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a r c h i t e c t u r e design studio justine
a r c h i t e c t u r e
design
studio
justine
lenkiewicz
389679
2014
a r c h i t e c t u r e design studio justine lenkiewicz

air

“Architecture, then, as discourse, discipline, a

form, operates at the intersection of powe

relations of production, culture,

discourse, discipline, a form, operates at the intersection of powe relations of production, culture, page |

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an

co

en

nd

r,

d representation and is instrumental to the nstruction of our identities and our differ- ces, to shaping how we know the world.”

Dutton, T A and Lian Hurst M (1996) ‘Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourse and Social Practices’, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, p.1

Architecture: Critical Discourse and Social Practices’, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, p.1 page | 3

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Contents

INTRODUCTION hello, this is me

PART A

A.1. DESIGN FUTURING design futuring design precedent: pivot design precedent: fluent-fields design precendet: danish pavilion energy technology research: peizoelectricity

A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION design computation design precedent: the torus house design precedent: people’s meeting dome
A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION
design computation
design precedent: the torus house
design precedent: people’s meeting dome
A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION
composition/generation
design precedent: seroussi pavillion//paris
design precedent: aMaze
design precedent: swallow’s nest
design precedent: climath//dubrovnik
A.4. CONCLUSION
A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES
A.6. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
REFERENCES
OUTCOMES A.6. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES REFERENCES 6 6 8 9 14 16 18 22 24

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A.6. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES REFERENCES 6 6 8 9 14 16 18 22 24 26

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JUSTINE LENKIEWICZ

hello, this is me

JUSTINE LENKIEWICZ hello, this is me page | 6
JUSTINE LENKIEWICZ hello, this is me page | 6

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Profile:

The offspring of two Polish migrants, who exposed me to the idea of a bigger world outside of my own, through travel from a very young age. I remember wandering the streets of Krakow and being transported back to a time and place completely different to my own, and then wondering why Melbourne was not the same. Why didn’t we have the same beauty and history back home? The older I grew, the more captivated I became by how a city’s narrative is conveyed through its architecture. I guess I never really had that light bulb moment, it was always something that played in the back of my mind but I wasn’t sure I was committed enough to pursue it. Apart from architecture and travel, I also have a thing for fonts, colours, patterns, and Photoshop. Throughout my teen years I was regular sent MySpace profile pic edit requests.

Education

regular sent MySpace profile pic edit requests. Education Six years at McKinnon Secondary College, where I

Six years at McKinnon Secondary College, where I first began to develop Photoshop skills through subjects such as Studio Arts and Visual Communication & Design.

Two years of a Melbourne Arts degree which I can’t consider a complete waste of time as I did have moments I enjoyed, and I did meet some nice people. During that time I completed Virtual Environments as my first year breadth subject, and this was my first exposure to 3D modelling through SketchUp. Perhaps unsurprisingly, my breadth was the only subject I really looked forward to.

Currently in my third year of Bachelor of Environments at Melbourne. Having experienced an Arts degree, I was content I had made the right choice very early on. With the prospect of an actual career coming out of architecture, my perspective on university and life in general completely changed. Throughout my two years so far, I have covered everything from architectural history, to engineering and construction, and finally urban design and sustainability. History subjects taught me the theory and principles I needed to know, to help inform and shape my own design methods in my studios. Construction subjects brought me back to reality by teaching me the logics of construction in the industry, and emphasised for me the need for a multidisciplinary approach to design.

for me the need for a multidisciplinary approach to design. Work Experience In 2013, I travelled

Work Experience In 2013, I travelled to Shanghai, China and completed a month-long internship with Michael Bradley Architecture. It was probably one of the scariest things I ever embarked on - I knew no one, and I

certainly didn’t know the language or the social etiquette, which resulted in a bit of a culture clash at the beginning. During my internship, I worked on several projects; the main one being a ClubMed Resort Project on Hainan Island where I was involved in the prepartion of presentation drawings and a SketchUp site model for the inital client meeting.

I left China with not only industry experience, but connections and a life experience that would

inspire me to be part of something bigger. Upon returning to Australia, I realised I was obsessed with travelling, meeting new people, and immersing myself in new cultures.

I love the idea of integrating my love for travel and cultures with my appreciation for creative design and its narrative potential. So that’s me so far.

travel and cultures with my appreciation for creative design and its narrative potential. So that’s me

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PART A

CONCEPTUALISATION

A.1. Design Futuring

A.1. Design Futuring page | 10

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Through our anthropocentric mode of habitation, the human race has unwittingly created a “defuturing condition of unsustainability”,

where we cannot be expected, “en masse”, to have a future. And even now, as the damaging consequences of our human-centredness on the planet’s ecology ever increases, we fail to recognise or appropriately redirect our destructive tendencies, and instead sacrifice the future to sustain our excessive presence. Design futuring, as a practice, aims to address the socio-political and ecological concerns of unsustainability, by recognising the role of design in shaping the world we live in. Through architecture’s medium, we can construct a knowledge, a political act that “operates

at the intersection of power” and has the capacity to negate forms of

actions and institutions that defuture from our existence. There is a gap between requiring immediate action, and the current availablity of a means to create changes globally that would enable humans and all that they rely upon to be sustained. But through the medium of design, we have a fighting chance to instigate the change that is needed.

Lately, design has become too triviliased, too regularised; it has been “materially gutted” and reduced to the simple elements of

appearance and style. In order to make good decisions, we require the people making them to be well-informed.

A

clear sense of design and its ability to mobilise change is required

to

slow down the rate of defuturing, and a method of achieving these

goals is by redirecting design towards more sustainable modes of planetary habitation.

Source: Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16

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DESIGN PRECEDENTs

a.1. DESIGN FUTURING

pivot

a.1. DESIGN FUTURING pivot The Land Art Generator Initiative is a competition that brings together the
a.1. DESIGN FUTURING pivot The Land Art Generator Initiative is a competition that brings together the
a.1. DESIGN FUTURING pivot The Land Art Generator Initiative is a competition that brings together the

The Land Art Generator Initiative is a competition that brings together the disciplines of art, architecture, landscape architecture, science, and engineering, to produce a sculptural art piece in an effort to educate the public about sustainability with clean energy production that can be fed into the electrical grid at a utility scale.

‘Pivot’ is the third place winning entry in the 2012 LAGI competition that I was particularly drawn to, initally because of it’s captivating layout and presentation. However, after reading the brief, I was taken by it’s simple, innovative design solution, and unique energy harvesting techniques. The strength of the design proposal lies in creating a solution that, despite rising sea levels and sinking landfill, will persist into the future as it floats upon the water. In doing so, visitors become engaged and can physically experience the degradation occuring at the site.

As the visitors transfer from land to the pivot structure, the experience becomes a choreographed performance in which the wind, visitors, and tides become the dancers; leading to a greater appreciation of the celestrial forces that guide these natural processes. Finally, the light-weight, flexible, non-toxic, transulcent, heat resistant, reflective, aluminium coated fabric exploits the use of a piezoelectric technology in which energy is captured from nature via wind vibration.

Despite the technical innovation, I feel like the proposal compromises on aesthetic qualities, with the final design taking on the form of a very ordinary shape, which clearly lacks an extensive form-making exploration process. I believe this aspect could have been strengthened to create a more powerful final proposal.

Source: Smith B and Hu V (2012) ‘Pivot’, Land Art Generator Initivative, New York, accessed 08 March 2014 < http://landartgenerator.

org/LAGI-2012/BV333332-3/#>

Initivative, New York, accessed 08 March 2014 < http://landartgenerator. org/LAGI-2012/BV333332-3/#> page | 14

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a.1. DESIGN FUTURING

a.1. DESIGN FUTURING page | 16
a.1. DESIGN FUTURING page | 16

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fluent-fields

A second entry which caught my eye was Fluent-Fields. I

was drawn to the beautiful presentation and composition of

the proposal, which, from inital observation of the drawings,

I assumed to suggest something along the lines of light and movement exploration.

In a similar vein to pivot, Fluent-fields creates an innovative

solution to energy production by maximising the potential

of integrating two mainstream modes of energy harvesting

- solar and wind.

The proposal takes the form of a sinuous web of tensile structure, composed of bent steel ribbing, steel cables, and modular concrete footings. It is designed to generate sun and wind energy via the millions of thin photovoltaic film strips embedded within panels installed along the web of cables within the structure, that spin as wind passes through the site. To maximise the efficiency of solar energy production, the proposal exploits the use of two types of PV film - Thin Film Non-Silicon Photovoltaics and Thin Film Dye Sensitive Photovoltaics. The higher efficiency of the non-silicon

photovoltaics rationalises their south-facing positioning at the uppermost areas of the structure to obtain maximum solar radiation while simultaneously providing shade for the interior or the structure. The transparency of the Dye Sensitive Photovoltaics for the remainder of the structure will help maintain visual connections between indoors and outdoors while continuing

to

generate energy.

In

addition to the solar energy, the structure will maximum

the opportunities the site presents for wind energy

harvesting, but at a smaller scale. As each mini panel within the tensile cable structure is mounted to an energy hinge,

it will enable the panels to move backwards and forwards

in response to passing winds, which will not only create another source of clean energy, but also a visual stimulant for visitors as a colourful wall of motion. I feel this entry had a stronger focus towards the form making process, which translates well into their aims for the proposal.

which translates well into their aims for the proposal. Source: Jenkin P, Szawiola M, Thorson E

Source: Jenkin P, Szawiola M, Thorson E (2012) ‘Fluent-Fields’ ,Land Art Generator Initivative, New York, accessed 15 March 2014, < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/E5M8P031/# >

DESIGN FUTURING

danish Pavilion

DESIGN FUTURING danish Pavilion page | 18

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For their entry for the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China, Copehagen-based Bjarke Ingles Group

For their entry for the 2010 World Expo

in Shanghai, China, Copehagen-based

Bjarke Ingles Group took what was core to Copenhagen city - the bike, and the harbour - and combined these elements to produce an interactive experience for all visitors. While this project does not integrate the use of renewable energy technologies, I chose it as my second precedent because I found it to be somewhat relevant to my own brief, with attributes that can inspire and contribute to my own design.

Pollution as been problematic for

Shanghai with the rise of heavy motor traffic and the car as the ultimate symbol of wealth. At the Danish Pavilion, the bike is relaunched as

a symbol of modern lifestyle and

sustainability by creating an exhibition that can be viewed only by walking,

or via the city bikes provided solely

for this reason. Guests can cycle, or walk, throughout the spiral-shaped

pavilion, viewing the exhibits, that are a showcase of the Danish lifestyle, at their own speed and leisure before making their way into the heart of the pavilion where a Harbour Pool lies. As children dapple their feet in the water and play, they are watched over by The Little Mermaid statue, Copenhagen’s most iconic sculpture. The people of Shanghai can experience the benefits

of a clean harbour in a sustainabily

oriented city and hopefully become inspired to make a change in their own city.

Source: Dave (2010) ‘The Danish Pavilion for Expo 2010 by Bjarke Ingels Group’, Contemporist, accessed 24 March 2014, <http://

www.contemporist.com/2010/05/07/the-danish-pavilion-for-

expo-2010-by-bjarke-ingels-group/>

<http:// www.contemporist.com/2010/05/07/the-danish-pavilion-for- expo-2010-by-bjarke-ingels-group/> page | 19

energy technology research

A.1.: DESIGN FUTURING

“electricity resulting from pressure”

A.1.: DESIGN FUTURING “electricity resulting from pressure” “Harvesting Human Movement” page | 22
A.1.: DESIGN FUTURING “electricity resulting from pressure” “Harvesting Human Movement” page | 22

“Harvesting

Human

Movement”

A.1.: DESIGN FUTURING “electricity resulting from pressure” “Harvesting Human Movement” page | 22

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peizoelectricity

I am interested in the idea of using human

movement to generate energy, as a way of encouraging more people to visit my site. As visitors learn more about the unique harvesting methods, not only will they be inspired to become more engaged the site, but they will also develop a better appreciation of renewable energy sources

and their benefits in working towards a goal of sustainability.

I am inspired by the way the pivot entry

for LAGI 2012 integrated peizoelectric harvesting methods into their design in a subtle and modest way, such that the visitors may not even realise their contribution to energy generation, mirroring much of the population’s oblivion to their contribution to the carbon footprint of this world. This ingenious approach has inspired me to exploit all opportunities, at the my site and within my design, to integrate renewable technology systems with an artful execution.

what is it?

Piezoelectricity is an electrical energy produced from mechanical pressures (such as walking). As pressure is applied to an object, it produces both a negative and positive charge (on the expanded and compressed side, respectively), which, once relieved, carries and accumulates the electrical charge in certain solid materials (crystals and ceramics).

existing use

Currently, it is most used in applications for the production and detection of sound, generation of high voltages and electronic frequency generation; as well as in scientific instruments and more common applications such as the cigarette lighters and push-start propane barbecues.

examples

In 2008, a Railway Company in Japan installed a piezoelectric technology in the form of floor pads at ticketing gates at a station, as part of an ongoing experiment to make trains more energy-efficient.

The experiment was a follow-up of a similar one conducted in 2006, and was used to test improvements in power generation and capacity, along with material durability. The electricity generate from the floor is used to power the light facilities as well as the automatic ticket gates.

Source: Trimarchi, Maria. “Can house music solve the energy crisis?” 10 September 2008. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/house-music-energy-crisis.htm> 12 March

2014.

Source: <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:225W_Zeus_Tesla_coil_-_arcs2_%28cropped%29.jpg>

2014. Source: <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:225W_Zeus_Tesla_coil_-_arcs2_%28cropped%29.jpg> page | 23

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A.2. Design COMPUTATION

Having abandoned the discourse of style, the architecture of modern times is characterized by its capacity to take advantage of the spe- cific achievements of that same modernity: the innovations offered it by present-day science and technology. The relationship between new technology and new architecture even compromises a fundamental da- tum of what are referred to as avant-garde architectures, so fundamen-

tal as to constitue a dominant albeit diffuse motif in the figuation of

new architectures.

- Ignasi de Sola Morales

a.2. design computation

While computerisation has always played a large role in storing, manipulating and realising an architect’s already conceptualised idea, computation, a method which favours the use of computers as a design tool, is a practise that is currently quite limited. The architects of today’s Information Age are on the precipice of a new era in architectural design. Just as Gustave’s Eiffel Tower did for the Industrial Age, the ubiquity of digital technologies are changing the face of architectural practice in ways that could have never been anticipated. The freedom granted by a system driven by “topological, non-Euclidean geometric space, kinetic and dynamic systems, and genetic algorithms” is quickly gaining momentum, as it gives birth to a new dimension of architectural design aided by the creative potential of digital medias that promise new and exciting possiblities. Today’s digitally driven ‘avant-garde’ architecture includes a multiplicity of approaches, and is no longer constrained by the overriding principles of a single monolithic movement as architecture used to be in the past. However, while contemporary architecture may appear to reject the notions of a structural typology, or historical style or framework, it remains as ideologically and conceptually motivated as many of the ground-breaking precedentsresponsibleforestablishingastyleorfashion of architecture before it. When Baroque first broke the conventions of traditional Christian architecture, it set a new standard for beauty and proportions in architecture. But what sets today’s contemporary approach to building design apart is the representational technology that inspires new discourses and waves of thought.

At the centre of form origination and transformation in digital architectures is the notion of topology; which, by definition, suggests a study of geometric forms that remain invariant and dynamic under certain conditions. This introduces a fourth dimension into architecture, where the constructs become encoded with qualitative and quantitative data necessary for all stages, starting with design and analysis right through to fabrication and construction. As form is generated from contemplation of pre-determined parameters it permits a degree of novelty in the design of complex and organically generated outcomes. The process of ‘form-finding’, as opposed to ‘form-making’ becomes a product of the inherent qualities which exist entirely within the context of a given architectural project. The most appealing aspect of topology is perhaps its capacity to redefine conventional notions about spatial boundaries within architecture, for example, blurring the lines between what could be considered ‘interior’ and ‘exterior’. In order to achieve these previously inconceivable geometries, digital modelling softwares (such as Rhinoceros) use an algorithmic model known as Non- Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), which result in smooth curves and surfaces. NURBS curves can almost single-handedly take the blame for changing the face of architecture, by offering a shift from the limits of traditional Euclidean geometry by exploring beyond their initial form. NURBs were first used in the 1950s by engineers, to precisely model and represent the freeform surfaces of ship hulls, aerospace exterior surfaces, and car bodies. The taking of inspiration from other industries is nothing new; architects have always pushed the boundaries of their discipline through appropriating materials, methods, and processes, for the sake of innovation.

of their discipline through appropriating materials, methods, and processes, for the sake of innovation. page |
of their discipline through appropriating materials, methods, and processes, for the sake of innovation. page |
of their discipline through appropriating materials, methods, and processes, for the sake of innovation. page |
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the ability to define, determine and reconfigure geometrical relationships is of particular value

The control points that govern a given NURBs curve or surface permit a degree of flexibility, as they behave as a rubber band that can be pushed and pulled to apply translations and transformations. NURBs surfaces are constructed using a series of parameters that are given values to generate a multiplicity of configurations. The use of mathematical equations can also help to describe relationships between objects, as well as the objects’ behaviour under certain transformations.

Figure 01 represents my own explorations in Rhino 5 where I created a single NURBs curves, and then

superimposed a second, slightly offset curve above the original curve. I then used the Loft function in Rhino

to

produce a surface from the two curves. With the aid

of

a range of other functions, I was then able to create

a

cladding by offsetting the loft, and then project a

pattern onto the cladding which I could then convert into a stencil for the external cladding by splitting the surface and cutting away the holes.

By embracing non-linearity, indeterminacy and emergence, the techniques of the new digital architecture challenge conventions for stable design conceptualisation and first order logic that founds

mainstream comprehension of the computational design tools used for architectural production. Instead, architects are now required to explicity acknowledge the unpredictable and the unexpected.

A parametric approach can change the nature and

established hierarchies of the building industry as

the focus of design is shifted from the specific shape

to the sequence of guiding parametric equations and

principles as specified. By rejecting the fixed solutions

of

an archaic architecture, the doors to the exploration

of

infinitely variable potentials are opened up.

Burry, M (1999) ‘Paramorph’, Stephen Perella (ed.), AD Profile 141: Hypersurface Architecture 11. London: Academ Editions

141: Hypersurface Architecture 11. London: Academ Editions /01 Source: Kolarevic, B (2003) ‘Architecture in the

/01

Hypersurface Architecture 11. London: Academ Editions /01 Source: Kolarevic, B (2003) ‘Architecture in the Digital
Hypersurface Architecture 11. London: Academ Editions /01 Source: Kolarevic, B (2003) ‘Architecture in the Digital

Source: Kolarevic, B (2003) ‘Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing’, New York; London:

Spon Press, p 3 Source: Foley, van Dam, Feiner & Hughes (1996) ‘Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice’, section 11.2, Addison-Wesley (2nd ed.).

& Hughes (1996) ‘Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice’, section 11.2, Addison-Wesley (2nd ed.). page | 27
& Hughes (1996) ‘Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice’, section 11.2, Addison-Wesley (2nd ed.). page | 27

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a.2. design computation

the torus house

a.2. design computation the torus house page | 28

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Preston Scott Cohen believes architectural predicaments help generate the strange forms that feed the intellectual growth of architecture. But in today’s Information Age, computer-aided design

has led to a compromise in the art of creative form-making. A design needs to be guided by a problem. For Cohen, it was the absence of

to be guided by a problem. For Cohen, it was the absence of a I torus.
to be guided by a problem. For Cohen, it was the absence of a I torus.
to be guided by a problem. For Cohen, it was the absence of a I torus.
to be guided by a problem. For Cohen, it was the absence of a I torus.
to be guided by a problem. For Cohen, it was the absence of a I torus.
to be guided by a problem. For Cohen, it was the absence of a I torus.
a I
a
I

torus.

chose the Torus House (2001) as a precedent because for me, it

is one of the earliest examples that truly epitomise the essence of computer-generated outcomes. It appears as a formal struggle between parameter driven geometric design and traditional

Euclidean geometry of a forgotten architecture. It’s as if he has taken

of a forgotten architecture. It’s as if he has taken a box, decided it was uninteresting,
of a forgotten architecture. It’s as if he has taken a box, decided it was uninteresting,
of a forgotten architecture. It’s as if he has taken a box, decided it was uninteresting,
of a forgotten architecture. It’s as if he has taken a box, decided it was uninteresting,
a
a

box, decided it was uninteresting, and then used mathematically

resolved algorithms to push a torus shaped block through the centre, causing a rippling effect in the walls and floor planes as they undulate and fold in on themselves. There is no resolution - neither flat nor curvilinear plane win the battle. They stand their ground and mutually agree to disagree in order to co-exist. Yet the presence of the torus creates a series of pervasive spacial types and conditions within architecture, where the precedents remain discernible. As Corbusian pilotis raise the house above ground level, it creates a space for an underground carpark and also opens up the front to a ground-level courtyard. The torus void’s obtrusive presence creates a conflict between the ground and roof planes. As they collide with each other, the kitchen floor plate extends out beyond to create a new continuous horizontal surface that can be used as a table (figure 02). What I found most intriguing about this project was how Cohen has exploited parametrically driven design to create new spaces and challenge perceptions of living arrangements within a “container perpetually oscillating between being outside-in and inside-out”. For the client, who is an artist and likes to entertain, it was necessary to have large open and inviting spaces and as well a picturesque view of the open landscape; and through the aid of computerisation, Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this.

Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)
Cohen has been able to produce a form that achieves this. Source: Cohen, P S (2001)

Source: Cohen, P S (2001) ‘Contested Symmetries and Other Predicaments in Architecture’, Princeton Architectural Press; ed (1). Source: The Museum of Modern Art (1999) ‘Torus House’, accessed 18 March 2014 <http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibi-

tions/1999/un-privatehouse/Project_22.html>

/02
/02
18 March 2014 <http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibi- tions/1999/un-privatehouse/Project_22.html> /02 page | 29

page | 29

a.2. design computation

people’s me

a.2. design computation people’s me I am also particularly intrigued by Kristoffer Tejlgaard and Benny Jepsen’s
a.2. design computation people’s me I am also particularly intrigued by Kristoffer Tejlgaard and Benny Jepsen’s
a.2. design computation people’s me I am also particularly intrigued by Kristoffer Tejlgaard and Benny Jepsen’s

I am also particularly intrigued by Kristoffer Tejlgaard and

Benny Jepsen’s response to the debate on future housing in Bornholm, Denmark. The brief required a multifunctional space that could provide a stage for the debate. Tejlgaard and Jepsen took it one step further by simultaneously

and Jepsen took it one step further by simultaneously creating a spectacle of a structure that
and Jepsen took it one step further by simultaneously creating a spectacle of a structure that

creating a spectacle of a structure that would make its own contribution to the debate.

that would make its own contribution to the debate. I I chose it as my second
I I
I
I
that would make its own contribution to the debate. I I chose it as my second

chose it as my second precedent because of its success

as a public space that brings people together, a quality that

a public space that brings people together, a quality that would like to echo throughout my
a public space that brings people together, a quality that would like to echo throughout my
a public space that brings people together, a quality that would like to echo throughout my

would like to echo throughout my project. The traditional

geodesic dome is a common shape that can be argued as being mathematically rational, but this would result in a “non-architecture” that does not relate to its surroundings. Tejlgaard and Jepsen were clever in the execution of this dome, exploiting the potentials of digitally-generated design by producing a deconstructed version that was algorithmically resolved by external parameters. Sun paths and existing site features governed the splitting up of the dome to create niches and crevices. Computational design allowed the wooden frame to become unlocked, permitting the extrusion, scaling and cutting away of sections in

response to the physical context. The interior space, in turn, would become a product of this process.

this design is its flexibility. The lattice

What I like most about

is its flexibility. The lattice What I like most about structure acts like a tent, parametrically
is its flexibility. The lattice What I like most about structure acts like a tent, parametrically

structure acts like a tent, parametrically programmed so that it is possible to vary its configuration by simply updating the existing parameters. Because of the dome’s structural efficiency, the interior space is left column-free and without the need of internal load-bearing walls which provides multiple interior arrangements and window placement possibilities. Parametric design has not only aided in the generation of a site-responsive form for the building, but also in creating a space that can be adaptable for future use

the final result being a poetic composition that literally

final result being a poetic composition that literally – speaks for itself within the debate on
final result being a poetic composition that literally – speaks for itself within the debate on
final result being a poetic composition that literally – speaks for itself within the debate on
final result being a poetic composition that literally – speaks for itself within the debate on

speaks for itself within the debate on computational design.

Source: “Peoples Meeting Dome / Kristoffer Tejlgaard & Benny Jepsen” 27 Sep 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 18 Mar 2014.

<http://www.archdaily.com/?p=276056>

Source: “People’s Meeting Dome”. 27 Sep 2012. Ignant. Accessed 18 Mar 2014. < http://www.ignant.de/2012/09/27/ peoples-meeting-dome/>

pag

eting dome e | 30 xxx page | 31 page | 31 A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION
eting dome
e | 30
xxx
page | 31
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A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

f(x)=a + (a cos

0

(n=1)

n

n

π

x

L

+b sin

n

n

π

x

L

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

New and emerging computation techniques provide an architect with the digital tools they need to stimulate their intellect and open up new opportunities in the design, fabrication and construction processes. So monumental the impact on avante-garde architecture these new techniques have had that it finally puts to rest the short-lived episodes of Postmodernism, deconstructivism, and minimalism; warranting its own style, dubbed Parametricism. This name emerges from its creative exploitation of parametrically driven design to help arrive at more complex social processes and design solutions.

In order to achieve these complex solutions, the techniques must rely on the use of algorithms, defined as a set of operations for calculating a function. They are expressed as a finite list of instructions that start off with an initial (often empty) input, and result in an output of a finite number of defined successive states. An algorithm describes the process that a token has participated in. The increase in the use of these algorithms is changing the role of the architect, as it requires a shift in the conventional methods of thinking and conceptualising design.

Parametric architecture uses algorithms to explore the spatial relationships between elements. Custom algorithmic tools now take up a vital role in the design process and very much become embedded within a design itself. Algorithmic thinking thus takes on an interpretive role to understand the results of generating code that underline the logic of architecture, and it requires knowing how to modify the code to explore new options and speculate further design potentials. By definition, an algorithm must be flexible and adaptable to changing parameters in the design environment. It is necessary now for the architect to also become flexible, and adapt to a world that is also changing and becoming increasingly virtual.

to also become flexible, and adapt to a world that is also changing and becoming increasingly

/03/03

to also become flexible, and adapt to a world that is also changing and becoming increasingly
to also become flexible, and adapt to a world that is also changing and becoming increasingly

page | 34

Figure 03 depicts the levels of intricacy and precision with which computational techniques are capable
Figure 03 depicts the levels of intricacy and precision with which computational techniques are capable

Figure 03 depicts the levels of intricacy and precision with which computational techniques are capable of working

at. Michael Hansmeyer dubs his columns A New Order as it explores the biological process of subdivision which results in an elaborate system of ornament. Hansmeyer takes an abstracted version of the archaic Doric column and uses

it an input form to the subdivision processes. The unique

topographical and topological information then results in a

heterogenous application of the process. Unlike a traditional design process, the architect designs the process of producing

a column, rather than the column directly. This means the

process can run repeatedly with different parameters to create

endless iterations. The computer’s high level of accuracy

ensures that the single subdivision process can generate the form at all scales - from the overall proportions and cruvatures,

to the minute micro-structures of the interior.

Current computation methods allow architects to simulate building performance by incorporating knowledge about materials and other parameters of production in their design drawings. The performance feedback allows analysis of architectural decisions at various stages of a project, which, in turn, can lead to more responsive designs through more comprehensive design exploration. But the complexity of form and time constraints of today’s projects are now placing a higher necessity on the use of computers. Modernists’ of the past were concerned with perfecting single details; the computational design architects’ of today are concerned instead with developing relationships between parts, and maintaining total control of the design in response to changing performance requirements. This is made possible only with the invention of new techniques and technologies, that are not only causing changes within the hierarchical structure of the building industry, but also a shift in our discipline’s definition and boundaries. Architects no longer use software, they now create it. Whether it’s as part of a specialised team of computational designers, or hybrid engineer/architects with knowledge of software development, it remains that computation permits a new wave of thinking.

Source: ‘Subdivided Columns - A New Order (2010)’, Michael Hansmeyer, accessed 23 March 2014, <http://www.

michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/columns_info.html?screenSize=1&color=1#undefined>

Source: Peters, B (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’ , Architectural Design, vol 83, issue 2, pp.10-15 Source: Schumacher, P (2009) ‘Parametricism: A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design’, AD Archi-

tectural Design - Digital Cities, vol 79, no 4, pg 15-16

and Urban Design’, AD Archi- tectural Design - Digital Cities, vol 79, no 4, pg 15-16

page | 35

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

seroussi

pavillion //paris

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION seroussi pavillion //paris The project proposal for the Seroussi Pavilion (2007) was to

The project proposal for the Seroussi Pavilion (2007) was to insert the pavilion into the site as a “ground implant”. Alisa Andrasek explored the potentials of structural adaptation to site conditions using a distribution algorithm based on a set of self-modifying patterns of vectors derived from electromagnetic fields. With this algorithm behaving as the seed, the structure would be borne of the ground and, like a plant, it would sprout towards other elements of the site and form connective tissues between them, that would eventually envelope to create a diverse and coherent whole. An extended radius of influence allowed the new fabric to weave itself seamlessly within existing landscape pathways. The sinuous form is born out of a series of structural microarching sections that have been computed through different frequences of a sine function, in conjunction with the physical laws of attraction and repulsion.

with the physical laws of attraction and repulsion. Sin-wave functions also drive the parametric distrubtion of

Sin-wave functions also drive the parametric distrubtion of lighting/shading, and programming of views, by differentiating angles, orientation and size of apertures, as well as investigating relationships between metal and glass components of each cell. Double charged trajectories are used to produce the cocoon like internal space, that continuously unfolds itself through the building space and creates an elegant interlacing of fibres and opportunities for varied degrees of cohabitation between humans and art exhibits. Through the aid of computerised simulation of the structure’s perfomance, a variety of potential exhibition sequences can be examined with the flexibility to reconfigure art exhibits and discover optimal spatial distribution within such a complex, labyrinthine fabric.

reconfigure art exhibits and discover optimal spatial distribution within such a complex, labyrinthine fabric. page |

page | 36

A

similar project undertaken by Andrasek

is

the a_maze furniture system which was

entered as an exhibition design at FRAC in Orleans, France. The strips are formed via a folding algorithm programmed to recursively subdivide along

the logics of a fractal Koch curve. Similarly

to the previous example, the curve is also

programmed to “grow” organically between different points in space, and continues to subdividing for a number of iterations. The result is a previously unconceivable form, embedded with the complexity and intricacy of nature-inspired process of subdivision. By borrowing from nature, algorithmic and parametric design show that architecture can lend itself to an infinitude of possiblities and continue to

defy previously set boundaries of knowledge

by revolutionising itself.

Source: Andrasek, A (2010) ‘Seroussi Pavillion /paris//2007’, Biothing:

Repository of Computation Design, accessed 26 March 2014, <http://

www.biothing.org/?cat=5>

Source: Andrasek, A (2010) ‘aMaze’, Biothing, accessed 26 March 2014,

<http://www.biothing.org/?cat=9>

Source: ‘Alisa Andrasek / BIOTHING Mesonic Emission/Seroussi Pavilion Paris, 2007’, TBA21 Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary, accessed 26 March 2014, <http://www.tba21.org/collection/artist/695/artwork/657>

Contemporary, accessed 26 March 2014, <http://www.tba21.org/collection/artist/695/artwork/657> a Maze page | 37

a Maze

Contemporary, accessed 26 March 2014, <http://www.tba21.org/collection/artist/695/artwork/657> a Maze page | 37

page | 37

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION swallow’s nest xxx page | 38

swallow’s nest

xxx

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION swallow’s nest xxx page | 38

page | 38

Throughout my research on generative design in architecture, I came across the work of Vincent Callebaut Architects, a firm in Paris, whose “eco- utopian visions” have earned them a sterling reputation for sustainable architecture design. I was enamoured with all their designs; combining biolclimatic architectural elements with parametric design principles, in an aim to create urban ecosystems that celebrate the union of art and innovative technologies alongside nature. It can be argued that it is difficult to attribute a parametrically driven geometry with the same depth of symbolism and representation as a compositionally derived geometry. But, once again, the parametrically driven digital morphogenesis of Swallow’s Nest acheives an organic geometry, inspired by nature’s own growth replication process, imburing the form with motifs that reflect the architect’s desire to create a symbiotic relationship between nature and humans. In this way, it becomes the perfect ecology gateway into Taichung City.

it becomes the perfect ecology gateway into Taichung City. Here, Callebaut has taken a simple Mobius
it becomes the perfect ecology gateway into Taichung City. Here, Callebaut has taken a simple Mobius
it becomes the perfect ecology gateway into Taichung City. Here, Callebaut has taken a simple Mobius

Here, Callebaut has taken a simple Mobius strip as a starting point, and then repeated the section of an iscolese triangle around its elliptical path. This has resulted in a series of dynamic and fluid spatial typologies with voids and variable elevations that help inform the internal space. As three large pillars lift the structure, it liberates the ground allowing the central space to transform into a floral and aquatic Garden of Eden that bathes in a downpour of natural sunlight via the atrium opening created by the original elliptical shape. The highlight of the building for me is the use of an intelligent glass facade as the building’s skin. In one swift move, Callebaut is able to achieve both creative aesthetics through external appearance and patterned lighting effects, as well as thermal efficiency for the structure. Building integrated photovoltaic solar cells and panels generate energy while low-E glass windows permit natural light and provide thermal massing, all the while protecting the interior art exhibits from deterioration. The variably oriented rooms ensure constant interaction between indoors and outdoors, while state-of-the art renewable technologies combined with parametrically-driven, organically derived form come together in a poetic structure that reinforces the architect’s aspirations towards building a harmony between nature and humans.

Source: Laylin, T (2013) ‘Swallows Nest: Vincent Callebaut Unveils Glit- tering Zero-Carbon Mobius Strip Cultural Center for Taiwan’ , Inhabitat, accessed 24 March 2013, <http://inhabitat.com/glittering-zero-carbon-swal- lows-nest-cultural-center-twists-off-the-ground-for-low-visual-impact/

swallows-nest-by-vincent-callebaut-architecte-01/>

Source: Vincent Callebaut Architects, ‘Swallow’s Nest, Taichung City Cultural Center Taichung 2013 Taiwan’, accessed 24 March 2013, <http://

vincent.callebaut.org/page1-img-swallow.html>

Taichung 2013 Taiwan’, accessed 24 March 2013, <http:// vincent.callebaut.org/page1-img-swallow.html> page | 39

page | 39

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION Climath// dubrovni page | 40

Climath// dubrovni

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION Climath// dubrovni page | 40

page | 40

For my final precedent, I have chosen Andrasek’s “Honoury Mention” entry for the 2011 Europan
For my final precedent, I have chosen Andrasek’s “Honoury Mention” entry for the 2011 Europan

For my final precedent, I have chosen Andrasek’s “Honoury Mention” entry for the 2011 Europan Competition, an architecture cultivated from a hybrid programming schema, which integrates physics and micro-articulated algorithmic functions, such as synthetic weather and dispersed energy production, k to reproduce the qualities and effects of Croatia’s Old City. I was inspired by the creation of a synthetic ecology; using computational techniques to interpret the old city’s architectural fabric in a new language intentionally made to appear worn out. It is essentially a mixed-used space to be shared by residents as well as visitors from the general public. The luxurious residential sequence forms out of the physical context of Mediterranean living; the architectural fabric is programmed towards achieving verticality through the design of structured apartment duplexes with double height windows, ensuring a fine quality of light through a network of skylights and roof terraces. The project then achieves maximum spatial efficiency by freeing the site for generous public and residential use through the installation of a double plaza with free- flowing topology of pedestrian-accessible zones.

Source: Sanchez J, Lianou A, Pantic I, Chalvatzis E, Markos K (2011) ‘Climath//Dubrovnik’, Biothing: Repository of Computation Design, accessed 26 March 2014, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=27> Source: Escobedo, J (2012) ‘Climath Locates Hybrid Program in Canyon Grooves/Biothing’ , eVolo, accessed 26 March 2014, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/climath-locates-hybrid-program-in-canyon-grooves- biothing/>

The two plazas are bound to one another via a highly porous skin, pierced with a field of densely packed ceiling apertures and canyons that produce a decorative ensembles of light formations and complex shading devices. These apertures and shading techniques were derived using

a 5 coloured cellular automata algorithm, which generates a

probabilistic distribution of infrastructure cells to designated

areas for furniture fittings such as benches, planters, and

light fixtures and openings. The programmed structure also enables moderation of light intensities during the night, as well as scaling in size to accommodate different usage. The top layer of the plaza provides an escape for hot sunny afternoons by synthesising an arena of water-mist amongst

a field of aromatic planters. Meanwhile, the pavement takes

advantage of the abundant sunlight by harvesting solar energy through the distributed arrays embedded within. Mathematical analysis has aided in orienting the inclined shredded tectonic plateau which provides a clearance in the view of the Old City Walls and also frames of a range of other spectacular city sights.

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A.4. CONCLUSION

To reiterate, we are currently living an extremely human-centric lifestyle to the point where we can acknowledge that it is endangering us and our future, but not so far as where we are willing to make drastic sacrifices and compromises to the way we live in an effort to do something about it. But there is a way of salvaging our situation. The capacity of the profoundly secular, human-initiated, act of design displaces the ‘invisible hand of God’ and takes on a life of its own.

thinking in the moment

The onus is thus placed on the architect of today, who, through the advent of recent technological innovations and advancements, has been given a new toolbox and playground for which to explore endless boundaries, to derail the impending defuturing condition of our current world in the hopes of a more sustainable tomorrow. Parametric architecture is innovative because it is changing the the methods of thinking a designer undertakes when producing architecture. Through the creation of new geometries, it rids architecture of its rigid and traditional shackles, and encourages the taking up of a holistic view towards the design. It becomes about the process of producing a design, rather than purely designing the end result. Being empowered with the capacity to use this to my advantage, my project will thus take on a parametric approach by creating a design born of natural processes from its surrounding context and will depict Copenhagen as a forward thinking city well on its path to becoming carbon neutral by 2025. The result will be a symbiotic addition that contributes and enhances the site, rather than a destructive contagion that only takes and disrupts; encouraging discourse about sustainability, and interaction about visitors, as well as economic growth and change to the broader context of Denmark.

page | 43
page | 43
and interaction about visitors, as well as economic growth and change to the broader context of
and interaction about visitors, as well as economic growth and change to the broader context of
and interaction about visitors, as well as economic growth and change to the broader context of
and interaction about visitors, as well as economic growth and change to the broader context of

A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES

Before starting this course, I could not tell you the difference between computerisation and computation, I certainly knew nothing of the processes underlying parametric design, and I barely knew how to use Rhino and Grasshopper as a modelling tool, let alone a generative design tool. After four weeks, I feel I have a better grasp on the way parametrics can direct and manipulate everything from the inital analysis and design process to the final form, materiality, and fabrication and construction. I understand that it is, in fact, inhibiting to have an idea of what you want your final result to look like, and the beauty of computational design lies in its unpredictablility. By having an understanding of contextual data and using it as an input to shape and modify your design, you not only create something truly organic and specific to your project, but also the processes and algorithms that generate the final outcome, and they become a unique and integral element embedded within the final design. But while the theory paints a clear distinction between computation and computerisation, I have discovered that within practice, there tends to be an overlap. With still so much research to be condcted and knowledge to be gained in the field, many architects opt to take advantage of both methods of design, employing them at various stages of their design. The video tutorials have given me a basic grasp on the algorithmic processes behind Grasshopper and Rhino modelling; and it is fascinating to the discover how new geometries and patterning systems can be created by knowing only some of the most basic functions. As someone who usually becomes inspired at the very last (and often most inconvenient) minute, I feel like having this knowledge for my past designs could have helped me generate quicker, and more complex and contextually-rich outcomes. Finally, as a mere pupil of this new Parametric movement, I look forward to the unpredictability of my future designs and the possibilities it can open up for me with great anticipation.

page | 45
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A.6. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

The following are taken from my Algorithmic Sketchbook and depict some of the highlights of my parametric explorations so far.

example 01/ This geometry was generated using the prepackaged Voronoi 3D triangulation algorithm, which results in the creation of cell patterns across a surface. It is a common- ly used method in the architecture of today, as a way of generating natural looking and organic patterns. In some cases, voronoi patterning sequences have been applied to cladding systems as a way of creating innovation shading techniques.

systems as a way of creating innovation shading techniques. example 02/ Demonstrates sphere intersections that were

example 02/ Demonstrates sphere intersections that were created us- ing circles generated from three known points in a number of iterations. It can be useful in creating complex interior spaces and challenging conventional notions about spatial relationships.

example 03/ My third example is one that I am extremely proud I was able to achieve successfully. Parametically designed gridshells are becoming more and more prominent in architecture, for their durability and strength derived from a double curvature form in conjuction with a structural lattice. They also exhibit the potentials of timber through large spans often in curved and complex forms. I enjoyed learning exploring this modelling method most because I found it most relevant to today’s architecture.

01/
01/

02/

learning exploring this modelling method most because I found it most relevant to today’s architecture. 01/
03/
03/

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