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The production of speech sounds. ( Fazilah Abd Hamid )


All the sounds we make when we speak are the result of muscles contracting. The
muscles in the chest that we use for breathing produce the flow of air that is needed
for almost all speech sound; muscles in the larynx produce many different
modifications in the flow of air from the chest to the mouth. After passing through the
larynx, the air goes through what we call the vocal tract, which ends at the mouth
and nostrils; we call the part comprising the mouth the oral cavity and the part that
leads to the nostrils the nasal cavity. Here the air from the lungs escapes into the
atmosphere. We have a large and complex set of muscles that can produce
changes in the shape of the vocal tract, and in order to learn how the sounds of
speech are produced it is necessary to become familiar with the different part of the
vocal tract. These different parts are called articulators, and the study of them is
called articulary phonetics.
Fig. I is a diagram that is used frequently in the study of phonetics. It represents the
human head, seen from the side, displayed as though it had been cut the half. You
will need to look at it carefully as the articulators are described, and you will find it
useful to have a mirror and a good light placed so that you can look at the inside of
your mouth.

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Fig 1 The articulators
i) The pharynx is a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is about 7 cm
long in women and about 8 cm in men, and at its top end it is divided
into two, one part being the back of the oral cavity and the other being the
beginning of the way through the nasal cavity. If you look in the mirror with
the mouth open , you can see the back of the pharynx.
ii) The soft palate or velum is seen in the diagram in a position that allows air
to pass through the nose and through the mouth. The other important
thing about the soft palate is that it is one of the articulators that can be
touched by the tongue. When we make the sound k, g the tongue is in
contact with the lower side of the soft palate, and we call these velar
consonant.
iii) The hard palat eis often called the roof of the mouth. You can feels its
smooth curved surface with your tongue. A consonant made with the
tongue close to the hard palate is called palatal. The sound j in yes is
palatal.
iv) The alveolar ridge is between the top front teeth and the hard palate. You
can feel its shape with your tongue. Its surface is really much rougher than
its feels, and its covered with little ridges. You can only see these if you
have a mirror small enough to go inside your mouth, such as those used
by dentists. Sounds made with the tongue touching here (such t, d, n,) are
called alveolar.
v) The tongue is a very important articulator and it can be moved into many
different places and different shapes. It is usual to divide the tongue info
different parts, though there are no clear dividing lines within its structure.
Fig. 2 shows the tongue on a larger scale with these parts shown: tip,
blade, front, back and root. (This use of the word front often seems
rather strange at first.)
vi) The teeth (upper and lower) are usually shown in diagrams like fig. I only
at the front of the mouth, immediately behind the lips. This ia for sake of a
simple diagram, and you should remember that most speakers have teeth
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to the sides of their mouths, back almost to the soft palate. The tongue is
in contact with the upper side teeth for most speech sound.
vii) The lips are important in speech. They can be pressed together (when we
produce the sounds p, b) ,brought into contact with the teeth (as f, v ) , or
rounded to produce the lip-shape for vowels like u:. sounds in which the
lips are in contact with each other are called bilabial, while those with lip-
to-teeth contact are called labiodentals. Another important thing about the
lips is that they can take different shapes and positions. Therefore, lip-
rounding is considered as a major criterion for describing vowel sounds.
The lips may have the following positions:





Vowel lips posture




Fig 2 Subdivision of the tongue


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There are seven articulators used in speech. All these articulators are
important to produce speech sound.


















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The production of speech sounds ( Shahidah Mohd Kharin )
There are seven articulators involved in the production of speech sound. The
articulators mentioned are positioned above the larynx. All the sounds made are the
result of muscles contracting. The muscles in the chest that are used for breathing
produce the flow of air that is needed for almost all speech sounds; muscles in the
larynx produce many different modifications in the flow of air from the chest to the
mouth. After passing through the larynx, the air goes through the vocal tract, which
ends at the mouth and nostrils. The process by which air is pushed out is called an
egressive pulmonic air stream.Iin order to learn how the sounds of speech are
produced it is necessary to become familiar with the different parts of the vocal tract.
These different parts are called articulators.
Fig. 1 is a diagram that is used frequently in the study of phonetics. It represents the
human head seen from the side.




Fig. 1 The articulators.

(i) The pharynx is a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is about 7 cm
long in women and about 8 cm in men, and at its top end it is divided into two,
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one part being the back of the mouth and the other being the beginning of the
way through the nasal cavity.


(ii) The Alveolar Ridge/Teeth Ridge
The alveolar ridge is situated immediately after the upper front teeth. The
sounds which are produced touching this convex part are called alveolar
sounds. Some alveolar sounds in English include /t / and /d/.

(iii) The Hard Palate
The hard palate is the concave part of the roof of the mouth. It is situated on
the middle part of the roof.

(iv) The Velum or Soft Palate
The lower part of the roof of the mouth is called soft palate. It could be
lowered or raised. When it is lowered, the air stream from the lungs has
access to the nasal cavity. When it is raised the passage to the nasal cavity
is blocked. The important thing about the velum is that it is on of the
articulators that can be touched by the tongue. The sounds /k/ and /g/ are
produced when the tongue is in contact with the lower side of the velum.
They are called velar sounds.

(v) The Lips
The lips also play an important role in the matter of articulation. They can be
pressed together or brought into contact with the teeth.
The consonant sounds which are articulated by touching two lips with each
other are called bilabial sounds. For example, /p/ and /b/ are bilabial sounds
in English. Whereas, the sounds which are produced with lip to teeth contact
are called labiodental sounds. In English there are two labiodental sounds: /f/
and /v/.
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Another important thing about the lips is that they can take different shapes
and positions. Therefore, lip-rounding is considered as a major criterion for
describing vowel sounds. The lips may have the following positions:

a. Rounded - a position where the corners of the lips are brought towards each
other and the lips are pushed forwards. And the resulting vowel from this
position is a rounded one. For example, / /.

b. Spread -. In this position the lips are moved away from each other (i.e.
when we smile). The vowel that we articulate from this position is
an unrounded. For example, in English /i: /is a long vowel with slightly spread
lips.

c. Neutral - a position where the lips are not noticeably rounded or spread. and
the articulated vowel from this position is referred to as unrounded vowel. For
example, in English /: / is a long vowel with neutral lips.







Vowel Lip Postures : adapted from Jeremy Harmer

(vi) The Teeth

The teeth are also very much helpful in producing various speech sounds.
The tongue is in contact with the upper side teeth for many speech sounds.
The sounds which are made with the tongue touching the teeth are
called dental sounds. Some examples of dental sounds in English include //
and //.


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(vii) The tongue is, of course, a very important articulator and it can be
moved into many different places and different shapes. It is usual to divide
the tongue into different parts, though there are no clear dividing lines
within the tongue. Fig. 2 shows the tongue on a larger scale with these
parts shown: tip, blade, front, back and root.

The tongue is responsible for the production of many speech sounds, since
it can move very fast to different places and is also capable of assuming
different shapes. The shape and the position of the tongue are especially
crucial for the production of vowel sounds. Thus, when describing the vowel
sounds consider the following criteria:

Tongue Height: It is concerned with the vertical distance between the
upper surface of the tongue and the hard palate. From this perspective the
vowels can be described as close and open. For instance, because of the
different distance between the surface of the tongue and the roof of the
mouth, the vowel /i: /has to be described as a relatively close vowel,
whereas / / has to be described as a relatively open vowel.

Tongue Frontness / Backness: It is concerned with the part of tongue
between the front and the back, which is raised high. From this point of view
the vowel sounds can be classified as front vowels and back vowels. By
changing the shape of the tongue we can produce vowels in which a
different part of the tongue is the highest point. That means, a vowel having
the back of the tongue as the highest point is a back vowel, whereas the
one having the front of the tongue as the highest point is called a front
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vowel. For example: during the articulation of the vowel / u: / the back of the
tongue is raised high, so its a back vowel. On the other hand, during the
articulation of the vowel / / the front of the tongue is raise high, therefore,
it is a front vowel.


The seven articulators described above are the main ones used in speech,
but there are three other things to remember. Firstly, the larynx could also
be described as an articulator - a very complex and independent one.
Secondly, the jaws are sometimes called articulators; because the lower
jaw moves a lot . But the jaws are not articulators in the same way as the
others, because they cannot themselves make contact with other
articulators. Finally, the nose and the nasal cavity are very important
equipment for making sounds , particularly nasal consonants such
as m , n . Then again, the nose and the nasal cavity could not be
considered as articulators in the same sense as (i) to (vii).





















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How are vowel describe ? Explain using the vowel chart quadrilateral?
( Lee Chim Siew )
The alphabet which we use to write English has 26 letters but 44 speech
sounds. There are 20 vowel sounds in English and 24 consonants. In the vowel
sounds, there are 7 short vowels, 5 long vowels , and 8 diphthongs.
VOWELS
The symbols for these short vowels are: //, /e/ , // , // , // , //, and //.
The diagram below represent the vowel space in the centre of the mouth.

Front Central Back
Close
Half close U High

:
Half opene 3: Mid


Open Low
a:
The characteristic sound of a vowel is determined by the horizontal tongue
position.The front vowels are/ i:/ ,/ /, /e/ and// .The vertical tongue position
are high for the vowels / I/ , /u/,/i:/ and /u:/ , the mid vowels are /e/, //, //,/:/
and /3:/ and low vowels are //,// and /a:/. For the vowels /u/, /u:/, //, and /a:/,
i: U:
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the lip is rounded. The 7 lax vowels are //, /e/ ,//, //,//, /u/ and //.The
rest are tensevowel.
/i:/ is describe as front,high, tense unrounded vowel. /e/ is front, mid lax
unrounded vowel. / / is front, low,lax unrounded vowel./ / iscentral , high, lax
unrounded vowel. // is central, mid, lax unrounded vowel. // is central ,mid,
lax unrounded vowel. /u/ is back, high ,lax rounded vowel. /u:/ is back, high,
tense rounded vowel. /:/ is back, mid tense rounded vowel. // is back, low lax
rounded vowel. /a: / is back ,low, tense, unrouded vowel./:/ is back, mid tense,
rounded vowel. /3:/ is central, mid, tense, unrounded vowel.
DIPHTHONGS
A diphthong is a vowel sound consisting of an intentional glide, the organs of
speech starting in the position of one vowel and immediately moving in the direction
of another vowel.






A diphthong, moreover, consists of a single syllable, that the vowel glide
is performed in a single impulse of breath. Thus, a diphthong always occupies one
syllable.
For example, boy, lay and try are diphthongs but not laying, trying, etc.
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because laying and trying consist of two different vowels. One end of the diphthong
is generally more prominent than the other.
In English there are two kinds of diphthongs: the closing diphthongs and the
centering diphthongs. The centering diphthongs are /i / as in /bi / (beer), /e / as in
/pe / (pair) and /u / as in /pu / (poor).
Centering diphthongs chart ending in






The closing diphthongs in English ending in I are: /ei/ as in /lei/ (lay) , /ai/ as in
/flai/ (fly) , / i/ as in /t i/ (toy) and the clothing diphthongs ending in u are /ou/
as in /bout/ (boat) and/ au/ as in /bau/ (bough).







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The closing diphthongs The closing diphthongsending in I
chart ending in u chart

U
au u
i
ai au


TRIPHTHONGS.
A combination of three vowel sounds in a single syllable, forming a simple or
compound sound; also, a union of three vowel characters, representing together
a single sound; as, eye, -ieu in adieu, -eau in beau, are examples of
triphthongs.In English, schwa is the most common vowel sound.
The triphthong are composed of the 5 closing diphthongs with added on the
end. They are:
- e + = e . as in layer, player
- a + = a. as in lire, fire
- + = , as in loyal, royal
- + = u, as in lower, mower
- a + = au, as in power, hour.
Lee Chim Siew

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Text read by the student

Languish In Ailen
The Republic of Ailen is officially billingual wif its two languish being English and Iris
or Iris Gaelic. (Iris is decended from the languish of the Celts and is similar to
Scottish Gaelic and also related to Wels.)Signs and oficial documents are supported
to be billingual. Students are required to study Iris in schools for 13 years,but wif the
empasis on gramme,Few people can acually speak Iris,acet for some native
speakers in some areas in the Western part of Iris. There is an Iris radio station and
the nasional broadkesting station carries some programs in Iris.

| lw n <ailen> |
rpblk v <ailen> z fli <billingual> <wif> ts tu lw bi l nd ars
r ars |elk | ars z <decended> frm lw v kelts nd z sml t
skt elk nd |ls rletd t <wels> | sanz nd <oficial> dkjments
sptd t bi <billingual> |stjudnts rkwad t stdi ars n skulz f tin jz
| bt <wif> <empasis> n rm |fju il kn <acually> sik ars | <acet> f
sm netv sikz n sm eriz n i: |westn pt v ars | z n ars red
sten nd nsinl <broadkestin> sten |krz sm rrmz n ars |





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Language In Ireland

The Republic of Ireland is officially bilingual, with its two languages being
English and Irish or Irish Gaelic. (Irish is descended from the language of the
Celts and is similar to Scottish Gaelic and also related to Welsh.) Signs and
official documents are supposed to be bilingual. Students are required to study
Irish in school for 13 years, but with the emphasis on grammar, few people can
actually speak Irish, except for some native speakers in some areas in the
western part of Ireland. There is an Irish radio station and the national
broadcasting station carries some programs in Irish.

(100 words)
lwd n alnd |
rpblk v alnd z fli balwl | w ts tu lwdz bi
l nd ar r ar elk | ar z dsendd frm lwd v
kelts nd z sml t skt elk nd ls rletd t wel | sanz nd
fl dkjments spzd t bi balwl | stjudnts rkwad t stdi
ar n skul f tin jz | bt w i emfss n rm | fju pipl kn
ktuli spik ar | ksept f sm netv spikz n sm eriz n
westn pt valnd | z n ar red sten nd nnl
brdkst sten krz sm prrmz n ar |




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Raja Anis Sofia , a Year 4 pupil who endured a local nursery at 6. The
communicated language is Bahasa Melayu.She learns her English through
watching English cartoon, attending English tuition class and joined the English
Smart Reading program while she is in Year 1 and 2. There are English been
taught in school.
The passage chosen by us is entitle Language in Ireland. There were mistakes
that commonly make by pupils and even teachers. We will bracket the mistakes
done. The mistakes found were with ( wif ), Welsh ( Wels ), official ( oficial ),
Irish ( Iris ), emphasis ( empasis ) , grammar ( gramme ), actually ( acually ),
except ( acet ) and broadcasting ( broadkesting ).
Common pronunciation problems are happen when speaking a second
language because most people are used to hearing and making sounds which
only exist in their mother tongue.There are many sounds in BahasaMelayu and
English that are similar. Some however, are only partially similar and others are
totally different. When you hear or are trying to say the partially similar or totally
different sounds, it's easy to make mistakes because you are used to hearing
and making sounds in your mother tongue. It is important therefore, to make
yourself aware of how sounds in a different language are made and practise
listening to them and saying them as much as possible.
To make language sounds we move our jaw, tongue, lips, and the vocal cords in
our throat in a number of different ways. If, for example, your brain is not used to
telling your tongue to move into a certain position in your mouth in order to make
a particular sound, then you may have difficulty saying that sound clearly.
Here are a few suggestions on how to train your brain. First, learn to recognise
that there are differences between some English sounds and some
BahasaMelayu sounds. Second, learn to hear clearly and think about how
sounds are made when you are listening. Third, discover how these sounds are
made. Find out for example,how far open your jaw should bewhether the tip of
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your tongue should be touching the inside of your upper teeth or whether it
should be lying flatif your lips should be 'rounded' like when you are going to kiss
someone or 'spread', like when you smilewhether the vocal cords in your throat
should be vibrating or not (we talk about this in terms of 'voiced' or
'voiceless'sounds.
Practise moving your jaw, tongue, lips etc. as correctly as possible so that you
are able to make the problematic English sounds clearly.Another reason for
making mistakes when saying English vowel sounds, may be related to
understanding how to move the jaw, tongue, lips etc. into the correct position.
To understand how problems occur with consonant sounds, its important to
understand how the vocal cords in our throat work. Whenwe say any vowel
sound and some consonant sounds our vocal cords should vibrate. Sounds
produced this way are known as voiced sounds. The consonant sounds that do
not cause our vocal cords to vibrate are known as voiceless sounds. All vowel
sounds are voiced so dont worry,we already know how to do this.
Examples:
/ V / as in van, is a voiced sound. Our upper teeth rest lightly on our upper lip.
Our vocal sound should be vibrate. / f / as in van is voiceless. Our teeth and lips
are in the same position as in /V / but there is no vibration. This happened
when we normally pronounce wif in stead of ( with ). Consonant blends: If you
are not accustomed to putting "t" and "h" together to form "th", this can be a very
difficult sound to reproduce. There are many consonant blends that are difficult
for ESL students. Again, this tends to depend on what their mother tongue was.
Another common mistake for Malaysian speakers is to leave out some of the
consonant in a cluster. This can be dangerous because people may think you
are saying a different word. For example, ( pray ) has a cluster of two
consonants, / p / and / r / at the beginning of the word. If you leave out the / r /.
The word will change meaning to ( pay ) and if you leave out the / p /, ther word
will change meaning to ( ray ). While pronouncing grammar, the / r / is left and
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became( gramme ), anyway, there is no effect on the meaning.Depending on the
student`s original language the following can also be issues: Certain
consonants. Asian nationalities often have difficulties pronouncing or
distinguishing "l" and "r". They tend to left out the / r / while pronouncing
(grammar) to ( gramme ).
To create the sh sound, the tongue is a little farther back, away from the top
front teeth. The air is forced between the tip of the tongue and the back of the
tooth ridge. The front sides of your tongue will touch your side teeth farther back
in your mouth than where they touch during the s sound.So ,the s sound is more
forward in the mouth, and uses more of the front of the tongue, more tooth ridge,
and even the top front teeth. The sh sound is farther back, and uses the back of
the tooth ridge, and just the tip of the tongue.
The /sh/ sound and the /s/ sound are very similar. For both sounds, the tongue
tip is rounded and air escapes through the rounded tip. The sides of the tongue
touch the upper teeth to prevent the air from escaping sideways.
To move from a /s/ sound to a /sh/ sound, start by making a good /s/, then slide
your tongue backwards, keeping your tongue in the same rounded position. Try
this a few times, going as far back as you can (i.e., past the correct /sh/
position). This helps us get a feeling for moving your tongue around. Then do it
again, and stop when the /sh/ sound seems just right to you. Once we can do
the /s -->sh/ slide, learn how to make the sound well in isolation, then phrases,
then sentences, then spontaneous conversation.
One other note: sometimes we actually already know how to produce a problem
sound in some contexts. Can we say /sh/ ever, in any words? If so, don't bother
with the /s -->sh/ slide. Just start with the context that works, then move onto
other contexts from there.We can see fro what the pupul do while pronouncing the words
Welsh to ( Wels ) and Irish to ( Iris ).

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There are possible causes for the pronunciation problem:
First at,exposure to English generally used longer sentences and a more varied
vocabulary than those with less extramural exposure to English.exposure to the
target language makes it easier to acquire good pronunciation. Pupils with
extensive exposure to English in their free time feel particularly confident in
contexts involving everyday language, which is not surprising.
Second, another factor is the amount of exposure to the practice of English.
English is not only used in the classroom environment. We can handle this
subject from the point of view whether the learner has been living in a country
where English has been spoken or not.
Third, If learners have had good pronunciation training before, this will help
them. If theyve hadineffective training or no training, theyre at a disadvantage.
The others are aptitude, attitude, and motivation, natural ability of some people
who may have a talent for pronunciation , the personality factors such as
people who are more adaptable may have more success in
pronunciation,motivation of oneself in order to improve pronunciation where the
learner must want to improve, the role of the native language can affects the
learning of pronunciation. Sometimes this effect is bad, but sometimes it is good.
There can be both positive transfer and negative transfer. Unfamiliar sounds or
sound combinations may be difficult to pronounce. For example, an L1 sound
may be substituted for an L2 sound or the phonological rules of L1 may be
mistakenly applied to L2. Lastly, the voice quality of a speaker, such as average
pitch, tenseness of the muscles of the throat and vocal tractor whether the
speakers voice sounds breathy and nasal.
Improving your English pronunciation is not just about understanding and
practising the differences between vowel sounds and consonant sounds, it is
also very important to be aware of how all the different elements that create
speech are put together. Understanding and practising English word stress and
sentence stress and linking. will help you enormously in hearing connected
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speech clearly and in being able to speak English with confidence and more
fluency.If you want to speak English fluently, you need to practice, practice and
practice English some more every day.



















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Reflection ( Fazilah bt Abd Hamid )
I think phonetis and Phonology is the most difficult subject of another subject. I
have to work hard to memorize and understand all charts and symbols that
appear in the module. First introduced the subject of the first semester I felt a
little depressed about not being able to fully understand the chart given. I am
confused by the term and position the lips while producing speech. During this
second semester phonetics and phonology syllabus is more difficult. I have to
work hard. I have a lot of reference to the International Alphabet Association
while refer also the dictionary. I also feel confused to transribe homophone
words which I had to repeat several times until I managed to get the correct
answer. I also learn the relation between speech sounds and phonemes, explore
the links between phonetics and phonology. I feel this knowledge is very
important to my students in correcting their pronunciation as well as me. The
knowledge in Phonetic is useful to guide my students' pronunciation.
After two weeks read the module, I get clue of what I've learned. I should be
competent to read and memorize the diagram and symbol given . I have also
been trying to answer online questions prepared by Mr. Raja, our lecturers. So I
can increase the level of my knowledge and improve the existing knowledge. I
also have a problem when I want to correct my pronunciation where I often
mistake by. I realized that, if I was mistaken give information to my students,
they will be repeat the mistakes forever.
There are some tips to improve our learning of phonology. I realize that,
somebody must refer to dictionary at least one word a day. Always talk with
friend with the correct pronunciation. You will learn it from song, song lyrics, your
favourite movies especially from other countries. I think if we always sing our
favourite song, we will be better in our pronunciation.


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Now, I think my knowledge in phonology better than before. I hope I will
success in my next examination.

























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Reflection (Shahidah Mohd Kharin)

What is phonology ? At first I thought it is something to do with pronunciation of
words. As I gone through the course, I realized it is much more than I
anticipated. The topic or to be prcised phonology is the study of how speech
sound form patterns in a language. (Fromkin,Rodman & Hyama,2011). During
this course, not only I have to memorize the phonemic transcription but as well
as the various articulators-lips,tongue,soft palate and so on to form the individual
sounds and how the the sound combine to make words and sentences. I also
learn the relation between speech sounds and phonemes ,exploring the links
between phonetics and phonology.
Learning the symbols used to represent each speech sound, both specifically for
English and using the full range of the International Phonetic Alphabet, meant
that not only could I learn to transcribe speech sounds , but that I could use the
symbols included in dictionaries to help my own pronunciation of English words
correctly. This information will be useful for me as an English teacher.The ability
to use the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association, employed by
publishers in dictionaries and foreign language course books, definitely enables
me in helping my students to produce the new and different sounds of the target
language; this in turn boosts their confidence while trying to speak the language.
For many non-native English speakers, just like myself and my students many
different English vowels tend to sound the same the qualities in 'bit' and 'beat,
'bid' and 'bead', and groups like 'bad', 'bud' and 'barred' tend to be problematic.
Thus, the knowledge in Phonetic is useful to guide my students pronunciation.



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Apart from pronunciation of the speech sounds themselves, another important
aspect of phonetics is intonation. Both learners and teachers often forget that
intonation carries meaning, and expresses speakers emotions and attitudes. When
learning a foreign language, students tend to transfer the intonation habits from their
native language into the second language, forgetting that when used inappropriately,
intonation can lead to misunderstanding and even complete communication
breakdown between speakers coming from two different linguistic backgrounds. This
is when phonetics comes in handy. Phonetics also describes intonation and helps
students to recognize, understand and practice intonation patterns.
With all the knowledge that I obtained throughout this course and with the guidance
of my lecturer Encik Mohd Raja Abdullah , I hope I can implement the information in
my classroom teaching .
























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Reflection ( Lee Chim Siew )
Teaching phonetic transcription to beginning speech-language pathology
students offers unique challenges. Although phonetic transcription is a complex
process that requires a deep understanding of the phoneme, many phonetics
instructors attest that some students seem to master this process with little effort
and others have a great deal of difficulty with it. In Semester 1, when I first
introduced to phonology, I found myself very difficult to catch up with the
lesson.After 20 days learning one sound and going over and over it, I just cant
seem to retain it. I am starting to worry .Language-based learning disabilities are
problems with age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing. This disorder is
not about how smart a person is.and my self to fall behind. I am worry that I
might have some sort of learning difficulty.
Everything that come to me is new and in the bottom of my heart, I rejected it. In
the semester 1 exam, I found out that there is only a few questions that came
put. Oh! What a relief! But, when it comes to semester 2, I have to study
phonology in a more detail stage. However, I have to face it and pass the paper.
I read and read the model whenever I am free. Nearly hundred times and at last,
I started to love this subject. Now, I have a clearer idea on it.
Although we come from two very different linguistic backgrounds, we both
enjoyed studying phonetics from the start, learning about the underlying
principles of speech sounds and becoming aware of its many applications in
everyday life.Apart from pronunciation of the speech sounds themselves,
another important aspect of phonetics that is often neglected in foreign language
learning and teaching is intonation. Both learners and teachers often forget that
intonation carries meaning, and expresses speakers emotions and attitudes.
When learning a foreign language, students tend to transfer the intonation habits
from their native language into the second language, forgetting that when used
inappropriately, intonation can lead to misunderstanding and even complete
communication breakdown between speakers coming from two different
linguistic backgrounds.
26

There are some tips to improve our learning of phonology. First, Mark at least
words a day from a dictionary and memorize them and use dictionary keys to
learn their pronunciation.Nowadays talking dictionaries are also available.It
makes learning easier.If there is an opportunity, talk with your friends in the
language you want to be fluent in, avoid all other languages. You will learn from
your mistakes. Besides, watch the movies in that language extensively and
listen to songs in that language & try understanding the lyrics.
People measure success in many different ways and on many different levels.
When setting goals in life, its important that we identify what success means to
us personally, so that when we succeed we will know it. I had set a good
example for my children that continuing revising lesson will make
bettermastering.




















27

References

Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 3
rd
ed.
England: Longman-
Pearson, 2001. 28-35.

Yule, George. The Study of Language. 2
nd
ed. Cambridge: CUP, 1996. 40-50.

Varshney, Dr. R.L. An Introduction of Linguistics & Phonetics. Dhaka: BOC, n.d.
38-42.

NB This Article is Essentially in the Tentative Stage. Further Revision is
Required.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diphthong#ixzz13gYTFPGL
http://thinkexist.com/dictionary/meaning/triphthong/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwa
http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/artic-basics.htm
http://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/samplechapter/013242942X.pdf
Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/speech#ixzz22sBEE48e
Modul phonetics and phonology