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Biologists have identified about 1.3 million living species of animals, and estimates of the
total number of animal species run far higher, from 10 to 20 million to as many as 100 to
200 million.
The following characteristics describe most animals
1. Heterotrophs that inhabit the sea, fresh water and land. !ost animals ta"e their
food by ingestion.
2. #iploid m!ti"e!!!#r e$#r%otes. Cells are speciali$ed and organi$ed into tissues,
organs, etc. Their cells lac" cell wall of any "ind. Tissues are held together by
structural proteins, the most common being "o!!#gen.
3. !ost repro&"e se'#!!%, with large non%motile eggs and small flagellated sperms.
&. The diploid $ygote produced by fertili$ation divides by mitotic divisions, resulting in a
ball of cells that usually hollows out to become a (!#st!#. 'ponges are an
)ygote * eight%cell stage * blastula * gastrula * embryo develops...
)!#st!# is a hollow ball of cells with a blastocoel or cavity in its center.
G#str!#tion is a rearrangement of the (!#sto"oe! cells, where on end folds
inward, and cells fill the blastocoel forming a three%layered structure e"to&erm,
meso&erm and en&o&erm.
'ome animals develop directly through transient stages into adults+ other animals
include a !#r*#! st#ge that undergoes met#morphosis, a resurgence of
development that transforms the !#r*# into an adult.
,. !ost are capable of locomotion at some stage of their lives.
-. !ost can respond adaptively to e(ternal stimuli and have well%developed sense
organs and nervous system. !ost phyla have muscular and nervous tissues.
.bout 3, phyla the ma/ority of which are invertebrates.
The animal "ingdom is probably monophyletic and probably evolved from colonial flagellate
protists related to the choanoflagellates at least 000 million years ago.
1hylogenetic trees are sets of hypotheses that are refined to accommodate new data.
1. !ulticellular
2. !otility at some stage of their life
3. 2eterotrophic
&. #iploblastic or triploblastic
The animal "ingdom includes the e(tant and e(tinct species.
'ome biologists estimate that up 334 of animal species are e(tinct.
'ome calculations based on molecular cloc"s suggest that the ancestors of animals
diverged from the ancestors of plants about 1., 5 1.6 billion years ago.
Neoprotero+oi" Er# ,- (i!!ion to ./0 mi!!ion %e#rs #go1
This era is also "nown as the 1recambrian.
The earliest accepted fossil animals are about ,0, million years ago.
These fossils are "nown collectively as the E&i#"#r#n 2#n#.
7irst described from the 8diacara 2ills of southern .ustralia, but have since been
found all over the world.
'everal body plans have been observed animals with both radial and bilateral
symmetry, feather%li"e and worm or tube%li"e forms, etc.
!ost of the animals in the 8diacaran fauna appear to be cnidarians and possibly
3#!eo+oi" Er# ,./0 to 0.- mi!!ion %e#rs #go1
.t the beginning of the Cambrian, about ,&, m.y.a. there was an e(plosive radiation of
multicellular animals. This event is called the C#m(ri#n e'p!osion.
9apid evolutionary changes occurred in the late 1rotero$oic and ended in the 8arly
. change from mostly simple organisms to comple( organisms comparable to present
day animals. This happened in &0 million years, ,&2 % ,2, m.y.a.
:t was a period of great evolutionary innovation. .lmost all meta$oa phyla appeared at this
H%potheses #(ot the "#ses o2 the C#m(ri#n e'p!osion
These three hypotheses are not mutually e(clusive.
8cological causes
1redators feed on the most abundantly prey species thus reducing their numbers
and letting others use the resources.
Cropping of a dominant species opens many niches, which become occupy by
species previously e(cluded.
:ncrease in prey species leads to an increase in predators.
;eologic causes
<(ygen may have reached critical threshold at this time.
<(ygen supports a more active metabolism, which is re=uired by fast moving
;enetic causes
<hno claims that early Cambrian animals possessed genes capable of forming
o(ygen cross%lin"s in collagen, in ligaments and tendons+ hemoglobin+ and
homeobo( proteins that help orient body plans along a directional a(is.
The diversification of animals is associated with the e*o!tion o2 Ho' reg!#tor%
genes, which lead to variation in morphology.
The end of the Cambrian radiation loc"ed the animal phyla loc"ed into developmental
patterns that constrained evolution enough that no additional phyla evolved after that
The Cambrian period was followed by the <rdovician, 'ilurian and #evonian periods, when
animal diversity continues to increase, although punctuated by mass e(tinctions.
!ass e(tinctions http>>hannover.par".org>Canada>!useum>e(tinction>e(tincmenu.html
The earliest fossils of land plants are from the 'ilurian, about &20 million years ago.
There are indications, however, that land plants appeared as early as &0, million
years ago, in the <rdovician.
7ungi accompanied plants in their coloni$ation of the terrestrial environment.
.rthropods ?millipedes and centipedes@ are the first animals to invade the land about
&,0 million years ago. 'corpions and spiders followed. .ll of this in the <rdovician.
Aertebrates made the transition to lands about 3-0 million years ago, in the
.mphibians evolved into reptiles during the Carboniferous, about 300 million years
The great 1ermian e(tinction occurred about 2,0 million years ago and mar"s the end of
the 1aleo$oic.
Meso+oi" Er# ,0.- to 4.5. mi!!ion %e#rs #go1
8arly reptiles evolved into dinosaurs.
;ymnosperms are the dominant vegetation on land.
Birds appeared about 1,0 million years ago in the late Burassic. There is a great debate
about the origins of birds and the time in which they first appeared.
The earliest mammal is from about 13, million years ago, in the early Cretaceous.
.ngiosperms evolve flowers about 130 million years ago. .gain, several opinions about the
origin of the angiosperms.
The great Cretaceous e(tinction ?-, million years ago@ mar"s the end of the !eso$oic and
the elimination of the dinosaurs.
Ceno+oi" Er# ,4.5. mi!!ion %e#rs #go to the present1
The early Ceno$oic mar"s the rise and diversification of mammals.
The angiosperms become the dominant vegetation on land.
The coevolution of angiosperms and animals increases selection and diversification in both
Based on type of C
1. Body symmetry radial, bilateral.
2. 1resence or absence of true tissues.
3. Body cavity acoelomate, pseudocoelomates, and coelomates.
&. #evelopmental pattern protostomes, deuterostomes.
1. )o&% s%mmetr% ,r#&i#!6 (i!#ter#!1 #n& germ !#%ers5
The eumeta$oans are divided into two ma/or branches based in part on body symmetry.
a. The phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora have r#&i#! s%mmetr% and collectively called
These animals have a top and bottom ends or an oral and aboral side, but they
donDt have a head or tail end or a right and left side.
b. .ll other eumeta$oans posses (i!#ter#! s%mmetr% and are collectively called (i!#teri#.
Types of sectioning a specimen
S#gitt#! se"tion divides the body into right #n& !e2t p#rts.
Cross or tr#ns*erse se"tion divides the body into #nterior #n& posterior p#rts.
Front#! se"tion divides the body into &ors#! #n& *entr#! p#rts.
Bilaterians show a trend towards "eph#!i+#tion, the concentration of sensory organs at one
end, the anterior end or head.
The head end is an adaptation to movement.
2. 3resen"e or #(sen"e o2 tre tisses5
'ponges have a uni=ue simplicity that separates them from all other animals. They lac"
true tissues and they are called p#r#+o#ns, meaning Ebeside the animals.E
.ll other animal phyla have true tissues and are called emet#+o#ns.
.nother difference in body plan separates the radiata from the bilateria.
a. #uring gastrulation, bilaterians develop three germ layers and are called trip!o(!#sti"
E"to&erm covers the surface of the embryo and gives rise to the outer covering of
the animal and, in some phyla, to the central nervous system.
En&o&erm, the innermost germ layer, lines the developing digestive tube or
archenteron, and gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and organs li"e the
liver and lungs.
Meso&erm is located between the previous two layers and forms the muscles and
most other organs.
b. The radiata have two germ layers. The central portion is not homologous with that of
the bilaterians.
The radiata are said to be &ip!o(!#sti", having two germ layers.
3. )o&% "#*it%7 #"oe!om#te6 pse&o"oe!om#tes6 "oe!om#tes5
Coe!om or body cavity is fluid%filled space located between the outer body wall and the
digestive tube.
Triploblastic animals may be...
A"oe!om#te lac" coelom or body cavity, e.g. flatworms.
3se&o"oe!om#te7 coelom is partially lined with mesoderm, e.g. roundworms,
Coe!om#te coelom is completely lined with mesoderm, e. g. mammals.
The pseudocoelomate animals include the 9otifera, ;astrotrichia, Finorhyncha, Goricifera,
1riapulida, Hematoda, Hematomorpha, .canthocephala, and 8ntoprocta.
4. De*e!opment#! p#ttern7 protostomes6 &eterostomes5
a. 7ate of the blastopore
.nimals can be classified as protostomes if the blastopore develops into the mouth
?mollus"s, annelids, etc.@ and
Deterostomes if it develops into the anus ?echinoderms, chordates@.
b. #euterostomes and protostomes have different pattern of cleavage
R#&i#! "!e#*#ge is characteristic of deuterostomes+
Spir#! "!e#*#ge is followed by protostomes.
c. Two different patterns of coelom formation
S"hi+o"oe!% method of coelom formation is characteristic of protostomes.
#euterostomes follow the entero"oe!% pattern of coelom formation.
d. Time of fi(ing the fate of embryonic cells
1rotostomes also have a &etermin#te cleavage in which the fate of the embryonic
cells is fi(ed very early in development.
#euterostomes have an in&etermin#te cleavage in which each cell "eeps longer
the capacity to develop into a full organism.
3rotostomes Deterostomes
Blastopore becomes the mouth Blastopore becomes the anus.
'piral cleavage 9adial cleavage
#eterminate fate of early cells :ndeterminate fate of early cells.
'chi$ocoelous coelom formation 8nterocoelous coelom formation
The two leading hypotheses about the phylogenetic tree of animals are based on
morpho!og% and on mo!e"!#r &#t#.
1oints of agreement
1. .ll animals share a common ancestor. :n other words, the animal "ingdom is
2. 'ponges ?phylum 1orifera@ are basal animals.
They diverged early from the rest of the animal "ingdom.
Tissues evolved only after sponges diverged from other animals 5 para$oans
beside the animals.
3. The 8umeta$oa is a clade of animals with true tissues.
The common ancestor of all animals e(cept the sponges evolved true tissues.
The basal eumeta$oans are the phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, which are
diploblastic and have radial symmetry ?the radiata@.
&. The Bilateria is a monophyletic group that includes all animals with bilateral symmetry.
,. Aertebrates and some other clades belong to the #euterostomia.
The name #euterostomia refers to an animal developmental grade and also to a
clade that includes the vertebrates.
#isagreement over the Bilaterians.
Mo!e"!#r s%stem#ti"s is moving around several branches of the phylogenetic tree
created using morphological data.
!olecular systematists base their decision on the nucleotide se=uences in the sm#!!
s(nit ri(osom#! RNA, and the se=uence of the Ho' genes. :t is based on very few
!orphological data produces a tree that divides the Bilateria clade into two groups
protostomes and deuterostomes.
Based on molecular data, some $oologists split the protostomes into two groups, the
Lophotro"ho+o# and the E"&%so+o#.
The name Gophotrocho$oa is derived from two different structures observed in the animals
belonging to this clade
The !ophophore, a crown of ciliated tentacles used in feeding.
The tro"hophore larval stage observed in groups without the lophophore.
1hylogenetic studies based on large databases will li"ely provide further insights into
animal evolutionary history.
The acoelomate flatworms were traditionally classified with the 1latyhelminthes. 2owever,
recent research indicates that the acoel flatworms are basal bilaterians, not members of the
phylum 1latyhelminthes.
.coelanIs basal position suggests that the bilaterians may have descended from a common
ancestor that resembled living acoel flatworms 5 from an ancestor that had a simple
nervous system, a sacli"e gut, and no e(cretory system.