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MEM202 Engineering Mechanics

Statics

Course Web site: www.pages.drexel.edu/~cac542

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course covers intermediate static mechanics, an extension of the fundamental concepts and methods of static mechanics introduced in the freshmen course tDEC 111, and tDEC 113. Topics include problem formulation and solution methods; two- and three-dimensional vector representations of forces, moments, and couples; static equilibrium of particles, rigid bodies, and engineering structures; analysis of external and internal forces in structures via the methods of free-body diagrams; and properties of cross-sectional areas.

PREREQUISITE(S)

Sophomore standing; tDEC 111, tDEC 113.

Lectures are based on the textbook “Engineering Mechanics – STATICS,” 2nd ed., by William F. Riley and Leroy D. Sturges, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1996.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

This course is aimed at providing the starting engineering students in their sophomore

year a smooth transition from science-based mechanics problems to engineering-based mechanics problems, i.e. from equilibrium of relatively simple force systems to force systems in structures with connected members and with complex geometry. Conduct of the course emphasizes the correct and efficient free-body representation of the members in the structural system, along with formatted but logical solution techniques for the problems. The specific course objectives are:

Efficient use of trigonometric functions to decompose forces in selected coordinate

directions; Proficiency in computing moments by forces about a selected point;

Confidence in representing correctly a free-body diagram for a member in a loaded

structure; Confidence in setting up and the solution to the free-body diagram on hand;

Understand the physical nature of the internal force and moments in a structural

member; Confidence in handling the properties of a given cross-sectional area of any shape;

Familiar with the unique characteristics of tension, compression, shearing, bending, and torsion in structural members.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

Class attendance (CA): Class attendance is mandatory, and is counted as 10% of your final term grade. A sign-up sheet will be circulated during each lecture and recitation to record the attendance. Please inform instructor/TA prior to the lecture/recitation that you can not attend. Homework assignments (HW): HW assignments and their due dates are listed in Course Outline. HW will be collected, recorded, but not checked. A grade will be given to each HW based on number of problems that have been completed and submitted. HW grade for the entire term will be counted as 10% of your final term grade. No late submissions of HW will be accepted as the solutions will be posted on the day they are collected. Mid-term Examinations (MT): There will be two 50-minute mid-term examinations; the date and material covered in each mid-term are listed in Course Outline. Each mid-term is counted as 25% of your final term grade. Final Examination (FL): Final examination will be a comprehensive examination, covering the material taught in the entire term. It will be counted as 30% of your final term grade. Term Grade: Term grade will be calculated based on 10% for CA, 10% for HW, 25% for each MT, and 30% for FL. Final letter grade will be assigned based on 100% A 90% > B 80% > C 70% > D 60% > F. There will be no grade curving. However, a student who earns a grade 90% or higher in his/her final examination will automatically receive an A grade for the course.

Chapter 1 General Principles

Book

 

Scalar :

a

Vector :

a

 

SI

Mass

M

kilogram

Length

L

meter

Force

F

Newton

Time

T

second

By hand

 
 

a

r

a

U.S.

kg

slug

m

feet

ft

N

pound

lb

s

second

sec

Method of Problem Solving

1. Read the problem carefully.

  • 2. Identify the result requested.

  • 3. Identify the principles to be used to obtain the result.

  • 4. Prepare a scaled sketch (e.g., a free-body diagram) and tabulate the information provided.

  • 5. Apply the appropriate principles and equations.

  • 6. Report the answer with the appropriate number of significant figures and the appropriate units.

  • 7. Study the answer and determine if it is reasonable.

Good

Bad

Chapter 2 Concurrent Force Systems

2.1 Introduction

2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to
2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to
2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to

A physical body subjected to a pair of loads

2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to

The body is simplified to a particle – particle mechanics

2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to

The body deforms, may fail eventually

tDEC 111 Physics

MEM230 Mechanics of Materials

2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to
2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to
2.1 Introduction A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to

The Body does not deform – rigid body mechanics

MEM202 Statics

2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics

A force is a vector; it has (1) magnitude, (2) direction, and (3) a point of application

A free vector

2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics A force is a vector; it has (1) magnitude, (2) direction,
2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics A force is a vector; it has (1) magnitude, (2) direction,

A sliding vector

A bound vector

2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics A force is a vector; it has (1) magnitude, (2) direction,

In Statics forces are treated as sliding vectors

2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics

Principle of Transmissibility

The external effect of a force on a rigid body is the same for all points of application of the force along its line of action.

2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics Principle of Transmissibility The external effect of a force on a
2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics Principle of Transmissibility The external effect of a force on a

Principle of Transmissibility is applicable to rigid-body mechanics. Therefore, in Statics forces are treated as sliding vectors.

2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics

1. Concurrent Forces

  • 2. Coplaner Forces

  • 3. Parallel Forces

  • 4. Collinear Forces

Classification of Forces

2.2 Forces and Their Characteristics 1. Concurrent Forces 2. Coplaner Forces 3. Parallel Forces 4. Collinear

5. General Forces

z

L r F 2 O y r F x 1 r
L
r
F
2
O
y
r
F
x
1
r

F

n

r ⎧ 0 ⇒ Statics ∑ = F i ⎨ ma ⇒ Dynamics ⎩
r
⎧ 0
⇒ Statics
=
F i
ma
Dynamics

2.3 Resultant of Two Concurrent Forces

(Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines) r

F

2

r

F 2 α φ γ β φ
F
2
α
φ
γ
β
φ

r

F

1

r
r

F

1

Principle of Transmissibility

r φ r : Angle between F and F 1 2
r
φ
r
: Angle between F and F
1
2

r

R

r r r r r R = F + F = F + F 1 2
r
r
r
r
r
R
=
F
+
F
=
F
+
F
1
2
2
1
r β r : Angle between R and F 1
r
β
r
: Angle between R and F
1

γ = π φ ; α = φ β = π β γ

2.3 Resultant of Two Concurrent Forces

(Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines)

r

F

2

c γ α β b a
c
γ α
β
b
a
α γ
α
γ

φ β γ = π φ

r

R

φ r a b c Law of Sines : = = F sin α sin β
φ
r
a
b
c
Law of Sines :
=
=
F
sin α
sin β
sin γ
1
2
2
2
Law of Cosines :
c
= a + b −
2
ab
cos γ
r
Use Law of Cosines to determine the magnitude of R
2
2
2
2
2
R
=
F
+
F
2
F F
cos
γ
=
F
+
F
2
F F
cos
(
π φ
)
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
R
=
F
+
F
+ 2
F F
cos
φ
1
2
1
2
r
Use Law of Sines to determine the direction of R
R
F
F sin
γ
F
sin
(
π φ
)
F sin
φ
2
2
2
2
=
sin
β
=
=
sin
β
=
sin
γ
sin
β
R
R
R

α = φ β = π β γ

2.3 Resultant of Two Concurrent Forces

(Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines - Examples)

y r r F = 800 lb R 2 φ β 56º r F = 500
y
r
r
F
= 800 lb
R
2
φ
β
56º
r
F
= 500 lb
y
1

x

r

R

r

F

2

=

600 N

40º 35º
40º
35º

r

F

1

=

900 N

x

φ = 180

o

56

o

= 124

o

R

2

=

F

1

2

+

2

F

2

+ 2

F F

1

2

cos

φ

=

500

2

+

800

2

+

(

2 500

)(

(

800 cos 124

)

o

)

=

442.6

×

10

3

R = 665.3 lb

β

= sin

1

F sin

2

φ

⎞ ⎟

⎛ ⎜ 800

⎝ ⎜

sin 124 ⎟ ⎟ ⎞ = 85.5

o

= sin

1

×

R

665.3

o

φ = 40 R

o

2

=

F

1

2

+

2

F

2

+ 2

F F

1

2

cos

φ

=

900

2

+

600

2

+

(

2 900

)(

(

600 cos 40

)

o

)

=

1.997

×

10

3

R = 1,413 N

β

= sin

1

F sin

2

φ

⎞ ⎟

⎛ ⎜ 600

⎜ ⎝

sin 40 ⎟ ⎟ ⎞ = 15.8

o

= sin

1

×

R

1413

o

Homework: Problems 2-3, 2-11, 2-16

2.4 Resultant of Three or More Concurrent Forces

(Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines)

r

F r r r 2 R = F + F 12 1 2 r F 1
F
r
r
r
2
R
=
F
+
F
12
1
2
r
F
1
r
r
r
R
=
R
+
F
r
r
r
123
12
3
r
r
R
=
F
+
F
r
=
R
+
F
23
2
3
R
23
1
r
r
123
r
=
R
+
F
F
13
2
r
r
r
3
r
r
r
=
F
+
F
+
F
R
=
F
+
F
1
2
3
13
1
3

2.4 Resultant of Three or More Concurrent Forces

(Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines - Example)

Determine the resultant of F 1 , F 2 , and F 3 forces

2.4 Resultant of Three or More Concurrent Forces (Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines -
r Step 1 : R r r = F + F 12 1 2 o o
r
Step 1 : R
r
r
=
F
+
F
12
1
2
o
o
o
φ =
30
+
30
=
60
1
2
2
R
=
F
+ F
+ 2
F F
cos
φ
12
1
2
1
2
1
= 954 lb
⎛ ⎜ F sin
φ
− 1
β
1
1
o
= sin
⎟ ⎟ ⎞ = 27.0
1
R
⎜ ⎝
12
r Step 2 : R r = R 12
r
Step 2 : R
r
=
R
12

r

+ F

3

2.4 Resultant of Three or More Concurrent Forces (Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines -
o o o φ = 27 + 40 = 67 2 2 2 R = R
o
o
o
φ =
27
+
40
=
67
2
2
2
R =
R
+ F +
2
R
F
cos
φ =
12
3
12
3
2
sin
φ
− 1
β
12
2
o
= sin
⎛ ⎜ R
⎞ ⎟
= 39.3
2
R
o
o
o
θ = 39.3
+ 20
= 59.3

1,386 lb

Homework: Problems 2-19, 2-24, 2-28