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DESIGN OF LOADLESS 4T-SRAM CELL IN

28 nm FDSOI AND 28 nm BULK


TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW-POWER & LOW-
AREA APPLICATION
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
the degree of
Master Of Technology
in
VLSI System And Technology




By
N SHIVARAM VENKATESH
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY
DADRI, UTTAR PRADESH-201314
MAY, 2014




DESIGN OF LOADLESS 4T-SRAM CELL IN
28 nm FDSOI AND 28 nm BULK
TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW-POWER & LOW-
AREA APPLICATION
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
the degree of
Master Of Technology
in
VLSI System And Technology




By
N SHIVARAM VENKATESH
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY
DADRI, UTTAR PRADESH-201314
MAY, 2014

















Copyright Shiv Nadar University (SNU), Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, 2014






BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that N Shivaram Venkatesh has been carried out the research work
presented in this thesis entitled Design of Loadless 4T-SRAM Cell in 28 nm
FDSOI and 28 nm Bulk Technology for Low-Power & Low-Area
Application for the award of Master of Technology from Shiv Nadar
University, Uttar Pradesh under my supervision. This work has been carried
out by Student himself/herself and the contents of the thesis do not form the
basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else.











Dr G Naveen Babu
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
Shiv Nadar University
Uttar Pradesh, India
Dr Atul Vir Singh
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
Shiv Nadar University
Uttar Pradesh, India
Mr Bedanta Choudhury
Senior Manager
Department of Technology Research
and Development
STMicroelectronics
Uttar Pradesh, India

DECLARATION BY THE SCHOLAR

I hereby declare that the work reported in the Master of Technology thesis entitled
Design of Loadless 4T-SRAM Cell in 28 nm FDSOI and 28 nm Bulk
Technology for Low-Power & Low-Area Application submitted at Shiv
Nadar University, Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, is an authentic record of my work
carried out under the supervision of Dr. G Naveen Babu and Dr. Atul Vir
Singh. I have not submitted this work elsewhere for any other degree or diploma. I am
fully responsible for the contents of my thesis.
(Signature of Scholar)
N Shivaram Venkatesh
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh
09-May-2014
I

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Foremost, I would like to thank my mentors and supervisors, Mr. Bedanta Choudhury
at STMicroelectronics. and Dr. G Naveen Babu and Dr. Atul Vir Singh at Shiv Nadar
University, without whom I would not have done my thesis.
Dr. G Naveen Babu and Dr. Atul Vir Singh not only supervised my thesis, they agreed
to do so from Shiv Nadar University while I was in STMicroelectronics for the entire duration
of my work. I would like to thank them for being patient, having faith in me and providing me
with vital guidance all the time. Mr. Bedanta Choudhury shared a lot of his expertise and
insight with me refusing to accept anything less than the best I could do. His enthusiasm and
inspiration was always there when I needed it.
I wish to thank Mr. A Lourts Deepak and Mr. Vaibhav Anand Srivastava of
STMicroelectronics for patiently answering all my questions and for the endless discussions
which helped me out of many a tight-spot I encountered while working on this thesis.
I am tempted to individually thank all of my friends, but the list will be too long and
from fear of leaving someone out, I will simply say thank you all very much.
I would like to thank STMicroelectronics, Noida for giving for internship in the
organisation. This is great learning experience for me.
I cannot finish without saying how grateful I am thankful to Ms.Kheyali Ghose Roy,
Ms.Aditi Malik and Ms.Swaitlekha Majumdar for making me laugh when I was stressed out
and for the incredible amount of patience they had with me. Lastly and most importantly, I
would like to thank my parents whose faith in me sometimes borders on craziness and without
which I would not be studying for a Masters degree.
DECEMBER, 09 2013.

II

ABSTRACT
The aim of the project is to design an 4T SRAM cell for Low-Power and Low-Area
application while maintaining the competitive performance. The design of the cell is carried
out in Bulk and FDSOI technology. The metrics considered here are Static Noise Margin,
Write Margin, On-Current and Off-Current. The evaluation of the above metrics is carried out
using Cadence and Mentor tools. Firstly, to show the better performance of loadless 4T-
SRAM, a comparison study is done with 6T-SRAM both designed in 28 nm Bulk
Technology. The evaluations are performed on the basis of same metrics for 4T-SRAM and
6T-SRAM. Post the simulation, it is observed that 4T-SRAM is a better solution for the low-
power application in comparison to its counterpart of 6T variant in 28 nm Bulk Technology
variant. Secondly, after the above mentioned work a detailed study on FDSOI technology was
carried out and the 4T-SRAM was designed using FDSOI technology.
Key Words
STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (SRAM), SIX-TRANSISTOR (6T-), FOUR TRANSISTOR (4T-), CELL
RATIO (CR), STATIC NOISE MARGIN (SNM), WRITE NOISE MARGIN (WNM), FULLY-DEPLETED
SILICON ON INSULATOR (FDSOI)








III



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Number
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO MEMORY DESIGN
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MEMORY ORGANIZATION 1
CHAPTER 2: RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES
2.1 BASIC FUNDAMENTALS 5
2.2 DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY 6
2.3 STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY 8
CHAPTER 3: DESIGN OF STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
3.1 INTRODUCTION 11
3.2 SIX TRANSISTOR (6T)- STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY 11
3.2.1 READ OPERATION 12
3.2.2 WRITE OPERATION 13
3.3 SIX TRANSISTOR (4T)- STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY 15
3.3.1 READAND WRITE OPERATION 16
CHAPTER 4: METRICS TO EVALUATE STATIC RANDOM ACCESS
MEMORY

4.1 INTRODUCTION 17
4.2 STATIC NOISE MARGIN 17
4.3 WRITE NOISE MARGIN 18
4.4 ON-CURRENT 19
4.5 OFF-CURRENT 19
4.6 DATA RETENTION VOLTAGE 19
CHAPTER 5: FULLY-DEPLETED SILICON ON INSULATOR DEVICES
5.1 INTRODUCTION 20
5.2 BASIC FEATURES OF FDSOI DEVICES 20
5.3 MODES OF OPERATION: FDSOI DEVICES 22
5.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF FDSOI MOSFETS 25
CHAPTER 6: MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF SRAM CELL
IV

6.1 ANALYTICAL SNM EXPRESSION FOR A 6T SRAM CELL 31
6.2 ANALYTICAL SNM EXPRESSION FOR A LOADLESS 4T SRAM CELL 33
6.3 ANALYTICAL SNM EXPRESSION FOR A PROPOSED LOADLESS 4T
SRAM CELL
35
CHAPTER 7: RESULTS
7.1 SPECTRE SETUP FOR SRAM CELL DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK
TECHNOLOGY
38
7.2 SPECTRE SETUP FOR SRAM CELL DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI
TECHNOLOGY & SIMULATION GRAPH USING ELDO SIMULATOR
41
7.3 SIMULATED OUTPUT 42
7.3.1 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-
SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
42
7.3.2 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-
SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
47
7.3.3 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR PPROPOSED 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
48
7.3.4 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR 6T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
48
7.3.5 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR 6T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
49
7.3.6 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR 6T-SRAM DESIGNED IN 28
nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
50
7.3.7 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-
SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
50
7.3.8 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-
SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
52
7.3.9 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR PROPOSED 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
54
7.3.10 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR
CONVENTIONAL 4T-SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI
TECHNOLOGY
54
7.3.11 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR
CONVENTIONAL 4T-SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI
55
V

TECHNOLOGY
7.3.12 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR CONVENTIONAL 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
56
CONCLUSION 57
FUTURE WORK 58
REFERENCE 59





















VI



LIST OF TABLES

TABLE
NUMBER
CAPTIONS PAGE
NUMBER
1.1 CMOS Memory Subclasses 4
7.1 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.0 V 42
7.2 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.1 V 42
7.3 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.2 V 43
7.4 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V 44
7.5 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1 44
7.6 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 180 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=1.5
45
7.7 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 240 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=2 45
7.8 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=2.5
46
7.9 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 360 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=3 46
7.10 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V 47
7.11 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1 47
7.12 On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM 48
7.13 Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM 48
7.14 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and CR=2 48
7.15 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and CR=2
in various Process Corners
49
7.16 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V and PD=225 nm 49
7.17 On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM 50
7.18 Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM 50
7.19 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 0.8 V 50
7.20 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 0.9 V 51
7.21 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.0 V 51
7.22 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.1 V 51
7.23 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.2 V 51
VII

7.24 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.3 V 51
7.25 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, Vdc = 1.0 V 52
7.26 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = TT 52
7.27 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = FF 53
7.28 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = FS 53
7.29 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = SF 53
7.30 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = SS 53
7.31 On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM 54
7.32 Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM 54
7.33 Supply Voltage Modulation, CR=1 54
7.34 Cell Ratio Modulation 55
7.35 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation 55
7.36 On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM 56
7.37 Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM 56

















VIII



LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
NUMBER
CAPTIONS PAGE
NUMBER
1.1 Memory Classification by Technology 2
1.2 Memory Classification by Data Form 2
1.3 Memory Classification by Mechanism 2
1.4 Semiconductor memory technology branches 3
2.1 Basic RAM architecture 5
2.2 64 Mbit Fast Page Mode DRAM Device (4096 x 1024 x 16) 8
2.3 Functional Diagram of SRAM 10
3.1 6T- SRAM Cell 12
3.2 4T- SRAM Cell 15
5.1 Drain junction capacitance of SOI MOSFET 21
5.2 Drain junction capacitance of SOI MOSFET 23
5.3 Cross section of PDSOI MOSFET and its energy band-diagram 23
5.4 Dependence of Body Thickness and Impurity Concentration of
Body in an FDSOI MOSFETs.
25
5.5 Drain current-voltage characteristics of (a) FD-SOI and (b) PD-
SOI nMOSFETs. (From J. P. Colinge, IEEE Press 1998.)
26
5.6 Subthreshold characteristics of FD-SOI, PD-SOI, and bulk-Si
MOSFETs.
27
6.1 A six-transistor full CMOS SRAM cell in a read-accessed mode 31
6.2 Equivalent circuit of a 4T loadless SRAM half-cell 34
6.3 Equivalent circuit of Proposed 4T loadless SRAM half-cell 36
7.1 4T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso Environment 38
7.2 4T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for SNM Curve 38
7.3 4T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for WNM Curve 39
7.4 6T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso Environment 39
7.5 6T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for SNM Curve 40
7.6 6T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for WNM Curve 40
7.7 4T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso Environment 41
IX

designed in 28 nm FDSOI Technology
7.8 Proposed 4T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso
Environment designed in 28 nm FDSOI Technology
41
7.9 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.0 V 42
7.10 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.1 V 43
7.11 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.2 V 43
7.12 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V 44
7.13 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=1
44
7.14 Supply Voltage Modulation ,PD= 180 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=1.5
45
7.15 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 240 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=2
45
7.16 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 300 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=2.5
46
7.17 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 360 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=3
46
7.18 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V 47
7.19 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and
CR=1
47
7.20 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and
CR=2
48
7.21 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and
CR=2 in various Process Corners
49
7.22 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V and PD=225 nm 50
7.23 Supply Voltage and Cell Ratio Modulation Vs SNM 52
7.24 Supply Voltage and Pull Ratio Modulation Vs WNM 54
7.25 Supply Voltage Modulation, CR=1 55
7.26 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc = 1V 55
7.27 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation 56


X



LIST OF ACRONYMS & ABBREVIATIONS
(Alphabetically)
BL BIT LINE
BLB BIT LINE BAR
BOX BODY OXIDE
CMOS COMPLIMENTARY MOSFET
CR CELL RATIO
DIBL DRAIN INDUCED BARRIER LOWERING
DRAM DYNAMIC READ ONLY MEMORY
FDSOI FULLY DEPLETED SILICON ON INSULATOR
LSI LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION
PD PULL-DOWN RATIO
PDSOI PARTIALLY DEPLETED SILICON ON INSULATOR
PU PULL-UP RATIO
PVT PROCESS VOLTAGE TEMPERATURE
RPM ROTATION PER MINUTE
SNM STATIC NOISE MARGIN
SOC SYSTEM ON CHIP
SOI SILICON ON INSULATOR
SRAM STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
WL WORD LINE
WNM WRITE NOISE MARGIN
6T SIX TRANSISTOR
4T FOUR TRANSISTOR



1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO MEMORY DESIGN
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The semiconductor IC which are much used in humongous quantity are the CMOS memories
and are available with various features in different variants. CMOS memories, in a strict
sense, are all of those data storage devices which are fabricated with a complementary metal-
oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In technical practice, however, the term CMOS
Memory designates a class of data storage devices which are fabricated with CMOS
technology, store and process data in digital form and use no moving mechanical parts to
facilitate memory operations. This specific meaning of the term CMOS Memory results
from the historical development, application and design of semiconductor data storage
devices.
The data storage devices are classified in various aspects, but in general grouped by (1)
fabrication technology of the storage medium, (2) data form, and (3) mechanism of the access
to stored data. From the variety of technologies which may be applied to create data storage
devices, the semiconductor integrated circuit technology, and within that, the CMOS
technology has emerged as the dominant technology in fabrication of system-internal
memories, while magnetic and optical technologies gained supermacy in production of
auxiliary memories for mass data storage[1]. The dominance of the CMOS memories in
computing, data processing and telecommunication system has arisen from the capability of
CMOS technologies to combine high packing density, fast operation, low power
consumption, environmental tolerance and easy down-scaling of feature sizes. This
combination of features provided by CMOS memories has been unmatched by memories of
semiconductor memories, so far, have been cost prohibitive in the majority of commercial
mass data storage devices. Nevertheless, the design of mass storage devices, which operate in
space, military and industrial environments can require the use of CMOS memories, because
of their good environment tolerance [4]-[9].

1.2 CLAASIFICATION OF MEMORY ORGANIZATION
Historically, system requirement in data form, performance, environmental tolerance and
packing density, have dictated the use of digital signals in CMOS memories. With the
evolution of the CMOS memory technology, data storage in digital form has become
dominant and self-evident without any extra statement, and the alternative analog data storage

2

is distinguished by using the expression CMOS analog memory. Similarly, because all
CMOS memories operate without mechanically moving parts, an added word for mechanical
classification would be redundant. A plethora of subclasses indicates the great diversity of
CMOS memories, and includes classification by (1) basic operation mode, (2) storage mode,
(3) data access mode, (4) storage cell operation, (5) storage capacity, (6) organization, (7)
performance, (8) environment tolerance, (9) radiation hardness, (10) read effect, (11)
architecture, (12) logic system, (13) power supply, (14) storage media, (15) application, (16)
system operation and by numerous other facets of the memory technology [2] [14].











Fig 1.1 : Memory Classification by Technology








Fig 1.2 : Memory Classification by Data Form







Fig 1.3 : Memory Classification by Mechanism



3

Fig 1.4 : Semiconductor memory technology branches

The vast majority of CMOS memories are designed to allow write and read and, in a much
less quantity, read-only basic operation modes. In mask-programmed read-only memories the
data contents cannot be reprogrammed by the user. User-programmable memories can also
be, and are, made by comining programmable nonvolatile memory cells with CMOS
fabrication technologies. During the advancement of the memory technology, nevertheless,
user-programmable nonvolatile memories emerged as a separate main class of memory
technology that has its own specific subclasses, circuits and architectures. Therefore, the
circuits and architectures of the user-programmable nonvolatile memories are discussed
independently from the write-read and the mask-programmed read-only CMOS memories
elsewhere in other research works[2]-[14].
In CMOS memory technology the classification by access mode and by storage cell operation
is of importance, because these two categories can incorporate the circuits and architectures of
all other subclasses of CMOS memories. Consistently with the categories, this work provides
a general introduction to the CMOS random access memory architecture and, then, it presents
the dynamic, static and fixed type of memory cells and the other component circuits which are
specific to CMOS memories.
CMOS memory integrated circuits are characterized, most commonly and most superficially,
by memory-capacity per chip in bits and by access time in seconds or by data-repetition rate
in Hetzs[15]-[16], [18].



4

Table 1.1 : CMOS Memory Subclasses
1 Basic Operation Mode Wrire-Read, Read-Only, User Programmable
2 Storage Mode Volatile, Nonvolatile
3 Access Mode Random, Serial, Content-Addressable
4 Storage Cell Operation Dynamic, Static, Fixed, Programmable
5 Storage Capacity Number of Bits or Storage Cells in a Memory Chip
6 Organization (Number of Words) x (Number of Bits in a Word)
7 Performance High Speed, Low-Power, High-Reliability
8 Environmental Tolerance Commercial, Space, Radiation, Military, High-Temperature
9 Radiation Hardness Nonhardened, Tolerant, Hardened
10 Read Effect Destructive, Nondestructive
11 Architecture Linear, Hierarchical
12 Logic System Binary, Ternary, Quaternary, Other
13 Power Supply Stabilized, Battery, Photocell, Other
14 Storage Media Semiconductor, Dielectric, Ferroelectric, Magnetic
15 Application Mainframe, Cash, Buffer, Scratch-Pad, Auxiliary
16 System Operation Synchronous, Asynchronous





5

CHAPTER 2 : RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES
2.1 BASIC FUNDAMENTALS
In random access memories the memory cells are identified by addresses, and the access to
any memory cells any address requires approximately the same period of time. A basic
CMOS random access memory (RAM) consists of a (1) memory cell array, or matrix, or core,
(2) sensing and writing circuit, (3) row, or word address decoder, (4) column, or bit address
decoder, and an (5) operation control circuit.




















Fig 2.1 : Basic RAM architecture

Generally, the operation of a write-read RAM may be divide into three major segments : (1)
access, (2) read/write, and (3) input/output [3]. The access segment starts with the appearance
of an address code on the inputs of the decoders. The N-in/2
N
out row decoder selects a
single wordline out of the 2
N
wordlines of the memory-cell array. In an array of 2
N
x 2
N
memory cells, this wordlines renders the data input/output terminals of 2
N
cells to 2
N
bitlines
and an N-in/2
N
out column decoder selects S number of bitlines. S is also the number of the
sense and write amplifier, and S may be between one and 2
N
.

In the second read/write
operation segment, the sense and write amplifiers read, rewrite or alter the data content of the

6

selected memory cells [5]. During the input/output time segment, the sensed or altered data
content of the memory cells are transferred through datalines to logic circuits, and to one or
more output buffer circuits. The output buffer is either combined or seperated from the input
buffer [6]. A data input is timed so that the write data reaches the sense and write amplifiers
before the sense operation commenses. Of courses, no write can be performed in read-only
memories. Every memory operation, e.g., write, read, standby, enable, data-in, data-out, etc.,
is goverened by RAM internal control circuits.
Most frequently, CMOS RAMs are categorized by the operation of the storage cells into four
categories : (1) dynamic RAMs (DRAMs), (2) static RAMs (SRAMs), (3) fixed program or
mask-programmed read-only memories (ROMs), and (4) user-programmable read-only
memories (PROMs). The following sections introduce the architecture of CMOS DRAMs,
SRAMs, and ROMs. CMOS PROM architectures are not discussed here, as stated
beforehand, because PROMs have emerged as a distinct and extensive class of memories, and
their architectures are developed to accomodate and exploit the unique properties of the
nonvolatile memory cells [7]-[8].

2.2 DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (DRAM)
Computer system performance is increasingly limited by the performance of DRAM based
memory systems due to the fact that the rate of DRAM memory system performance increase
has lagged the rate of processor performance increase in the past thirty years. One reason that
DRAM memory system performance has consistently lagged processor performance is that
DRAM memory systems typically consist of one or more chips that are designed and
manufactured separately from the processor, and the performance of the interconnected multi-
chip DRAM memory system is difficult to scale to achieve higher datarate and lower access
latency. One apparent solution to the problem of access latencies introduced by system level
interconnects between processors and memory systems are to integrate the memory system
with the processor onto the same silicon die. However, in the case of the integrated memory
system, the size of the silicon die limits the storage capacity of the memory system, and that
capacity cannot be configured by the end user as needed for different operating environments.
Moreover, the die area used by the memory system could have been used by performance
enhancing features or more processor cores. In essence, the integration of processor and
memory system onto the same silicon die is currently a viable solution for only a limited
subset of high performance systems. As a result, high performance processors are keeping

7

silicon die area for use by logic transistors, and memory transistors for main memory are still
constructed separately from the processor chip. For example, high performance processors
such as Intels Itanium and Pentium processors, AMDs Opteron processor, and IBMs
Power5 processors are all moving toward multi-core designs or already contain multiple
processor cores per chip, and the study of the memory system as a separate entity will
continue to have great relevance for the foreseeable future [1].
A second reason that the rate of increase of DRAM memory system performance has lagged
the rate of increase of processor performance is that while high performance processors are
specialized parts and typically command high price premiums, standard DRAM devices are
commodity items that can be freely purchased from multiple vendors. The commodity nature
of standard DRAM devices means that DRAM device manufacturers are extraordinarily
sensitive to manufacturing costs, and only features that provide substantial performance
benefits for minimal cost increments are considered in each new generation of standard
DRAM devices. However, there is great difficulty in the determination of performance impact
for different performance enhancing features proposed for each new generation of DRAM
devices, and that difficulty arises from the fact DRAM memory system performance depends
on a large number of independent variables such as workload characteristics of memory
access rate and request sequence, memory system architecture, and memory system
configuration [1]. As a result, system architects and design engineers will often disagree as to
the impact of various performance enhancing features, since that performance impact depends
on the configuration of specific systems.
Presently, DRAM device datarates are increasing with each new generation of DRAM
devices at the rate of 100% every three years, and DRAM row cycle times are decreasing at a
rate of approximately 7%per year. The collective trends are increasing the ratio of row cycle
times to the duration of data bursts on the data bus. As a result, to maintain a given utilization
rate of memory system bandwidth, more requests must be issued to the DRAM memory
system in parallel for each successive generation of higher data rate DRAM devices.
Collectively, these trends form the larger picture that while DRAM based memory system
performance are increasingly limiting system performance, it is becoming more difficult to
maintain efficiency in each successive generations of higher data rate DRAM devices [4].
Moreover, system architects and design engineers often disagree as to the desirability of
various proposed DRAM device and system enhancements designed to increase DRAM
memory system performance [14]. With these considerations forming the background, the

8

work in this dissertation is devoted to the creation of a common basis that system architects
and design engineers can use to quantify the impact of various proposed performance
enhancing features in modern DRAM devices, subjected to different workloads, system
architecture and system configurations.


Fig 2.2 : 64 Mbit Fast Page Mode DRAM Device (4096 x 1024 x 16)



2.3 STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (SRAM)

Random access memories which retain their data content as long as electric power is supplied
to the memory device, and do not need any rewrite or refresh operation, are called static
random access memories or SRAMs [1]. CMOS SRAMs feature very fast write and read
operations, can be designed to have extremely low standby power consumption and to operate
in radiation hardened and other severe environments.

9

The excellent speed and power performances, and the great environmental tolerances of
CMOS SRAMs are obtained by compromises in costs per bit. High costs per bit. High costs
per bits are consequences of the large slicon areas required to implement static memory cells.
A typical CMOS SRAM cell includes four transistors, or two transistors with two resistors, to
accomodate a positive feedback circuit for data hold, and one or two complementary inverters
provides a stable data storage, and facilites high speed write and read operations. The data
readout is non-destructive, and a single sense amplifier per memory cell array or block is
sufficient to carry out read operations.
SRAM architectures and operations are very similar to that of the generic RAM, but an
SRAM architecture comprises also row and column address registers, data input-output
control and buffer circuits, and a power down control circuit, in addition to the constituent
parts of the generic RAM. The operation of the SRAM starts with the detection of an address
change in the address register. An address change activates the SRAM circuits, the internal
timing circuit generates the control clocks, and the decoders select a single memory cell. At
write, the memory cell recieves a new datum from the data input buffers ; at read, the sense
amplifier detects and amplifies the cell signal and transfers the datum to the output buffer.
Data input/output and write/read are controlled by output enable OE and write enable WE
signals. A chip enable signal allows for convinient applications in clocked systems, and
system power consumption may be saved by the use of the power down signal PD. The power
down circuit controls the transition between the active and standby modes. In active mode, the
entire SRAM is powered by the full supply voltage ; in standby mode, only the memory cells
get a reduced supply voltage. In some designs, the memory-internal timing circuit remains
powered and operational also during power down [16].


10


Fig 2.2 : Functonal Diagram of SRAM
11

CHAPTER 3: DESIGN OF STATIC RANDOM ACCESS
MEMORY (SRAM)
3.1 INTRODUCTION
An SRAM cell is the key SRAM component storing binary information. A typical SRAM cell
uses two cross- coupled inverters forming a latch and access transistors. Access transistors
enable access to the cell during read and write operations and provide cell isolation during the
not-accessed state. An SRAM cell is designed to provide non-destructive read access, write
capability and data storage (or data retention) for as long as cell is powered.
We will discuss design and analysis aspects of a six-transistor (6T) CMOS SRAM cell and a
loadless 4T SRAM cell. We will describe their advantages and disadvantages.
In general, the cell design must strike a balance between cell area, robustness, speed, leakage
and yield. Cell size minimization is one of the most important design objectives. A smaller
cell allows the number of bits per unit area to be increased and thus, decreases cost per bit.
Reduced cell area can indirectly improve the speed and power consumption due to the
reduction of the associated cell capacitances. Smaller cells result in a smaller array area and
hence smaller bit line and word line capacitances, which in turn helps to improve the access
speed performance. Reducing the transistor dimensions is the most effective means to achieve
a smaller cell area.
However, the transistor dimensions cannot be reduced indefinitely without compromising the
other parameters. For instance, smaller transistors can compromise the cell stability. Often,
performance and stability objectives restrict arbitrary reduction in cell transistor sizes.
Similarly, cell area can be traded off for special features such as an improved radiation
hardening or multi-port cell access [19].

3.2 SIX TRANSISTOR (6T)- STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
The mainstream six-transistor (6T) CMOS SRAM cell is shown in the below figure. Similarly
to one of the implementations of an SR latch, it consists of six transistors. Four transistors
(Q
1
Q
4
) comprise cross-coupled CMOS inverters and two NMOS transistors Q
5
and Q
6
provide read and write access to the cell. Upon the activation of the word line, the access
transistors connect the two internal nodes of the cell to the true (BL) and the complementary
(BLB) bit lines. A 6T CMOS SRAM cell is the most popular SRAM cell due to its superior
robustness, low power and low-voltage operation. Therefore, we will discuss its operation and
12

design in greater detail. An SRAM cell must be designed such that it provides a non-
destructive read operation and a reliable write operation. These two requirements impose
contradicting requirements on SRAM cell transistor sizing. SRAM cell transistor ratios that
must be observed for successful read and write operations are discussed in the following
sections [29].


Fig 3.1 6T- SRAM Cell

3.2.1 READ OPERATION
Prior to initiating a read operation, the bit lines are precharged to V
DD
. The read operation is
initiated by enabling the word line (WL) and connecting the precharged bit lines, BL and
BLB, to the internal nodes of the cell. Upon read access, the bit line voltage VBL remains at
the precharge level. The complementary bit line voltage V
BLB
is discharged through transistors
Q
1
and Q
5
connected in series. Effectively, transistors Q
1
and Q
5
form a voltage divider whose
13

output is now no longer at zero volt and is connected to the input of inverter Q
2
Q
4
. Sizing of
Q
1
and Q
5
should ensure that inverter Q
2
Q
4
does not switch causing a destructive read. In
other words, 0+V should be less than the switching threshold of inverter Q
2
Q
4
plus some
safety margin or Noise Margin.
Ignoring the short-channel and body effects, the maximum allowed value 0+V of the node
storing logic 0 during read access can be expressed as:

=

2
1 + +
2


(3.1)
Where CR () is the cell ratio defined as
=

1
/
1

5
/
5

Since the cell is fully symmetrical, the CR is the same for Q
2
and Q
6
. Typically, in order to
ensure a non-destructive read and an adequate noise margin, CR must be greater than one and
can be varied depending on the target application of the cell from approximately 1 to 2.5.
Larger CRs provide higher read current I
read
(and hence the speed) and improved stability at
the expense of larger cell area. Smaller CRs ensure a more compact cell with moderate speed
and stability. Leakage through the access transistors should be minimized to ensure robust
read operation and to reduce the leakage power.
A preferred sizing solution can be to use a minimum-width access transistors with a slightly
larger than the minimal length channel and a larger than minimal width with a minimal length
driver transistors [20]-[22].
Once the complementary bit line discharges to a certain V
BLB
=V
DD
V voltage level
sufficient for reliable sensing by the sense amplifier, the sense amplifier is enabled and
amplifies the small differential voltage between the bit lines to the full-swing CMOS level
output signal.

3.2.2 WRITE OPERATION
The write operation is similar to a reset operation of an SR latch. One of the bit lines, BL in,
is driven from precharged value (V
DD
) to the ground potential by a write driver through
transistor Q
6
. If transistors Q
4
and Q
6
are properly sized, then the cell is flipped and its data is
14

effectively overwritten. A statistical measure of SRAM cell write ability is defined as write
margin. Write margin is defined as the minimum bit line voltage required flipping the state of
an SRAM cell [23]. The write margin value and variation is a function of the cell design,
SRAM array size and process variation. A cell is considered not writeable if the worst-case
write margin becomes lower than the ground potential.
Note that the write operation is applied to the node storing a 1. This is necessitated by the
non-destructive read constraint that ensures that a 0 node does not exceed the switching
threshold of inverter Q
2
Q
4
. The function of the pull-up transistors is only to maintain the
high level on the 1 storage node and prevent its discharge by the off-state leakage current of
the driver transistor during data retention and to provide the low-to-high transition during
overwriting [23]-[25].
Assuming that the switching will not start before 1 node is below V
TH Q1
, a simplified over-
write condition can be expressed as:

"1"
= V
DD
V
THn
V
DD
V
THn

2
2

n
PR V
DD
V
THp
V
DSATp

V
DSATp
2
2

(3.2)
where the pull-up ratio of the cell, PR, is defined as:

=

4
/
4

6
/
6


The V
1
requirement is normally met using minimal-sized access and pull-up transistors only
due to

ratio. The exact maximum allowed PR is defined by the V


THn
process option and
by the switching threshold of inverter Q
1
Q
3
. Normally, to minimize the cell area and hence,
increase the packing density, the sizes of the pull-up and access transistors are chosen to be
minimal and approximately the same. However, stronger access transistors and/or weaker
pull-up transistors may be needed to ensure a robust write operation under the worst process
conditions e.g., in the fast PMOS and slow NMOS process skew corner. On the other hand, a
relatively strong pull-up PMOS also benefits the read stability due to the increased P/N ratio
of the back-to-back inverters (Q
3
Q
1
and Q
4
Q
2
) of the cells latch. The read stability of an
SRAM cell on one hand and the write ability of the cell on the other hand are conflicting
15

design requirements. It is getting increasingly more difficult to balance these requirements by
conventional transistor sizing and V
TH
optimization as the design window becomes
increasingly narrower [23] with the technology scaling. Despite the larger number of
transistors compared to the other discussed cells, 6T CMOS SRAM cells offer superior
stability and packing density provided the same performance and environmental tolerance.

3.3 FOUR TRANSISTOR (4T) STATIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
The basic idea of the loadless 4T-SRAM was proposed in 1987. This was the first report of a
4T-SRAM fabricated in a CMOS logic process, but it described mainly a specialized circuit to
hold the cell data. In this field, concepts on layout or fabrication technology have not been
discussed to reduce the area of the 4T-SRAM cell until another loadless 4T-SRAM cell was
introduced by Noda. A pair of PMOS transfer transistors is used to store and retain full-swing
signals in the cell without a refresh cycle. The memory cell size is 35% smaller than a 6T cell
using the same design rule with CMOS 0.18 micron technology. This cell can remain stable at
1.8 V with its cell ratio of 1.0. However the threshold voltage difference between NMOSFET
and PMOSFET has to be controlled from 0.2 to 0.4 V, which causes barriers to the
applications of this technique. Here, a loadless 4T SRAM cell uses NMOS transistors as
access transistors. In addition, the bitlines are precharged to ground instead of V
DD
. The goal
of introducing this loadless 4T cell is to achieve a smaller cell size than conventional 4T-cell,
with the same stability and the same compatibility with CMOS logic processes as 6TSRAM
cells [17].










Fig 3.2 4T- SRAM Cell

16

3.3.1 READ AND WRITE OPERATION
Firstly the write operation of the cell is described as follows. In order to store a logic 1 to
the cell, BL is charged to V
DD
and BL is charged to ground and vice-verse for storing a logic
0. Then the wordline voltage is switched to V
DD
to turn ON the NMOS access transistors.
When the access transistors are turned on, the values of the bitlines are written into Q and Q.
The node that is storing the logic 1 will not go to full V
DD
because of a voltage drop across
the NMOS access transistor. After the write operation the wordline voltage is reset to ground
to turn off the NMOS access transistors. The node with the logic1 stored will be pulled
up to full V
DD
through the PMOS driver transistors [26]-[27].
The read operation of the cell is different from that of the 6T transistors. To read from the cell
the bitlines are charged to ground instead of V
DD
and the wordline voltage is set to V
DD
to
turn on the NMOS access transistors. The node with logic 1 stored will pull the voltage on
the corresponding bitline up to a high (not V
DD
because of the voltage drop across the NMOS
access transistor) voltage level. The other bitline is pulled to ground. The sense amplifier will
detect which bitline is at a high voltage and which bitline is at ground. If the cell was storing a
logic 0 the voltage level of BL will be lower than BL so the sense amplifier will output a
logic 0. If the cell was storing logic 1 then the voltage level of BL will be higher than BL
then the sense amplifier will output a logic 1 [28].

17

CHAPTER 4: METRICS TO EVALUATE STATIC RANDOM
ACCESS MEMORY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
During the recent past CMOS IC technologies have been constantly scaled down aggressively
and thus entering in the nanometer regime recently. Among the wide variety of circuit
applications, integrated memories and specially SRAM cell layout has been significantly
improved. It is well known that critical dimension (CD) reduction entails an increase in
physical parameters variation, which among other effects has a direct impact on SRAM cell
stability. Polysilicon and diffusion CD together with implant variations are the main causes of
mismatch in SRAM cells. Current System on Chip (SoC) trends result in a significant
percentage of the total die area being dedicated to memory blocks, thus making SRAM
parameter variations dominate the overall circuit parameter characteristics, including leakage,
process variation effects, etc. Therefore, a deep knowledge and analysis about the stability of
the SRAM cells and the impact of physical parameters variation is becoming a must in
modern CMOS designs. The stability and robustness of a given SRAM cell is usually
evaluated analyzing both its dynamic and static behaviour during the typical operations: write,
read and hold periods. The metrics considered here for the design are: (1) Static Noise Margin
(SNM), (2) Write Noise Margin (WNM), (3) On-Current, (4) Off-Current and (5) Data
Retention Voltage [36].

4.2 STATIC NOISE MARGIN
The stability and robustness of a given SRAM cell is usually evaluated analyzing both its
dynamic and static behavior during the typical operations: write, read and hold periods.
According to this, the memory cell stability can be estimated from the Static Noise Margin
analysis. SNM is defined as the minimum DC noise voltage needed to flip the cell state, and
is used to quantify the stability of a SRAM cell using a static approach. A significant effort
has been devoted to explore the impact of process variations, temperature, etc., using the
SNM as a metric. In this paper we present a detailed analysis about 6T SRAM cells static
stability during read, and compare the differences between SNM during hold- and readmode.
The read-mode is usually identified as the cell weakest mode. SNM is a key performance
factor during hold and read operations, and its value changes significantly depending on the
18

specific operation mode. It has been shown that during read the SNM takes its lowest value
and the cell is in its weakest state. The worst-case SNM is when the wordline is settled high
and both bit-lines are still pre-charged high. While in this situation, the SRAM cell internal
node being low will be pulled up through the access transistor degrading significantly the
SNM during the read operation [37].
SNM Increases with Increase in Cell Ration.
SNM Increases with Increase in Supply Voltage.
SNM Decreases with Increase in Word Line Voltage
SNM Increases with Decrease in Bit Line Voltages.

4.3 WRITE NOISE MARGIN
Write margin is the measure of the ability to write data into the SRAM cell. Write margin
voltage is the maximum noise voltage present at bit lines during successful write operation.
When noise voltages exceeds the write margin voltage, then write failure occurs. In this
section, we introduce static approach for measuring write margin. The most common static
approach uses SNM as a criterion.
For a successful write, only one cross point should be found on the butterfly curves,
indicating that the cell is mono-stable. WSNM for writing 1 is the width of the smallest
square that can be embedded between the lower-right half of the curves. WSNM for writing
0 can be obtained from a similar simulation. The final WSNM for the cell is the minimum
of the margin for writing 0 and writing 1. A cell with lower WSNM has poorer write
ability.
The function of the SRAM write driver is to quickly discharge one of the bit lines from the
precharge level to below the write margin of the SRAM cell. Normally, the write driver is
enabled by the Write Enable (WE) signal and drives the bit line using full-swing discharge
from the precharge level to ground. The order in which the word line is enabled and the write
drivers are activated is not crucial for the correct write operation.
A write operation is possible in the region where the bit line voltage is at or below a voltage
point where the SNM becomes a zero. This voltage region is sometimes called the write
margin [37].
19

The write margin is an important design parameter as it defines the writeability of the cell.
A balance between the cell stability (SNM), the writeability, the cell area and the access speed
must be found, such that the cell has a sufficient stability margin while it still can be reliably
written into.
The function of the SRAM write driver is to quickly discharge one of the bit lines from the
precharge level to below the write margin of the SRAM cell. Normally, the write driver is
enabled by the Write Enable (WE) signal and drives the bit line using full-swing discharge
from the precharge level to ground. The order in which the word line is enabled and the write
drivers are activated is not crucial for the correct write operation [36].

4.4 ON-CURRENT
On-Current is defined as bit line current when word line goes to high. From the On-current,
the power consumption of the cell can be calculated.

4.5 OFF-CURRENT
Off-Current is defined as supply current when word line is low. It is also called us Leakage
current.
Scaling the threshold voltages of the devices down along with the supply voltage
exponentially increases the standby leakage current (Ioff ) of the circuit. The growing leakage
currents and the power, which is wasted for dissipation of the generated heat is limiting the
practical power supply scaling. Process variations together with low-VTH devices can
significantly increase the absolute leakage magnitude. The die-to-die and intra-die parameter
variations are also worsening with technology scaling. These variations affect the maximum
clock frequency and leakage power distributions. The variation effects are more pronounced
at low supply voltages (VDD) [36].

4.6 DATA RETENTION VOLTAGE
It is defined as Minimum power supply voltage required to retain node data as it is in standby
mode. As V
DD
scale down to DRV, the VTC of internal inverters degrade to such a level that
SNM of SRAM cell reduced to zero. If supply voltage is further scale down below DRV, then
stored data may be lost.
20

CHAPTER 5 FULLY-DEPLETED SILICON ON INSULATOR
DEVICES
5.1 INTRODUCTION
As the technology advances, the power consumption of the devices and its reduction plays a
key role in making the technology efficient. The basic Bulk devices have limitations in
nanotechnology devices. The most common issue which Bulk device faces are carrier
mobility reduction because of impurity scattering, increasing gate tunnelling current,
increasing leakage at junction etc. The above mentioned effects are the reason for non-
scalable devices at DSM. Because of above facts the operating voltages are to be set higher
rather than to be set low to achieve required speed and performance. The available cooling
systems for the electronic devices are getting failed due to the exceeding heat generated by
the integrated devices than the predicted values. Though the above mentioned problems are
quite dominant, yet Ubiquitous Environment is getting advanced day by day. The best
examples of the Smart Technologies are mobile phones, advanced graphic games, PDAs etc.
The lesser power consumption by these devices, more the battery life.
Silicon-on-Insulator technology offers low capacitance, in turn enabling higher speed of
operation. That is, with the reduced power supply, same speed of operation can be carried
out. Good radiation hardness, to withstand soaring temperatures and to withstand high
voltages is some of added advantages of SOI technology. SOI MOSFETs are classified into
two types: (i) Partially Depleted SOI and (ii) Fully Depleted SOI.
With Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology, the formation of MOSFETs with thin top Si
layer separated from the Si Body by an insulating film. In FDSOI devices the entire body
region is depleted while the channel formation. The above reason bags the merits and adds
more advantage such as better performance at low power supply voltages etc to FDSOI
technology [38]-[43].
5.2 BASIC FEATURES OF FDSOI DEVICES
SOI CMOS devices are formed in a thin top Si layer separated from the substrate by an
insulating film. An insulator is also used to completely isolate nMOSFET and pMOSFET
from each other. As a result, a CMOS structure fabricated on an SOI substrate exhibits better
characteristics in some respects than one built on an SOI substrate exhibits better
21

characteristics in some respects than one built on an SOI substrate exhibits better
characteristics in some respects than one built on a conventional bulk-Si substrate, such as a
lower parasitic capacitance, no latch-up problems, a lower junction leakage current, and
higher immunity to soft errors. The low parasitic capacitance, which is related to high-speed
and low-power operation, is discussed below.
In order for signals to propagate inside an LSI, the MOSFETs have to charge and discharge a
load capacitance consisting of the drain junction capacitance, gate capacitance, and
interconnection capacitance. Among them, the drain junction capacitance is about one order
of magnitude smaller in an SOI MOSFET than in device made on a bulk-Si substrate.
The drain junction capacitance of an SOI MOSFET can be broken down into the vertical
junction capacitance (C
JV
) between the drain and the substrate, and the lateral junction
capacitance (C
JL
) between the side wall of the drain and the body. C
JV
can be further
decomposed into the series connection of the capacitance (C
JVB
) of the buried oxide (BOX,
silicon oxide film with a permittivity 1/3 that of Si) and the capacitance (C
JVD
) of the
depletion layer that extends beneath the BOX. The thickness of the body region is typically
no more than 0.10.2 m in SOI substrates for CMOS circuits, and the area of the drain-body
junction is very small [40]-[46].















Fig 5.1 Drain junction capacitance of SOI MOSFET
22

As a result, C
JL
is small. When an SOI nMOSFET is fabricated on a p-type substrate, the
drain layer is made n
+
type so that a potential difference remains, even when the drain voltage
is zero, due to the difference between the Fermi levels of the drain layer and the substrate;
and a depletion layer thus forms underneath the BOX. During circuit operation, even though
the potential of the drain layer changes from zero to the supply voltage, a depletion layer
forms underneath the BOX at either potential.
For an SOI pMOSFET fabricated on a p-type substrate, the drain layer is p+ type. So, the
substrate side comes very close to the flat band condition when the drain voltage is zero.
Consequently, no depletion layer forms underneath the BOX. However, a depletion layer
starts to grow when a slight positive voltage is applied to the drain. During circuit operation,
the drain layer of a pMOSFET changes from 0 V to the positive supply voltage; and a
depletion layer usually forms underneath the BOX. Accordingly, the effect of the drain
junction capacitance in pMOSFETs is similar to that in nMOSFETs.
So, one of the key characteristics of SOI CMOS structures is that they have a smaller junction
capacitance than bulk-Si CMOS structures; and the difference becomes more pronounced as
the supply voltage drops. We will now consider the extent to which the smaller junction
capacitance affects overall LSI performance [42]-[50].

5.3 MODES OF OPERATION: FDSOI DEVICES
SOI MOSFETs have two modes of operation: fully-depleted (FD) and partially-depleted
(PD). The difference between them is described below with reference TO an nMOSFET as
example. In an FD-SOI device, the entire body region is depleted in both the ON and
OFF states. This results from the fact that an FD-SOI device generally has a thinner body
region than a PD-SOI device. For example, the body region is about 100200 nm thick in a
PD-SOI device, but at most about 50 nm thick in an FD-SOI device [43].
In contrast to an FD-SOI device, a PD-SOI device has an undepleted neutral region at the
bottom of the body region. This difference results in a different potential distribution inside
the body region. In an FD-SOI device, the entire body region has a potential gradient in the
depth direction; and the gate field extends right into the BOX. In a PD-SOI device, the
influence of the gate field stops inside the body region; and there is a neutral region with no
potential gradient at the bottom of the body region. Accordingly, the potential difference
between the top and bottom of the body region is larger in a PD-SOI device; and the potential
barrier to holes between the source and body near the bottom of the body region is higher.
23


Fig 5.2: Cross section of FDSOI MOSFET and its energy band-diagram

Fig 5.3: Cross section of PDSOI MOSFET and its energy band-diagram

This difference in the barrier height for holes leads to a difference in the number of holes that
accumulate in the body region. Holes are generated by impact ionization near the drain.
During the operation of an nMOSFET, when channel electrons pass through the high-
electrical-field region near the drain, they gain energy from the field and jump to higher
energy levels. The high-energy electrons collide with valence electrons and generate more
electrons and holes (impact ionization). The electrons flow into the drain, and the holes flow
toward the source via the bottom of the body region. When this happens, more holes
accumulate at the bottom of the body region in a PD-SOI than in an FD-SOI device because a
PD-SOI device has a higher potential barrier. This leads to a large difference between the
floating-body effects (described below) of the two types of devices, such as the kink in the
drain current-voltage characteristics and the stability of the dynamic characteristics [48].
As a way of presenting an overview of the structural parameters used to design FD-SOI
MOSFETs, Fig 5.4 shows the results of simple calculations to determine the proper
relationship among the impurity concentration (N
A
), the maximum thickness (T
B
) of the body
region, and the threshold voltage (V
th
). T
B
and V
th
are given by

= 2

0
2

1/2

24

+ 2


Where

ln


K
Si
is the relative permittivity of silicon,
0
is the permittivity of a vacuum, q is the charge on
an electron, V
FB
is the flat band voltage, C
OX
is the capacitance of the gate oxide film, k is
Boltzmanns constant, T is the absolute temperature, and n
i
is the intrinsic impurity
concentration. T
B
is taken to be the width of the channel depletion layer when a threshold
voltage is applied (with a surface potential of 2
F
). To make an FD-SOI device, the channel
depletion layer must just reach the BOX, thus depleting the entire body region, which means
that the thickness of the body region must be no larger than T
B
. That is, T
B
is the maximum
thickness. More precisely, in an FD-SOI MOSFET the body region must remain fully
depleted over the range of gate voltages from 0 V up to the threshold voltage. Accordingly,
since the body must be fully depleted at a surface potential of approximately
F
and not 2
F
,
T
B
should be thought of as a rough estimate of the maximum allowable thickness of the body
region of an FD-SOI MOSFET [49].
The threshold voltage actually depends on the drain voltage, that is, it decreases with drain
voltage due to parasitic bipolar effects in FD-SOI devices, as described below. The threshold
voltages are thus the values at low drain voltages.
Under these assumptions, to obtain an FD-SOI MOSFET with a 5-nm-thick gate oxide film
and a threshold voltage of 0.30.4 V, for example, the thickness of the body region must be at
most 5060 nm.
PD-SOI devices exhibit none of the advantages of FD-SOI MOSFETs described below (kink-
free drain current-voltage characteristics, steep subthreshold characteristics, stability with
regard to dynamic floating-body effects, etc.); and their characteristics are basically the same
as those of bulk-Si MOSFETs. However, they do have the advantages of SOI structures (low
parasitic capacitance, excellent latch-up immunity, low junction leakage current, high
immunity to soft errors). To obtain a low junction capacitance, which is an important reason
for using SOI technology, the source and drain layers must either extend all the way down to
the BOX or come very close to doing so. However, unlike in FD-SOI devices, the channel
25

depletion layer must not be allowed to reach the BOX. So, the body region of a PD-SOI
device must be at least 100 nm thick [42]-[49].










Fig 5.4 Dependence of Body Thickness and Impurity Concentration of Body in an FDSOI
MOSFETs.
5.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF FDSOI MOSFETS
(a) Kink in Drain Current-Voltage Characteristics
PD-SOI devices exhibit what is called a kink , which is a sharp rise in drain current as the
drain voltage increases at a fixed gate voltage. Electrons flowing in the channel are
accelerated and jump to higher energies in the high-electrical-field region near the drain,
thereby generating large numbers of electrons and holes by impact ionization. The electrons
flow towards the drain, and the holes flow towards the source along the bottom of the body
region. Since there is a potential barrier to holes at the source end, the holes begin to
accumulate in the body region. As more and more accumulate, the body potential increases
and the barrier height decreases, which allows more holes to flow out to the source across the
barrier. Consequently, the number of holes that can accumulate in the body region is such
that the number flowing out to the source balances the number generated by impact
ionization.
26







(a) (b)
Fig 5.5 Drain current-voltage characteristics of (a) FD-SOI and (b) PD-SOI nMOSFETs.
(From J. P. Colinge, IEEE Press 1998.)

Since a PD-SOI device has a higher potential barrier to holes than an FD-SOI device does, it
allows more holes accumulate in the body region. When a large number of holes accumulate
there, the potential of the body region rises to a positive value; and this bias effect causes the
threshold voltage of a MOSFET to drop, thereby increasing the drain current. As a result, as
shown in Fig 5.5, acute impact ionization takes place as the drain voltage increases, causing a
kink to appear in the drain current-voltage characteristics. Thus, the kink effect in PD-SOI
MOSFETs originates from the change in the body potential.
One feature of FD-SOI devices is that they do not exhibit this sort of kink. In an FD-SOI
device, the potential barrier to holes at the source end is small, even deep within the body
region, because the body region is depleted all the way down to the bottom. As a result, there
is little accumulation of holes in this region; so a kink cannot appear. Since there is no need
to resort to a body terminal to eliminate kink, FD-SOI devices have the advantage of being
smaller than PD-SOI devices with a body terminal, and can thus be integrated into LSIs at
higher densities. They make it easier to design layout patterns, and they make it possible to
draw upon existing resources for circuit design and layout design that have previously been
developed for devices fabricated on a bulk-Si substrate [40]-[46].

(b) Steep Subthreshold Slope in FDSOI-MOSFETs
An important feature of FD-SOI MOSFETs is their steep subthreshold characteristic. The
subthreshold swing of an FD-SOI device is close to 60 mV/dec at room temperature, which is
the limiting value for MOSFETs. The subthreshold characteristics are the drain current vs.
27

gate voltage (I
D
vs.V
G
) characteristics at gate voltages below the threshold voltage. In this
region, the drain current increases exponentially with gate voltage because it is proportional
to the number of carriers with enough thermal energy to cross the potential barrier between
the source and channel, as shown in the formula

= exp


where is a constant of proportionality and
B
is the barrier potential.
B
can be written in
terms of the built-in potential (V
bi
) of the source-channel p-n junction and the channel surface
potential (
S
) as follows:


As the gradient of log(I
D
) vs. V
G
in the subthreshold region becomes steeper, the drain
leakage current (off current) at V
G
= 0 becomes smaller. In addition, for a given off current, a
steeper gradient allows the threshold voltage to be made smaller. Producing high-speed LSIs
with a low power dissipation requires the use of MOSFETs with a low threshold voltage and
a small off current, which in turn requires a steep gradient. The gradient is expressed as the
subthreshold swing, S, which is defined to be the change in gate voltage needed to change the
drain current by one decade in the subthreshold region, as shown by the following formula.
(S is given in units of mV/dec.). S becomes smaller as the rate at which the channel surface
potential changes with gate voltage become larger, resulting in steeper subthreshold
characteristics.
Fig .6 shows typical subthreshold characteristics of FD-SOI and bulk-Si MOSFETs (and PD-
SOI MOSFETs). As mentioned at the outset, FD-SOI devices have steeper subthreshold
characteristics than bulk or PD-SOI devices, with S being close to the limiting value. To put
it another way, for a given change in gate voltage, the channel surface potential changes more
in an FD-SOI device than in bulk or PD-SOI devices. The reason for this is explained below
[40]-[46].







Fig 5.6 Subthreshold characteristics of FD-SOI, PD-SOI, and bulk-Si MOSFETs.
28

(c) Dynamic Floating-Body Effects
Since an SOI device is fully isolated, the body potential is not fixed and changes for a variety
of reasons. The effects brought about by these changes are referred to collectively as floating-
body effects. In particular, dynamic floating-body effects that occur when a device is
operating in a circuit can give rise to complex behaviour. The main causes of changes in body
potential are impact ionization and majority carrier redistribution in the body region, which
occur as the gate and drain switch between high and low levels [45].
(i) Effect of Impact Ionization
For the nMOSFET, some of the holes generated by impact ionization in the high-electric-
field region near the drain accumulate in the body region and raise the body potential to a
positive value. Since the number of accumulated holes depends on the time constants of hole
creation and annihilation, the device exhibits complex behaviour when operating dynamically
in an LSI.
As the drain voltage increases, the holes pile up faster in the body region and the threshold
voltage drops at a faster rate, causing the increase in drain current to take place sooner. In this
way, differences in the number of holes generated during the operation of a PD-SOI device
give rise to differences in the rate at which holes accumulate in the body region, which
appear as differences in the transient characteristics. On the other hand, no such transient
characteristics are observed in FD-SOI devices. Thus, at voltages for which impact ionization
occurs, a PD-SOI MOSFET will exhibit complex behaviour that depends on the pulse
conditions, while an FD-SOI MOSFET will function stably. This difference arises because
the entire body region of an FD-SOI device is depleted, which makes the potential barrier to
holes between the source and body region smaller than in a PD-SOI device, thereby allowing
fewer holes to accumulate in the body region.
As described above, a PD-SOI device exhibits pronounced dynamic floating-body effects
associated with impact ionization. To suppress these effects, the device must be provided
with an extra terminal to fix the body potential by extracting holes. In contrast, an FD-SOI
device can be said to be stabilized against dynamic floating-body effects, and thus has no
need of a body terminal [40]-[46].
(ii) Effects of Majority Carrier Redistribution
When the gate voltage changes from the low to the high level, the channel depletion layer
grows wider, driving away the holes (majority carriers) that it encounters along the way. The
holes accumulate at the bottom of the body region and raise the body potential to a positive
29

value. Since the source junction is forward-biased, the holes then flow out towards the
source. Next, when the gate returns to the low level, holes are needed to make the channel
depletion layer narrower so that a neutral region can form. But since the holes have already
flowed out, there is a shortage, which creates a negative body potential that causes holes to be
supplied from the source as a reverse-biased junction current. In this way, the body potential
varies due to the surplus or shortage of holes in the body region arising from the outflow and
supply of holes at the source junction and the expulsion and restoration of holes due to the
growth and contraction of the channel depletion layer. In addition, since similar phenomena
are associated with the growth and contraction of the drain depletion layer as the drain
changes between high and low levels, the body potential of devices operating in an LSI
exhibits complex behaviour. The phenomena associated with majority carrier redistribution
only cause problems in PD-SOI MOSFETs; while in principle, they do not even occur in FD-
SOI devices because the entire body region is always depleted [43]-[45].

(d) Parasitic Bipolar Effects in FDSOI MOSFETs
A major part of the appeal of FD-SOI MOSFETs is that they suppress the kink in the drain
current-voltage characteristics without using a body terminal. But although a kink does not
appear, the devices are still susceptible to a kind of floating-body effect known as parasitic
bipolar effects. These effects occur when the source, body, and drain of MOSFETs act as the
emitter, base, and collector of parasitic transistors in which the base current consists of
majority carriers produced by impact ionization. Since the body region is more depleted in
FD- than in PD-SOI devices, the injection efficiency of the emitter of the parasitic bipolar
transistors is higher, which makes these effects more likely to occur. When they do occur,
they have a number of consequences, such as a reduction in the breakdown voltage between
the source and drain, abnormally steep subthreshold characteristics beyond the theoretical
limit, a larger off current, and a smaller threshold voltage [49]-[52].
Suppressing parasitic bipolar effects in FD-SOI devices entails:
Suppressing the generation of majority carriers by impact ionization
Reducing the injection efficiency of the emitter of parasitic bipolar transistors.
Lowering the transport efficiency with which minority carriers injected into the base
are conveyed to the collector.
Techniques that are reported to be effective include introducing electron-hole recombination
centers near the source by Ar ion implantation, and using SiGe for the source region to
30

reduce the potential barrier to holes between the source and body. In both techniques, holes
(for an nMOSFET) are extracted from the body region to prevent the potential there from
becoming positive and to reduce the emitter injection efficiency [47].

(e) Self-Heating Effects
We have seen the beneficial effects that the buried insulating film underneath an SOI
MOSFET has on the electrical characteristics. However, the thermal properties must also be
considered. The thermal conductivity of the silicon oxide film typically used for the buried
insulator is 1.4 Wm
1
K
1
, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of Si
(140 Wm
1
K
1
). As a result, the Joule heat generated by the drain current cannot easily
escape through the BOX and the substrate. This gives rise to self-heating, which raises the
channel temperature.
A large amount of Joule heat is generated in the saturation region, where the drain voltage
and current are both large; and the resulting increase in temperature reduces the drain current
by lowering the carrier mobility, and may lead to the appearance of a differential negative
resistance in the drain current-voltage characteristics. Accordingly, different drain current-
voltage characteristics may be obtained when measuring the steady-state drain current with a
DC supply, and when measuring the drain current with a pulse supply, which causes less
heating and is thus less likely to induce self-heating, even under the same drain and gate bias
conditions.
The Joule heat generated in the channel is dissipated by the interconnections via the contacts
on the source and drain layer, and via the gate oxide film and gate electrode. Consequently,
considering the ease with which Joule heat is dissipated, the increase in channel temperature
caused by self-heating is governed by the structural parameters of the device, such as the
thickness of the SOI layer, the distance between the channel and the source/drain contacts,
and the thickness of the BOX [45]-[52].





31

CHAPTER 6: MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF SRAM CELL
6.1 ANALYTICAL SNM EXPRESSION FOR A 6T SRAM CELL
Employing the same long-channel MOS current equations for the circuit in Fig .1 and
assuming that transistors Q1 and Q4 are saturated and transistors Q2 and Q5 are in the linear
mode:









Fig 6.1 A six-transistor full CMOS SRAM cell in a read-accessed mode

2
=
2

5
(
5

0.5
5
)
(6.1)

2
= 2
2
(
2

0.5
2
)
(6.2)
Where

of NMOS transistor in the cell is assumed

of PMOS transistor and


=

, =

.
The Kirchhoff equations for the 6T SRAM cell are [53]:

1
=

+
2

5
=

5
=

4
=

2

Thus,
32

2
+

2
=


2
(

2
2
+
2
)

2
= 2
2

0.5
2

Where


Eliminating
2
and
2
from the above equation yields a fourth-degree equation.
Assuming local linearity of the transfer characteristic on inverter Q2Q4 around its operating
point where Q2 is in the linear region, it can be simplified as [53]:

2
=
0

2

Where

+1

+1

+1
1 + +

0
=

+
1 +
1 + +


After eliminating V
DS2
from the above equation and simplification, we get:

2
1 +2 +

2
+2

+ +

2
= 0
Where
=


2

=
0
+ +1


Similarly to the derivation in the double-root stability criterion was applied to obtain the
SNM:

6
=


1
+1

2 + 1
+1

1 +

( + 1)

1 +

1 +2 +


(6.3)
33

6.2 ANALYTICAL SNM EXPRESSION FOR A LOADLESS 4T SRAM
CELL
Shockleys MOSFET model, represented by Equation 3.37 was used to analytically calculate
circuit parameters for long-channel transistors. However, the Shockley model is increasingly
inaccurate in describing the behaviour of the modern short-channel transistors. Short-channel
effects, such as the carrier velocity saturation, must be taken into account for accurate
analytical characterization of sub-micron MOSFETs.
In scaled-down transistors, Shockleys square-law dependence does not hold. The shift of
V
DSAT
and discrepancies in the saturation region called for the Alpha-Power Law (APL)
proposed in. Drain current in the APL is then proportional to (V
GS
V
TH
)

, where is the
velocity saturation index. While in the Shockley model = 2, the measured values can
range from one to two. The APL model is defined as [54]:

=
0,

/2

<
0




Where

/2

(6.4)


(6.5)
Assuming that both inverters comprising a four-transistor loadless SRAM cell are equivalent,
we used the following equivalent circuits to derive the SNM expression. Since we are
interested in the worst-case SNM, we will consider the cell in the read-accessed mode, i.e.
with the activated word line. In the case of a four-transistor loadless SRAM cell, which is
using PMOS transistors as both the access and the load, the read-accessed mode corresponds
to V
WL
= 0, i.e. when the gate of Q4 is grounded. Since many of the parameters in the APL
model are technology-dependent, we will differentiate between n and p transistors as well as
between the linear and saturated modes of the transistors. For instance, the velocity saturation
index , the threshold voltage V
TH
and the saturation voltage V
D0
will vary with the transistor
type and operating mode.
Analytically Static Noise Margin of the SRAM cell is found out and verified from the VTC
curve. The Noise Margins are found out graphically, which would be represented by the sides
34

of the rectangle drawn between the two VTCs of the half-cells. For analytical calculations,
we can express the SNM of a loadless four-transistor SRAM cell as the diagonal of the
rectangle with the sides equal to NMH and NML. The final expression can be presented as:

Fig 6.2 Equivalent circuit of a 4T loadless SRAM half-cell

4
=

2
+

2

Where,


From the Analysis carried out, the following results were obtained:

/2

(6.6)
We define

as the point where

= 1, thus

1
1


2(1
( )
)
+
( )

(6.7)

( )
/2

(6.8)
We define

as the point where

= 1, thus
35


+2

+2
+
( )

(6.9)
Thus the Noise Margins are:


2

(


+2

+2
+
()
)
(6.10)

1
1


21


2

(6.11)

6.3 ANALYTICAL SNM EXPRESSION FOR A PROPOSED LOADLESS
4T SRAM CELL
Similar to the analysis of loadless 4T-SRAM discussed above, the analysis of 4T-SRAM
proposed is also done in similar fashion. To calculate the SNM of the 4T-SRAM, the Noise
Margin is calculated for the Half-Cells and the square root of the sum of squares of the Noise
Margin gives us the Static Noise Margin value.

4
=

2
+

2

Where,


36


Fig 6.3 Equivalent circuit of Proposed 4T loadless SRAM half-cell
From the Analysis carried out, the following results were obtained:

( )
/2
+


(6.12)
Where

= |

|,


2

1
+


(6.13)


/2

(6.14)


+2


+2
+



(6.15)
37

Thus,


Therefore,


2
+

2
+


2

1
+


+2


+2
+



(6.16)





38

CHAPTER 7: RESULTS
7.1 SPECTRE SETUP FOR SRAM CELL DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK
TECHNOLOGY
The 4T- and 6T- SRAM cell was designed in 28 nm Bulk technology and then simulated in
Cadence Spectre simulator using 28 nm Bulk Technology. The following are the snap shots:

Fig 7.1 Proposed 4T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso Environment

Fig 7.2 Proposed 4T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for SNM Curve
39



Fig 7.3 Proposed 4T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for WNM Curve

Fig 7.4 6T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso Environment
40



Fig 7.5 6T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for SNM Curve

Fig 7.6 6T-SRAM Cell : Simulation for WNM Curve
41

7.2 SPECTRE SETUP FOR SRAM CELL DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI
TECHNOLOGY & SIMULATION GRAPH USING ELDO SIMULATOR

Fig 7.7 4T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso Environment designed in 28 nm FDSOI
Technology

Fig 7.8 Proposed 4T-SRAM Cell Setup in Cadence Vituoso Environment designed in 28 nm
FDSOI Technology
42

7.3 SIMULATED OUTPUT
7.3.1 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.1: Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.0 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Pass-Gate (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 230
1.5 180 120 312
2.0 240 120 360
2.5 300 120 400
3.0 360 120 440


Fig 7.9 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.0 V
Table 7.2: Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.1 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Pass-Gate (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 235
1.5 180 120 318
2.0 240 120 365
2.5 300 120 418
3.0 360 120 456


0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
)
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Cell Ratio
Cell Ratio Vs SNM
Vdc = 1 V
43


Fig 7.10 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.1 V
Table 7.3: Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.2 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Pass-Gate (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 241
1.5 180 120 325
2.0 240 120 385
2.5 300 120 440
3.0 360 120 490


Fig 7.11 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.2 V

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
)
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Cell Ratio
Cell Ratio Vs SNM
Vdc = 1.1 V
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
)
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Cell Ratio
Cell Ratio Vs SNM
Vdc = 1.2 V
44

Table 7.4: Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Pass-Gate (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 260
1.5 180 120 356
2.0 240 120 426
2.5 300 120 482
3.0 360 120 518


Fig 7.12 Cell Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V
Table 7.5: Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1
V
supply
(V)

SNM (mV)
1.0 230
1.1 235
1.2 241
1.3 260


Fig 7.13 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
)
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Cell Ratio
Cell Ratio Vs SNM
Vdc = 1.3 V
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
x
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs SNM
CR = 1
45

Table 7.6: Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 180 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1.5
V
supply
(V)

SNM (mV)
1.0 312
1.1 318
1.2 325
1.3 356


Fig 7.14 Supply Voltage Modulation ,PD= 180 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1.5
Table 7.7: Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 240 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=2
V
supply
(V)

SNM (mV)
1.0 360
1.1 365
1.2 385
1.3 426


Fig 7.15 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 240 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=2
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 S
t
a
t
i
x
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs SNM
CR = 1.5
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
x
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs SNM
CR = 2
46

Table 7.8: Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=2.5
V
supply
(V)

SNM (mV)
1.0 400
1.1 418
1.2 440
1.3 482


Fig 7.16 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 300 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=2.5
Table 7.9: Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 360 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=3
V
supply
(V)

SNM (mV)
1.0 440
1.1 456
1.2 490
1.3 518


Fig 7.17 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 360 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=3

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
x
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs SNM
CR = 2.5
420
440
460
480
500
520
540
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
x
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs SNM
CR = 3
47

7.3.2 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.10: Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V
Cell Ratio Pass Gate (nm) Pull-Up (nm) WNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 521
1.1 110 120 523
1.2 100 120 534
1.3 90 120 550
1.5 80 120 579


Fig 7.18 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V
Table 7.11: Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1
V
supply
(V)

WNM (mV)
1.0 375
1.1 410
1.2 463
1.3 521


Fig 7.19 Supply Voltage Modulation, PD= 120 nm, PG= 120nm and CR=1
500
520
540
560
580
600
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
W
r
i
t
e

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
W
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Pull Up Ratio
Pull Up Ratio Vs WNM
Vdc = 1.3 V
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
W
r
i
t
e

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
W
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs WNM
CR = 1
48

7.3.3 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR PPROPOSED 4T-SRAM DESIGNED IN 28
nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.12: On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM
On-Current Off-Current
111.19 A 11.282 pA


Table 7.13: Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM
Read Access Time Write Access Time
1185 ps 105.2 ps


7.3.4 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR 6T-SRAM DESIGNED IN
28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.14: Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and CR=2
V
supply
(V)

SNM (mV)
0.7 267
1.0 380
1.3 385


Fig 7.20 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and CR=2
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs SNM
CR = 2
49

Table 7.15: Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and CR=2 in various
Process Corners
V
supply
(V)

SNM (mV)
TT FF FS SF SS
0.7 267 276 255 280 261
1.0 380 362 353 407 392
1.3 385 380 365 415 399


Fig 7.21 Supply Voltage Modulation PD= 300 nm, PG= 150nm and CR=2 in various Process
Corners
7.3.5 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR 6T-SRAM DESIGNED IN
28 nm BULK TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.16: Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V and PD=225 nm
Pull-Up(nm) Pass-Gate (nm) Pull-Up Ratio WNM (mV)
100 150 0.67 561
110 150 0.73 567
120 150 0.8 571
130 150 0.87 573
140 150 0.93 577
150 150 1.0 582

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V

Supply Voltage in Volts
FF
SS
FS
TT
SF
50



Fig 7.22 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, V
DC
= 1.3 V and PD=225 nm
7.3.6 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR 6T-SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm BULK
TECHNOLOGY

Table 7.17: On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM
On-Current Off-Current
120.19 A 32.282 pA


Table 7.18: Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM
Read Access Time Write Access Time
854.458 ps 90.311 ps

7.3.7 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.19: Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 0.8 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Access (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 163
1.5 180 120 209
2.0 240 120 262
2.5 300 120 303
3.0 360 120 321
555
560
565
570
575
580
585
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
W
r
i
t
e

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
W
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Pull-Up Ratio
Pull-Up Ratio Vs WNM
Vdc = 1.3 V
51

Table 7.20: Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 0.9 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Access (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 180
1.5 180 120 273
2.0 240 120 335
2.5 300 120 407
3.0 360 120 444

Table 7.21: Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.0 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Access (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 233
1.5 180 120 355
2.0 240 120 380
2.5 300 120 446
3.0 360 120 470

Table 7.22: Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.1 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Access (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 290
1.5 180 120 398
2.0 240 120 567
2.5 300 120 594
3.0 360 120 633

Table 7.23: Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.2 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Access (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 346
1.5 180 120 558
2.0 240 120 688
2.5 300 120 742
3.0 360 120 809

Table 7.24: Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc= 1.3 V
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Access (nm) SNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 418
1.5 180 120 545
2.0 240 120 715
2.5 300 120 775
3.0 360 120 737

52


Fig 7.23 Supply Voltage and Cell Ratio Modulation Vs SNM
7.3.8 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR PROPOSED 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.25 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation, Vdc = 1.0 V
Pull-Up Ratio Pull-Up (nm) Access (nm) WNM (mV)
1.0 120 120 233
1.5 180 120 351
2.0 240 120 450
2.5 300 120 513
3.0 360 120 570

Table 7.26 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = TT
Pull-Down
Ratio
Voltages (V) Pull-Up (nm) Access (nm) WNM (mV)


1.0
0.8

120


120
158
0.9 193
1.0 233
1.1 474
1.2 540
1.3 652


53

Table 7.27 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = FF
Pull-Down
Ratio
Voltages (V) Pull-Up (nm) Access (nm) WNM (mV)


1.0
0.8

120


120
161
0.9 196
1.0 236
1.1 280
1.2 328
1.3 377

Table 7.28 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = FS
Pull-Down
Ratio
Voltages (V) Pull-Up (nm) Access (nm) WNM (mV)


1.0
0.8

120


120
133
0.9 165
1.0 198
1.1 237
1.2 282
1.3 329

Table 7.29 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = SF
Pull-Down
Ratio
Voltages (V) Pull-Up (nm) Access (nm) WNM (mV)


1.0
0.8

120


120
184
0.9 224
1.0 270
1.1 317
1.2 367
1.3 441

Table 7.30 Supply Voltage Modulation, Process Corner = SS
Pull-Down
Ratio
Voltages (V) Pull-Up (nm) Access (nm) WNM (mV)


1.0
0.8

120


120
153
0.9 189
1.0 230
1.1 277
1.2 324
1.3 377


54


Fig 7.24 Supply Voltage and Pull Ratio Modulation Vs WNM

7.3.9 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR PROPOSED 4T-SRAM DESIGNED IN
28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.31: On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM
On-Current Off-Current
19.34 A 14.8 pA

Table 7.32: Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM
Read Access Time Write Access Time
725.235 ps 102.457 ps

7.3.10 ANALYSIS FOR STATIC NOISE MARGIN FOR CONVENTIONAL 4T-
SRAM DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.33 Supply Voltage Modulation, CR=1
Cell Ratio Pull-Down (nm) Access (nm) Supply Voltage (V) SNM (mV)

1.0

120

120
0.8 163
0.9 209
1.0 222


55


Fig 7.25 Supply Voltage Modulation, CR=1
Table 7.34 Cell Ratio Modulation
Supply Voltage Cell Ratio SNM
1.0 1 222
1.5 370
2 390


Fig 7.26 Cell Ratio Modulation, Vdc = 1V
7.3.11 ANALYSIS FOR WRITE NOISE MARGIN FOR CONVENTIONAL 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.35 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation
Supply Voltage (V) Pull-Up Ratio WNM (mV)
1.0 1.0 233
1.5 351
2.0 450

0
50
100
150
200
250
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Supply Voltage in Volts
Supply Voltage Vs SNM
CR = 1
0
100
200
300
400
500
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
S
t
a
t
i
c

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
(
S
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Cell Ratio
CR Vs SNM
Vdc = 1 V
56


Fig 7.27 Pull-Up Ratio Modulation
7.3.12 OTHER METRICS ANALYSIS FOR CONVENTIONAL 4T-SRAM
DESIGNED IN 28 nm FDSOI TECHNOLOGY
Table 7.36: On Current and Off-Current of 4T-SRAM
On-Current Off-Current
16.7 A 11.5 pA

Table 7.37: Read Access and Write Access Time of 4T-SRAM
Read Access Time Write Access Time
698.163 ps 99.481 ps

0
100
200
300
400
500
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
W
r
i
t
e

N
o
i
s
e

M
a
r
g
i
n

(
W
N
M
)

i
n

m
V
Pull-Up Ratio
Pull-Up Ratio Vs WNM
Vdc = 1 V
57

CONCLUSION
It is seen from the above result that the 4T Loadless SRAM designed in both Bulk and
FDSOI technology is a new replacement to 6T-SRAM. Also observed that 4T variant
consumes less power compared to the 6T variant and also low area too. The FDSOI variant
produces strong metrics compared to its Bulk counterpart, with Low Power consumption.
From the results, it is clearly seen in Chapter 7, the Static Noise Margin, Write Noise
Margins and other figure of merits of SRAM cell are quite stable in 4T-SRAM, especially in
the FDSOI technology. The stability of 4T-SRAM is more or less same as that of 6T-SRAM,
since the SRAM cell metrics are quite stable. Thus, the 4T-SRAM, FDSOI technology and
the combination of both can bring a change to the fast growing technological world, in the
Low-Power and Low-Area applications of Memory Design.














58

FUTURE WORK
In next level, towards the research work, a detailed study about the FinFET technology will
be carried out. Post the study work, analysis will be carried out with various parameters to
distinguish the merits of FinFETs over the FDSOI technology. In future, the loadless 4T-
SRAM will be implemented in FinFET technology and a comparison study would be carried
out to draw the basic conclusion for choosing the best technology to implement 4T Loadless
SRAM cell.


59

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