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Global Country Study Report

On
Fishing Industry of Sri Lanka
Business Opportunities for India


Submitted to
Institute Code: 704
Institute Name:
Bhagwan Mahavir College of management

Under the Guidance of
Mrs. Priyanka Vyas
(Asst. Prof.)


In partial Fulfilment of the Requirement of the award of the
degree of
Master of Business Administration (MBA)
Offered By
Gujarat Technological University
Ahmedabad


Prepared by:
Students of
MBA (Semester - III / IV)
Group No. _____
Month & Year: December 2013



PREFACE

In the current scenario, business trade relations have brought the countries very close
to each other, by presenting this report we have tried to explain the business relations
between Sri Lanka and India focusing on the fishery industries.
This report is reflecting our understanding about the industrial trends, environment
and trade relation between these 2 countries.
The first step elaborates the General Information about the country and its influencing
factors for industrial growth.
The second step deals with STEEPLED analysis i.e. the study of industrys factors like
demographic, environmental, ethical, legal, economical, social, technological and
political.
And the last part exclusively deals with the detailed analysis and interpretation of the
trade relations and business potentials between Sri Lanka and India.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is a great pleasure to prepare this report at the stage which is outcome
of all our efforts throughout preparation.
We would like to express our special gratitude and thanks to our Director
Dr. A. S. Abani for giving us such golden opportunity.
We are highly indebted to Prof. Priyanka Vyas for her guidance and
constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information
regarding the project and also for her support in completing the project.

We would like to express our gratitude towards our faculties for their kind
co-operation, attention, time and encouragement which helped us in
completion of this project.

Our sincere thanks and appreciations also go to my colleague and friends
in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out
with their abilities.

Students Declaration


We, following students, hereby declare that the Global/ Country Study
Report titled Fishing Industry in Sri Lanka is a result of our own work and
our indebtedness to other work publications, references, if any, have been
duly acknowledged. If we are found guilty of copying any other report or
published information and showing as our original work, or extending
plagiarism limit, we understand that we shall be liable and punishable by
GTU, which may include Fail in examination, Repeat study & re-
submission of the report or any other punishment that GTU may decide.

Enrollment No. Name Signature
127040592052 Parekh Drashti N.
127040592055 Parmar Dharmishtha B.
127040592065 Patel Dharu B.
127040592083 Patel Surekha G.
127040592094 Sadhu Usha G.
127040592100 Solanki Ankita R.






Place: Date:



Sri Lanka
The official name of the nation is the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. In
1972, the national constitution discarded the name Ceylon and adopted the name of
Sri Lanka. In Sinhala, the language of the majority,
name of the island.
Sri Lanka is a small tropical island off the southern tip of India. The island nation covers
approximately 25,332 square miles (65,610 square kilometers) and is divided
ecologically into a dry zone stretching from the nort
in the south, west, and central regions. This contrast in rainfall combined with
topographical differences has fostered the development of regional variation in
economy and culture.
Physical and human resources are the maj
development, supported by financial resources. Industries in Sri Lanka have generally
been concentrated in the area around Colombo, except during three periods when
government tried to encourage development at the periphe
essential industry, the greatest resources are in the continental shelf which cannot be
reached by ordinary fishermen.
They should be given the technical knowledge and assisted with obtaining deep sea
fishing vessels so that the s
the hand to mouth existence of our fishermen cannot be uplifted. Though agriculture
should be the foundation of our economy, the sudden explosion in imports has ruined
the agricultural sector in the
highland cultivation.
The official name of the nation is the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. In
1972, the national constitution discarded the name Ceylon and adopted the name of
Sri Lanka. In Sinhala, the language of the majority, Sri means "blessed" and
Sri Lanka is a small tropical island off the southern tip of India. The island nation covers
approximately 25,332 square miles (65,610 square kilometers) and is divided
ecologically into a dry zone stretching from the north to the southeast and a wet zone
in the south, west, and central regions. This contrast in rainfall combined with
topographical differences has fostered the development of regional variation in
Physical and human resources are the major features essential for economic
development, supported by financial resources. Industries in Sri Lanka have generally
been concentrated in the area around Colombo, except during three periods when
government tried to encourage development at the periphery. Though fishing is an
essential industry, the greatest resources are in the continental shelf which cannot be
reached by ordinary fishermen.
They should be given the technical knowledge and assisted with obtaining deep sea
fishing vessels so that the scope of our fishing industry can be developed, otherwise
the hand to mouth existence of our fishermen cannot be uplifted. Though agriculture
should be the foundation of our economy, the sudden explosion in imports has ruined
the agricultural sector in the case of Red Onions, Bombay Onions, Potatoes and other

I

The official name of the nation is the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. In
1972, the national constitution discarded the name Ceylon and adopted the name of
means "blessed" and Lanka is the
Sri Lanka is a small tropical island off the southern tip of India. The island nation covers
approximately 25,332 square miles (65,610 square kilometers) and is divided
h to the southeast and a wet zone
in the south, west, and central regions. This contrast in rainfall combined with
topographical differences has fostered the development of regional variation in
or features essential for economic
development, supported by financial resources. Industries in Sri Lanka have generally
been concentrated in the area around Colombo, except during three periods when
ry. Though fishing is an
essential industry, the greatest resources are in the continental shelf which cannot be
They should be given the technical knowledge and assisted with obtaining deep sea
cope of our fishing industry can be developed, otherwise
the hand to mouth existence of our fishermen cannot be uplifted. Though agriculture
should be the foundation of our economy, the sudden explosion in imports has ruined
case of Red Onions, Bombay Onions, Potatoes and other
SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY


II
Class is determined by attributes such as wealth and education while caste, a
traditional part of Hindu and Buddhist society in Sri Lanka, is determined by birth into
a predetermined status hierarchy, typically understood as a matter of reward or
retribution for one's deeds in previous lives.
Traditionally, caste identity was extensively marked by ritual roles and occupations,
names of individuals and places, networks of social relations, and regulations of dress
and housing.
Over the past 15 years (1990-2005), Sri Lanka has had one of the highest deforestation
rates of primary forests in the world. In that period the country lost more than 35
percent of its old-growth forest cover, while total forest cover was diminished by
almost 18 percent. Worse, since the close of the 1990s, deforestation rates have
increased by more than 25 percent.
The Legal system of Sri Lanka is a highly complex mixture of several laws. In fact, it
exemplifies the absolute possibility for the coexistence of diverse elements of several
legal systems for it gather together with a common framework, laws as diverse in their
origin as those of Rome and England, Holland and South Africa, Arabia, South India and
old Ceylon.
Sri Lanka is governed by a democratically elected president and a 225-member
parliament. The president serves for a term of six years and has the power to dismiss
the parliament, out of which the president selects cabinet members, a prime minister,
and a chief justice.
Universities produce the human resource base for R&D activities while Technology
training is provided by technical and vocational training institutes, and undergraduate
courses provided by universities. Universities prioritise undergraduate teaching,
leaving little resources for research.




III

Fishing industry of Sri Lanka:
Sri Lankas fishery sector accounts for 1.8 percent of GDP (2006), generating
US$45.5m in first sale fish revenues along with a growing export market accounting for
US$14m. Marine and inland fisheries production in 2006 amounted to 215 000 tonnes
and 35300 tonnes respectively. Pre Tsunami, marine production levels had been as
high as 264,000 tonnes. The principal marine fisheries are tunas (yellowfin and
skipjack), small and medium pelagic fish, coral reef fish and other coastal species such
as lobster. The principal aquaculture species are tilapia, carps and tiger shrimp, along
with growing sales of ornamental fish.

On the basis of their size and fishery management norms the reservoirs in the country
can be grouped under three broad categories:
1. Large (over 800 ha) and medium (200-800 ha) which are used for capture fisheries;
2. Small (1-200 ha) irrigation reservoirs for culture-based fisheries; and
3. Seasonal tanks which hold water for 6 - 8 months a year for culture fisheries
Opportunities also exist for brackish water aquaculture in a total extent of around
12 000 ha.
The coastal and offshore fisheries are open access common property, with the
exception of beach seine and stake-net fisheries, which operate under locally
sanctioned systems of limited entry based on the customary rights and socio-cultural
barriers. The coastal fisheries are also multi species and multi gears, but bottom set
and pelagic gill netting is the predominant method used. Purse seining with light lures
is prohibited and daytime purse seining is restricted to areas beyond 7 miles from
shore.
The coastal and offshore fisheries are open access common property, with the
exception of beach seine and stake-net fisheries, which operate under locally


IV
sanctioned systems of limited entry based on the customary rights and socio-cultural
barriers.

The coastal fisheries are also multi species and multi gears, but bottom set and pelagic
gill netting is the predominant method used. Purse seining with light lures is prohibited
and daytime purse seining is restricted to areas beyond 7 miles from shore.

Most seafood processors have a high baseline water use for cleaning plant and
equipment. Therefore, water use per unit product decreases rapidly as production
volume increases. Major sources of water consumption include: fish storage and
transport; cleaning, freezing and thawing; preparation of brines; equipment sprays;
offal transport; cooling water; steam generation; and equipment and floor cleaning.

The countrys Constitution is the supreme law. In terms of the Constitution legislative
power is exercised by Parliament and by the people at a referendum; executive power
is exercised by the President; and judicial power is exercised by Parliament through
Courts, Tribunals and Institutions created or recognized by the Constitution of by law.
Availability of seasonal labor, existence of a local market for seconds and an urban
market for export quality product



V
VALUE CHAIN: Creating value chain for fish and fishery products







From
Low yields
Production scattered
over many small scale
fishermen, farms
Outdated harvesting
technologies
Inadequate
information and
market ignorance on
prices, trends and
customer needs

Inadequate post-
harvesting facilities
(ice, cold storage
and cooler wagons)
Traditional, agent-
driven, inefficient
procurement
system
Extremely poor
transportation
(roads, harbours,
auction halls,
market places and
logistics)
Infrastructure (lack
of ice production,
very limited cold
storage facilities)
High degree of
wastage (poor
handling and
grading)
Produce inconsistent
inequality
Outdated,
inadequate
distribution of
infrastructure
Limited organized
fresh produce
retailing
High degree of
wastage
Exports constrained
by inadequate cold
storage
infrastructure and
high costs

Production
(From: Farm
or water
bodies)

Distribution
(Transportati
on and
logistics)

Marketing
(To: Final
consumer)



VI







To
Significantly higher
yields
Stronger linkages
with the market
High awareness
levels on price
trends and customer
needs
Use of modern
technology,
leveraging significant
extension work

Improved post-
harvesting
technologies
available to most
fishers and
processors
Efficient
procurement
system with few
middlemen
Reduced wastage
due to better
road/rail and
refrigeration
infrastructure

Widespread organized
fish retailing,
demanding higher
quality produce
Upgraded distribution
infrastructure; cold
storages at wholesale
man (local markets)
Exports facilitated
through provision of
adequate cold
storage/pre-cooling
infrastructure at
ports/airports





Production
(From: Farm
or water
bodies)

Distribution
(Transportati
on and
logistics)

Marketing
(To: Final
consumer)



VII
Fishing industry India
The fisheries sector assumes significance in the Indian economy in several respects.
The most important amongst them is the providence of livelihood to many poor
households especially located in the coastal areas. These households can generate
income from the sector due to the fact that many varieties of marine fishes have been
exported from the country including chilled and dried items, fish oil, shrimp and
prawns.
Fisheries sector plays an important role in the Indian economy. It contributes to the
national income, exports, food and nutritional security and in employment generation.
This sector is also a principal source of livelihood for a large section of economically
underprivileged population of the country, especially in the coastal areas. Share of
agriculture and allied activities in the GDP is constantly declining. It has been observed
that agriculture sector is gradually diversifying towards high value enterprises
including fisheries. It is evident from the contribution of fisheries sector to the GDP,
which has gone up from 0.46 per cent in 1950-51 to 1.16 per cent in 1999-00 (at
current prices).

The inland fisheries in India include both capture and culture fisheries. Capture
fisheries have been the major source of inland fish production till mid eighties. But, the
fish production from natural waters like rivers, lakes, canals, etc., followed a declining
trend, primarily due to proliferation of water control structures, indiscriminate fishing
and habitat degradation.

The total area of EEZ of India is estimated at 2.02 million sq. km against its land area of
about 3.2 million sq. km. The continental shelf area between 0 and 50 m depth is
estimated at 191.97 thousand sq. km and that between 0 and 200 m depth as 452.06
thousand sq. km. There are general topohydrographical differences in the features of
the coastline and adjacent seas, distribution and abundance pattern of the species and
their fishery characteristics along the west and east coasts.



VIII
Catch fishing in India employs about 14.5 million people. The country's rich marine and
inland water resources, fisheries and aquaculture offer an attractive and promising
sector for employment, livelihood, and food security. Fish products from India are well
received by almost half of world's countries, creating export-driven employment
opportunities in India and greater food security for the world.

Fisheries sector plays an important role in the Indian economy. It contributes to the
national income, exports, food and nutritional security and in employment generation.
It is evident from the contribution of fisheries sector to the GDP, which has gone up
from 0.46 per cent in 1950-51 to 1.16 per cent in 1999-00 (at current prices). The share
of fisheries in Agricultural GDP (Ag.GDP) has increased more impressively during this
period from mere 0.84 per cent to 4.19 per cent.

The Fisheries policy at the state / union territory level ranges from an absence of any
guiding policy, in the case of Gujarat, to the development of a relatively
comprehensive policy in the state of Orissa which was developed in partnership with
the Union Government and the support of international aid agencies.

The Operation of Deep Sea Fishing Vessels, 20m OAL and above, Notifications dated 14
December 2006. This legal framework is far from comprehensive; it contains a number
of gaps, is outdated in many areas, not fully consistent with Indias international
obligations, and focused on foreign access and development, with less emphasis on
fisheries management. At the same time however, the plethora of Acts makes it
difficult for a coordinated approach towards improved fisheries management.





IX
Trade relations:

Indias trading in fishing industry:
Indias trading partners are from across the world including USA, countries from EU
and
Asia. In export the highest share however, is that of USA (above 20%), followed by
Japan, Belgium, China and UK . Many argue that India is largely dependent on specific
export markets, which reduce the Indian exporters to the position of price takers, and
they are unable to charge higher prices in spite of rising costs of fuel, labor,
maintenance and basic necessities.

As mentioned above India is a net fish exporting country and imports have not been
very important to the economy. Though there was a small surge in imports in the mid-
1990s (which accounted for a little under 1 percent of the net exports), this was mainly
to address the under-utilisation of processing factories in some states (notably in
Kerala), and when this did not work out to be viable, the share of imports slid back
once again.

Sri Lankas trading in fishing industry:
Sri Lankas main fishery export products include tuna, fresh chilled and frozen form,
shrimps & prawns, crabs and lobsters. Other than the above shark fins, fish maws,
beche-de-mer, cuttle fish & squid, sprats are also exports mostly to the Asian markets.
United Kingdom is the main market for Sri Lankan tuna followed by France, Italy,
Netherlands, Germany etc. In recent years Sri Lanka has been steadily increasing its
share in the international market.

Business potential
After observing the positive effects of trade India is currently making extensive efforts
to enhance the trade opportunities to improve it competitiveness in the world trade
scenario. Consequently, a comprehensive Foreign Trade Policy (20042009) has been


X
developed to improve the trading system. The objective of the new Foreign Trade
Policy is the overall development of Indias foreign trade.

Two major objectives of the foreign trade policy 20042009 are (1) to double Indias
Percentage share of global merchandise trade by 2009 and (2) to act as an effective
instrument of economic growth by giving a thrust to employment generation,
especially in semi-urban and rural areas. To enhance growth in trade, India is taking
various pro-active measures such as reduction of controls, bringing in transparency
and simplifications in bureaucratic procedures, and reducing duties. Special attention
is given to attract foreign direct investment. Sectors with significant export prospects
and potential for employment generation in semi-urban and rural areas have been
identified as thrust sectors, and specific sectored strategies have been prepared.

Given the extensive ocean area and numerous fresh water and brackish water reserves
there is great potential for the development of game fishing sector in Sri Lanka. Inland
fishing can be carried out through-out the year owing to the constant smoothness of
the water in inland waterways and reservoirs. However deep sea fishing is dependent
on the monsoon, with western and southern coasts accessible during North- East
monsoon (from October to April) and the East Coast favored during the South West
monsoon (May to September). The seas around Sri Lanka hold an abundance of game
fish for the keen angler.


INDEX
Particular
Page No.:
o Summary of Report

Introduction of SRI LANKA country
1
1 STEEPLED analysis of Sri Lanka country
3
Social profile of country
3
Technological profile of country
4
Economic profile of country
7
Environment profile of country
12
Political profile of country
14
Legal profile of country
15
Ethical profile of country
17
Demographic profile of country
21
2 Introduction and analysis of Sri Lankan fishing industry
30
Introduction of Sri Lanka fishery industry
30
STEEPLED analysis of Sri Lanka fishery industry
43
Social profile of industry
44
Technological profile of industry
46
Economic profile of industry
50
Environment profile of industry
52
Political profile of industry
53
Legal profile of industry
54
Ethical profile of industry
57
Demographic profile of industry
58


Particular
Page No.:
3 Introduction and Analysis of Indian fishery industry
60
Introduction Indian fishery industry
60
STEEPLED analysis of India fishery industry
64
Social profile of industry
64
Technological profile of industry
66
Economic profile of industry
70
Environment profile of industry
72
Political profile of industry
74
Legal profile of industry
76
Ethical profile of industry
78
Demographic profile of industry
79
4 Present trade relations
81
o Plagiarism reports

o Bibliography






LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 1


SRI LANKA- The Paradise Island
Sri Lanka is an island that is captivating both by its name that means Land of
Splendor and by what it actually offers to the visitor. The attractions of Sri Lanka
known to the world by several names from ancient days have been known through
the centuries. While legend has it that this is the Lanka of the Ramayana, it is the name
by which it has always been known to its own people.
Sri Lanka Paradise Island in South Asia
Sri Lanka is an island that is captivating both by its name that means Land of
Splendour and by what it actually offers to the visitor. The attractions of Sri Lanka
known to the world by several names from ancient days have been known through
the centuries. While legend has it that this is the Lanka of the Ramayana, it is the name
by which it has always been known to its own people. The Romans called it Taprobane,
marked on Ptolemys map of the world, derived from Tambapanni land of copper
coloured earth and lotuses given by the first known migrants from North India. The
Arab traders of the past called in Serentivu and Serendib island of delight, which
gave birth to the English word Serendipity the prospect of discovering pleasant
SRI LANKA SRI LANKA SRI LANKA SRI LANKA
I II Introduction ntroduction ntroduction ntroduction and STEEPLED analysis and STEEPLED analysis and STEEPLED analysis and STEEPLED analysis
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 2
surprises. The Portuguese corrupted this to Ceilao; the Dutch to Ceilan and the British
called it Ceylon. But the people of the East, as distant as Indonesia, always knew the
island by the name given by its own people Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka Beach
Almost dangling like a pendant from the southern tip of India, Sri Lanka has been
known as the Peal of the Orient for its variety of attractions. It is not a mere tropical
isle known for sun, sea and sands, although it has all this in plenty. In fact the island
has over 1400 km of sun-kissed beach. The warm waters of the Indian ocean that
offers attractions for surfing, undersea diving, the fascination of coral reefs, and also
for the more adventurous, the chance of exploring the wrecks from Portuguese
galleons to British warships of World War 2. But its attractions are not limited to those
of the sea and sunny beaches fringed by coconut palms.
Sri Lanka has much more to offer, and in a compact package too. Within four hours
one could drive from the sunny coast to cool, cloud-kissed mountains, where the best
tea in the world grows. For miles around one could see hills and valleys covered by an
unending carpet of tea, and enjoy the aroma of the fresh tea leaves.






LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 3


Classes and Castes. Even though the ideal of social equality is widely diffused in
contemporary Sri Lanka, stratification according to caste and class, as well as gender
and ethnicity, continues to be very important. Class is determined by attributes such
as wealth and education while caste, a traditional part of Hindu and Buddhist society
in Sri Lanka, is determined by birth into a predetermined status hierarchy, typically
understood as a matter of reward or retribution for one's deeds in previous lives. The
traditional correspondence between these statuses was upset by 450 years of colonial
rulers who often privileged members of certain, relatively low-status castes, effectively
raising their class status and that of their offspring. The importance and legitimacy of
caste continues to be undermined by political and economic developments. Class
differentiation, on the other hand, is increasing both in day-to-day social interaction
and manifestations of disparities.
Symbols of Social Stratification. Traditionally, caste identity was extensively marked
by ritual roles and occupations, names of individuals and places, networks of social
relations, and regulations of dress and housing. Degrees of difference within the caste
hierarchy were also marked by forms of address, seating arrangements, and other
practices of deference and superiority. Today, where these hierarchical relations
continue, there is a degree of uneasiness or even resentment toward them,
particularly among the educated younger generations. Class status, in contrast, is
increasingly manifested in speech, dress, employment, education, and housing. In
general, elite classes can be identified by their command of English, education in
exclusive schools, executive-level employment, possession of valued commodities, and
access to international networks, whereas the lower classes are associated with
manual labor, minimal comforts, and a lack of social contacts with the elite.


SOCIAL PROFILE
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 4


Sri Lankas technology development is largely located in the public sector comprised of
sector specific Research and Development institutions and Universities. The R&D
activities of the Universities and R&D Institutes provide the contribution to the
technology development of the country, however, expenditure on R&D is low at
around 0.19 percent of GDP.

Universities produce the human resource base for R&D activities while Technology
training is provided by technical and vocational training institutes, and undergraduate
courses provided by universities. Universities prioritise undergraduate teaching,
leaving little resources for research. The majority of post-graduate courses are part-
time that do not make for any significant research output. Hitherto the Sri Lankan
industry has not been able to provide satisfactory jobs in science and technology
disciplines. Thus many graduates from technical colleges and universities leave the
country for foreign employment while some are employed in nontechnical disciplines
making for a two-way brain drain out of the country and out of science
and technology.
The use of technology in agriculture

The Rice Research and Development Institute (RRDI) continues to play a major role in
the countrys rice sector by releasing new high yielding rice varieties and introducing
improved rice production and protection technologies to help farmers realize the yield
potentials of the varieties that they grow.
The research and development programs at RRDI focus on increasing farm productivity
from the current 3.6 t/ha to 4.5 t/ha within the next five years, reducing cost of
production and improving grain quality of rice.



TECHNOLOGY PROFILE
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 5
The use of technology in education

Information and communication technologies can be used to facilitate education
among the rural poor, who often do not have access to education. The Central Bank
Report for 2002 reveals that the number of schools in rural areas has dwindled
compared to 2001.

In this context, distance learning based education can fill the gap created by the lack of
formal education. Technology can be a very useful tool, as it is to able facilitate
distance learning and this method has been used by several non-government
organisations to reach children and women in rural areas. The transfer a great deal of
information across various geographies to different types of people at the same time is
a very distinct advantage. The crucial factor would be whether rural people have
access to these technologies and can afford them.

The use of technology to improve sanitation
Safe drinking water at both community and household level can be provided through
the deepening of existing wells and the installation of additional hand pumps in each
area. Sanitation and refuse disposal should be improved to reduce water
contamination.

The use of technology in irrigation
Agriculture in these communities is dependent on sustainable ground water supplies.
Through repairing existing reservoirs, improvements in water conservation have been
possible. Water-harvesting systems have been able to minimize wastage of water.

The use of technology in transport
The lack of a developed road network is evident in the rural areas of Sri Lanka. The
bicycle is the main mode of transport for communities living in these areas. Simple
innovations such as a cart to the bicycle can improve the livelihood of these people.


LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 6
The use of technology in rural areas of Sri Lanka

The Kothmale Community Radio Internet Project is an attempt to extend the benefits
of information and communication technology (ICT) to some of the remote areas of Sri
Lanka through the innovative convergence of two media, the radio and the Internet.
Most of the radio broadcasts use information collected by browsing the Internet; this
information is then discussed with listeners on the air. The Internet access points
established in the community enable direct computer access and respond to the
information needs of various groups in the community which consists of 60 villages
and 3 rural towns.















LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 7


Basic Economy:
Sri Lanka's economy is shifting away from its traditional agricultural base to include
production for an international market, a shift accelerated by a major policy change in
the 1977 transition from a socialist-style, state controlled economy to a free market
economy lead by the private sector. By the mid-1990s, roughly one-quarter of the
population was employed as skilled workers in agriculture, fishing, or animal
husbandry; one-quarter in skilled craft or factory production; one-quarter in
administration, medicine, law, education, accounting, sales, services, or clerical work;
and one-quarter as unskilled laborers. In spite of this shift away from agriculture, Sri
Lanka has recently achieved near self-sufficiency in rice production and other staple
foods.

Liberals firmly believe that economic prosperity leads to social and moral
development, While stagnation leads to conflicts of all types, including racial, in the
struggle for shares of the available resources. Where there is economic prosperity,
there are fewer great upheavals. Economically developed countries are examples of
this while many 3rd world countries are examples of the contrary.
Resources for Economic Development in Sri Lanka
Physical and human resources are the major features essential for economic
development, supported by financial resources. Our main physical resources can be
identified as favourable climate conditions (a tropical climate throughout the year),
fertile soils and water resources with much rain in the hill country brought down to the
plains on all sides during their dry seasons. The sea round our island, within a 200 km
zone, is not only rich in fish but the west to east sea route runs through the southern
bounds of the island, which suggests we should develop Sri Lanka as a trading
centre with the construction of a free international harbour at Hambantota. This will
ECONOMIC PROFILE
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 8
give an impetus to foreign entrepreneurs, at least to begin with investment for
transhipment of their industrial products. The economy, and in particular the economy
of a long neglected area, will begin to boom with such a project.
Industrial Development
Industries in Sri Lanka have generally been concentrated in the area around Colombo,
except during three periods when government tried to encourage development at the
periphery. Just after after independence a number of industries were developed in the
North and East but these are largely moribund now because of the conflict. In the 60s
many industries were established under the Gal Oya scheme but, without a
comprehensive continued commitment on the part of government, most of these are
now in decline. Finally, under Mr Premadasa there was a concerted attempt to induce
the private sector to decentralize, and despite several problems this has by and large
continued successful. Taking a cue from this, we recommend that government
concentrate on encouraging the private sector to invest in the regions. However to do
this infrastructural development is essential, and should take the form of targeting
particular areas for the establishment of free trade zones.
Fisheries
Though fishing is an essential industry, the greatest resources are in the continental
shelf which cannot be reached by ordinary fishermen. They should be given the
technical knowledge and assisted with obtaining deep sea fishing vessels so that the
scope of our fishing industry can be developed, otherwise the hand to mouth
existence of our fishermen cannot be uplifted. Though after a gap of some years there
has recently been an attempt to revive the inland fishing industry, this can be
encouraged further, with a concerted plan as to transportation. We also welcome the
current move to develop technical skills at all levels, and suggest this be tied in with
management and other skills that will increase employability.


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Agriculture
Though agriculture should be the foundation of our economy, the sudden explosion in
imports has ruined the agricultural sector in the case of Red Onions, Bombay Onions,
Potatoes and other highland cultivation. Again, due to all sorts of shifts and reverses in
policy, paddy farmers are unable to sell their paddy at even a price below cost, a trial
they have never faced in the past.
2.4 million people are engaged in agriculture and fisheries. Among them 1.8 million are
paddy farmers. With the collapse of the agricultural sector, which was 21% of the GDP,
more than of the entire population will experience social upheavals and economic
disaster. Therefore the agricultural sector will be given assistance not only to increase
production but also to protect prices by way of legislation and tariffs so that the
farmer can get the maximum profit in the local market. Though Liberals generally
believe in free trade, we have always accepted the need for protection provided it is
for a fixed period to deal with particular conditions. It must be accompanied by a
comprehensive strategy based on the interests of consumers, and should not be
changed at will or for political expediency, as happened with the subsidy for bread that
began the crisis in the paddy market.

Land Tenure and Property. Although private ownership of land has been well
established in Sri Lanka since the precolonial period, most of the land is currently
owned by the state and leased to private individuals and companies. Religious
establishments also own substantial tracts of land. Today as in the past, private
property is passed from parents to children, with the bulk of landholdings going to
sons. Although the sale of housing lots is a growing industry, the sale of agricultural
land is relatively uncommon. This, in combination with the subdivision of property
with each generation, has created very small holdings of paddy land, which are
inefficient to farm, something that the World Bank has identified as the primary cause
of poverty in Sri Lanka.
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Commercial Activities. Sri Lanka's towns and villages as well as its urban centers are
typically active sites of commercial exchange. Most of the nonplantation agricultural
crops that are not consumed in the home are sold at local markets, along with
traditional craft products such as brass, pottery, and baskets, which are largely
produced by hereditary caste groups. Repair, construction, tailoring, printing, and
other services are always in demand, as is private tutoring. Tourists are also the focus
of a range of commercial activity.
Major Industries. The major industries in Sri Lanka are involved with agricultural
production and manufacturing. Nearly one-third of the agricultural production of the
island is from the tea and rubber estates, products that are partially processed locally.
The production of textiles and apparel; food, beverages, and tobacco; and wood and
wood products together account for a quarter of all manufacturing. Heavy industry is
largely confined to government-controlled steel, tire, and cement manufacturing, oil
refining, mining, and quarrying. Transportation, construction, and energy production
are also important locally oriented industries. In addition, the ongoing war effort, the
education system, and the tourism industry comprise significant sectors of the
economy.
Trade In recent years, the sale of garments manufactured in Sri Lanka has outstripped
the more traditional modern office buildings often share space with older religious
structures, forming a diverse architectural landscape in cities such as Colombo.
exports of tea, rubber, and coconut products, although the latter continue to be
among the largest exports, along with locally mined gems. Textiles, machinery and
equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and metals, and other raw
materials are among the principal imports. In 1996, Sri Lanka exported nearly $5 billion
(U.S.) worth of goods, with nearly $1.5 billion (U.S.) worth of products going to the
United States, three times more than any other country. In the same year, over $5
billion (U.S.) worth of goods were imported from other countries, over half a billion
each from Japan and India.
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Division of Labor Traditionally, the division of labor in Sri Lanka has been largely based
on caste, gender, and ethnicity. Although members of all ethnic groups participate to
some degree across the range of occupations, particular ethnic groups are thought to
predominate in certain occupations, for instance, the Sinhala in rice cultivation and the
public sector, and the Muslims, Tamils, and recent immigrants in trade. Different
castes are also associated with particular occupations, which is not necessarily
reflected in the actual work that people do. Symbolically associated with occupations
such as rice farming, the largest and highest status Sinhala castes are typically land
holders and recipients of service obligations from the lower castes. The lower status
service castes are associated with hereditary crafts such as mat weaving, jewelry
making, and clothes washing. Increasingly, these hereditary statuses are being
replaced by education and command of English as the most important determinants of
employment.













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Sri Lanka has high biodiversity distributed in a range of ecosystems from
rainforests to savannas. About 27 percent of the country's plants are endemic and 22
percent of its amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles. In 2005, researchers
confirmed the discovery of 35 new frog species inSri Lanka over the past decade. Sri
Lanka is known as a global biodiversity hotspot for its high number of species in a
relatively limited area. The island's frog diversity illustrates this point: despite covering
only 0.013 percent of the world's land surface, Sri Lanka is home to more than 2
percent percent of the world's known frog and toad species. The island is also home to
3,210 flowering plant species, of which 916 species are endemic.
While Sri Lanka may be known for its biodiversity, this biological wealth is highly
threatenedthe same survey found that 17 of Sri Lanka's frogs have disappeared in
the past decade and another 11 species face imminent extinction unless their habitat
is protected. Habitat loss is the leading threat to Sri Lanka's native ecosystems.
Conservation International estimates that only around 1.5 percent of the island's
original forest remains (FAO figures are more optimistic). Much of this forest was lost
under British colonial rule, when large tracts of forest were cleared for rubber, coffee,
and tea plantations, but Sri Lanka's forests have also suffered dearly under years of
civil war which has led to large-scale forest clearing. During the 1980s and early 1990s,
government soldiers cleared the island's rainforests because they served as refuges for
rebel forces. At the same time, fighting destroyed homes and displaced small-scale
farmers who then sought new lands in forested areas. Government figures show that
the army and Tamil rebels felled more than 2.5 million palmyrah trees alone for
construction purposes. In the wake of the tsunami which killed some 31,000 people
ENVIRONMENT PROFILE
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and caused more than $1.5 billion in property damage, reconstruction efforts have
only increased the pressure on Sri Lanka's forests.
Over the past 15 years (1990-2005), Sri Lanka has had one of the highest deforestation
rates of primary forests in the world. In that period the country lost more than 35
percent of its old-growth forest cover, while total forest cover was diminished by
almost 18 percent. Worse, since the close of the 1990s, deforestation rates have
increased by more than 25 percent.
Climate Seasons
The Climate of Sri Lanka is dominated by the above mentioned topographical features
of the country and the Southwest and Northeast monsoons regional scale wind
regimes. The Climate experienced during 12 months period in Sri Lanka can be
characterized in to 4 climate seasons as follows.
1. First Inter monsoon Season - March - April
2. Southwest monsoon season - May - September
3. Second Inter monsoon season - October - November
4. Northeast Monsoon season - December - February









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Government. Sri Lanka is governed by a democratically elected president and a 225-
member parliament. The president serves for a term of six years and has the power to
dismiss the parliament, out of which the president selects cabinet members, a prime
minister, and a chief justice. Although regular elections at all levels of government
have been held since independence, there are increasing allegations of tampering and
violence. The current leadership is considering a new constitution in which greater
powers would be reserved for the provincial governments, a move calculated to
address the ethnic conflicts and end the nation's civil war.
Leadership and Political Officials. Although a spectrum of political parties campaign
within Sri Lanka, political leadership is almost exclusively drawn from the traditional,
propertied elite. Family lineage and caste affiliation figure prominently in selection of
candidates at all levels. Since independence, only two parties have drawn the majority
of their leadership from the lower classes and challenged the control of the elite: the
ultraleft Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, who staged armed insurrections that posed a
significant threat to the stability of the nation in 1971 and again between 1987 and
1989, and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).








POLITICAL PROFILE
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The Legal system of Sri Lanka is a highly complex mixture of several laws. In fact, it
exemplifies the absolute possibility for the coexistence of diverse elements of several
legal systems for it gather together with a common framework, laws as diverse in their
origin as those of Rome and England, Holland and South Africa, Arabia, South India and
old Ceylon .
The ethnic and religious diversity of the nation and the colonial history, which traced
back to 1505 1948 are the major factors which had contributed to this complexity.
Sri Lankan Legal system is influenced by English common law and Roman-Dutch owing
to its the colonial history. In addition, same is influenced by the ancient local system
of laws of Sri Lanka - customary and personal laws such Kandyan, Thesawalamai law
and Muslim law due to the varied character of the nation.
The Commercial Law of Sri Lanka is almost entirely based on the principles of English
Commercial Law. Roman-Dutch Law being the common law of Sri Lanka, basically
governs the general law of contract in Sri Lanka. Nonetheless, English Law has
displaced the Roman - Dutch law in number of special fields of law of contract as well.
Certain ordinances embody and incorporated the rules of English law and are in the
main reproductions of the corresponding statues. Sale of goods Ordinance and Bills of
Exchange Ordinance are such.

In addition, the criminal justice system, is based largely on the British principles.
However, it too has undergone drastic changes over the years.

Civil Law Ordinance No. 5 of 1852 introduces directly the Laws of England in Maritime
(by Sec. 2) and by Sec. 3 law of England in commercial matters unless there is contrary
statutory provisions in Ceylon.

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Sale of goods Act in Sri Lanka is based on the English law which was in force in UK at
the time of the enactment of the Act.

Furthermore, the ethnic and religious diversity of the nation has led following personal
laws to govern the various sections of its community:-
(i) the Kandyan law; ( This applies as a personal law to Kandyan Sinhalese )
(ii) the Thesawalamai ; ( which is a system of personal law, applicable to
Malabar inhabitants of the Province of Jaffna and was codified by the
Dutch in 170 . and, Thesawalamai is, essentially, a customary law which is
both territorial and personal in character.)
(iii) the Muslim law.- applies to Muslims as their personal law.
Nonetheless, Persons subject to any of the above three personal laws are governed in
other respects by the Roman Dutch Law, which is the Common Law of the country.













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This code of practice which is binding on all Press institutions and journalists, aims to
ensure that the print medium in Sri Lanka is free and responsible and sensitive to the
needs and expectations of its readers, while maintaining the highest international
standard of journalism.
Those standards require newspapers to strive for accuracy and professional integrity,
and to uphold the best traditions of investigative journalism in the public interest,
unfettered by distorting commercialism or by improper pressure or by narrow self-
interest which conspires against press freedom. Newspapers and journalists, while
free to hold and express their own strong opinions, should give due consideration to
the views of others and endeavor to reflect social responsibility.

Code of Ethics
Code of Professional Practice (Code of Ethics) of The Editors Guild of Sri Lanka and Free
Media Movement Adopted by the Sri Lanka Press Institute.

1. PREAMBLE
This code of practice which is binding on all Press institutions and journalists,
aims to ensure that the print medium in Sri Lanka is free and responsible and
sensitive to the needs and expectations of its readers, while maintaining the
highest international standard of journalism.
Those standards require newspapers to strive for accuracy and professional integrity,
and to uphold the best traditions of investigative journalism in the public interest,
unfettered by distorting commercialism or by improper pressure or by narrow self-
interest which conspires against press freedom. Newspapers and journalists, while
free to hold and express their own strong opinions, should give due consideration to
the views of others and endeavor to reflect social responsibility.
This code both protects the rights of the individual and upholds the publics right to
know. It should be honored not only to the letter but in the spirit neither interpreted
ETHICAL PROFILE
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so narrowly as to compromise its commitment to respect the rights of the individual
nor so broadly as to prevent publication in the public interest.

2. ACCURATE REPORTING
2.1 The media must take all reasonable care to report news and pictures accurately
and without distortion.
2.2 Every reasonable attempt should be made by editors and individual journalists to
verify the accuracy of reports prior to publication. Where such verification is not
practicable, that fact shall be stated in the report.
2.3 Editors and their staff, including external contributors, shall not publish material in
such a way as to endorse any matter which they know or have reason to believe to be
false or inaccurate.
2.4 Publications are encouraged to engage in investigative journalism in the public
interest.

3. CORRECTIONS and APOLOGIES
Where it is recognized by the editor that a report was incorrect in a material respect, it
should be corrected promptly and with due prominence and with an apology where
appropriate, except where the correction or apology is against the wishes of the
aggrieved party.

4. OPPORTUNITY TO REPLY
4.1 A fair and reasonable opportunity to reply should be given to individuals or
organizations in respect of factually incorrect statements endangering their
reputation, dignity, honor, feelings, privacy and office. The reply should be confined to
the complainants version of the facts and no longer than necessary to correct the
alleged inaccuracy.
4.2 Newspapers or journalists who respond to a complainants reply other than to
apologize or regret the error, must then be prepared to offer the aggrieved party a
fresh opportunity to reply.


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5. CONFIDENTIAL SOURCES
Every journalist has a moral obligation to protect confidential sources of information,
until that source authorizes otherwise.

6. GENERAL REPORTING and WRITING
6.1 In dealing with social issues of a particularly shocking or emotionally painful nature
such as atrocity, violence, drug abuse, brutality, sadism, sexual salacity and obscenity
the press should take special care to present facts, opinions, photographs and
graphics with due sensitivity and discretion, subject to its duty to publish in the public
interest.
6.2 In reporting accounts of crime or criminal case, publications shall not, unless it is
both legally permitted and in the public interest
i Name victims of sex crimes
ii knowingly name any young person accused of a criminal offense who is below the
age of 16 and who has no previous convictions
iii Identify without consent relatives of a person accused or convicted of a crime
6.3 A journalist shall not knowingly or wilfully promote communal or religious discord
or violence.
6.4
i The press must avoid prejudicial or pejorative reference to a persons race,
color, religion, sex or to any physical or mental illness or disability.
ii It must avoid publishing details of a persons race, caste, religion, sexual orientation,
physical or mental illness or disability unless these are directly relevant to the story
6.5
i Even where the law does not prohibit it, journalists must not use for their own profit
financial information they receive in advance of its general publication, nor should
they pass such information for the profit of others.
ii They must not write about shares or securities in whose performance they know that
they or their close families have a significant financial interest, without disclosing the
interest to the publisher, editor or financial editor.


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7. PRIVACY
7.1 The press shall exercise particular care to respect the private and family lives of
individuals, their home, health and correspondence. Intrusions on this right to privacy
without consent, could be justified only by some over-riding public interest.
7.2 The use of long-lens or other cameras to photograph people without consent on
private or public property where there is a reasonable expectation or privacy is
unacceptable, unless in the public interest.
7.3 Particular care should be taken to ensure that in cases involving grief or shock,
inquiries and approaches are handled with sensitivity and discretion.
7.4 Young people should be free to complete their school years without unnecessary
intrusion. Publication of material concerning a childs private life would be acceptable
only if there was some exceptional public interest other than the fame, notoriety or
position of his or her family or guardian.
7.5 The restrictions on intruding into privacy are particularly relevant to inquiries
about individuals in hospitals or similar institutions, unless it serves the public interest.

8. HARASSMENT and SUBTERFUGE
Journalists, including photo-journalists, must not seek to obtain information or
pictures through intimidation or harassment or by misrepresentation or subterfuge.
The use of long-lens cameras or listening devices, must also not be used unless this can
be justified in the public interest and the material could not have been obtained by
other means.

9. DIGINITY
Every journalist shall maintain the dignity of his profession.
INTERPRETATION
The public interest includes:
Protecting democracy, good governance, freedom of expression and the fundamental
rights of the people and of keeping them informed about events that would have a
direct or indirect bearing on them, and that of their elected government, and
detecting or exposing crime, corruption, maladministration or a serious misdemeanor.

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Population 21,675,648 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure 0-14 years: 24.8% (male 2,741,879/female 2,632,613)
15-24 years: 15.1% (male 1,659,566/female1,615,616)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 4,484,738/female 4,697,355)
55-64 years: 9.3% (male 939,174/female 1,084,108)
65 years and over: 8.4% (male 778,629/female 1,041,970)
(2013 est.)
Dependency ratios total dependency ratio: 50.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 37.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.8 %
potential support ratio: 7.8 (2013)
Median age total: 31.4 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 32.5 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate 0.89% (2013 est.)
Birth rate 16.64 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate 6.01 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate -1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization urban population: 15.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.36% annual rate of change (2010-
15 est.)
Major cities - population COLOMBO (capital) 681,000 (2009)
Sex ratio At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
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0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at
first birth
22.6
note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2000
est.)
Infant mortality rate total: 9.24 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.15 years
male: 72.64 years
female: 79.79 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate 2.15 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive
prevalence rate
68% (2006/07)
HIV/AIDS - adult
prevalence rate
less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living
with HIV/AIDS
2,800 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Drinking water source improved:
urban: 99% of population
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rural: 90% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 10% of population
total: 9% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 92% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 8% of population (2010 est.)
Major infectious
diseases
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and
hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
Nationality noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan
Ethnic groups Sinhalese 73.8%, Sri Lankan Moors 7.2%, Indian Tamil
4.6%, Sri Lankan Tamil 3.9%, other 0.5%, unspecified 10%
(2001 census provisional data)
Religions Buddhist (official) 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%,
Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional
data)
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Languages Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil
(national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English, spoken competently by about 10% of the
population, is commonly used in government and is
referred to as the link language in the constitution
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 90% (2010 census)
School life expectancy
(primary to tertiary
education)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2011)
Education expenditures 2% of GDP (2010)
Maternal mortality rate 35 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age
of 5 years underweight
21.6% (2009)
Health expenditures 3.4% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density 0.492 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density 3.1 beds/1,000 population (2004)
Obesity adult
prevalence rate
5.1% (2008)




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Division of Labor by Gender. In Sri Lanka, there is a strong tradition of both men and
women working, with men focusing more on income opportunities and women
focusing on the household. Currently, women's participation in the paid labor force is
significant, although not evenly distributed, concentrated in professions such as
nursing, teaching, tea picking, and garment construction. In manufacture and
agricultural work, men are typically assigned tasks considered more physically
demanding, while women are assigned the more repetitive, detail-oriented work at
which they are thought to be better than men. Opportunity for foreign employment
for women, while relatively available and well-paying, is restricted to domestic work,
whereas opportunities for men are more varied, ranging from manual labor to
engineering. Within the home, regardless of their engagement in paid labor, women
and girls do all food preparation and most other domestic work.
Although most schools are segregated by gender, education has always been
important for both boys and girls in Sri Lanka. The literacy rates for men and women
are similarly high; the last census in 1981 found that 87 percent of females over the
age of ten years were literate, compared to 91 percent of males.
Leadership roles in Sri Lanka are largely held by men, with some important exceptions.
Sri Lanka elected the world's first female prime minister in 1960, Sirimavo
Bandaranaike, whose daughter is the current president of the nation. While this is not
indicative of the political power of women in general, it is true that Sri Lankan women
have held voting rights since they were instituted in 1931 and have long held certain
property rights. The large majority of religious leaders and officiants are also male,
while women tend to be overrepresented among their followers.
The Relative Status of Women and Men. It is a widely held position among social
scientists as well as lay people that the status of women is relatively high in Sri Lanka,
especially in comparison to other South Asian nations. There has never been the
practice of child marriage or the burning of widows in Sri Lanka. Even though most
groups on the island prefer for new brides to move into their husbands' homes,
women traditionally retain strong ties with their own natal families. Additionally,
although it is expected among most groups for the bride's family to give the groom a
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dowry, in practice this property commonly remains in the possession of the wife until
she passes it on, typically to her daughters.
Despite these traditional practices and the full rights of citizenship that women in Sri
Lanka enjoy today, women consistently defer to men across all domains of life,
including the workplace and the home. Women also bear the greater weight of social
expectations and sanctions for noncompliance. In addition, sexual harassment and
assault, while seldom reported to the authorities, are common experiences.
Marriage, Family, and Kinship
Marriage. In all ethnic groups, marriages are traditionally arranged by the families of
the couple. "Love marriages" initiated by the couples themselves are, however,
increasingly common. Regardless of who initiates the marriage, the bride and groom
are expected to be of the same socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and, for Buddhists and
Hindus, caste status, although the groom is expected to be slightly older, taller, and
educationally and professionally more qualified than the bride. Additionally, there is a
preference among Tamil and Sinhala groups for cross-cousin marriage, which is
marriage with the child of one's father's sister or one's mother's brother. Among
Muslims, the preferred match is between parallel cousins, the children of two
brothers. It is also considered best if the couple are of similar ages.
The age at which people marry is on the rise, especially for women. According to the
1981 census, over a quarter of those over twenty have never been married. Divorce,
while increasingly common, still occurs in less than 1 percent of marriages. Remarriage
following divorce or the death of a spouse is possible for both men and women,
although it is uncommon for previously married women to marry never-married men.
Domestic Unit. Ideally, a husband and wife live in their own household with their
unmarried children, even if that household is actually a small section of an extended
family home. In Sri Lanka, individual households are identified by cooking practices, so
that, even within a larger house, a wife will cook for her husband and children
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independently from others who may live within the structure, perhaps sharing the
same kitchen.
While women may have a great deal of power within a family, ultimate authority
belongs to the oldest male member of a household, whether that is the father,
husband, brother, or son. Sri Lankans express a preference that their first child be a
girl, whom they believe will help care for and be a disciplining influence on younger
siblings. While overall there is a preference for sons, this is not as strong as in other
South Asian countries.
Inheritance. The majority of Sri Lankan families practice bilateral inheritance, giving a
portion of the family possessions to all children in the family. In practice, fixed
property such as land and the family home go to sons and mobile property such as
cash and jewelry go to daughters, usually in the form of her dowry.
Kin Groups. In Sri Lanka, the notion of ancestral place and the kin group associated
with it is very important, even as people move to other areas because of employment
opportunities or displacement. This hereditary home is the site of life-cycle

A woman picking tea at a plantation in Sri Lanka. Approximately one-quarter of the
workforce is employed in the agricultural sector.
rituals as well as day-to-day interaction with extended kin. It is most common for this
kin group to belong to the father's family, as there is a preference for women to move
to the homes of their husband, raising their children among his relatives. It also
happens, however, that husbands join wives' families instead, particularly among the
matrilineal people of the island's east.
Infant Care. In Sri Lanka, young children are highly adored, fondled, and indulged by
everyone, both male and female. Infants are traditionally kept with their mothers or
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female relatives. Babies are carried until they can walk and sleep with mothers until
they are school-aged, at which time they are encouraged to move into a bed with their
siblings. Nearly all mothers breast-feed their children, commonly through the first
year.
Child Rearing and Education. Throughout childhood, important rituals are conducted
around culturally significant milestones, such as the first feeding of solid food and the
introduction of the letters of the alphabet. The coming of age ritual following a girl's
first menstruation is an important marker of her entrance into the adult world,
although there is no such similar rite of passage for boys.
As children grow, they are expected to develop a sense of lajjawa, a feeling that
combines shyness, shame, modesty, and fear. It is cultivated early in childhood and
used to teach self-control, beginning with bowel-control training, which starts at one
year, then with weaning and nudity, and later with school performance.
Although mothers perform most of the child rearing, they are more responsible for
their daughters' discipline and tend to be more indulgent with their sons. Fathers tend
to indulge all of their children under five, at which point they take on a stricter
disciplinary role, particularly with their sons whom they are responsible for controlling.
Corporal punishment is quite common, especially from older males to boys.
In Sri Lanka, education has always been highly valued and encouraged. School
attendance is compulsory between the ages of six and fourteen, although children
often attend preschool and typically continue until the completion of the secondary
level. Academic competition starts early, as parents scramble to place their children in
the better primary schools, and continues with three sets of standardized exams that
determine access to subsequent
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STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA Page 29

Stilt fishermen in the waters near Weligama, Sri Lanka. Fish are a large part of the Sri
Lankan diet.
educational privileges. To prepare for these exams and other academic challenges,
almost all children attend private tutorial sessions in addition to their regular
schooling.
Higher Education. All of Sri Lanka's universities are government sponsored and
attendance is free. Admission is determined by exam, so that only 2 percent of Sri
Lanka's children eventually are enrolled in the universities, although children from
affluent families frequently gain admittance to foreign universities. Of those who enter
the Sri Lankan university system, the majority go into the arts, which includes
humanities and social sciences, a course of study taught in the vernacular languages.
Unemployment following graduation is high for these students, reflecting a disjuncture
between market needs and university education. Those who attend the
technical/professional schools, which are taught in English, tend to be more
employable. Opportunities for postgraduate education are quite limited within the
country.
Protests against authorities are well established among university students at all
levels. New entrants to the university student community are routinely subjected to
"ragging," a form of collective harassment by the senior students in an effort to create
a sense of common identity and an anti-establishment consciousness.
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY

Introduction
The fisheries sector is an important sector in the Sri Lankan economy of the country as
it:
Contributes to the GDP; 1.179 % (2009)
Provides employment; 2.4 Million direct & indirect
Contributes 70 percent to the animal protein intake of the masses
Contributes to foreign exchange earnings. Rs 21,015 Mn (2009)

The sector can be divided into three sub sectors:
Coastal fisheries; which take place
by the fishing crafts in single day operations. The total area of the continental
shelf is about 30,000km2.
Offshore fisheries; which take place outside the continental shelf and beyond
extending up to the edge
seas by multi-day boats.
Inland fisheries.

Inland fisheries take place in perennial and seasonal tanks and reservoirs expanding
economic activities which provide cheap protein, incomes and employment for
rural mass. Aquaculture is still in its infant stages and is limited to coastal shrimp
(Penaeus spp) culture and the production of fish seed for stocking/farming of food fish
in seasonal tanks and perennial tanks. The freshwater fisheries potential of
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA
STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
The fisheries sector is an important sector in the Sri Lankan economy of the country as
Contributes to the GDP; 1.179 % (2009)
employment; 2.4 Million direct & indirect
Contributes 70 percent to the animal protein intake of the masses
Contributes to foreign exchange earnings. Rs 21,015 Mn (2009)
The sector can be divided into three sub sectors:
Coastal fisheries; which take place within the continental shelf and undertaken
fishing crafts in single day operations. The total area of the continental
30,000km2.
Offshore fisheries; which take place outside the continental shelf and beyond
extending up to the edge of the Exclusive Economic Zone and even in the high
day boats.

Inland fisheries take place in perennial and seasonal tanks and reservoirs expanding
activities which provide cheap protein, incomes and employment for
Aquaculture is still in its infant stages and is limited to coastal shrimp
and the production of fish seed for stocking/farming of food fish
perennial tanks. The freshwater fisheries potential of
SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
Page 30

The fisheries sector is an important sector in the Sri Lankan economy of the country as
Contributes 70 percent to the animal protein intake of the masses
Contributes to foreign exchange earnings. Rs 21,015 Mn (2009)
within the continental shelf and undertaken
fishing crafts in single day operations. The total area of the continental
Offshore fisheries; which take place outside the continental shelf and beyond
of the Exclusive Economic Zone and even in the high
Inland fisheries take place in perennial and seasonal tanks and reservoirs expanding
activities which provide cheap protein, incomes and employment for the
Aquaculture is still in its infant stages and is limited to coastal shrimp
and the production of fish seed for stocking/farming of food fish
perennial tanks. The freshwater fisheries potential of Sri Lanka
SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
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consists of nearly 260,000 ha while brackish water potential contain 120,000 ha of
lagoons, river estuaries, mangrove swamps and salt marshes.

Resource Base:
Sri Lankas marine fisheries resource base has a total extent of 538500 km2 and is rich
in species diversity.



Sri Lanka also has extensive fresh water and brackish water resources for carrying out
fishing activities. According to National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA)
fresh water bodies comprise of around 260,000 ha of large irrigation reservoirs,
Medium irrigation reservoirs, Minor Irrigation reservoirs, seasonal village tanks, flood
lakes, upland reservoirs/estate tanks and Mahaweli river basins.
On the basis of their size and fishery management norms the reservoirs in the country
can be grouped under three broad categories:
1. Large (over 800 ha) and medium (200-800 ha) which are used for capture fisheries);
2. Small (1-200 ha) irrigation reservoirs for culture-based fisheries
3. Seasonal tanks which hold water for 6 - 8 months a year for culture fisheries
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LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) is
the Preview of the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development as its
main implementation body.
Resources is Management
Aquatic Resources of Sri Lanka.
The Department continues its process of updating its legal provisions such as the
introduction of 1996 Fisheries Act No
fisheries management practices in line with the regional and int
and regulations.
Objectives of the Department


To manage, regulate, conserve and develop fisheries activities in a sustainable
manner in conformity with national and international laws and conventions
To promote local and foreign
To introduce new technology for the exploitation of fishery resources in
national and international waters
To uplift the socio
To ensure quality and safety of fish and fishery
with international standards
To minimize post
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA
STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) is
of the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development as its
main implementation body. Mandate of the Department Fisheries and Aquatic
Management, Development and Conservation of the
of Sri Lanka.
The Department continues its process of updating its legal provisions such as the
introduction of 1996 Fisheries Act No-2, as well as the declaring of various related
fisheries management practices in line with the regional and international conventions
Objectives of the Department

To manage, regulate, conserve and develop fisheries activities in a sustainable
manner in conformity with national and international laws and conventions
To promote local and foreign investment in the fishing sector
To introduce new technology for the exploitation of fishery resources in
national and international waters
To uplift the socio-economic status of the fishing communities
To ensure quality and safety of fish and fishery product exports in conformity
with international standards
To minimize post-harvest losses and improve the quality of local fish products
Page 33
operating under
of the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development as its
Mandate of the Department Fisheries and Aquatic
of the Fisheries and
The Department continues its process of updating its legal provisions such as the
2, as well as the declaring of various related
ernational conventions
To manage, regulate, conserve and develop fisheries activities in a sustainable
manner in conformity with national and international laws and conventions
investment in the fishing sector
To introduce new technology for the exploitation of fishery resources in
economic status of the fishing communities
product exports in conformity
harvest losses and improve the quality of local fish products.
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA

STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
Our Vision and Mission

Our Vision
To provide an optimum contribution to the national economy through
the socioeconomic status of the fisher communities while maintaining the fisheries
and aquatic resources in a sustainable manner.
Our Mission
Management of fisheries and aquatic resources by adopting new technologies in
compliance with the national and international laws and treaties for the productive
contribution to the Sri Lankan economy through sustainable development of fishing
industry.











LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA
STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
Our Vision and Mission

To provide an optimum contribution to the national economy through
economic status of the fisher communities while maintaining the fisheries
and aquatic resources in a sustainable manner.
Management of fisheries and aquatic resources by adopting new technologies in
national and international laws and treaties for the productive
contribution to the Sri Lankan economy through sustainable development of fishing
Page 34
To provide an optimum contribution to the national economy through strengthening
economic status of the fisher communities while maintaining the fisheries
Management of fisheries and aquatic resources by adopting new technologies in
national and international laws and treaties for the productive
contribution to the Sri Lankan economy through sustainable development of fishing
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Organizational structure
Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Resources is functioning under Director General in
accordance with the Fisheries & Aquatic Resources act No. 02 of 1996.
The Head Office is divided to six important Divisions for the efficient discharge of the
Departmental functions.
Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Resources is functioning under Director General in
accordance with the Fisheries & Aquatic Resources act No. 02 of 1996.
The Head Office is divided to six important Divisions for the efficient discharge of the
Departmental functions.

Fisheries Management Division

Fisheries Industries Division

Monitoring, controlling and surveillance Division

Fishery product Quality control Division

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Finance Division

Administration Division


In addition to Head Office, there are fifteen (15) District Assistant Directors Offices
along the coastal districts of the island. There are one hundred and forty eight (148)
Fisheries Inspectorate Divisions under the District Offices, covering all fishers villages.















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STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY Page 37
Common Commercial Fish Types of Sri Lanka
Commercial
group
English Name
(Common Name)
Scientific Name Sinhala Name
Seer
Spanish mackerel
Scomberomorus
commersoni
Thora
Wahoo
Acanthocybium
commersoni
Sawara
Paraw Jack, Trevallies
Carangoides
gymnostethus
Vattiya
Carangoides
fulvoguttatus
Thumba parawa
Caranx ignobilis
Atanagul
Parawa
Caranx hebiri Guru parawa
Balaya Skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis Balaya
Kelawalla yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares Kelawalla

Other Blood
fish
Sail fish Istiophorus platypterus Thalapath
Marlins
Makariya indika Kalu koppara
Makariya mazara Nil koppara
Tetrapturus audax Iri koppara
Sword fish Xiphias gladius Sappara
Big eye tuna Thunnus abesus Esgedi kelawalla/Kenda
Bullet tuna Auxis rochei Ragodu/kombaya
Frigate tuna Auxis thazard Alagoduwa
Kawakawa Euthynnus affinis Attawalla

Sharks
Mackerel shark Isurus sp. Mee mora
Thresher shark Alopias sp. Kasa mora (Banned)
Requiem
sharks-silky shark
Carcharhinus
Falciformis
Honda mora/Bala
maora
Ocean white
strip shark
Carcharhinus
Longimanus
Polkola mora
Blue shark prionace gluaca Seeni mora/Hudja Mora
Hammerhead
shark
Sphyrna sp. Udalu mora

Skate
Batoid Fisher
shovelnose rays
Rhinobatos sp. Baloliya
String rays Dasyatis sp. Welli maduwa
Spotted eagle
rays
Aetobatus narinari Vavoi maduwa
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Javanees
cownose rays
Rhinoptera javanica valuvadi cownose ray
Numbfishers Narcine sp. Electric ray
Manta and devil
rays
Mobula sp.
Ali maduwa and Anga
maduwa

Rock
Fish/Galmalu
Spangled
emperor
Lethrinus nebulosus Meewetiya/Atissa
Longface
emperor
Lethrinus olivaceus Uru hota
Sharptooth
jobfish
Pristipomoides typus Kalamee
Blubberlip
snapper
Lutjanus rivulatus Badawa
Mangrove red
snapper
Lutjanus
argentimaculatus
Thabalaya
Blackspot
snapper
Lutjanus fulviflamma Ranna
Malabar grouper
Epinephelus
malabaricus
Gas bola/Gal kossa

Rock
Fish/Galmalu
Wavylined
grouper
Epinephelus undulosus Lawaya
Coral hind Cephalopholis miniata Thabuwa
Sri Lanka
sweetlips
Plectorhinchus
ceylonensis
Boraluwa
Threadfin
breams
Nemipterus sp. Suddaha
Parrotfishes Scarus sp. Girawa
Rabbitfsh Siganus so. Orawa
Barracudas Sphyraena sp. Jeelawa

Shore Seine
Mullets Liza sp. Godaya
Trenched
sardinella
Amblygaster sirm Hurulla
Bleekers smooth
belly
Amblygaster
clupeoides
Gal Hurulla
Smoothbelly
Sardinells
Amblygaster
clupeoides
Keeramin
Rainbow sardine Dussumieria acuta Thondaya
White sardine Escualosa thoracata Wella sudaya
Shad Nematalosa nasus Koiya
Goldstripe
sardinella
Sardinella gibbosa Kalawenna/Salaya
White sardinella Sardinella albella Sudaya
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Bigeye scade
Selar
crumenophtthalamus
Bolla
Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta Kumbala
Anchovy Stolephorus sp. Halmessa
Ribbon fish
Lepturacanthus
savalaa
Savalaya
Gar fisher Belonidae Habarali
Thryssa Thryssa sp. Lagga
Silverbiddies Gerres sp. Thirali
Pony fish Leiognathus sp. Karalla
Ilishas Ilish sp. Puvali
Half beaks Hemiramphus sp. Moralla
Flying fish Cheilopogon sp. Piyamessa

Prawns
Giant river
prawn
Macrobrachium
rosenbergii
Karadu issa
Indian white
shrimp
Penaeus indicus Kiri issa
Giant tiger
prawn
Penaeus monodon Karawandu issa
Green tiger
prawns
Penaeus semesulsctus kurutu issa

Lobster
Scalloped spiny
lobster
Panulirus homorus Weli issa
Ornate spiny
lobster
Panulirus ornatus Devi issa
Pronghorn spiny
lobster
Panulirus penicillatus Gal issa
Painted spiny
lobster
Panulirus versicolor Bathik issa/Raga issa
Slipper lobster Panulirus polyphagus Mada issa
Slipper lobster Scyllarus sp. Sapathuwa


Squids
Loligo singhalensis Bothal della
Loligo duvauceli Ahin della


Cuttle fish
Sepia pharaonis Gebi della/Pothu della
Sepia aculeata Pothu della


Sea Cucumber
(Beach de mer)
Holothuria fucogilva
Ham attaya/White
tearfish
Holothuria scabra Welli attaya/Sand fish
Holothuria nobilis Polon attaya/Black
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teatfish
Bohadschia
marmorata
Nul attaya/Chalky fish
Actinopygs miliaris Kalu attaya /Black fish
Holothuria edulis Rathu attaya/Pinkfish
Holothuria atra Nari attaya/Lolyfish
Theienota ananas
Annasi attaya/Prickly
redfish
Thelenota anax Punattaya/Amberfish
Srichopus chloronotus Dabalaya/Green fish


Crabs
Portunus pelagicus
Seenakali/Blue
swimming crab
Scylla serrata
Kalapu
kakuluwa/mangrove
crab
Portunus spp. Mudu kakuluwa

Source Statistic Unit, Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development

Institutions overlooking the Fisheries & Ocean Resources in Sri Lanka:

Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development
New Secretariat, Maligawatta, Colombo 10
T.P.:+94-11-2446183-5
Fax :+94-11-2541184

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
3rd Floor, New Secretariat, Maligawatta,
Colombo 10
Phone: 011-2446183, 011-2446184
Fax: 011-2449170

Department of Coast Conservation
New Secretariat
Maligawatta
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Colombo 10
Tel: 94-11-2449754
Fax: 94-11-2438005

Ceylon Fisheries Corporation
15, Rock house lane
Mutwal
Colombo 15
Tel: 94-11-2523227-8
Fax: 94-11-252338520

Ceylon Fisheries Harbours Corporation
15, Rock house lane
Colombo 15
Tel: 94-11-2522947/94-11-2523051/94-11-2529394
Fax: 94-11-2522217

National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA)
Crow Island
Mattakkuliya
Colombo 15
Tel: 94-11-2521000/94-11-2521006
Fax: 94-11-2524430

National Aquaculture Development Authority of Sri Lanka
No.41/1,
New Parliament Rd,
Pelawatte, Battaramulla
Tel: 94-11-2786495/94-11-2786677
Fax: 94-11-2786493


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National Institute of Fisheries and Nautical Engineering (NIFNE)
15, Crow Island
Mattakkuliya
Colombo 15
Tel: 94-11-2529861/94-11-2529868
Fax: 94-11-2529867

Ceynor Foundation Ltd (fishing nets and gear)
335, D R Wijewardane
Mawatha
Colombo 10
Tel: 94-11-2448040/2445690
Fax: 94-11-2445582












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STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY Page 43





STEEPLED ANALYSIS OF SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY
S Social
T Technology
E Environment
E Economic
P Political
L Legal
E Ethical
D - Demographic

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Sri Lankan society is a socio-cultural heterogeneity with complex group diversities
based upon distinctions in language, religion and caste. The three dominant ethnic
groups, the Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims make up more than 99 percent of the
population. The Sinhalese comprising 74 percent of the population are differentiated
into low-country and up-country (Kandyan) Sinhalese. The Tamils comprising 18.3
percent of the population consist of Ceylon Tamils (12.7 percent) in the north and east,
who are socially and culturally distinct from the Indian Tamils (5.6 percent), living
mainly in the central regions of the country. Muslims comprising approximately 7.5
percent of the population also have regional allegiances. Other communities (including
the burghers of mixed European descent) constitute less than 1 percent
of the population.
The Diyawara Diriya Low interest Fisheries Development Loan Scheme are been
successfully implemented by BOC and Department of Fisheries according to the
allocations made by Budget-2010.
Interest for the loans less than 2 Million Rupees is 5.5%
Interest for the loans larger than 2 Million Rupees is 8.0%
4% Interest subsidy is granted by the government for each loan issued
Fishermen Insurance Scheme
Insurance scheme for Fishermen were introduced in order to reduce the risk involve in
the sector and facilitate them with more financial stability options.
Fishermen are permit to join the insurance scheme through two cost effective
schemes. Mentioning below is some of the benefits provide.



SOCIAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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Beneficiary type Scheme 01 Scheme 02
Annual payment Rs.750.00 Rs.1500.00
Payment to the family members due to
the death or permanent disable of the
fishermen due to a accidents (including
terrorism)
Rs.100,000.00 Rs.300,000.00
Payment to the family members for 12
month due to the displacement of the
fishermen
Rs.5000 per
month
Rs.5000 per
month
Payment to the family members made
after the 12 month of displacement.
Rs.100,000.00 Rs.300,000.00
Hospital extensors for fisherman, wife
or 02 children
Rs.200.00 per
day.
Rs.300.00 per
day.
Expenses for the Funeral of the
fisherman
Rs.10,000.00 Rs.10,000.00

National of Fisheries Federation
The concept of Hon, minister of fisheries and Aquatic resources Development, is that
the fisher community and should join hands together to form one new Organization so
that the required assistance both to the fisher community and the officials covered the
obtained, with a view to work out the Hon. Ministers concept into a action a national
Fisheries conference was formed on 17-08-2010 to create awareness among the
(Fisheries) officials.

Happy to state that as a result of this, more than 1000 fisheries organizations were set
up in the fifteen (15) Districts of the Island and there are, now, more than 1,02,000
fishermen holding the membership.



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Fishing Technology
The application of fisheries technology starts from culture and ends to export of the
product. Post Harvest Fisheries Technology involves processing, preservation,
handling, harvesting, marketing etc. Developing countries, where tropical weather and
poorly developed infrastructure contribute to the problem, losses are sometimes
staggering proportions. Losses occur in all operations from harvesting through
handling, storage, processing and marketing. Many developing country producers
were marginalized from global supply chains due to their poor maintenance of quality
standards. In general, low tech developing country suppliers earn less for their
resources while industrial nations earn extra premiums. Marketing information
systems, supply chain management, quality assurance regimes, transport and handling
technologies and post harvest and production technologies.

Depending on ethnicity and religion, and the targeted resources, diverse of craft-gear
combinations are used by fishers. Given the open access nature of marine fisheries,
access to technology determines fish workers access to a particular resource.
According to the size of capital investment and the area of operation types of the craft
will vary.

The common indigenous crafts exploiting coastal fish resources of Sri Lanka are beach
seine craft, the log raft and the outrigger canoe. Fishing techniques commonly
employed by these craft are small meshed gill netting and cast netting. Those who use
the above craft-gear combinations are called artisanal fishermen and the technology
used by them are considered eco-friendly and sustainable.

The mechanized fleet consists of mechanized traditional craft fitted with outboard
engines, the 17-23 feet fiber reinforced plastic boat with outboard motor, the 28-32
TECHNOLOGY PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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feet day boat with inboard engine and the multi-day boat with crew cabin, ice and fuel
holds and equipped with communication and navigation equipment. Gill netting and
trawling are the most common fishing techniques employed by the small mechanized
craft. Recently, a ring seine has become quite popular among the coastal fishermen
who use craft with outboard motors.

The day boat with inboard engine was introduced into the offshore fishery in late
1950s and became quite popular due to its ability to exploit fish resources that remain
under utilized until then. It operates in offshore waters employing techniques such as
large meshed gill netting, long lining, single hook and multi hook trolling, and purse
seine. However, this boat is not equipped with facilities to ice the fish catch and,
therefore, the fishers are forced to confine their fishing activities to one day fishing
trips. Some fishermen have modified this craft by inserting an ice hold which fishers
engage in fishing trips of 4-5 days.

Boat type Number Number
Inboard multi-day 2,934
Inboard one-day 958
Out board FRP 17,193
Non-motorized traditional 18,243
Motorized traditional 2,126
Inland crafts 6,820
Total 48,274

Today, the offshore and deep sea resources are being exploited both by Sri Lankan
fishermen using day boats with inboard engines and multi-day boats and by foreign
fishing vessels permitted to land fish in Sri Lankan harbors.
Deep sea fishing is of fairly recent origin in Sri Lanka. In fact, exploitation of deep sea
resources commenced in late 1980s with the introduction of the multi-day boat which
was large in length and equipped with ice hold, fuel and water tanks, and cabin for the
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crew. Some of these crafts operated today are 45-50 feet in length and are powered
by >50HP engines. These boats are generally equipped with radio communication
equipment and satellite navigators. Large meshed gill netting and long lining are the
common techniques of fishing employed by these crafts.

Fish production
Marine fish production of Sri Lanka is dominated by coastal fish production. Fisheries
statistics of the last four years demonstrates that the contribution from coastal
fisheries is always exceeding the deep sea/ off shore production.


Vessel Monitoring System(VMS)
Under the fisheries sector development strategy, a modern and technically improved
Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) will be established in order to curtail IUU fishing,
disseminate warnings; communicate during distress situation and to provide
information on fishing grounds to the fisher folk.

One of the main objectives of the Vessel Monitoring System is to enhance the
sustainability of fisheries sector by introducing the latest available technology.
Accordingly it is required to install "transponder" equipment to each multiday vessel,
operated under satellite technology which allows the monitoring center to observe the
location of that particular vessel. Advantages of vessel monitoring system as follows:
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o Prevention of Illegal fishing. (poaching)
o Drifting of the vessels beyond Sri Lankan Exclusive Economic Zones can be
prevented due of the availability of the data related to the locations, speed and
direction.
o Fishing ground can be identified.
o Accident in the deep sea, warning on weather conditions can be brought to the
notice of the fishermen. The building and other office facilities requirement for the
formation of the system is almost completed.















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STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY Page 50


Sri Lanka is officially a Democratic Socialist Republic having achieved independence in
1948. The countrys population consists of 16 million. Sri Lanka's Per Capita GDP is
presently US$1200 - the highest in South Asia and the literacy rate is 92 percent - the
highest in South Asia and second highest in Asia. According to the Economic
Intelligence Unit (EIU) Forecast 1998,
Sri Lanka's Business Environment ranks 11th in the region, and 42nd in the world,
ahead of India, China, Indonesia, Vietnam and Pakistan.

Fish trade and processing: Fish consumption is 16 kg / capita, with tunas and small
pelagic fish being the main species consumed. Fresh water species (carps and tilapia)
are consumed in inland locations. The Sri Lankan fish distribution system is reasonably
strong with marine fish sold in inland markets. Sri Lanka has 27 fish processing plants,
of which 22 are EU accredited including 3 shrimp processing factories. These factories
focus almost entirely on exports.


Table- Estimated per capita fish supply


ECONOMICAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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fishery products. In 2009 per capita fish supply was 11.4 kg. It is intended to increase
up to 21.9 kg which would be the consumption level recommended by MRI and to be
achieved by at the end of the proposed period while maintaining a rate of 5 percent
fish exports from the total production. In addition it is envisage to gradual reduction of
import of wet fish and thereby saving valuable foreign exchange. As per the proposed
strategy the estimated per capita fish supply during the planned period is given below.
According to the estimated figures, it is expected to achieve the recommended target
of 21.9 kg by 2013. The action program formulated in consistent with this plan will be
expected to achieve 20 percent annual rate of growth production.















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STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY Page 52


Environmental issues in fish processing industries primarily include the following:
Water consumption and wastewater generation, Solid waste generation and by-
products production, Emission to air and energy consumption.

Most seafood processors have a high baseline water use for cleaning plant and
equipment. Therefore, water use per unit product decreases rapidly as production
volume increases. Major sources of water consumption include: fish storage and
transport; cleaning, freezing and thawing; preparation of brines; equipment sprays;
offal transport;
cooling water;
steam
generation; and
equipment and
floor cleaning.
Water
consumption in
fish processing
operations has
traditionally been high to achieve effective sanitation. Several factors affect water use,
including: the type of product processed, the scale of the operation, the process used,
and the level of water minimization practices in place (Environment Canada, 1994a).
General cleaning contributes significantly to total water demand so smaller-scale sites
tend to have significantly higher water use per unit of production.

Seafood processing industries consumes large quantities of electrical energy. Most of
the power is used for magnetic induction equipment, such as electric motors
(compressors for freezers, cold stores, ice-making machines, water pumps, etc.) and
lighting that requires magnetic ballasts, air conditioning.

ENVIRONMENT PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY Page 53


Sri Lankas political system comprises a directly elected Executive President, a Cabinet
of Ministers, 54 in number, a Legislature comprising a 196-member unicameral
Parliament having power to pass laws by simple majority and amend the Constitution
by two-thirds majority. Each representing a separate Ministry, and elections to
representative political institutions at all.

levels: National (Parliament), provincial (Provincial Councils) and local levels (Municipal
Councils, Urban Councils and Pradeshiya Sabha) are based on proportional
representation. The governance structure is therefore a three-tiered one.
The electoral system based on proportional representation has strengthened small
parties resulting in a series of coalition governments in recent times. This has resulted
in post-election bargaining in the formation of the Cabinet of Ministers seriously
affecting policy coherence that is a basic requirement for effective governance.

Sri Lanka moved to a devolved system of government in 1987 (the Thirteenth
Amendment to the Constitution) establishing a new sub-national tier of government at
the provincial level (intended to give Tamil people in the North and East a greater say
in the management of their affairs at the regional level). Eight Provincial Councils were
established in 1988, with the Northern and Eastern Provinces being temporarily
merged, the merger being recently nullified by a Supreme Court decision.






POLITICAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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Sri Lankas legal system is a mixture of several different laws. While being principally
governed by Acts of Parliament, a substantial element of common law, i.e., rules and
principles not laid down by statute are recognized and enforced by the Courts. Each of
the different ethnic communities (Sinhalese, Muslims and Tamils) has their own laws
which apply mainly in respect of marriage and transfer and inheritance of property.
Acts of Parliament have introduced new rights and duties while also codifying existing
common law.

The countrys Constitution is the supreme law. In terms of the Constitution legislative
power is exercised by Parliament and by the people at a referendum; executive power
is exercised by the President; and judicial power is exercised by Parliament through
Courts, Tribunals and Institutions created or recognized by the Constitution of by law.
Parliament can pass any law that is not inconsistent with the Constitution with a
simple majority, or where inconsistent with a two-thirds majority (including subjects
assigned to Provincial Councils). Any amendment to the Constitution also requires a
two-thirds majority and in specific cases being approved by a majority of voters at a
referendum. The Supreme Court determines as to whether a Bill requires a two-thirds
majority and/or a referendum. Any member of the public can petition the Supreme
Court for a ruling on any matter before the Bill becomes law. Usually the law making
process is set in motion with a decision by the Cabinet of Ministers approving the
drafting of legislation for the specific purpose.

The Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act, No. 2 of 1996, is the principal legal
instrument governing the fishing industry of Sri Lanka.
This Act replaced the Fisheries Ordinance of 1940 and all the amendments to it, and
provides for the management, regulation, conservation and development of fisheries
and aquatic resources in the country.

LEGAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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Under this Act, 23 Regulations have so far been introduced, notably:
Lobster Fisheries Management Regulations, 2000.
Purse-seine Net Fishery Regulations.1995.
Chank Fisheries Management and Export Regulations, 2001.
Beach Seine Regulations, 1984
Export and Import of Live Fish Regulations, 1998.

Management applied to main fisheries
Current fisheries management and administration has developed from the initial
creation of a Department of Fisheries in 1940, under the Fisheries Ordinance
promulgated that year. However, it proved inadequate to address the issues in the
comparatively more complex fisheries industry that had developed by the late 1970s,
and new legislation was introduced: the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act, No. 2 of
1996.
The main objectives of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act are the management,
conservation, regulation and development of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Sri
Lanka.
Under Sections 31 and 32 of the Act, fisheries management areas and fisheries
management authorities have been introduced to manage the fisheries resources of
the country. By 2004, seven management areas had been declared under the Act for
the management of fisheries resources through community participation.
In addition to the declaration of management areas and management authorities,
resource conservation and regulatory functions were also identified and regulations
introduced. Areas addressed included the following:
Registration of fishing craft Section 15 & 16 of the Act and Regulations imposed by
Gazette No. 109 dated 03.10.1980, No. 1055/13 dated 26.11.1998, and No. 948/24
dated 07.11.1996.
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Fishing operation licences Sections 614 of the Act and Regulation 948/25 dated
07.11.1996. Prohibition of destructive fishing practices and dynamiting of fish Sections
2729 of the Act.
Prohibition or Regulation of export and import of fish Section 30 of the Act.
Declaration of closed and open seasons for fishing Section 34 of the Act.
Declaration of fishing reserves Sections 3637 of the Act.
Aquaculture management licenses Sections 3943 of the Act.

Important Regulations
Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act Number 2- 1996
Amendments
August -2006 | Part-1
August -2006 | Part-2
January -2004 | Part-1
January -2004 | Part-2
February -2000
Fishing operation regulations -1996
Mono-filament net Prohibition Regulation 2006
Lobster fishing operation regulations 2009
Local Fishing Boats (life Jackets) Regulation-2008
Fishing import and Export Regulation 2010
Prohibition of Catching Tresher Shark Regulation (Kasa Mora) -2012







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The ethnic conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE has had a
serious impact on the development on the nations fishery sector. Sector growth in
seven Northern and Eastern Districts has been stifled since 1983. These Districts
collectively accounted for 56 percent of marine supplies in the mid 1980s. Damaged
infrastructure (particularly the availability of ice) fisher migration away from these
areas, access restrictions and the resulting shortage in supplies has resulted in much of
the fish being dried and sold locally. In some cases, and specifically in Trincomalee and
the high security zones off Jafna, the security constraints imposed on fishers
(restricted operating times and distances) are severely affecting fisher income
prompting migration, or diversification to alternative livelihoods. Fishers in these
regions have become increasingly indebted to money lenders.

The conflict has also prevented exploitation of the inland reservoirs. Many of the
Governments regional research and development establishments (NARA and NAQDA)
are now in a serious state of disrepair and in some cases, requisitioned by the Military.










ETHICAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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Availability of seasonal labour, existence of a local market for seconds and an urban
market for export quality product.
VALUE CHAIN: Creating value chain for fish and fishery products






From
Low yields
Production scattered
over many small scale
fishermen, farms
Outdated harvesting
technologies
Inadequate
information and
market ignorance on
prices, trends and
customer needs

Inadequate post-
harvesting facilities
(ice, cold storage
and cooler wagons)
Traditional, agent-
driven, inefficient
procurement
system
Extremely poor
transportation
(roads, harbors,
auction halls,
market places and
logistics)
Infrastructure (lack
Produce inconsistent
inequality
Outdated,
inadequate
distribution of
infrastructure
Limited organized
fresh produce
retailing
High degree of
wastage
Exports constrained
by inadequate cold
storage
infrastructure and
DEMOGRAPHICAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
Production
(From: Farm
or water
bodies)

Distribution
(Transporta
tion and
logistics)
Marketing
(To: Final
consumer)
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STEEPLED ANALYSIS: SRI LANKA FISHING INDUSTRY Page 59
of ice production,
very limited cold
storage facilities)
High degree of
wastage (poor
handling and
grading)

high costs


To


Significantly higher
yields
Stronger linkages
with the market
High awareness
levels on price
trends and customer
needs
Use of modern
technology,
leveraging significant
extension work



Improved post-
harvesting
technologies
available to most
fishers and
processors
Efficient
procurement
system with few
middlemen
Reduced wastage
due to better
road/rail and
refrigeration
infrastructure



Widespread organized
fish retailing,
demanding higher
quality produce
Upgraded distribution
infrastructure; cold
storages at wholesale
man (local markets)
Exports facilitated
through provision of
adequate cold
storage/pre-cooling
infrastructure at
ports/airports

LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA




The fisheries sector assumes significance in the Indian economy in several respects.
Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important sector of food production, providing
nutritional security to the food basket, contributing to the agricultural exports and
engaging about fourteen million people in different activities. With diverse resourc
ranging from deep seas to lakes in the mountains and more than 10% of the global
biodiversity in terms of fish and shellfish species, the country has shown continuous
and sustained increments in fish production since independence. Constituting about
4.4% of the global fish production, the sector contributes to 1.1% of the GDP and 4.7%
of the agricultural GDP. The total fish production of 6.57 million metric tonnes
presently has nearly 55% contribution from the inland sector and nearly the same
from culture fisheries. Paradigm shifts in terms of increasing contributions from inland
sector and further from aquaculture are significations over the years. With high
growth rates, the different facets of marine fisheries, coastal aquaculture, inland
fisheries, freshwater aquaculture, coldwater fisheries to food, health, economy,
exports, employment and tourism of the country.
The most important amongst them is the providence of livelihood to many poor
households especially located in the coastal areas. These hous
income from the sector due to the fact that many varieties of marine fishes have been
exported from the country including chilled and dried items, fish oil, shrimp and
prawns. Thus from the point of view of employment and income generat
international trade has considerable significance as well. It is the trade aspect of the
LOBAL /COUNTRY STUDY REPORT ON SRI LANKA
The fisheries sector assumes significance in the Indian economy in several respects.
Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important sector of food production, providing
nutritional security to the food basket, contributing to the agricultural exports and
engaging about fourteen million people in different activities. With diverse resourc
ranging from deep seas to lakes in the mountains and more than 10% of the global
biodiversity in terms of fish and shellfish species, the country has shown continuous
and sustained increments in fish production since independence. Constituting about
% of the global fish production, the sector contributes to 1.1% of the GDP and 4.7%
of the agricultural GDP. The total fish production of 6.57 million metric tonnes
presently has nearly 55% contribution from the inland sector and nearly the same
re fisheries. Paradigm shifts in terms of increasing contributions from inland
sector and further from aquaculture are significations over the years. With high
growth rates, the different facets of marine fisheries, coastal aquaculture, inland
reshwater aquaculture, coldwater fisheries to food, health, economy,
exports, employment and tourism of the country.
The most important amongst them is the providence of livelihood to many poor
households especially located in the coastal areas. These households can generate
income from the sector due to the fact that many varieties of marine fishes have been
exported from the country including chilled and dried items, fish oil, shrimp and
prawns. Thus from the point of view of employment and income generat
international trade has considerable significance as well. It is the trade aspect of the
INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY
Page 60

The fisheries sector assumes significance in the Indian economy in several respects.
Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important sector of food production, providing
nutritional security to the food basket, contributing to the agricultural exports and
engaging about fourteen million people in different activities. With diverse resources
ranging from deep seas to lakes in the mountains and more than 10% of the global
biodiversity in terms of fish and shellfish species, the country has shown continuous
and sustained increments in fish production since independence. Constituting about
% of the global fish production, the sector contributes to 1.1% of the GDP and 4.7%
of the agricultural GDP. The total fish production of 6.57 million metric tonnes
presently has nearly 55% contribution from the inland sector and nearly the same
re fisheries. Paradigm shifts in terms of increasing contributions from inland
sector and further from aquaculture are significations over the years. With high
growth rates, the different facets of marine fisheries, coastal aquaculture, inland
reshwater aquaculture, coldwater fisheries to food, health, economy,
The most important amongst them is the providence of livelihood to many poor
eholds can generate
income from the sector due to the fact that many varieties of marine fishes have been
exported from the country including chilled and dried items, fish oil, shrimp and
prawns. Thus from the point of view of employment and income generation,
international trade has considerable significance as well. It is the trade aspect of the
INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY INDIA FISHING INDUSTRY
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Page 61
sector that would be the focus of the current paper. Including India, indeed in many
developing countries prosperity of the fisheries sector relies largely on the
international trade. The total volume of world export of fisheries products which was
U S $ 64 billion in 2003, witnessed a 54% increase from the volume of export recorded
in 10 years back. Around half of the worlds exports of fish and fish products originates
from the developing countries.

This is higher than the combined exports of the important cash crops and rice from
these developing nations. In particular by considering India we observe that even
though Indias trade share in this sector is only 2.64% in 200607 to the total global
trade (with total global trade amounting to about US$ 70 billion1), in rupee terms it
constitute a non trivial amount of Rs 83630 million. Also an increasing trend being
prominent shows further relevance of trade for the sector.

Fish production in India

Fish production in India (1950-2010)

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The country has 429 Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDAs) and 39
Brackishwater Fish Farms Development Agencies (BFDAs) for promoting freshwater
and coastal aquaculture. The annual carp seed production is to the tune of 20 billion
and that of shrimp about 8 billion, with increasing diversification in the recent past.
Along with food fish culture, ornamental fish culture and high value fish farming are
gaining importance in the recent past. With over 2.4 lakh fishing crafts operating in the
coast, six major fishing harbours, 40 minor fishing harbours and 151 landing centres
are functioning to cater to the needs of over 3.5 million fisherfolk.

Resources
Coastline 8129 kms
Exclusive Economic Zone 2.02 million sq. km
Continental Shelf 0.506 million sq. km
Rivers and Canals 1,97,024 km
Reservoirs 3.15 million ha
Ponds and Tanks 2.35 million ha
Oxbow lakes and derelict waters 1.3 million ha
Brackishwaters 1.24 million ha
Estuaries 0.29 million ha

Some Facts
Present fish Production 6.4 mmt
Inland 3.4 mmt
Marine 3.0 mmt
Potential fish production 8.4 mmt
Fish seed production 21,000 million fry
Hatcheries 1,070
FFDA 422
BFDA 39






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Fishing is a diverse industry in India. The table below presents the top ten fish
harvesting states in India, for the 2007-2008 agriculture year.
Leading fish producing states in India, 20072008
Rank State Total production (metric tonnes)
1 West Bengal 1,447,260
2 Andhra Pradesh 1,010,830
3 Gujarat 721,910
4 Kerala 667,330
5 Tamil Nadu 559,360
6 Maharashtra 556,450
7 Orissa 349,480
8 Uttar Pradesh 325,950
9 Bihar 319,100
10 Karnataka 297,690
Between 2000 and 2010, the freshwater prawn farming in India has grown rapidly. The
state of Andhra Pradesh dominates the sector with over 86 percent of the total
production in India with approximately 60 percent of the total water area dedicated to
prawn farming, followed by West Bengal. Mixed farming of freshwater prawn along
with carp is also very much accepted as a technologically sound culture practice and a
viable option for enhancing farm income. Thirty five freshwater prawn hatcheries, at
present producing about 200 million seed per annum, cater for the requirements of
the country.




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The coastal communities in India follow multiple fishing and non-fishing activities and
most of their income is generated from open access/common property resources. The
coastal poor are not confined to any one sector and change occupations as and when
necessary. Most coastal people in rural areas also work as seasonal labourers in
agriculture or as part-time farmers or occasional wage earners in order to supplement
their family incomes. Working as labour in tourism, industries, ports, mining and other
industries is a relatively new occupation and it is mostly confined to specific areas from
where these industries have come up. As pointed out by many authors, the
employment generation potential of many of these industries is often much less than
the livelihoods that are adversely affected by them. The issue of some of the social and
environmental costs of economic reforms and growth has received considerable
attention from the policy makers and researchers. Many studies have shown that
during the process of liberalization and structural adjustments the vulnerable groups
suffer more than the others. There are ample evidences to believe that the common
pool resources of coastal regions, which provide substantial part of the income of the
coastal poor communities is declining and degraded.

The industrialization on the one hand and developmental projects on the other such
as ports, tourism, aquaculture have led to decline of coastal biodiversity and thereby
deprived the poor people of the common benefits which they used to get from such
resources otherwise. According to Central Water Commission (1996) 16,935 hectares
of fertile land was lost and 51,105 people have been displaced in three coastal districts
of Karnataka. The CRZ notification relating to coastal protection explicitly states that
all estuaries, fish-breeding centres, mangroves etc. are to be declared CRZ-I areas. The
coastal zone management plans are yet to be considered as an approved document by
the state authorities.

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The decline of traditional community management institutions and the absence of a
strong legal framework are some of the other reasons, which made the poor
stakeholders more vulnerable.




















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Technology, innovation and Research and Development (R&D) are widely recognized
as the most important factors in eradication of poverty which is the prime objective of
economic growth and development in any developing country. It has been
documented that long-term poverty eradication programs and strategies should be
designed by incorporating the technology, innovation and R&D aspects. Many
developed countries had achieved their economic growth, development and industry
competitiveness by paying due attention to technology, innovation and R&D aspects
while formulating development strategies.

The inland fisheries in India include both capture and culture fisheries. Capture
fisheries have been the major source of inland fish production till mid eighties. But, the
fish production from natural waters like rivers, lakes, canals, etc., followed a declining
trend, primarily due to proliferation of water control structures, indiscriminate fishing
and habitat degradation (Katiha 2000). The depleting resources, energy crisis and
resultant high cost of fishing, etc., have led to an increased realization of the potential
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Page 67
and versatility of aquaculture as a viable and cost effective alternative to capture
fisheries.

During past one and half decade, the inland aquaculture production has increased
from 0.51 to 2.38 million tonnes, while for inland capture fisheries the same has
declined from over 0.59 to 0.40 million tone. The percentage share of aquaculture has
also increased sharply from 46.36 to 85.65 per cent. It is primarily because of
tremendous 4.5 fold increase in freshwater aquaculture. Its share in total inland fish
production has also increased from 27.95 percent to 66.4 per cent (Anonymous
1996a,b; Anonymous 2000). Still, it has greater scope for enhancing fish production.

In India, aquaculture witnessed an impressive transformation from highly traditional
activity to well developed industry. With rich resource base both in terms of water
bodies and fish species, the investments in this sector are the recent estimates of
freshwater aquacultural production around 2.0 million tonnes contributed over one
third of total fish production of India. This outcome is primarily propelled by the
appropriate technologies, financial investments and entrepreneurial enthusiasm. The
success stories of intensive fish culture started from Kolleru lake basin in Andhra
Pradesh in mid-eighties and virtually replicated in states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh and so on.

Aquaculture: (Freshwater, Brackishwater, Mariculture & Coldwater)
Developing sustainable technologies for mariculture, open sea culture.
Diversification in aquaculture by bringing more potential fin/ shellfish species
and varied culture systems in fresh and brackishwater farming.
Breeding and culture of high value fin-fish and shell-fishes.
Organic aqua-farming
Fish health management, immuno-prophylaxis and therapeutic against
common diseases.
Ornamental fish breeding and farming
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Up-scaling of breeding and culture technologies for potential coldwater fish
species.
Technology development for aquaculture inland saline water areas.
Up-scaling pen and cage culture technology in reservoirs and wetlands.
Fish nutrition, feed development and technology for live feed organisms.
Water budgeting in inland aquaculture
Development of water re-circulating units for different aquaculture systems.
Genetic improvement in existing finfish and shellfish species for growth and
disease resistance.
Fish Genetics & Biotechnology:
Cataloguing fish germplasm resources for developing biodiversity repository.
Developing technologies for post-mortem sperm preservation and genome
conservation.
Exotics and quarantine, import risk analysis and disease diagnostics
Genotyping of fish and shellfishes and allied taxonomic groups across different
ecosystems.
Genetic cataloguing of microbes
Cytogenetics and genotoxicity studies in fish and shellfish.
Developing standards and certification norms for primary fish produce and
products.
Harvest & Post- harvest:
Design of new generation (fuel efficient) fishing vessels and gears.
Eco-friendly and responsible fishing techniques for EEZ.
Energy conservation in fish harvesting, processing and transportation.
Technologies for utilization of fish by-catch
Develop eco-friendly fishing techniques for harnessing sustainable fishery from
the rivers and reservoirs.
Processing, value addition, packaging and marketing of fishery products.
Minimize post harvest losses and effective utilization of fishing waste.
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Extraction of Bioactive substances of pharmacological importance.
Protocols for sanitation, hygiene and quality control
Quality management and food security
Fishery Engineering:
Development of on board and on shore equipment for fishing and fish
processing.
Bioinformatics and IT based solutions to fisheries harvest and post harvest
issues.
Development of techniques to control seepage in ponds for aquaculture.
Develop techniques for fish farm construction in porous and loose soils.














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Fishing in India contributed over 1 percent of India's annual gross domestic product in
2008.
Catch fishing in India employs about 14.5 million people. The country's rich marine and
inland water resources, fisheries and aquaculture offer an attractive and promising
sector for employment, livelihood, and food security. Fish products from India are well
received by almost half of world's countries, creating export-driven employment
opportunities in India and greater food security for the world. During the past decades
the Indian fisheries and aquaculture has witnessed improvements in craft, tackle and
farming methods. Creation of required harvest and post-harvest infrastructure has
been receiving due attention of the central and state governments. All this has been
inducing a steady growth.

To harvest the economic benefits from fishing, India is adopting exclusive economic
zone, stretching 200 nautical miles (370 km) into the Indian Ocean, encompasses more
than 2 million square kilometers. In the mid-1980s, only about 33 percent of that area
was being exploited. The potential annual catch from the area has been estimated at
4.5 million tons. In addition to this marine zone, India has about 14,000 km of
brackish water available for aquaculture, of which only 600 km were being farmed in
the early 1990s; about 16,000 km of freshwater lakes, ponds, and swamps; and nearly
64,000 kilometers of rivers and streams.
In 1990, there were 1.7 million full-time fishermen, 1.3 million part-time fishermen,
and 2.3 million occasional fishermen, many of whom worked as saltmakers, ferrymen,
or seamen, or operated boats for hire. In the early 1990s, the fishing fleet consisted of
180,000 traditional craft powered by sails or oars, 26,000 motorized traditional craft,
and some 34,000 mechanized boats.


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Growth of Fisheries Sector in India
Fisheries sector plays an important role in the Indian economy. It contributes to
the national income, exports, food and nutritional security and in employment
generation. This sector is also a principal source of livelihood for a large section of
economically underprivileged population of the country, especially in the coastal
areas. Share of agriculture and allied activities in the GDP is constantly declining. It has
been observed that agriculture sector is gradually diversifying towards high value
enterprises including fisheries. It is evident from the contribution of fisheries sector to
the GDP, which has gone up from 0.46 per cent in 1950-51 to 1.16 per cent in 1999-00
(at current prices). The share of fisheries in Agricultural GDP (Ag.GDP) has increased
more impressively during this period from mere 0.84 per cent to 4.19 per cent. This is
largely due to a sustained annual growth rate of well over four per cent in the fisheries
GDP during the last five decades. The fisheries sector has recorded faster growth as
compared to the agricultural sector in all the decades. The growing production of fish
suggests that fisheries sector is booming and contributing to the economic growth of
the nation. More than 6 million fishermen and fish farmers are totally dependent on
fisheries for their livelihood in India.






Indian Fisheries
Global position 3rd in Fisheries 2nd in Aquaculture
Contribution of Fisheries to GDP (%) 1.07
Contribution to Agril. GDP (%) 5.30
Per capita fish availability (Kg.) 9.0
Annual Export earnings (Rs. In Crore) 7,200
Employment in sector (million) 14.0
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The total area of EEZ of India is estimated at 2.02 million sq. km against its land area of
about 3.2 million sq. km. The continental shelf area between 0 and 50 m depth is
estimated at 191.97 thousand sq. km and that between 0 and 200 m depth as 452.06
thousand sq. km. There are general top hydrographical differences in the features of
the coastline and adjacent seas, distribution and abundance pattern of the species and
their fishery characteristics along the west and east coasts. The primary and secondary
productivities are higher on the west coast compared to the east coast, mainly due to
the strong upwelling process, which therefore supports a more abundant fishery. The
northwest coast (15o-23oN latitude) has extensive
fishing grounds and the sea bottom is generally muddy while the southwest coast (8o-
15oN latitude) has a narrow continental shelf with less extensive fishing grounds. The
southeast coast (10o-15o N latitude) is characterized by coral and rocky grounds while
the sea bottom of the northeast coast (15o-21oN latitude) is predominantly muddy
and suitable for bottom trawling.

The northern Indian Ocean, together with its two major bays, the Arabian Sea and the
Bay of Bengal, is landlocked in the north by the Asian continent which separates the
northern Indian Ocean from the deep-reaching vertical convection areas of the Arctic
seas and the cold climate regions of the northern hemisphere. This geographic
separation is a major factor, which determines the oceanographic conditions of the
northern Indian Ocean. Circulation of waters in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal is
influenced by the pattern of winds associated with the summer and winter monsoons
and comprise the monsoon current, the equatorial current and the equatorial counter
current (Varadachari and Sharma 1967; Pillai et al. 1997). The monsoon current which
is westerly during the northeast monsoon period (October-December) and easterly
during the southwest monsoon season (May-October) has significant impact on the
coastal fisheries. Average salinity value ranges between 34 and 37% in Arabian Sea and
30-34% in the Bay of Bengal. Both sea and land breezes are common in this area
ENVIRONMENT PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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except during the southwest monsoon (along the west coast) and the northeast
monsoon season (along the east coast).

Exclusive economic zone of India


In the Arabian Sea, temperature ranges between 23 and 29C and in the Bay of Bengal,
it is 27 to 29C. With regards to vertical distribution of temperature in the Bay of
Bengal, the thermocline is usually below 50-55 m, occasionally going down to 100-125
m, while in the Arabian sea, it fluctuates a great deal, showing definite seasonal trends
(Rao1973).






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The Central government policy on fisheries in India is informed by two key policy
documents; the Five Year Plans developed by the Planning Commission and the CMFP
2004 developed by the Ministry of Agriculture. As noted above, the former defines the
fiscal contributions that the Union Government makes to fisheries each year. The Five
Year Plan is not however silent on policy as it also sets out strategies and objectives
and defines various schemes on which these funds are to be spent. In addition to this,
the CMFP 2004 was developed as a guiding document to inform the Union and state
governments more generally on policy development for the conservation,
management and sustainable utilization of Indias fisheries resources.

The Fisheries policy at the state / union territory level ranges from an absence of any
guiding policy, in the case of Gujarat, to the development of a relatively
comprehensive policy in the state of Orissa which was developed in partnership with
the Union Government and the support of international aid agencies. From the outset
in 1951, the Five Year Plans have included specific reference to fisheries which is a
reflection of their perceived economic and social importance to India. Until the advent
of the 2004 CFMP, the Five Year Plans were the only policy framework for fisheries in
India.

All ten of the Five Year Plans established so far have focused fisheries policy on
increasing fish production through technological and infrastructure development
(mechanization, building new port and landing facilities, etc), aquaculture
development, and through the expansion of fishing into relatively under-utilized
offshore fisheries. The Tenth Five Year Plan began in 2002 and expired in 2007.

This Plan did recognize that the marine fisheries in India were facing increasing
sustainability problems and emphasized the need for a greater focus on sustainability
measures, particularly in stressed inshore fisheries. The schemes funded through the
Tenth Plan nonetheless still targeted fisheries development with the aim of increasing
POLITICAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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fish production from an estimated 6.12 million tonnes (in 2000-01) to a target of 8.19
million tonnes by 2007. Most of this increase was expected to come from inland
fisheries and aquaculture production but some increased marine harvests were also
envisaged through exploitation of ostensibly un-fished offshore resources. The Tenth
Plan continued to focus government expenditure in fisheries on technological and
infrastructure development. The Eleventh Five Year Plan is currently midway through
implementation.

The aspects of this Plan that relate to fisheries are being informed by a specially
appointed Working Group of 52 members, largely consisting of officials from the
states, Union and international fisheries agencies.

The Working Group report proposes seven objectives for fisheries over the next five
years and identifies these objectives as current government policy. To implement
these objectives, the Working Group has recommended that various schemes detailed
in the last Five Year Plan are continued. They have also recommended several new
schemes targeted largely at fisheries development; principally aquaculture
development, deep-sea vessel construction, mariculture and value addition activities.

A central government budget of Rs. 4,013 crores (US$ 1.0 billion) is proposed, which is
a significant increase over the previous Five Year Plan budget for fisheries of Rs. 2,497
crores (US$ 640.5 million). A large part of this increased expenditure has accompanied
the operations of the newly established National Fisheries Development Board (Rs.
2,069 crores). As in the past years, some of these centrally sponsored schemes are
designed specifically to support the state activities and are expected to be co-financed
by the states.






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India has three levels of government. The central government, or the Union, operates
as a parliamentary democracy with a bicameral legislature. Below the Union there are
28 states and seven Union Territory governments (for example Puducherry). Members
of Parliament are directly elected to the lower house of the Union Government and to
the state /union territory legislatures. Members of the upper house, known as the
Council of States, are elected through state electoral colleges.

In addition there are 3,682 municipal entities and nearly 250,000 local bodies. Policy-
making across Union and state / territorial governments is consequently a complex,
demanding and often extended process.

Provisions within the Indian Constitution help guide the policy making process
between the states, union territories and the Union by defining the functions of the
various arms of the government.

Schedule VII of the Constitution contains lists setting out these mandates and areas
where concurrent powers exist. While the function of administering fishing and
fisheries beyond territorial waters is listed as a Union responsibility (which means that
the central government is competent to legislate on this item) fisheries generally is
listed as a State responsibility (which means that the state governments have the
exclusive power to make laws with respect to fisheries within their jurisdiction). Thus,
while the state has a jurisdiction over fisheries in territorial waters within 22 km (12
nautical miles), the central government regulates fishing and fisheries beyond 22 km.
Five major legal instruments of the central Government directly govern marine
fisheries activities:




LEGAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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The Indian Fisheries Act, 1897.
Marine Products Export Development Authority Act 1972 (No. 13 of 1972).
The Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of fishing by foreign vessels) Act, 1981 (No. 42
of 1981). The Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of fishing by foreign vessels) Rules,
1982.

The Operation of Deep Sea Fishing Vessels, 20m OAL and above, Notifications dated 14
December 2006. This legal framework is far from comprehensive; it contains a number
of gaps, is outdated in many areas, not fully consistent with Indias international
obligations, and focused on foreign access and development, with less emphasis on
fisheries management. At the same time however, the plethora of Acts makes it
difficult for a coordinated approach towards improved fisheries management.

In particular, the Wildlife Conservation Act is used by the implementing agency
(Ministry of Environment and Forests) to enforce bans on fishing for certain species
including sharks, sea cucumbers, etc. This authority can extend to a total ban on all
fishing in certain areas during breeding seasons for rare or endangered species (see
Box 14), leading to potential interdepartmental conflicts.

The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification of 1991 entered into force under the
Environment Protection Act, 1986, and was designed to protect coastal areas from
unregulated development for industry, tourism, and urban development. The
Notification recognized the customary rights of traditional coastal fishing communities
by restricting development for up to 200 meters from the high-tide level. A more
recent development has been the requirement of all states to prepare coastal zone
management plans. However, these are being developed as a new Notification and
could weaken the earlier protections given to coastal fishers from other forms of
development.




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Protecting democracy, good governance, freedom of expression and the fundamental
rights of the people and of keeping them informed about events that would have a
direct or indirect bearing on them, and that of their elected government, and
detecting or exposing crime, corruption, maladministration or a serious misdemeanor.

This code both protects the rights of the individual and upholds the publics right to
know. It should be honored not only to the letter but in the spirit neither interpreted
so narrowly as to compromise its commitment to respect the rights of the individual
nor so broadly as to prevent publication in the public interest.




















ETHICAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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Fishing communities in India are not homogenous, as they belong to different castes.
These communities have their distinct social, cultural governance structures and
traditional practices, depending on the coast, where they inhabit. Atleast 2-3 castes
are exclusively involved in marine fishing in each maritime State, and are not related
to the mainstream agrarian system.
The community institutions, (such as the caste panchayats, peddalu, padu system
etc.,)mostly organized along caste, kinship or religious lines, play an important role in
resolving conflicts, besides regulating and allocating resource use, ensuring equitable
access to resources and providing some form of social insurance. Most communities
have evolved their own management systems over time to regulate human interaction
with the resource especially when large number of people bank on a limited resource
to avoid conflicts. The evolution of traditional management system depended on the
resource and the environment in which the resource existed and the interactions
between people to extract these resources (Kurien, 1998).
Besides the traditional caste-based organization of fishing communities, they are also
organized into various sectors such as the mechanized sector boat owner
associations, trade unions, cooperatives (both State-run and private), associations
based on gear type, self help groups, federations etc.
Some of the important fishing castes State-wise includes:
Tamil Nadu: Pattinavars, Mukkuvars, and Paravas
Andhra Pradesh: Vadabalijas, Jalaris, Pattapu, and Palles
Orissa: Jalaris, Vadabalijas, Kaibartas, Khandayats, and Rajbhansis.
West Bengal: Kaibartas
Gujarat: Kharvas, Kolis and Macchiyaras
Maharashtra: Kolis
Karnataka: Mogaveeras
DEMOGRAPHICAL PROFILE OF FISHING INDUSTRY
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Kerala: Mukkuvar, Anjootty, Dheevera, and Pooislan






























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Indias trading in fishing industry:

Indias trading partners are from across the world including USA, countries from EU
and Asia. In export the highest share however, is that of USA (above 20%), followed by
Japan, Belgium, China and UK. Many argue that India is largely dependent on
specificexport markets, which reduce the Indian exporters to the position of price
takers, andthey are unable to charge higher prices in spite of rising costs of fuel,
labour, maintenance andbasic necessities (Kulkarni, 2005).








TRADE RELATIONS

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To begin with Japan however had the highest share in Indias exports followed by USA.
Indias export to USA over the years increased substantially by about 3 folds to have
the top position. Amongst the exporters Norway has the lowest share.

As mentioned above India is a net fish exporting country and imports have not been
very important to the economy. Though there was a small surge in imports in the mid-
1990s (which accounted for a little under 1 percent of the net exports), this was mainly
to address the under-utilisation of processing factories in some states (notably in
Kerala), and when this did not work out to be viable, the share of imports slid back
once again. While Indias imports are much lower that exports highest share is that of
USA closely followed by Norway. There has been a significant jump in Indias import of
fishery items from Norway.




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If we look over the years Norway in fact started with no imports in 199798 and over
the years have been able to strengthen its position.














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Sri Lankas trading in fishing industry:



Sri Lankas main fishery export products include tuna, fresh chilled and frozen form,
shrimps & prawns, crabs and lobsters. Other than the above shark fins, fish maws,
beche-de-mer, cuttle fish & squid, sprats are also exports mostly to the Asian markets.
United Kingdom is the main market for Sri Lankan tuna followed by France, Italy,
Netherlands, Germany etc. In recent years Sri Lanka has been steadily increasing its
share in the international market. Annual exports of tuna increased from US$ Mn. 50
in 2000 to US$ Mn. 195.31 in 2011.
















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HS
Code
Product Definition
Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates
0304 Fish fillets and other fish meat
0303 Fish, frozen, excluding fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 03.04
0306 Crustaceans, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted
or in brine; crustaceans, in shell, cooked by steaming or by boiling in water,
whether or not chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine; flours, meals and
pellets of crustaceans, fit for human consumption.
0302 Fish, fresh or chilled, excluding fish fillets and other fish meat of heading
03.04.
0307 Molluscs, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in
brine; aquatic invertebrates other than crustaceans and molluscs, live, fresh,
chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine; flours, meals and pellets of aquatic
invertebrates other than crustaceans, fit for human consumption.
0305 Fish, dried, salted or in brine; smoked fish, whether or not cooked before or
during the smoking process; flours, meals and pellets of fish, fit for human
consumption.


HS No.
Total Exports in US$ Mn.
Main Destinations
(Top 10 importing markets)
2008 2009 2010 2011
0304 58.79 76.94 66.76 71.99 UK, Germany, Italy, France,
Netherlands, Japan, USA,
Denmark, Belgium, Ireland
0303 54.75 50.08 59.94 42.99 Netherlands, Italy, UK, France,
Switzerland, Germany, Denmark,
Taiwan, Japan Israel
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0306 19.72 26.03 31.14 36.36 Japan, USA, Singapore, Hong
Kong, Maldives, china, Canada,
Taiwan, UK, Korea South
0302 22.15 11.18 18.39 17.69 Japan, USA, Canada, Switzerland,
France, Italy, Netherlands,
Pakistan, Israel, Germany
0307 5.58 3.29 12.85 1.77 Hong Kong, Vietnam, Japan,
Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan,
Maldives, Canada, USA, Thailand
0305 3.63 3.07 3.09 4.46 Hong Kong, Australia, Kuwait,
Maldives, Korea South, UAE,
USA, Canada, Malaysia
Singapore
Total
Exports
164.62 170.59 192.17 175.26



Here, no trading of fishery product exists between India and Sri Lanka. India and Sri
Lanka both the countries are having trade relation with other countries like USA,
Hong Kong, Australia, Kuwait, Maldives, Korea South, UAE, Japan, Norway etc. No
trade relation between India and Sri Lanka in fishing industry because they are
neighbors and they have their own products and they have very large coverage area of
sea shore.

BUSINESS POTENTIALITY:
After observing the positive effects of trade India is currently making extensive efforts
to enhance the trade opportunities to improve it competitiveness in the world trade
scenario. Consequently, a comprehensive Foreign Trade Policy (20042009) has been
developed to improve the trading system. The objective of the new Foreign Trade
Policy is the overall development of Indias foreign trade.
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Two major objectives of the foreign trade policy 20042009 are (1) to double Indias
percentage share of global merchandise trade by 2009 and (2) to act as an effective
instrument of economic growth by giving a thrust to employment generation,
especially in semi-urban and rural areas. To enhance growth in trade, India is taking
various pro-active measures such as reduction of controls, bringing in transparency
and simplifications in bureaucratic procedures, and reducing duties. Special attention
is given to attract foreign direct investment. Sectors with significant export prospects
and potential for employment generation in semi-urban and rural areas have been
identified as thrust sectors, and specific sectoral strategies have been prepared.

In its effort to enhance export India also realizes the need to open up its economy for
imports. Thus unilaterally India has been relaxing several of her earlier import
restrictions.
Amongst various sectors opened up agriculture and animal husbandry sector is slow to
open up. This is mainly because still a large proportion of rural poor population (above
60%) depends on this sector. Prices of these essential commodities are also a major
concern. However, the scenario is changing even for these sectors if not as fast as the
manufacturing and services sectors. Concentrating on the fisheries sector we observe
from the above analysis that in India import of fish is still minimal. Currently Norway is
one of the major exporters to India and import from Norway as well as total imports in
fisheries sector is steadily rising from last 5 years or so. .
Since fishing is the occupation of a large number of poor households especially in the
coastal region, import is always considered as a threat to their livelihood. This
however, need not be always true. While a rapid growth may not take place
immediately, situation is expected to change over time. This can be also seen from our
field level experiences with the exporters associations and MPEDA officials who are
strongly in favour of certain imports. At 35 this hour therefore, it is necessary to
identify products, trade of which are not going to have detrimental effect on the
business of the poor fishermen. Collaboration in technology concerning
the fisheries sector can be an area of interest for both Norway and India. Similarly
equipments and peripherals for ornamental fish is another area. India in fact has a
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good demand for ornamental fish but due to strict restrictions, importers find
tremendous difficulty to import (as revealed by importers during our survey). This is
one area which during EU negotiation one may highlight.
With liberalization and opening up of the market, the economy is undergoing
significant changes. There is now a large group of population that can afford exotic
seafood and other marine items, which India does not produce. There is substantial
demand for these items from hotel industry as well. Processed semi-cooked product
market is also not yet developed fully in India. These are certain product groups that
may be explored initially. As our survey shows current knowledge of the consumers is
very limited. Thus information needs to be enhanced.
However, to reach a sizeable population, price has to be competitive as the purchasing
power of the mass is still not high in India. Thus, though trade in this sector is not
expected to increase manifolds in the near future, there are definite chances of new
opportunities of trade to come up.

Fishing opportunities in Sri Lanka:
Given the extensive ocean area and numerous fresh water and brackish water reserves
there is great potential for the development of game fishing sector in Sri Lanka. Inland
fishing can be carried out through-out the year owing to the constant smoothness of
the water in inland waterways and reservoirs. However deep sea fishing is dependent
on the monsoon, with western and southern coasts accessible during North- East
monsoon (from October to April) and the East Coast favored during the South West
monsoon (May to September). The seas around Sri Lanka hold an abundance of game
fish for the keen angler. Close to the coast Grouper, Snapper Emperor, Bonefish are
found. Deep in the seas game fish ranging from Barracuda, Barramundi, Skipjack tuna,
yellow fin tuna, blue fin tuna, sword fish and marlin, shark are found in abundance.
Although Sri Lankas hardly exploited seas holds an excellent opportunity of game
fishing, Sri Lanka is not a popular game fishing hot spot due to inadequate facilities
available for anglers. Ceylon Fisheries Harbors Corporation (CFHC) and few other
private game fishing tour operators are organizing game fishing expeditions for the
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anglers at the moment. There is a need and also opportunity for private sector
investment in popularizing Sri Lanka as a game fishing hot spot.

With a number of large, medium and minor irrigation reservoirs, seasonal village tanks
and flood lakes, upland reservoirs and Mahaweli river basins there is huge potential to
develop inland game fishing. Nevertheless at present only Nuwaraeliya has a
reputation for inland trout fishing. Apart from that Madhu Ganga and Bolgoda Lake
are ideal for inland game fishing, where some inland game fishing tour operators
arrange convenient tours for anglers. Madhu Ganga is famed as the Ceylon Anglers
Club holds their annual fishing competition. Game fish spotted in these fishing grounds
are Barramundi, Barracuda, Mangrove Jack, Bull eyed Mackeral etc. There is ample
opportunity for private sector to invest in game fishing sector, both marine and inland.
At present only a few operators are into the inland game fishing tour operating, and
the activities are concentrated to Madhu Ganga, Bolgoda Lake and a few other lakes
and rivers in Nuwaraeliya. Therefore private sector is urged to invest in game fishing
and popularizing Sri Lanka as a game fishing hot spot utilizing the inland water bodies
found in abundance.












i


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