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2.1 Introduction   A physical body subjected to a pair of loads The body is simplified to a particle – particle mechanics MEM230 Mechanics of Materials   A free vector  A bound vector The external effect of a force on a rigid body is the same for all points of application of the force along its line of action.  Classification of Forces 5. General Forces

z L
r
F
2
O
y
r
F
x
1
r

F

n r
⎧ 0
⇒ Statics
=
F i
ma
Dynamics

2

r F
2
α
φ
γ
β
φ

F

1 r

1

⇒ r
φ
r
: Angle between F and F
1
2

R r
r
r
r
r
R
=
F
+
F
=
F
+
F
1
2
2
1 r
β
r
: Angle between R and F
1

F

2 c
γ α
β
b
a α
γ

R φ
r
a
b
c
Law of Sines :
=
=
F
sin α
sin β
sin γ
1
2
2
2
Law of Cosines :
c
= a + b −
2
ab
cos γ
r
Use Law of Cosines to determine the magnitude of R
2
2
2
2
2
R
=
F
+
F
2
F F
cos
γ
=
F
+
F
2
F F
cos
(
π φ
)
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
R
=
F
+
F
+ 2
F F
cos
φ
1
2
1
2
r
Use Law of Sines to determine the direction of R
R
F
F sin
γ
F
sin
(
π φ
)
F sin
φ
2
2
2
2
=
sin
β
=
=
sin
β
=
sin
γ
sin
β
R
R
R

(Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines - Examples) y
r
r
F
= 800 lb
R
2
φ
β
56º
r
F
= 500 lb
y
1

2

600 N 40º
35º

1

o

o

o

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

o

3

1

2

o

1

o

o

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

o

3

1

2

o

1

o

r F
r
r
r
2
R
=
F
+
F
12
1
2
r
F
1
r
r
r
R
=
R
+
F
r
r
r
123
12
3
r
r
R
=
F
+
F
r
=
R
+
F
23
2
3
R
23
1
r
r
123
r
=
R
+
F
F
13
2
r
r
r
3
r
r
r
=
F
+
F
+
F
R
=
F
+
F
1
2
3
13
1
3

(Parallelograms and Laws of Sines and Cosines - Example)

Determine the resultant of F 1, F 2, and F 3forces  r
Step 1 : R
r
r
=
F
+
F
12
1
2
o
o
o
φ =
30
+
30
=
60
1
2
2
R
=
F
+ F
+ 2
F F
cos
φ
12
1
2
1
2
1
= 954 lb
⎛ ⎜ F sin
φ
− 1
β
1
1
o
= sin
⎟ ⎟ ⎞ = 27.0
1
R
⎜ ⎝
12 r
Step 2 : R
r
=
R
12

+ F

3  o
o
o
φ =
27
+
40
=
67
2
2
2
R =
R
+ F +
2
R
F
cos
φ =
12
3
12
3
2
sin
φ
− 1
β
12
2
o
= sin
⎛ ⎜ R
⎞ ⎟
= 39.3
2
R
o
o
o
θ = 39.3
+ 20
= 59.3