonductility
- {002F3869-5232-4978-BDAB-4116F852C1BB}Hochgeladen vonductility
- Norma A47-A47M-99 (Reapproved 2009) Ferritic Malleable Iron CastingsHochgeladen vonj_maldonado_86
- Nonslender Wall by Chapter 14.5Hochgeladen vonductility
- 10NCEE-000988Hochgeladen vonductility
- All the Materials and Workmanship Shall Be According to the AASHTO Specifications and ASTM Standards Except Where Modified BelowHochgeladen vonductility
- 05invited SpeakersHochgeladen vonductility
- Quasi Static TestHochgeladen vonductility
- Beam EstimatHochgeladen vonductility

- NPQS C3-20 ReinforcementHochgeladen vonCasimir Ghee Heng Lim
- BondingHochgeladen vonmary
- EWS-T300-DHochgeladen vonFidan Daskalov
- Chapter7 Puente OkHochgeladen vonjairoculqui
- Istilah Inspeksi, Arsitektur, Dan Persyaratan KonstruksiHochgeladen vonBambangShr
- Br100s AllHochgeladen vongabemzaman
- Bridge Construction MethodsHochgeladen vonHendra Ginting
- 4 Commentary on Standard Practice for Design and Conbstruction of Concrete Silos and Stacking Tubes for Storing Granular Materials ACI 313-97Hochgeladen vonNikki Marlo Cruz
- Standard Data Book of Rates for Rural RoadHochgeladen vonDinesh Thokchom
- Design of Movable BridgesHochgeladen vonNandeesha Ramesh
- Experimental Analysis to Improve Strength and Durability of Cement Concrete With GGBSHochgeladen vonMilan Uljarevic
- Format for Joint Can Input FileHochgeladen vonTarek Abulail
- Reinforced Concrete DesignHochgeladen vonmortada Jasim
- Boston Big Dig Highway Tunnel Leak Assessment ReportHochgeladen vonWilliam R. Murrell, III
- Advantages of Prestressed ConcreteHochgeladen vonKuru
- Traditional HousesHochgeladen vonJe Mohamad
- Shri Sapre - Engineering Studies NotesHochgeladen vonYEH
- Handout 3 12Hochgeladen vonatac101
- Indiawarehousing Pre Engineered Buildings PebHochgeladen vonChetanDattani
- Reinforced ConcreteHochgeladen vonThan Ratha
- Structural NotesHochgeladen vonKent Francisco
- M.E. thesis Push over analysisHochgeladen vonAnonymous nwByj9L
- Strength Development and Prediction of GGBS ConcreteHochgeladen vonssi3k
- W1 en Anchor Selector Chart 4 2018Hochgeladen vonJuan Pablo González Carballo
- DS_EN 1999-1-1 DK NA_2007 EHochgeladen vonp_meulendijks108
- A Review of Design Specifications of Opening in the Web for Simply Supported RC Beamsopenings_in_web_of_rc_beams_amiri_et_al_2011_156Hochgeladen von01010
- Design and Plan of College Hostel Civil Engineering Project IdeasHochgeladen vonhimabindugvsd71
- Planning, Analyzing and Designing of Marriage Hall Building using STAAD ProHochgeladen vonAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Fibre Reinforced Slender ColumnsHochgeladen vonMatejO1
- Mix Design for FRCHochgeladen vonRaisul Islam Sunny

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.