Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

LANGUAG ',' ,,';.

:-;
, " ,', E SUMMARY'~:~iwP
VERBELE
1
I
1 .Folosirea lui 'do' c ' , a auxlliar
Verbele~f I
(
'do' 'do" ~(' 0osesc auxiliarul 'do'
, es ~I 'did') la f ' -
Observatlordinea cuvintelo~~maneg~tlva,
I don't 'understand' .
contact our carrier. why he didn't
They didn't draw u th '
time. " ' ,p e contract in
La forma negativa f I
ruldo': se 0oseste tot auxilla-
Do you want to h Id
ask himto call you~ac~~ or shall
Does hework as afinancial adviser?
In atara de cazul In car ,- .
~nterogativ(Who' What~,~Ista, un adverb
Introducelntrebarea sl hen, etc.) care
bului care~eaza 'C
9 1
este s~blect al ver-
, ornparan:
r;What ao ou know b '
panles? "w. at' t a out public com-
Wh " es ecomplement)
a makes imthi k th
isthe ' n at a merger
, st solution? ('what' t
subiect) es e
~ Verbele~vezi '
V la verbeler;:;oa-al) ,pasajele referitoare
, _ e SI verbul 'to b '
cO~J ugafara auxiliarul 'do' Ob e s~
topica: ' servatt
He's not a very good sales mana er
Are the products reliable? g,
We can't send the i ,
confirms, e mvoice until she
C a~you give me arl be
~
"',' ~~~~I !./~("\-(-, it\ NL~~e5p".m.?
, R~' ',I-( '- ~ " .bu.(1 ))
. ' ~u ' ,:r~: ,r -
_~ J ,:;,-J .'t I)<.~-'~ M'\ '-,------./,"
"-~-~')"),\,,,,,<\..;\ ))4~< ' ,
2. Formecontrase
Formele contra ::.:,';~1
se sef
engleza vorblta si
engleza scrisa ' u,~;,
":"m badly paid'(::;;r ;:"';'~;
He's d . am) '1 "
olng a go,od J 'ob'~'(~'
We'd I'k ' ," ' . -
I e to 'expand" .':" ."
(
_ W our e
- . e would) , ',:, , :,
They've beenwor kl ,', ,",
f
' f ' ' 1 09'1 0'
irrn or years (- Th'e' y ' h">'\ :"
H' ' ,- " ave'
e s given' the" """i-'"
(
_ wrong;/
",_ Hehas) " :' '~(~!)O
'Has' nu se contracts cand' ,.,;'" 'I;:
forma sa sirnpla C ' este]
,The ,ompara!l: :'\
, balance sheet has 'to be'
by the accountant =- - ,'~'
The balance she~t has ' '~"t ~
checked b th go>,',
" . ' y " e accountant.l]
maremarfamlllara) '0""/
3, Raspunsuri scurt~ si ,,;,\li'r.S);;,
~ ' questlonJ ags,{,\'
Inengleza I A ' ,,/~,:,
, a0intrebare care ,';':,!!;
puns cuda saunu " ~ _ cereul!ras-
pu~s ~curt (questio~~t~era frecvent0nj~,~- ,
~un reiau auxiliarul g), ~~este rasp~,~' "
intrebarii t- _ sau auxiliarul modal,aJ '
araa repetaverbul principal. ' ,{;
Deexemplu: ' ' .:
,
C caannY,ONU delfinea joint venture? Y~~'
, 0, can't. -,'
Do you ever d .;}"
r I rea the 'Financial
Almes ? Yes, I do.! No, I don't ,(~,
'NrOeYI,OUa stockbroker? Yes' Ia~'
, m not. ,', \
Obsarvati ca un 'ras " ; ,'.
contracta 'I . pun~ alirrnativ nu S9 '"
A tr- _', am nu devine niciodatii 'I'm' ;.
u\~ra unsscurt. I ,'.
, ,~
1
I
, ~""J .~ tt't't ' ,,"" t-'
,;a!; aace.'.tu,;pdndp;u se ~olose,te "oso,thi.c.;l.'9
00d
i'x '.niP ,'I~W,
',' on,,~.ce '"t~noc~o~ul , en",ua "J ler-sa~enllc';;l !!.,'\.-'1 ,
J '~~~ e,~;d~re ,c?ntrar saul ; ."hlnkit!S~'!jood.~~i'l:"-'
,t(Ua ~~,~v~;; " " J i""", ;\.;om.'~tY",: 'W ; ,; , "',': ", ,Ii
A: I knoWthe a,ns.\'Ie~, " ,', .'~~ ASp:EC TUL;C ONTINUU' ,'J;r,;~
B
' YouI don''\' " ' ''''- ~ ,." ",,' " ~" "'." ".' ".~ ~~' " " .. ' ' " ','0'".1
A: I'vefo~n4)he,answer, <}' ' 4, P .re,zenIU\ e.~\mUU"" 'y "tt
,B: Haveyou? I haven't. . ' pre'zentuicontinllJ 59 tolose~tJ \r u '
, A: Haven't you? Comeon! It'seasyl candaC\;uneaeste lncursdedes"sutm'~
I . . ----',' ,', ,. ' . '~;
pen"u aex pr;maacouhll, se poateIolos' sau candseovoca0situauep a r l l c u l a i. '1 ,9 n
o dupa un enunl pozitlvsau 'neitner' ex emplul: ' ': ",iJi.
oopa unenun!nega';v, Deex emplu: The ret,,'er is phoning the ~ti."'
, A: I enjoy business English, saler. , " :::'rt
B:ll2 do I, estevorbadespreunanurnitvanzatori""~"n
A: 'haven't sent them my C V yet. toe bine determinat, iar actiunea sep'~'i;e-
B:~ have I, ceinmomentulenun!arll, ',{:;:;,,'
:;,;' Q~e~"on tag':~ ' lentol con- P rezent~1 ~on"nuu se mal fOlos~_~l~>i
"sir , eo;,\,j)u., asa?, Aceas," pentru actiuruprezente, dar temporar.:J
, construc!;e este foarte es folos"a in Steve,what areyou doing'!J esedays?
engl
eza
, Spre, deosebire de expresia Oh, I'mstudying Lawand Econ()rr!!pS
;ovariablla~;~nmba~omana,'que.'''ontag' Comparal;: '3o\~'
se mod,f,ca'" func!,ede verb s sub"ct I ~for Renault, '*
Deexemplu, ; , 6' - I'm working for Renault. (In,'acest'
TheCUHo?kts ery gl~omy, 's~it? moment - dar ar puteaf vorbadespre'
You aren t investing In tha , are' un contract cu durata determinata,de.
you? catlva ani!) ~~C
, . . ' _ "l \r:
Dacaverbul pr;ndpal este unverbobI,""" P rezentul con"nuu 0ate " fo(o~(;iS'~
laformaaflrmatlva,'ques"" tag' foloseste pentru ex pr;mare "torulul.Se folO5
es
. ,
a,,"'arul care ar tnsoti verbul respec", pentru evenlmente sau aC\;u
n
;deja'P l.>;, 1
daca ac.estaar fi laforma;nteroga';vasau ,flcate ,i atunci cand se predz
eaz
~'fi\l
negativa: ,_ "". ~a careacesteavor avea toe:" -,c"" ,
He~orlBM(d~'t he? hey are holding their A,G,M'i~e"'t
Heu.,wl.\ie~a managing direct month,""', 'ii\
CJ ls!!'} ~e?' , :~ my bank manager :~-~
Ingener.', daca verbul prindpal este ,ii"
forma allrrnatlva, 'question tag'este P rezentul contlnu
u
mal poate Indica
forma negaM, sl v;ceversa, P en"u a ;ntentl " '1 ;: r
, ex primasurprfza,lron;asau crllica,'question I'm not typing that ieHer U~,\il".st.~
lag' raman""ceea,i forma ca ,I verbul asks menlcely- (0lam not g'l!l!~~
pr;~ ~~\~':0~,~~); type""l'!
': . ~~' r
:'.r~.' l .
I
I
i
)
J
. ~.~.
5. Prezent sim I .
, ....;,' ';,P , u,~ay>prezentcontinuu?
F~rm~:sI~pi~ <~~ f~t'::, .::, ,
expnma fapte si ob ,p~e9 te;pentru a
st
" tif " servatii generale I '
, IIn,lIce;>inaturalee.ori '. ~ ,egl
nent si general:"':'''~1 rlc~ad;.~~~~erma-
Sleeping partners . . .
~ut do.not take .provlde : capital
. _ ,: part In management
Se foloseste'de .asei . '.' .
, ' . menea.pe t .
pnma0actiune obi , ~ n ru a ex-
. ' , isnuita saurepetat" .
Prezentulsimplu~ ~
adverbed f .,,, es e adesea insotit de
e recventa: '
A company 'suall
means of tak over ~ expand~ by
C o ,.... s. ;;,
/(J )~a!1 fro:zeleurmatoare: .
~~udltors are checking th
pany s accounts. . - e co
(The) auditors check th
." ccou~ts. '. _ e company's f~cve fatl",," ~ I"~\
P rima Iraza exprirna0a" . .. u e work here. ~~'!!o' '
desfasurars sl 0sit t' ctiune Incurs de Trecuiuf contin u ie f I ~,,* "
doua un tapt 0 observ: specifica. iar a pentru a descrle a act' oloseste a'"
actiurn zilnice oblsn 'Sterva!leasupra unei de desfasurare in ,Iunecareeraincuis'
. ,UI e. interv .' momentul in care4' "
Anumlteverbe nu se f . emt un aft e~enlment: ,,~,
laprezentul continuu: v~SC d,,?"t rareori She ~as.m.!!\g the minutes of t~'"
mentelor, credlntefo; e, asociate senti- meetmg when tho phone ran
e
opiniipersonale.be ~/ref~n~!elor sau unei ~he was hOlling;~toiobtain a ~~y .
to like to lov empu. ut her bossr.fuse nse
belteve to ~hlto:at: to want to . (1 :\'",\' \>,)
opinion) to k-_M!!- ..._<=_tohave an VIITORUL r . _~~ .
,,__ . now to agree --- ~.-/ \
Verbele 'see' si 'h ' 7 P . rar la forma contin~:,rI~eIfolosesc foarte . rezentulcontinuullI
i
prezentul simplu
sesecuauxiliarul modal'~a~~' ele se folo1 7\~.tul simpluse folosestecu ref '
t can see a problem her~ Iy are. ste cu rerenre
C ar. you hear that noise? 0'~1 ~1 9 htfor NewYork leaves at 1 0
Observati ca 'to h cktomorrow. -- .
. aye (+ got)' (_ F
~~:~I~OI~~~.~e decat I~pre,entulaSI:~~) malo~~ap~~I~a~ee=nglezll ,0 folosese eel ,
continua alu.eci ~~n~e " fol~SIl la forma ze~t~uu (V~;,'m~o~~to:") I e1 te~ ft,
He' h I nu expnrnap'osesla' for"", est. folo r . ceasla~.
etc~ ~_g ll!!lc!1
/a
bath/fun'iap a -r tYI rornanlcarepref!lr: E/.~aputin~de catre < . f' ~-sa albl!dre1 21t .-
orma'goingto' (veziNota9 ). ae, .
2.80
)
(' l ='
c: , . . :1 ~~"'"
s-c s-
"" ;Ji,". "'e ~. '"'' '. '.
'\'01 'taking my '.accountancy;lexams ',~ .',:W~~L.dM\': toU'n:~l.ltkh e'I'mr.'n''e~'o9 r.rda~e~:;: a
neXtmont~~ (notl'm'g'oir\~fto takemy ~.. '"
Oc<ountancy ex amsneit",o""',)' .' Nu se1 iiigk';fs\~i"go\l~\'f~;it~;
'. . . ,." ,'~" ,..'4""...".. . . I.
bserval' .01 ~acest caznu seapllca dupa 'as"oon as', 'before' ,'unlll'
'~.paral ,idee. de 'vlftOr:apioplal'.' s-ar tntr-o pfOP oz\.;P SUb~nata;:r.:( ""
'ulea spune lalei de blne: .: ". se vOrb~ste~e~ fe ,,~i!lor}l~:~i~mejl;i .
,'I'm taki';g my accountancy ams' soon as e _~wntte<'~h"''' (i)
.iI>~ ~' tJ J t ma'o~;'" VJ ilI.dls~t<!,'he~~~~
1 '(" ,'L '. We ,;iti'dJ everytl"ng m our ,poWer'\i. Ii
, ~6l' ~,;oI",,' ~ cleafu'pjhe misunderstandin~r ~ I
_ y ou(contacJ your'legaladvise5'.~=~ \~
,. Villorul slmplu se folose.le pentru You"""",, solve that probl
e
, nO'
"prima 0prevl,lun
e
, 0promlsl
une
0pro. (fi.,0u~gotl are with the unlons:~~.:;{
p~e sauD "!leCul,* ,'~' -\,:), Whe they robotisethelr p~odu,~t1 .,.
~1 '\I (I ~1 I) shoW you some new . plant, .man
y
empIOyeesW..Ml.\P~~ ..Iay .01 .
samples, (promlsl
une
) Ofl~)ll~;'i\i"e~ "
,"S~tli fill tn the rest of the cheque Oar, o~ ca s;P ;;ate folosLvllt ~
for you' (propu
nere
) dupa 'when' in propo,ltla princlpala,'a,",,,",
~t think they'll (they will) need to cand esle verba despre Intrebar"dl,e"l.
modernise their assembly line. indirecte, '''''''-,\!it'.'
(prevlziune, speculal
le
) -When wilt they robotlse tlieii~'~"
Astlel,este foartedesfolosl
t
dupa verbe ca: ductlo"pjant? ~J \,
to think to hope to suppose t wonder when they wilt rob6l:"'"
to ex pect thetr production plant. - "','
jl cu adverbe ca; /8,",.;:1 1 '1 . . 9.Going to/about to/be to '\j!'.
probably possibly perhaps -.- - C
'To be going to' 5~folo~te n{ai ~\~S
'Shall'. auxiliarutilizat'inaintelapers~an~ entruaexprimacG'~tie cat~~ri
intai, este,tot m~i~r?cve~t- cu" U WI , I'mgoin to hand in my resigllatiC .1 'l
cu excep~la: IC ltanlor,I. e5tllio',. , , ' =-", ~";."if' --
,at sha , W do'! . M- ~ To be Ou,l) ~ul to rn~'ca un .-\0"
$Ii I gran them rd~COU ,m,dla';, Se poate spune .r ~ be~
t r next order? d1 Il~~~~t~~ Ointof ,';l" .. I" >.J .J .e '~ ~~anaging director is apo;,'t
RamAne 1 0tu.1 destul e trecveol '0) \!jake a speech. . "'t
scrisorile de afacerl;n sIll formal: oo-t,,(, want to Ifsten"., .;. -!
We shall, of course, compensate The J a~se ~ u thepoI~::l-
you lor any damage. ~. Introd~ome revotutlo~~2' t
, 1 n Slatele unne, 'shall' esle mal pulln -\c'&otOgy.,/<i;,
folos
lt
pentru a ex prlma sollcita, .' uges 1 "0be to~ artioe unui ,tillorm~.1 ."
tii. Sefo\ose te mai curand goingto sau~&;e~tep.entru proiece cares..e'.vo(:reo.~
would you like' .-- t,\--Intrun~I or aproplat.lm~lca 0.b!~~l'l'..a-
WhOare we ~iQ9 to do? ,_ ~ EsteloiosfI m~ales1 0titluril~$\i"'oe
t; -t.>::' ~ \ ~~ ~ U~, A \=c. . . ,J!"
1 ?~~'~'(\..~I'J ,'\"\.\<1 <1 '""'" \""'eae'1 !.
)
:.. ,Them~m_C lg~!1 1 ~nt,~m!!lurion
leaders J ~rrt.~rrow.; 1 J I.0~ni,ngJ n an
. attempt to end the deadlock.
~...: .....,. ,': . :_.1 ::" ',;->-:.;.)_. ",': -".,__;;~1 0"
f' .: I : : ' i";: .~':~~:- . :::',.!
~. P'ROPOZITIA C ONDITIONALA .
'.J . "
~ ) 1 0~,~~~II,i~:~~e,.~:"~~eZ~ilfSaUViitO~ ,
-, C onditia expnmata Insubordonata intro-
'. dusa prin 'if', !uriless','proyided that' sa
eventual, :ra~fI~s') ~expdma ;- proba-
~n prezent sau invlitor.Yer' u din
subordonata este -lntotdeauna la prezent.
In propozitia princlpala se tolosests viitorul
sim~u (sau'going to'):'
--W!I th'eC hancellor :cuts income tax
rates, this will boost productivity in
theprivate sector.
If he puts any more tax on cigarettes,
I'mgoing to give up smoking.
~e-receive payment within a
'~t, we shall have no alterna-
tive but to take legal action. (=If we
~ don't receiv ...
I~',j . '~~~ 'i rovide that our supplier delivers
~~r the goods, we shall have no
. \:iff~UIt~eeting the deadline.
, ~." J #{ ~. .2- s e're careful, we won't
~ have any problems. '--'
~~-i~
~ 1 1 ~supunerea - prezent sau vii tor
-'~ cond:!ia exprim~ta in subordonataeste 0
ipoteza putin probBSila sau 0 s,uP0ffoe
contrara rraiita!ii, Tnprezent sau In vii or.
Verbul din subordonata este la trecut
simplu, cel din princlpala la conditlonal: 1 2.lmposibilitatea ....
If the e.mploy~es~nvited to joi~ "~Aces!efraze sereferalacondinlle~iaqiunile
a. pr~.h-sharmg sc~eme, produetl- Tc'arenus-aurealizatintrecut(da!cares-.!J !
~
/~ vlty _oul no doubt mcreas ~ realizain alte imprejurari),lnpropozna
'/ 'Wo' poate fi inlocuit prin 'might' sau principaIasafolosestecondi!ionalultrecut,iar
'~ st . uld': -= insobordonatamai-mult-ca-perlectul:
.. If edismissed her without Ice,she If I'd (I had) known, I would have
--;;> c;-co~ppeaffo anindustriaJ tribunal. taken out an insurance policy.
_ {~') ~ ~ : o. ~. \ \, . .
,p~se,rva!i fo!o~ireacurenta, par. uoblig
J 0rie, ~.ILi!~w3-e,\ in 1 00. de 'was', ,i[1fi~EJ ~tt
de traza conditionala. Este. 0forma
subjonctlv trecut': . . . " , . -
,If this meas,~rewere acc~pt~ by:'
the shareholders, t~estru
..,}~re.of the compan~:~hange
Subjonctivultrecut adisparut prac:ij~dinen~.%.;
glezavorblta. Totusl, subjonclivul invariabil#
al verbului 'to be' ('were') este inca loarlelt
c
,
des lolosit, mai ales in formula 'If J wer~~
you', utilizata pentruada slaturl: -:2P':;!t
, If I wereyou, I'd invest in unit trusts.:)
- .' . . ~~
'Should'esteforma tolosita pentru'would';?
la persoana intai. In prezenl nu mai eslE~;::
utilizat in mod sistematic, ci mai ales"
pentru a exprima 0opinie sau 'pentru a ':
enunta 0 actiune ce ar trebui sa se.;
intample in mod normal. In ~ .~'
~J !1 erciale, unde sste ingrijit, 'should' se '
toloseste in continuare, dupa cum este
folosita si 0constructie~
in enqteza curenta:l2f t'.shou~'. Aceasta '
irnplica ideea ca aetiunea&vocata este
, ----------
putin probablla,
tfoj ~Duch an even shoul - occur, the
,~ insured part~ otify his broker
as soon as poaslb e.-
'If' esta adeseori omis, iar fraza incepe cu
'should':
Should you require any further
information, please do not hesitate
to contact me.
. '>':~~~:'~i~1 ~'
,L,. ~rwu~fJe ~~{J!ig~!{
~.' ~.;-,.~~,~.{~
-' , d ";~-~The':<personhel~:.mari~~erl'~Si' "., "
'If theY_,~ad,s'1 edthefmil'J h~Yj~L .- "'1 astMarch: ': "~: '--'. j n': ,M
~ve ~_~~~~r~,~ ~~~~g;\;~.;' ;:::;'::!:;>Ge6r~!finishecl-'his~ probsti
Maipoai~-fijntainita' slo aJ ta,t9 ri~tf\jc}le,'"periodja Jul y T9~1 . 5';,;:{')~'~'!'
care'ifeste'omi~'9 i.ln careare loc inver- ,;iShe l e n. . sc~()()I,s~!y e ars. a~". : !""
siuneai .,' .'t9 i auxil,iar:pe,exemplu:.. "
fI ~dlkn'ow ,I w~have ~ak,enout Atunci'candsecennforma!H '1 ~~e9 ~~~.
an Insurance policy.'. . - datasau ora.unei ac!iunis~lJ a ~o~),'~'{>"
Had they sued the firm, th~y would nirnent din trecut,' se 1 01 05e9 te,: } rt? ~~} ~
have been awarded damages. simplu: ,_, .- ,,; "i;
.' . . . : b' . I 'I 'When' did George finish his proba-
Verbul'towish' efolos_e~te I 8.J uVO ~ ~-_ . . .J ;".;~'~.
~ntru aexpnmaur(fiet'i dorinta,.au0" - trenary period? ..~:
~p te i i uitpnnconstruc,laIfonly,
, .. _ wls f onl I ~~ the ter ~0!~_"t5~'"resent Perfect Simple' " i
t e contract more C losely (donnla. .' :'" ..
pentru~).~~~A~ resentPerfec~Simplese1 01 0se9
te
pent~
I wish'llronrY' our comp lorl1 adn't actiuni$:tJ mate em raj)E;;te-d~s~gn
------ ) ~, - rb " t' au ~~a y {dar
, ~is prices. (r~et lnsolit de adve e,~ l.!.l& . ." ,";'. r
_ r1 "wishllf only they ~ agree to ~ nu uitali.ca 'j~st' 9 1 a y pot I ti IZ~J ;~iJ I~)
just-in-time P~SUPPIY system. cualte tlmpuri): . .i:.
(dorinla pentru iitor. _, ~: ~;'~'J She has worked. in sever~1 firms;,;
._~ ~( .>1 ' UJ ..~ -" (~~ I've jUJ lt finished drawmg up i the
~1 3. 0alta toloslrea ui 'Would' new contract. . . d f
~ . ~ . We've already mtervlewe" our
..'~mai este loloslt 9 1 ,pentrua vorbi a IicantS:--- . .. ,
despre actiuni([f~)!?1 re ulate dm pp - " ~. r
trecut. pQirte Ii inlocuitprin rE3cutul slm I De multe ori este yorba de actium al caro
s~ prin 'used to' ,desi e to' une rezultat e important. Importante nu s~nt
accent e~ast ciTiF'ezentu ,i nu pe afc"UffiStante1 ein care se petrece actiu-
ecventa activitatii: nea, ci c~tele sale: . '''c
o
-'"y' n the old offices, they would spend He's taken the c y I n~.ed for,;~~~
I. hours fi~ingsheets ~f papf.er:~~~~~ interview. (=Amvazut aC ~lunea9
1
..~
L, - 1 "\--- l~~ '. ~~ ~ e~I.)-"
TREC UTUL SIMPLUsi 'PR SE ~. I've lost her letters ,o~~ef~~e~~~,
" " (=Nu spun niei unde, mC I can ,a,,~1 -
PERFEC T nea esterecenta: constat pi.:;rde!!a)
1 4. TrecutuJ simpJ u d me; entru-a6ti'uni
~e foloseste ease ."\"". "
Trecutul sim]?luse folose9 te pentru a ~ ~ nu s-au realizat. (In prE,P?Zllil
,,~ h ' t"\ a avutloc care ~ ~~ t')"""
exprimc:.?:ac~iuneIn~e~aa\car~ afirm'ative~i negative, adesea c ye > t: !~. , . . ,
intr-un m~~nt predJ n trecut. ~1 -i!~~
i
;~28;:
.a~ ~ I ; r v r ) . k{,..e...l'j\
<f
!'~ ~ '. > ----? ~ ~;;:t51 .~~.J . ~~I ""--O. f'~~
~~fu.~~VI. \W~a~ . --: : ; s(;.~~'-t't ~-ti&e.J . \'z~'~ ~fu !,~~~~~~~~~~
. -' 1 '1 / f . " . ,. . \ . u,. I1 } J . . ;> ., _._~" ~tu..~ ~'j_...'~.'~\"'''''' . / 4
r
~
_v ,: ~~6\d r<-TJ ..~~l- T' ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~!Vt. ~ -{~~,~
/1
.... '.".".' " ~,J c;,h,.:",~ t. ~A : ' -of -- ,'- .~. -- _ - 1 . . . :. ia t- ~~i1 a ~n g~u ; ; a ge. H
~
"''''. . ri-'' . . . . q,';.. '." .~ _,~ ~ ~ ~ ; ~~(~"""~~1 2,y..~J .,'>cl~~ -&: r=-, . . " ,. . ' , ,. . ,; . i
~
_ .,' ""'" hey have.n..'.!..Sho_rt~ist.~J \he.candi-'actJ ?Iu~se~'6=f)el casep~rer'lu' Snegefs,OtleOsdee;;ta~ lpeu ntrLu., 1 7.'Present ~erl~~t' sau trecut simplu? ( neexphclta;~:, ,,;,;rele?,ta ""? ~'~: : : : 7 S~
ljJ 9 " /. .; .;~bWa,~~ual)r~po~{~ ':pub- ye9HcJ ur~!~a peri~adei ~en!i()n-at~.~D~ri~g c6~'parali folosirea 'ti~PU~jl~./ih.if~~ele C 0ii1 J :;~.li,~~:~~6~~~'\.~,~)~~_~~~~..,,"o,jlt;z..;
IIshed~et?; ~;~';''.:.i.(, ' ; ~~..foloseste foarte rar cu Present Pe ect urrnatoare: . ,"i' . . Prime Minister .. (se stie ,ca.e~\n { I.
CZ;~s:"~!~~eacto $~~~~e ~:e'f~r~S:e!r ~~::~o;"r-s~~;':;",~".1 ~.~:~c:~p~pl":~ t:,'~? ~1 ~:gi~~~:;;:w~onlhs_;~~.~t,:~~1 ~~~qj~ri~~~~1 ~p,?.d
Hi9 urat intr-~ ?Iioada' de timJ j\carel~ C He. worked heref.s years. (Not/J> i ~I h~ beeD hv!O~ I.n~ngland W markettt~$~d,.o~! ..:1 ~rW,":l~
.J !-s-~-J ~c ~Ia~~lh~.~r', 'this week'. ~ ,dunng 5 years) ~ ~1 ;~C\k?,__'1 ~~I.:. th.ree months. (I~" hve~n England.) experiment with.l'!ew,tecllr!,ql:l~~~.:i;\~'
your life etc: ~ ~ He worked her~ unn tlje summer. '~-'" t'~OU ~r s udy accountancy continua sa 0faca) . ,,' bir ; ~
~. e'~~.' .)li~e.~ ,t~ree new,; legal cJ nu._.,clJ lucrat chi !_,P .e loat22perioada. :.:'.;~"' . ~ .',~. ou w.ere at. ~niversity? (=at a The f_c:>.!:..m. er comp,an~ secretary, . :w' ,.'.a. 5
advisers t~lu~r.. . (f:,V~) '4. ... . ,~..> J ,'; . ~r moment In your life) a workaholic. (adiectlvul 'former sltu-
. .....W~at ,have yo~ done this morning~ /J ..p.:u.1 V:'() ( ~. p 'ir~~''':';~..1~r \fi~E( you ~~r studi~ accountancy? saza in m Jod implicit actiunsa in tre.~-.u,-t .: ).
'9\<\~U~ In~nte de R@nz.) ?, .'(Ar.--;. ~ .' V'i. (=in your life, up to now)--- ~ , '~;,'~'~,:
I ve done a lot of things -ln my life. ..1 6. Present Perfect C on muous,. He ~t on study leaveftwo da~y ~~/ "'\:'~'
(.p~r.io ..ada detir~.p ~e~i.nata.- 'my . p,re.s nt pertec.t C ontinuous se folose~le . [~(a.~li;une d~rminata iri1 imp)~- ~ iY'
life (vla!a mea) Inca nu s-a inchelat) (;?~~f~a'E~~\p~ntru ae lunl netermmat (vezl , .e ha~~one on study leave. , /
Din acsleasi motive. Present Perfect~el:a\jB-ri1 al sus). J )e a oses e cu ver e de (tirnp n~etermmat) ., '< -r da
Simple 'se tolosesteceseori lrnpreuna cu ~ "'.~ .. =>. . In anumite cazuri poate fi :oloslt fie ~ .
'ever' si 'never' si cu 'It's the first time": They ~.beeJ Ymtervlewmg candl-.' Present Perfect, fie trecutul sirnplu, De
''Have'you eve.r worked in an elect~on- date 0 o-il'fhours_ .. ~ '" exemplu. ~ (timp. nedeterminat)
ics firm? (~p to now) I h,av ow been waltin . the . > poate fi ins'?tit de trecut ca~d este vorba
He has ~ver shown any interest in f dellv ry 0order n 7843 0 ree . de o~ actiune~
our in-house training courses. ( =up , w s. . Dear Sir, I r~ly bought one of
~
': to!)O~L ~ ( 1 'e u a c tiu n i care ':~lJ Ol continue. ci Iyour articles and.; . ~
~ ~ JQt~ ~ firs.! ti~ l I've studied J etate se toloseste de preterinta forma )1 w$U on a good tralninq course re-
',: ./ marke ing techniques. (=up to now) ontinua: cently .
.l~.-(~)Prezentul Pertect (atat cel simplu cat' H.e:~, been earnJ J ).g 35K a year, Dar: ~ VERBELE MODALE
,~~I \cel co inuu) se folosesc pentru acti I - ~e I~chool. ,~e've ~ a lot of problems ~- 1 8.Verbele modale
I~ \ n ,erminate care au ineeput in tre si She's been trying to get promoted rcently. (m~lte probleme) .
. ~ / continua in =reze t"':""ln 9 . st c ;,x t, to~. -? 4>!haVen't seen him recently. (acpune Modalitatea arata\cilltudinecl\unui vorbitor
1
~i ifjralnim adesea for', 'since' ( 'ever'! Forma continua poate fi folosita e a nerealizata) tata de mediul sau;;i introduce as~~1 (\J
. , ') F fit' 'n-'==ot'lun'lle"""de aj.,.,~r, n~esi!g. te.., p;....obabl.li- '6,
~ "- ,smce~ .. .!r' se 0 oseste ru evo 0 evoca actlvltaf care ~cheiat rect')J In Statele Unite sxista tandinta de a se u 1 - _
~ , noa a timp, o_~ata; 'sin pentru a (intr-un moment nedeterminat)-;;I care au liza trecutul simplu cu 'just' sl already:. tate. posi1 2jJ itat6..sau nn.B0slbilltate .. E,~te
evoca at_a ziua, luna, anul ) inceperii avut 0 oarecare durata. lnteresaaza mai I J 'ust had a great idea. (US) I've ~t vorba despre auxiliarele de modal!W,~'
~ ~ "'J . dintre care unele nu~n~oate
actiunii. . ~ult ~ la~est;>r gWvi@i decat faptul hada great idea. (GB) motivuloentru .'
We hay~ ~d )lx c ent relations ca s-au tE:mmfi'iir.C omparati: I already paid for it. (US) I ve a~::dy ti~le. Acesta este motivu pentruc.~re
--.. '[r: ." sunt adesea numite verbe defec!~ve.
with your firm fo. .over 20years
r
What have you done thi week? (Ma , p~iCffOrit. (GB) "1
(and stlll_do) ~ intereseaZarezufrarun . ~ . ~~~~ SA ALEGJ ? Aceste verbe sunt: should canrn'aY
He's wOrK'ed here (ever) since he ~ What have ''"''OiJ 1 )een om is '. ~C UM ' . a tem- will sha.1 I would .::~~
left school. (and he still workshere) week? (Ma intereseaza actlvltati e.) . ~ In schema urmatoare. determl.nare. must might y1 J ~~
~ t W J ~" ) ; C; / j porala raprezinta modul de. a flxa 0~ql,u- Aeeste verbe n.J L.prime~c ~iC lOd~~.~
r- _ , . ~~ , , 0;-& re-e~,'bi
l
' r ne in limp, D,e exe~pl~: yes.t~t:.da~, a: terminatia 'sola persoana a trera SIn9 UIa,':~~.!1
. l';::rf'r \ 4.30'. 'for -, ~_ week', dUJ l.D9 the holidays sunt urq,at;de infinitiv far~': " ;iC1 J ::~.J .::.'
- A 7m [I(j \. et Peate fl de asemenea 0determ na
re
. ~-" ) 'J;c'
@U,:tJ ['rlft~6f~~~~-; f !~; :; '~J\ Bi~~) ~~~'~-< ~l 2v ~V-1 ) ;r",
(-1 A(~ Ll ( tr
1
'. ~'" .
84
Language sJir?
pentiu a cife" ..:<~i\\~~r:'t ~,"(;,. ...,. .' ".' .' ' ..-' ,',' .,..,',
C an I h n un~er\"~IM::'~~~.. . ":'WeGvelO~quoteall'our,prices.op~erVa~1 xca"nu. tre~u.'~!,\(:O~.fl,
, , elp~ft~,h;,\il!""'"' "Foa~ "I' ""~,,,w,,"""'ust"";"have" t:pam9 ,p,u'tr29 ~
sau se foloseste lrn""'. \1 . j ;!ir: : ~~. ' 'v W'", " . " . ,. . . ,. . ' ''''. 'should' .+ 'ha~e' "+ par\icipiultre ..
percept
le
(lap'ezent,:::n~;9 J !P. ~ji; :have, to', j' :mu~t' s,un'.,uneon care ,,,,", totoseste"pe~tiu ,a :;~~
hear'; . .,.(~,".~~,:j}l~s" ,.\~~e. a~unci?and este ~.orba desprecevacare,nu ;.a. .fost'.facut
C an you see t'h'. ' :~~~r-~~:f. .... I"':"~spre instruct,une 'ImD~~na!a de carQac.. um .esie'Goii~. ide.. 'r..a..tneces';
.emlstake?': W"" c1 "~t,~ - . .....' '. . "",:~
I can hearrumours fir"$ "". . p'''Xemplu, . C 0t1 1 para~I:' ..,~)'," y:c
takeover bid. .",;::'~)~~',!~r.nl ~i~.Thenew customs regu.latlons ~t ~he customs ,!!'.Y!t.have.co.nfisc~,t;,.~.f:. r . (J
L . , .... ~fii\~,,\\. . ~~ be/have to be taken seriously. the goodS. (probabll auconflscat...)~~""'w s" !"
a trecut slmplu' ,',' ",'io~" il'1 . t. ~. ~~~ ~. ". " ~ ~'I'
'could'pent",a ex' ,can ~re,~~i!.il"lini~1 'In limb'ul curern, se toloseste adesea 'The. customs~uld h!ve e?n~tedi. ':- '1
rala si' Iw pnma capacitateW.tf~~i'~{1"'have ot to' entru a exprima obligatie the goods.(ar fitrebuit saco..nfl9 te)'..' .-'" ~I""",-!~:..
'. was ere able to' ','d" "'li'~!1 ~,.:5;' . ""f- '-"'" ~ 1 Pr It
pentruaexpritT1 ao~~ . care,~e,;tPIO:s~~e~l~: ;,('interioara'sau'exterioara'): 'Ma' se f.OI.Oe e entru'a'exprim.a ..'.o, ( Y
capacItatesno"':i-'!"i:'fl'i:.".,,~<,:ll"' y' t t be here at nine ./.~. II-
moment dat in trecut. Ultimci'~~~i1 ~_~~,;':i,$I ~u ve ~ i~oez ev.e.o litate: ,ii i/'f~ .
echlvalenta cu'manaaedto': v:'~~~ta,.l!~tetitf 0c1 oc1 (everymo~ntng. T..h remay e n error in the bill 0 :-C; ; I ~. :t-
Before we c-h '~do, iffijt,~fI~~l" ", I've not to deliver these ad'lng - . ..' ~ ,
ange ""~ "~~J"v ,' -~ . . '
couldn't I .our supplier we;,~,l:': before 5,30 p.m. " ,~~ fll
t' reyon bemg de"ver~'~"'~",", Inaeestexemplu,vorbttoru'ar~"n ""
rme, (nuputeam) ": ;I;> ;;"t'~;~\,~: . , 'Must' este invariabil. Pe oate cele- acest ontext 'may' ar putea fi inlocuitpn'.n W.r-
!he ?amer had forgoHen the'th1 !:' '" lattet;mpur;seree~ ',~aveto': could: au~TeOrel;e, 'miqht'Impl;". :
Fpeera, crates I had put to one.,de,f,,' I had to c act the local dealerfor 0~ut;e rnaipul;nprobabHa, dar 'maY'i~i
bortunatsty I w~"".!!!e to eatc!i;'li'lm'!! ane rgeneySUpply.(Atrebult) , 'rnlqht' sefoloseseadeseafaraa sefa,"
_ efor~~~l e ft th,ewarehouse. ',r:'~f~.f::" ~ e British will have to adapt their aceastadistinc\ie: ,
hi~!y prrObablehypothesis (could ISImpossibleinthis context).. ' .'.'.j:.'.'......... transport system to EEC standards. You may/might find that ouriQ....,r."
1
'_C ,.-:o;.,::u.;,::ld:..,.. ..::::e~ste de a ,:. "i:f;;:' (Vatrebui) ~" wardina agent is very useful for yo':l'
u di ':i\,' seme~ea, Sl fo ad'> Th' I dy ha make some ~,
con 'fI
onal
F v,erbului'can', E . m_ ~e '. ' ey ve ~rea(A f-' t) . 'May' este folosit 9
i
pentru a cere sa.ua
,t,e.
za
, osibilitat9 :) a "\~0"J : concessions. u acu acorda permi ' n a (desl in Marea Brita-
~C AN MUST MUST MAY{~ There ~ be a specific cla/~ Observa\i,totusi, posibileletraduceri alever- nieeste oartedes inlocuit prin 'can'): "
_ MAY , MIGHT "" th',C ontrac t at covers th;:::e~~ bului'atrebuila cond~onaJ : o-e: I comein? --
~ (' tuallty, (Arputeaf;) -." You should check In your lug9 ~9 ! Youmayslt down now,
1 9. C an/cou/d/m ust/m ay /m ight \: ). 'C an' nu are form- d .. . an hour before takeoff. (Ar trebui sa sau pentru aoferi unserviciu:
'C pentruIi I" a e vutor, de aceea I va inregistrati...) M Ihi?
pa an e,toloseste ?entru a exprimafC a:' You~fu vI/torsefoloseste 'beableto'; ..... You should have checked in your ay e p you.
ee~~aea '~t~'~a sauI;z~'l delace advantas::n be ,a~le~take. luggage anhour before takeoff, IAr ,
Sh( a sn . j ~Mi) railway ~et f ak~efflctent European fi trebuit savaintegistra!i) e DIATEZA PASIVA
ecancal cul ate C /F-p~ wor . ," . posiblhtat d f naflash, 'Must' x ' == 'Must'sefoloseste,; pentruaexpnma0 20. Frecventaeonstrue),,'orpastve
The ::rr;:r
a
c~e::~~ 1 =a~utea): sau;; rOba~:':e~\Ob~ 0"."es;tate prezum);ea roae,s; ura, poateJ ; utHiz~t .1 nerQleza~asNUI traducenunum~~~~ul'/
directly toeemli~:~.t e goods C ~'''. US. l' S exprimii a obligatie i_pen. r~.IPotezepnvltoare la prez
ent
sau a dinlimbaro~ana,ci sive~~~@:'e: .. -.;~~ ..'- \{V-'\ '
t J <:P~ ~"-'.. h!~r,q_~ 2[hiiQr\' usa ~t/ , C IF Tremendous progress ~}~!;~!) \ . . Y; 3j~"
n ruaceresa orda ermlsiunsa: r mu t " The pnce he quotes must be h t the ear . (S-av.. ~'
::anI callhlrnbackbefo~sI~~~~::k? In~ m~:u~e~W' Thelast!!>;n I~~Y~_ Kowloon, I;potezareferitoarelap~t) ~~~(pr~~r~~~e~~rme) y . :.;;~~ '2~{'
f you like, you can collect the' P " ( 1 vt~""e 1 Thepricehequ~ted~ust ha,vebW! This rule Is only applied in' ~~I" - '
goods atthe bondedwarehouse. :nlru ,a expnrna 00 b tie~din' elF Kowfoon, (rpotezarefentoarela cases,(Aeeastareguiaseapbealll"
~e folosast 'havsto': "'~'~" trecut) ''''''1 :''
_) ~\~"' .. \ .~. _ .:;,j\'j;c
\ . v It.~ ""1 ,
)
)
)

~
J,~~/
J .-J ~ I ~
1
" ,I
t:
<
. I
axprimatade.'re~ber', :~p',~i~er.}n
schimb, atunci cand,esteyorba despre
o
actiuneM~erioa@J sa toloseste "~~
c~mparati:'~ - ..c:\ .
~'I 'r~t roboti~~our pr~d,uctlon~
plant', s~the managingdirector. J
. Iregret~inform Y2<Y that "fe sh~1 1
beunableto'meettHe eadline. ~
Please rememb~ to, e~close a
leaflet giving details 'a~out your
latest rangeo~du~~ . .
'1 .I'-!1 ---"". Shereme"!be~endtn~)the Invoice
w,iththeP ie iouscons, iOn, gnm~
'She' ~ t". shoplift,i~ when.she
was' cau t for the second time.
(S-a lasa~ ..)~ '.
Thethief stop dJ tolight acigarette
(be foie : _ eft t epremises. (Ho!ul
~It sa ...) ~,--~
flU se,putea~ab!if1 e), jt's ,1 0 gopdl~
ar~rost):F',:-,;, ... \ ;;," .,'.--:. "".:) ,.,,:;
,BeC ause:'.of . the,l,tit:ne;. ar:'~
invoived,it is ,not w9 ithc~,mp
singth~sYst~m~,~,;,.;.(",1 ". ",I,,,
In.'}.!~V'f,.()fr~A~I1 ',,lJ n~.I!'p'I,?!V~!:'\", .
figures, some people ,can~.,~'!~
thinki'!9 that the, C hancello~::~W
,haveto takedrastic meaSUreSIl\nl,S
. . . . ~i~'1 l !) t1
next budget. '.,,;'
"~'~ fl . .
-..in~~~:
\ '
PRONUMELE
RELATIV
"'/1 ;
/U~{ ..
.~.:~,,-t~
21 . Gerunziul
Gerunziul poate fi folosit ca sl,lQtantivcuU~!'l!!i:';~"
tunctlade s~ct sauco~ent:
Stockpiling is nowanold-fashioned
techniq'lie:'
Sheenjoys working inthe computer
centre.
Observaf ordinea cuvintelor in fraza
u~atoare: Prepozilia este asszata la sfar~it:
'She'sthe<persori you have to send
'""the documents ~"
Soarmai putEl8 spune si:
l ,'Stle's the"person 'to whom you have
:"tosehC i the'docum~ , .
P~~nu~~i~i V;h;;;;'<~,~!e ,r; folosit in'engleza
vorbita sf aproap9 deloc in engleza sensa,
/ "> Pent;ti'a vorbi despre un ~atunci
r cand pronumelerelativ este s,t al
verbului, se folose..ste 'w~h' sa~
A merchantbank is a bank,--~
~provides finance for business
) ventures.
---, --~" Pentru a vorbi despre un~bi~ atunci
C cand pronumele,rel' te @ gm l &aJ'l ) p t
" ~ sefoloseste ao Itati ' that':
, ' - The ' contract , t she has just
~
~J. amended wil h ve to be completely
c.;J ;, redrafted.
f-. Q)- The contract she has just amended
~"'l~ will have to be completely redrafted.
26. 'What' sau 'which'?
~ c-==
Pronumele 'what' (ee I ceea ce) nu face
nici 0referire la un cuvant anterior:
at is surprising is the fact more
people ask for loans rather than
overdrafts.
\
When she hears(~ you said, she
, might even give ~e sack!
, In schimb, 'which' se refera la un cuvant
\
'a, U 0 expresie menlionate anterior:
\ The prescribed book for this course
costs 1 2.{S!OhictiYs quite a lot, really.
The Prime Minister resigned, which
was Inevitable in the light of her
increasing unpopularity.
)
ARTICOLUL
27. Omiterea,artlcolulul hotarat
C and se exprima un adsvar general
(inaintea unui substantivnenumarabil sau
a unui substantlv nurnarabll la plural),
omite articoiul 'the':
'" Investment in '" stocks 'and '"
shares is one way to rise '" capital.
Prezentaunul adjeetiv nu schimba nimic:
'" Lap-top computers help e London
stockbrokers to carry out", complex
financial transactions.
'" ' Direct "taxation and '" indirect
taxation both help to swell '"
government revenue.
Nu se pune articol inaintea numelor de tari,
orass, straz], locuri (inclusiv raiul ~i iadul):
France WaShington Fleet Street
heaven hell
Exista totusi excepth: atunci cano numele
tarii (etc ...) este la plural sau se compune
dintr-un adiectiv si un substantiv:
The United States The Netherlands
The United Kingdom
Observati de asemenea ca nu se pune
articol lnaintea numelor de lacuri ?i de munti,
cu exceptia lantunlor muntoase. C omparati:
Lake Windermere Mount Everest
The Alps
[nalntea numelor de institu!ii, de firme,
articolul este in general omis:
British Rail IBM Barclays Bank
NBC
dar:
the BBC
the Stock EXC hange
theSNC F
the C ity
Se omltearficohil inaintea ur;~i tith.J (rege,
presedinte etc.) :dacatitlulesteu~~f'de
nurnele persoanei: . ,". ..
QueenElizabethII President C linton
Se omite articolul 'in anumite expresii idio-
matice, mai ales in iegatura cu mijloace de
transport, rnese si institu!ii:
by car by train by plane on foot
at lunch at university
dar:
on theStock Exchange atthe office
28. Articolul nehotarat
Articolul nehotarat 'a/an' se tolosests lnaln-
tea unui substantiv numarabil la singular:
What is the difference between a
bond and a debenture? ...,
Observati ca exiSta multe expresii de
genul 'a p~e...Qf', 'a el! 91 ' pen~ru substan-
tivele nenurnarabile. C omparati:
Financial advisers are often called
in to give specialist information.
That new piece of information
changed all our forecasts.
Notati cazurile in care articolul nohotarat
este omls in rornana, dar nu sl in anqleza.
Dupa verbele 'to be' ?i 'to ~..J Wle', (acest
caz este de reg"Ltraasociat cu numele de
profesii):
He's a market maker.
Shewantsto become astockbroker.
dupa anumite prepozitii:
Without a regUlatory watchdog, the
SecuritieS'and Investment board, In-
sider dealing would be even more
-~--.---
frequent.
The FT Index Is used as a barometer
of the state of the London Stock
Exchange. ,
in exclamatii care incep cu ' What' Tnaintea
unui substantv numarabil:
.What it bargain!', " ': .
Observati folosirea articolului ,neL,g..",at
in expreslireferitoare la rap6rturi,'pr6~-),
si in exprimarea cantitatii:" ,
, , 20miles an hour:
twice a week
a l on e hundred
a l on e hundred and sixty ,,f-J .!~{;
a lot of , a few a little .a t:l!,ti,
Observati' ca folosirealui'~ in 1 6q"de
'Q~' pastreaza un sen.s 'n~~tru' '. in ;~,irnf
ce folosirea lui 'one' implica 0 IdeedC ?
(~'i~;r
'lnsistenta'. . ,
In engl~za, articolul nehotarat nu aref~~&
de plural. '1 ,l,L!lg' devine 'nlste' in rom~~; If'!
engleza se utilizeaza ,artico1 UrZero:. :"1 :
He has spent years in that firm.
-
29 . Articolul hotarat ..,' ,
Articolul hotara~ se fol?se?te i~~ntea
substantivelor nurnarabile (Ia slnqular ?I I~,pl~-
ral) si a substantivelor nanurnarabile. Tr~bul
considerat un fer de adjectiv der:nonstra?,'!' e- (!)
fo ~ a manatoare cu 'thlslt~at"lsaY..., ~
'theselthose Este folosit in pa ru contexte
diferite:
1 . ~~nt~;d:deter~iMl'la stanga
"- ~".\-~'"
A man was accused of restrictive
trade practices.
The man wanted to exclude other
'ffrnis from competition. ,.;
""",.)
In primul exemplu, ouvantul 'man'~,st
nedeterminat (este vorba despre un:i~?m
oarecare). .';\~
C and cuvantul este folosit a dOua~~[a,
~d recare
avem de-a face cu 0persoana esp;"'A~1
s-a amintit anterior, Tncont~xtul. la s~~e~a,
Folosirea articolului este deci obhgatol'!~~p~
4~::-~
\
/
)
2. C ontext determinat la dreapta i: .. gul~:pe,~plicaatat lucrurilor, cat 9
i
'persoa~,
C andatributulsituat dupa,substantivaduce r)elor,careau0functieunica:., , . ..,;,
\:(In.plus. deJ inforroatie:si TIface"pe acesta .., tile'sun the aueen the boss/.:nanagei
speclfic, folosireaart;colului .esteobligatorie, ., (singurul Tntr-oTntr~prindere!intr-un .
___ ~;=e~o~bseOl.Ldiler~Fltre1 estrictivetrade ...'ipartc~~ent ..... " '. ,. ";,,,'t \
r ractices'in general ~i 'the restrictivetrade 1 ()ty:;;i,dacii un titlueste urmat de numele.'[~l.'.
~ractices'specilice.' 'i>" ,. ", persoanei,articolulesteomis (vezinota27).. ;~>
C -omparati:,: r'< . """; f .' . .j " '. ;{i'f'
~~~J1 "BuSines. 's EngliSh, is often bciri~! 4. Determinare genericaJ ~" '.'
e . " . The busines$Englis~ I bavestud edin \y '
V 1 RFsbookha s beenvery.interestin . Articolul, ~e,folosests 9 i pentru a deterrni-: :S'
\ l . ",~estri.ctive. trade practices are na 0specie s~u0cat~goriede o?iecte: ....
1 t agamst public interest.. " The English I:i,usmessm!n IS known
The restrictive trade practices he to be pragmatic. . ','
. was accused 'of were: designed to~he .lap-top computer is an essen-
, exclude' other firms from entering tial tool for the modern executive.
~~v,.: ~. into ~?mp~ti~i~~'~ith hi~. Folosirea.gen,ericaa arti::olului poate fi .,
C 9 "~ . . ._. " cunoscuta pnn laptul ca trecerea propo-
i>etermmarepnn sltua~lelfunc~leumca zi!iei respective la plural nu produce modi-
Passmethe,!lshtray, please (scrumiera ficari de ~ens: '. . ':
depemasaJ dlncamera/etc.) English businessmen are known to
There's the chairman! (aratandu-]cu be pragmatic.
degetul) Lap-top computers are essential
The secretary is off sick. (Exista 0 tools for modern executives.
;ingura secretara in birou/ departamen- Observati exceptiile 'man' si 'woman"
ul respectiv) Q,j\t'~~(".f\J lolosite Tn sensul generic al termenului:
.~hc:01 'f' se toloseste atunci cand contextul~-\rq- It is the nature of " man to desire J
~1 0g\,l[.tic nu lasa nici 0indoialaasupra . - more wealth. (~~
'~!ii e,lem~ntuluire ~p e ctiv . Acsasta re- C e articol alegem? i) 'v\i\~-ell.~w!"" 1
\~o;,,~to~.. .'- - "'\ 2.., \l . . . 4~ \~. '. : : ,~ I
..\.. '7..
r
.,;:1 ., C'I ~. , -~q~J\ ,<~,t "-' \\i..",L... I 30. Forma si folosirea genitivului
R'( \ ~""\ "'''>~ N~ ...-"Ii' '" . v- ~\,,~\\:~~~~.,..~..,.," I ~ ~ '. r--:--\
. /. L;"'\ y \ . . ~, "~,"_ ,': "";';~~-: '~, ,~fentru SUbS!~:./ani~alli..\.pe~~rw sl
rVY. ~ ... f!, ~ (:1 -~\:.... -- i&.s' ~'l\"'\rnimale, se adaugaun s ~asingular.
e1 -./', ~~,~ ~ /- ~(~,'~' t ' the acc<?unta~t'sassistant .
";;:::-..,-, "<, :. ~C : J . J~'~~ 1 \~ Tom's father-In-law
,(').,,:~,\ ''i/t'i<'~&'~:: \ \M'~~. \:~' . es. '" \ v''v.~ !.:. Acsasta regula se aplica sl Tn,c,azulpro;
.'5:1 :. ',f/" J -;.L-" ~ ,,~V. . \ I numelor 'somebody' 'someone anybody
'<'''::'\ ~" ~? f~~S \, . -::~s\ ',f.' 'anyone' 'everybody' 'everyone' 'somebody
. ~ ,t 't; \ ~. . C ~D( '-"\ i{, ....... . . . j \,p . , I else' etc.:
. :.-..'S v , \ ~\;iJ \'~\ '~~\J- \ s\I ',,", ~ The solution proposed by the EE,C
e.~'t&'?'S~~\~1 >"4~C~ Y': . . . Q -r : . )\ \,J .'ll\;..' I C ommission is not everybody s
t..::....,...4m;;;'?' .. -:::\Ift,'r,~" :.,.,' S ~ 'po.. ~'f-.\ t; ~ I ideal.
to ~ ~ __ \,,;::?' ._.-/ I
-, '5.)
., .. SUBSTANTIV i .:
'i' 1 ',.\"
the the the alan
GENITIVUL
"'l<
, ;)
;,
0(+5) the alan
. Pentru substantive
....,..~--
adauqa un apostrof
'regulat':
the experts: predictions
La pluralele neregulate ('men' 'women;
\~
etc.) se adauqa 's':
women's professions
., ---
La substantivele proprii care se terrnlna cu
un's' se adauga fie's', fie (din ce Tnce
mai multTnultimul timp) doar un apostrol.,
~C harles's ,insurance broker sa\.!.!.
~C harles' insurance broker
Pentru substantivale neanimate se fOI0-\,0
sesteconstructia 'the... ", .
, the system of the Stock Exchange ';H
-- -
sau se folosesc substantive compuss, pri-
mul substantiv transformandu-se astfel in
adjectiv: ' 'r ':
the Stocl( Exchange system
Totusi, sa p~'llte~olo~i,'s'pentru numele
de locuri: ,',:: : < ' ' " , '
E~rope.:! 'economy' sau the econ-
,omy of Europe
Birmlngham's'-Industry sau the
industry ?f~irmlngham
~i pentru nurnele de institutii, intreprinderi
?i planets: .." , ", '
IBM's success (sau the success of
IBM) '- -
the government's new policy (sau
the new policy of the government)
the sun's trajectory (sau the trajec-
tory of the sun)
6>0exceptie de la aceasta regulagenerala
rf constituie folosirea obligatorie a lui '5' in
lxpresiile temporale, Deexemplu:
in last month's review
In a fortnighrS time
todar!. technology
.,.Pentruadjectivelesubstantivizate.se folo-
,esteintotdeaunaconstructia'the....of':
'!he progress .2f both the English
and the French In recognising the
difficulties of the blind and the
disabled has been quite striking
over the last few years.
The reluctance of the English to
integratE.!fully into Europe Is very
puzzling.
I
1 . Elipsa
Acest fenomen se produce fie acolo unde
cuvantul care Iipse~teeste evident:
Armchair shopping means you
don't have to go to the grocer's
anymore. (grocer's shop) --
/
)
A '~
"fie;' pentru a evita repetarea aceluia~;i If I f~~r ~ )nformation, 1 '!L'efyou
cuvant.atunci cand aceasta repetare est~ "know. ~,
inutila: ", . 1 ,<0>
Whose money is this? It's th"e>,":,:: 'A' se foloseste a indica a
cantitats nelimitat-', \',
taxpay~'s! " \,/0 , '
Someone has left a gold watch on!;;i~:' n agreement is better than none.'
the desk. It must be the manager's, ,,'c, eAtentie Ia forrnele comparative 9 i super-
=-- , llative ale adjectivelor 'few' 9 i 'less', Obser-
',:, vati mai ales folosirealui 'least':
DETERMINANTII DE " " ~\ "U!! I~t .euccessrut product was
-r~;. _~\ the XJ 437.'
CANTITA rE \t~I';'Fewer'9 i,1 ewest'suntin curs de disparitiein
engleza moderna, Exista tendinta de a fi
> inlocuiteprin'less'si 'least', '
32. Note asupra tabelului '=----' -=. _
I
' ef All'~e folose':-;st~e"7fa"":o r"'a-"'t""h'::"e ,r;'::Ida-=-c:-;;ac-e-::s7te~vor-
': b~espre c~(.g3neraHijt~au cu 'llioe'~
, 'of the') daca este yorba despre un~
, ~ vezi notele de mai sus asupra
i articolului C omparati:
1
J
'"'
~h 9 i :~~n ' se tolos AnQeneralin
frazele e atlve i nt ativ. In frazele
~1 ff'f!miV!Bexlsta ten mta de a folosi ~
of', 'lots.d1 f,', 'a great deal of' etc. ln aceste
rfraze afirmative, 'much' 9 i 'many' au un
sens formal saucomparativ: ' _ .-
They have ~_ny)de,bt~, bu! 4.Q1 ..~f
I,~as. (Au mal multeidel decat datorfl
'Some' se folo~~e in general in frazele
afirmatlve, iar~in eels negative sau
interogative: ,---
--oufcompany offers s~ very good
opportunities for graduates.
I'm afraid we d~ have !!!Iy
pamphlets left.
,gg you have !!!y details concerning
the latest range of products?
'Some' poatefi folositin oferte, in propuneri
(careanticlpeazaunraspunspozitiv):
Would you like some help?
e:;:.
'Any' se Iolosestein fraze cars exprirna 0
ipoteza:
',
DETERMINANT" DE C ANTITATE
I
NUMARABIL NENUMARABIL
.
C ANTITATE NULA
no .:~~':
not an ,;. 'i
[alot of J
lots of
plen Of,,',,'
ch, more. most
-' -
C ANTITATE
NEDETERMINATA~'
~~~~"'
~t'. . , ~
C ANTiTATE MARE
I
J
1
1 ,
I
j
j
~
1
J
I
i
(+a great deal of,
a considerable,;.-
amount of. etc.
C ANTITATE
SUFIC IENTA
C ANTITATE MiC A
~----\-h-: -: -=~~;'QL. ' ~~~1 r-~~~~r~ ~
TOTAL/TATE 0> o /O~"
DUAL/TATE 00
C ANTITATE PREC ISA
33. Vorbirea dlrecta si vorbirea tndlrecta
, - ,.
eC orespondehta:timp:Lirilor:"" '"
. . . ., - :-. ' / ; ~': """". ~ . . r . ' . -. . : -; '. " '-.
'.DIREC T SPEEC H
Presentr.,. "HE)isa kind man. \
""":"'~' "
\
)
La n gu a geBu "J.
i. Hmeac8hs'lkneed ww.m::l::la.~~e.~~ t~e nea~e~,.t._:,~,f~_. x.. "'r" ".:.;:@~!;Yo. u'll ne..,,:~rge.t.~e,tter~.~. 1 &
) ....... V" . '. .'foryoUr'~" ~t;;;' ,
[
~r:;:ank~~~i~;":~~~~g a~~~~,thei:~p~~~,!;:;~s:~.~t_ per~. .:
He asked me\.!y I klllwan thing i'l'li gran 'YO,. u ,a,discount of 25,~Yc._.O"',!t_,_
: ~ut the Europ.~anParliall1 ent. '.' youkeep oods wedispatchedF
e Exista 0mare varietate d~e intca:;> 'O.K., it's a deal. .' .. ' ;'!:)!ftY
;~iar acestea pot uneori inlocui 0 The retailer W~.ed a discouii.t"8't
partea prepozitiei dinvorbireadirecta: ' 25%andso agreedto keepthe goods:
~ ....
Preterite: . :, '.,"He drove carelessly" .
- - - - - ~- p ~
Present Perfect: "Hehas'drivencarelessly."
Future: "I will do it"
.cO;'diti~nal~;'1 ;':'~~Id do it if...."
C ontinuous forms:
_~ a) Observati ca schirnbarlle de timp depind
delimpul verbului introductiv. Daca acesta
estela wez~t, la v~ sau la. Rreze_nt
oerfect, celelaltetimpuri din restul frazei nu
',e-scnimba, ---~
She msf~ju~hld me that the
company has wound up.
He will teir you that he is over-
work~ and underpaid. -
--1 ' b) In cazul unei propozi!ii care este intot-
feauna ~R@este nscesaraschim-
iareatimpuUI ve ulUlinvorbireaindirecta:
She told me that the Bank of
England is called The Old Lady of
Threadnee-dle Street.
He told me that he is sitting for his
accountancy exams in J une. (Inca
nusi Ie-adat.)
A
u r
( , -. . C) verb'ele,modale 'c~. 'm~t' .'?ucgh~.
1 should' Sl 'would" nu se schlmba In
e orbirea lndirecta:
Mr Lewis said that he might cancel
the order if it happened again.
eSe modificade asemeneaanumite':~'
temporale utilizatein vorbireaindir~i
exemplu: ."'. ,.
VORBIRE DIREC TA
today
yesterday
tomorrow
last week/year
a week ago
next week/year
the day before yesterday
VORBIRE INDIREC TA
that day
the day before
the following I next day
the previous week/year
the week before
the following week/year
two days before.
eAten!ie,o~telor ~~t;';
in vorbireaindirectaeste acee~1
r --. - ea
afirmatii.C omparati: ,-<-.
\ W "W { is the nearest fax'
.-
.~I