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Jackson 4.

8 Homework Problem Solution


Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A very long, right circular, cylindrical shell of dielectric constant
c/c
0
and inner and outer radii a and b,
respectively, is placed in a previously unifor electric field E
0
with its a!is perpendicular to the field.
"he ediu inside and outside the cylinder has a dielectric constant of unity.
#a$ Deterine the potential and electric field in the three regions, neglecting end effects.
#%$ S&etch the lines of force for a typical case b ' (a.
#c$ Discuss the liiting fors of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric cylinder in a unifor
field, and a cylindrical cavity in a unifor dielectric.
SOLU!O":
#a$ Because the cylinder is long and unifor along its a!is, and the original field is unifor, the
pro%le reduces down to a two)diensional polar coordinates pro%le. Let us place the field pointing
in the positive x direction.
"here is no free charge anywhere, and there is no %ound charge anywhere e!cept on the surface, so we
can divide the pro%le into three regions, and use the solution to the Laplace e*uation in each region.
"hen general solution to the Laplace e*uation in polar coordinates when the full angular sweep is
involved was found to %e+
4(p, )=a
0
+b
0
ln p+

m=,

(
a
m
p
m
+b
m
p
m
)(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
"he interior region includes the origin, so it ust have the for+
4
pa
=

m=0

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
"he e!ternal region ust %ecoe a unifor field very far away+
E
0
pcos=a
0
+b
0
ln p+

m=,

(
a
m
p
m
+b
m
p
m
)(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
Due to orthogonality, a
0
- 0, b
0
- 0, only the m - , ter is non.ero, and A
,
- B
,
E
0
=a
,
( B
,
So that the solution %ecoes+
4
p>b
=(E
0
p+b
,
p
,
) cos
"he iddle region siply connects the other two regions+
4
apb
=c
0
+d
0
ln p+

m=,

(
c
m
p
m
+d
m
p
m
)(
C
m
e
i m
+D
m
e
i m
)
/ow apply %oundary conditions+
(c
(
E
(
c
,
E
,
)n=u
"here is no free charge and the noral direction is in the radial direction+
c
(
E
(
p=c
,
E
,
p
c
(
4
(
p
=c
,
4
,
p
Apply this at the outer surface first # - b$+
c
0
4
p>b
p
=c
4
apb
p
at - b
c
0

p
((
E
0
p+b
,
p
,
)
cos
)
=c

p(
c
0
+d
0
ln p+

m=,

(
c
m
p
m
+d
m
p
m
) (
C
m
e
i m
+D
m
e
i m
)
)
at - b
c
0((
E
0
b
,
b
(
)
cos
)
=c
(
d
0
,
b
+

m=,

(
c
m
mb
m,
md
m
b
m,
)(
C
m
e
i m
+D
m
e
i m
)
)
Due to orthogonality d
0
- 0, D
m
- C
m
and only the m - , ter is non.ero. 0e can also throw out c
0
as it
is 1ust an overall constant that does not effect the final field.
c
0
((E
0
b
,
b
(
) cos
)
=c
(( c
,
d
,
b
(
) C
,
(cos
)
"he factor c
,
can %e co%ined with C
,
C
,
=
c
0
( E
0
+b
,
b
(
)
(c(,d
,
b
(
)
"he solution in the iddle region now %ecoes+
4
apb
=
(
p+d
,
p
,
)
c
0
( E
0
+b
,
b
(
)
c( ,d
,
b
(
)
cos
Apply the other %oundary condition at the outer surface # - b$
E
T , (
=E
T ,,
at - b
4
p>b

=
4
apb

at - b

((E
0
p+b
,
p
,
) cos
)
=

(
c
0
(p+d
,
p
,
)
c
0
(
E
0
+b
,
b
(
)
c
(
,d
,
b
(
)
cos
)
at - b
( E
0
b
,
b
(
) c(,d
,
b
(
)=(,+d
,
b
(
)c
0
( E
0
+b
,
b
(
)
d
,
=b
(
b
,
(c+c
0
)E
0
b
(
(cc
0
)
b
,
(cc
0
)E
0
b
(
(c+c
0
)
"he solution in the iddle region now %ecoes+
4
apb
=
(
(b
,
(cc
0
)E
0
b
(
(c+c
0
))p+b
(
( b
,
(c+c
0
)E
0
b
(
(cc
0
))p
,
)
,
(c b
(
cos
/ow apply %oundary conditions at the inner surface # - a$+
c
4
apb
p
=c
0
4
pa
p
at - a
(
(b
,
(cc
0
)E
0
b
(
(c+c
0
))b
(
(b
,
(c+c
0
)E
0
b
(
(cc
0
)) a
(
)
,
(b
(
=c
0
A
,
As well as+
4
apb

=
4
pa

at - a
(
(b
,
(cc
0
)E
0
b
(
(c+c
0
)) a+b
(
( b
,
(c+c
0
)E
0
b
(
(cc
0
))a
,
)
,
(c ab
(
=A
,
Solve this syste of e*uations for the reaining constants+
b
,
=E
0
b
(
(b
(
a
(
)(c
(
c
0
(
)
b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
A
,
=
(
2b
(
E
0
cc
0
(b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
)
So that the final solutions are+
4
pa
=
(
2b
(
cc
0
(b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
)
E
0
pcos
4
apb
=
(ab
(
c
0
(b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
(
(c+c
0
)
p
a
+(cc
0
)
a
p
)
E
0
cos
4
p>b
=
(
p+
(b
(
a
(
)(c
(
c
0
(
)
b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
b
(
p )
E
0
cos
Let us calculate the electric fields+
E= p
4
p

,
p
4

E
pa
=
(
2b
(
cc
0
( b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
)
E
0
pcos

sin|
E
pa
=
(
2b
(
cc
0
( b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
)
E
0

i
E
apb
=
(b
(
c
0
(b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
E
0

(c+c
0
)

i (cc
0
)
a
(
p
(
(

i +(

sin )
|
E=E
0

i +
(b
(
a
(
)(c
(
c
0
(
)
b
(
(c+c
0
)
(
a
(
(cc
0
)
(
b
(
p
(
E
0
(

i +(

sin)
#%$ Let us s&etch the lines of force for the typical case b ' (a.
E
pa
=
(
,3cc
0
( 2(c+c
0
)
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
)
E
0

i
E
apb
=
4c
0
(2(c+c
0
)
(
(cc
0
)
(
)
E
0

(c+c
0
)

i (cc
0
)
a
(
p
(
(

i +(

sin )
|
E
p>b
=E
0

i +
,((c
(
c
0
(
)
2(c+c
0
)
(
(cc
0
)
(
a
(
p
(
E
0
(

i +(

sin)
E
/ote that the field is unifor in the interior. "he left outside edge develops a negative surface %ound
charge density, which destroys field lines. "he right outside edge develops a positive surface %ound
charge density, which creates field lines. As a result there are less field lines, and thus a wea&er field
inside the aterial. "he negative %ound charges in the left outside would attract a test charge, so the
field lines are %ent towards the o%1ect.
#c$ 5or a solid dielectric cylinder in a unifor field, we siply let a approach .ero.
E
pb
=
(c
0
(c+c
0
)
E
0

i
E
p>b
=E
0

i +
(cc
0
)
(c+c
0
)
b
(
p
(
E
0
(

i +(

sin)
0hen the cylinder %ecoes solid, the field inside %ecoes unifor.
5or a cylindrical cavity in a unifor dielectric, we let b approach infinity.
#
#
#
#
$
$
#
#
$
$
$
$
E
pa
=
2c c
0
(c+c
0
)
(
E
0

i
E
ap
=
(c
0
(c+c
0
)
(
E
0

(c+c
0
)

i (cc
0
)
a
(
p
(
(

i +(

sin)
|