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This course simplifies fitness training as much as possible to give you the information you need
to reach your fitness goals. Many of the elements in this course are more complex than the information
presented, but guide you the right direction if you wish to study each element more. fter completing
this course you should be able to design your own fitness program that will help you reach your fitness
goals using tools you already have, and understand what you will need to do to reach your goals.
This course is not professional medical advice, you should consult with your doctor before
beginning any workout routine or diet.
!ollowing suggestions in this course will get you the results you are looking.
This course is broken into seven basic elements
Proper "utrition
Proper #est
erobic Training
&trength Training
!lexibility Training
This course will explain each element and how to use it in your fitness routine.
t the back of this hand out you will find appendixes to help you better understand the material
This is the most important factor in the entire fitness program. Motivation must come from
within you. 'ou may be motivated by an outside force, but if an outside force is your only motivation
you won(t be able to sustain your program.
Motivation must come from within. Think about it this way)
*f someone tells you +you should lose some fat,, does it help you lose fat- "o. .nly you can
get out of bed in the morning, and go for a run. *f a personal trainer gives you a good workout then you
go and eat a box of cookies after the trainer told you to change your diet did the trainer that you paid do
you any good- "o. *f your workout routines says do /0 minutes of aerobic work on Monday and you
watch T1 instead did your workout routine do you any good- "o.
.nly you control what you eat and the movements of your body 2your workout3. The good news
is anybody can put together a fitness program they can stick to. *f what you have been doing is not
working for you you have to change what you are doing to get different results.
This section of the course gives you some ideas on how to stay motivated. The first four tabs
should be done anyway as part of a good fitness program, but they also help keep you motivated.
How to stay motivated
Plan out your workouts
4reak it down by 5uarter, month, week, workout
*f you have it preplanned it is much easier to do 2to do this many people
pay a trainer, but anybody can do this with basic knowledge this course covers3
Plan out your meals
Write a weekly meal plan
Write a grocery list and stick to it when you shop
#ecord your workouts
Write down what you actually do for your workout 2time, number of
sets6reps, resistance used3
Track your progress
*f you are able to see progress you are more likely to stick with your workout
Percent 4ody !at Measurement every 7 months
n electric body fat sampler it is easier than doing pinch samples
Take measurement at the same time of day to help reduce variation
&ize measurements every 7 months
.ther Measurements every 7 months
9ow many push$ups can you do
9ow far can you walk or run in :/ minutes
9ow many crunches can you do in / minutes
*f using weights what is your : rep max on s5uat and bench press
Muscle is more dense than fat,. If you gain muscle while losing fat you may
gain weight, but shrink in waist size.
;o Workouts you like
Make a +Workout Music Playlist, and listen to it while working out
Take a week off from working out every 7 months
8hange up your workouts a little after your time off
Treat yourself a little
.nce a week have a meal that you don(t worry about whats in it
;o your workouts first thing in the morning
;istractions are minimal at this time of day
The only person keeping you from working out at this time of day is you
9ave a loud alarm on the other side of the room from your bed
This forces you to get out of bed to turn off your alarm. .nce you are out
of bed it is much harder to fall back asleep.
Work out with a friend
#ead Motivational 4ooks6<isten to Motivational udio Tracks 28heesy but it works3
8ook large meals and refrigerate leftovers
=at leftovers for lunch
>eep leftovers for snacks
Take away:
Plan out what you are going to do, then actually do your plan.
#emember only you can change what you are doing whether it is health or unhealthy.
;o what works for you, but actually do your plan.
Proper nutrition is key to a good fitness program. 8ompare your body to a race car. 'ou would
put high 5uality fuel in the car. *f you put ?unk fuel in the tank the car won(t preform optimally. &ame
goes for your body if you put ?unk in your body how can you expect to preform at your best- With
proper nutrition you feel more alert, are mentally able to handle situations better, are less stressed, and
are all$around healthier. *f you are healthier you may have lower health care bills.
word about food. &ome nutrients are reduced when a food is packaged to increase its shelf
life. !oods that perish 5uickly usually have more nutrients than foods with a long self$life. Think
about it this way if the +food, can(t even support mold life how can it support your life.
word about fad diets. Most of the time they don(t work, and can cause physical harm to your
word about vegetarians and vegans. *f you choose not to eat animal proteins you should do
more research on the sub?ect of nutrition. There are some nutrients, such as vitamin 4$:/, that are only
found in animal sources. "ot eating animal meat re5uires an in$depth knowledge of nutrition and
should only be done by people who fully understand how to get all nutrients re5uired by the body.
This section breaks nutrition into basic categories)
8arbohydrates 28arbs3
Minerals and 1itamins
Meal Planning
Why its important)
'our body is mostly water.
Water is used in most bodily functions
9ow much water do you need
1aries on different factors such as)
8urrent health
Physical activity
!ood intake
t a minimum you should drink at least @ cups of non alcoholic or non caffeinated fluid
a day.
&ome drinks contain water and can be counted in your water uptake
2drink more if you sweat more, are more active or thirsty3
What calories are)
The amount to energy needed to raise : kg of water : degree 8elsius
*n food
: gram of fat A B calories
: gram of protein A C calories
: gram of carbohydrates A C calories
: gram of alcohol A D calories
Why calories are important)
They are the energy that your body runs on. The body need calories form three main
sources) 8arbohydrates, Proteins, and !ats. 'ou need a little of all three sources for your
body to function properly.
9ow many calories do you need)
1aries based on goals
To lose weight take in less than you burn
To gain weight take in more than you burn
8an be approximated by widely available calculations
Most people do not have time to count calories because
'ou have to count every calorie you eat
'ou have to figure how many calories you burn for every activity you do
There are some situation were counting calories may be necessary, but for most people
8.%"T*"E 8<.#*=& *& W&T= .! T*M=
!arbohydrates "!arbs#
8arbs are the easiest form of energy for the body to use and should be the base for any
meal. 8arbs are generally the cheapest form of energy, and are the body(s preferred form
of energy. 8arbs generally come form plant food sources. Without carbs the body has to
break down fats and proteins for energy, this could cause an dangerous and unhealthy
situation called ketosis.
Plants are made of sugars
&ugar is a carbohydrate
nything made form a plant think of as a carbohydrate
&oda has corn syrup in it 2*t is a carbohydrate3
2The exceptions to this is any nuts, oils, avocados, and olives think of these as
.ne serving is about DF$:F0 calories of carbohydrates or about) 2generalizations3
: cup of fruit
/ cups of above ground vegetables
: cup of underground vegetables
: sugary6alcoholic drink
/ slices of bread
G cup of beans
Proteins are the building blocks of the body(s cells. Proteins are used in the recovery of
muscle after a workout and are needed in a stead supply. Protein is harder for the body
to break down, this is one of the reasons you feel full longer after a meal higher in
protein. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Proteins have varying numbers of amino
acids. *f a protein has all amino$acids needed by the body it is a complete protein,
otherwise it is know as an incomplete protein. nimal proteins are usually much more
complete proteins than plant proteins.
ny lean animal product
!at$free cheese
<ean beef
&kinless chicken breast
<ean fish
.ne serving is about DF$:0F calories of protein or about)
7$C oz of fat free animal meat
: serving of protein powder 2some are : scoop others are / scoops3
: cup low fat cottage cheese
: =ggs is about G serving fat and H serving protein
The yolk is mostly fat in an egg the whites are protein
'olk is about G serving fat
Whites are about H serving protein
These have some protein but are usually not a complete protein
Most are better classified as a carbohydrate
&oy is the most complete vegetable protein, but most proteins are higher in meat
9as carbohydrates, protein, and fat 2if its not skim milk3
*s not only a protein
This is where whey protein comes from
!ats are used by the body to protect vital organs, maintain body temperature, maintain
proper cell function, and process some vitamins. These are ?ust a few of the roles fats
play in the body. There are some fats that can block blood vessels these fats are
saturated fats and trans fats. &aturated fats come form animal fats, coconut or palm
oils. Trans fats are manufactured usually used in margarine, fried foods, or shortening.
+9ealthy fats,, unsaturated fats, generally come form plant sources olive oil, avocados,
and nuts 2coconuts and palm oil are an exception3. These fats can help clean up blood
"uts 2have a small amount of protein too3
nimal fat
.ne serving is about :00$:/0 calories of fat or about)
: tbsp oil
H cup nuts
G avocado
Minerals and &itamins
There are many minerals and vitamins the body uses in small amounts to function properly. To
make things simple the more processed a food is the less likely it is to still have high levels of vitamins.
Most people don(t eat their #ecommended ;aily llowance 2#;3 of minerals and vitamins, and some
of the #;s are the minimum amount need to prevent disease not the amount need for optimum health.
*f you try and consume fresh fruits and vegetables it will help get you closer to the #;s, but you may
fall short on some. Most people benefit the most from taking a simple once a day multivitamin, but
consult with your doctor before taking an supplements. To much of certain minerals and vitamins
can be T'(I!.
Meal $lanning
=ating five small meals a day 2or at minimum eating snacks between meals3 rather than three
large meals can increase metabolism, help to stabilize blood sugar, reduce fatigue, decrease muscle
recover time, and help reduce overeating at a meal. *f you plan out meals ahead of time it will also
help you reduce the amount of ?unk food you eat. This section states a simple way to plan meals6snack.
Eet the following ratio at each meal
/$7 Parts 8arbohydrates
:$/ Parts Protein
: Part !at
*f you have C parts in your meal serving sizes should be :.F times larger than the following
guidelines. *f you have F parts in your meal serving sizes should be :./ times larger than the
following guidelines. *f you meal has I parts serving sizes should be based on the following
!or active males under F0 years of age
: Part e5uals about : serving
.lder men : part e5uals J of a serving
!or active females under F0 years of age
: Part e5uals about J of a serving
.lder women : part e5uals G of a serving
*t was stated earlier carbohydrates come mainly form plant sources, protein comes mainly from
lean animal sources, and 2healthier3 fat comes mainly form oils and nuts. nother simple way
to plan a meal6snack is)
/$7 Parts plants 2or derived from plants3
:$/ Parts lean animal meat
: Part nuts or oil 2or animal fat if it is in your protein3
*f you are still hungry eat more food but stick to the above ratios.
&top eating when you are full. 2This is one of the most important things you can do3
Pasta 28arbohydrate3
Pasta sauce 28arbohydrate and possibly a little !at3
4utter 2!at3
=xtra <ean Eround 4eef 2Protein and a little !at3
Tomatoes 28arbohydrate3
Whole Milk 28arbohydrate, Protein, and !at3
&kim Milk 28arbohydrate and Protein3
Parmesan 8heese 2Protein and !at3
pples 28arbohydrate3
8arrots 28arbohydrate3
Kerky 2Protein3
Wine 28arbohydrate3
.live oil 2!at3
&liced 4read 28arbohydrate3
#aw !rozen !ish 2Protein3
8anned Tuna in water 2Protein3
8arrots 28arbohydrate3
=ggs 2Protein and !at3
8ucumber 28arbohydrate3
8anned .lives 2!at and a little 8arbohydrate3
.range Kuice 28arbohydrate3
Peanut butter 2!at and a little Protein3
!at$!ree Mozzarella 8heese 2Protein3
Most &pices 21ery slight 8arbohydrate don(t count unless G cup or more is used3
Meal :
2: Part e5uals : serving3
C =gg Whites 2: Protein3
/ &lices of Toast 2: 8arbohydrate3
/ Tbsp of Peanut butter on Toast 2: !at3
: 8up 8ottage 8heese 2: Protein3
.n a half a 8antaloupe 2: 8arbohydrate3
: 8up .range Kuice 2: 8arbohydrate3
2: Part e5uals J of a serving3
7 =gg Whites 2: Protein3
/ &lice of toast 2:G 8arbohydrate3
:G Tbsp of Peanut$butter on Toast 2: !at3
J 8up !at !ree 8ottage 8heese 2: Protein3
.n half a 8antaloupe 2:G 8arbohydrate3
Meal /
2: Part e5uals : serving3
G 8up, prior to cooking, Pasta 2: 8arbohydrate3
8an of Tuna 7$Coz 2: Protein3
:G Tbsp .live oil 2: fat3
: 8up 8hopped 8ucumber 2G 8arbohydrate3
: 8up 8hopped Tomatoes 2G 8arbohydrate3
2: Part e5uals J serving3
76@ 8up, prior to cooking, Pasta 2: 8arbohydrate3
J 8an of Tuna 7$Coz 2: Protein3
: :6@ Tbsp .live oil 2: fat3
J 8up 8hopped 8ucumber 2G 8arbohydrate3
J 8up 8hopped Tomatoes 2G 8arbohydrate3
Meal 7
: Plain &ingle Patty !ast !ood 9amburger 2: 8arbohydrate, G Protein, : !at3
7 oz <ean 4eef Kerky 2"on Ereasy Pre$packaged &tyle3 2: Protein3
: 4eer 2: 8arbohydrate3
2*t is usually easy to get plenty of carbohydrates, and fat if you are eating out3
Meal C
: 8hicken <arge 4reast 2:$/ Protein depending on size3
: <arge salad 2:$/ 8arbohydrate depending on size3
.live .il based dressing 2: !at3
: Elass of Wine 2: 8arbohydrate3
Meal F
: Erilled <ean <oin Pork 8hop 2: Protein, G !at3
/ 8ups !at$!ree Milk 2: 8arbohydrate, /67 Protein3
: 8up 9omemade Mashed Potatoes 2 :.F 8arbohydrate3
: Tabs 4utter for Potatoes 2: !at3
Take )way:
;rink at least @ cups of water a day
=at F small meals a day 2or at a minimum smaller meals with snacks between them3
Plan out your meals
%se ratios when meal planning)
/$7 Parts carbohydrates6plants
:$/ Parts protein6lean animal meat
: Part nuts or oil 2or animal fat if it is in your protein3
void highly processed food as much as possible
de5uate rest is an important part of a proper fitness program. Working out stresses the body
and breaks the body down. #est is when the body recovers from the stress. ;uring the recovery the
body adapts to the stress and becomes slightly stronger than the stress. The rest period is really when
you become stronger not when you are working out. Without the stress your body becomes lazy and
This section will break rest into several categories sleep, and muscle recovery, and stress
This is the most basic rest everyone needs. We still do not understand exactly why we need
sleep. To little sleep can lead to weight gain. &ome people can function fine on D hours of sleep but
some people need at least B hours of sleep. =very person needs different amounts of sleep. *f you are
tired during the day try getting more sleep at night. To get the most out of your sleep try these tips)
9ave a regular sleeping pattern 2go to bed the same time and wake up the same time daily3
.nly sleep in your bed 2don(t read, work on the computer, eat, or watch T1 in bed3
Minimize light distractions
void caffeine or alcohol before bed
Muscle recovery
*est -etween orkouts
;uring a workout muscle are slightly damaged, after the workout they need time to heal. When
muscles heal they heal back stronger than before the workout. This is why you become stronger during
the rest period.
!or example)
'ou do 7 sets of s5uats :0 reps with :00 pounds you stress your muscles and actually
cause slight damage to your muscles.
2'our muscles think * ?ust got whipped3
s your body recovers the muscles adapt to the stress that was placed on them and
become stronger than the stress that was placed on them.
2'our muscles think *(m not getting beat by that again * will be ready next time3
&o the next time you do 7 sets of s5uats :0 reps with :00 pounds it is easier.
2'our muscles are ready for the stress this time and are not as beaten down3
*f you wait to long to +restress, your muscles you lose the strength they built.
2'our muscles forgot about getting whipped and are no longer ready3
The rest needed between workouts differs for each person. Eenerally a muscle need C@$D/
hours of rest before being worked again. *f any of the following factors apply to your situation you
may need extra rest time before working the same muscle)
ge is over F0
<evel of fitness is poor or ?ust starting a workout routine
#ecovering from illness
muscle was worked extra hard 2this goes along with ?ust starting a workout routine3
*f you are losing strength or muscle is fatigued all the time
*est .uring a +trength orkout "This doesn/t a,,ly to a aerobic workout#
;uring a strength workout the body needs rest between each set of repetitions. This rest allows
the muscle time to replenish energy that was use while lifting.
When you first start to use a muscle the first form of energy the muscle uses is depleted in about
:0 seconds, the next form of energy the muscle uses is mostly depleted after about / minutes, then after
the that the body start to rely more are the cardiovascular system to supply energy. .ne set during a
strength workout should take between 70 seconds and / minutes to get optimum benefits, this means
that the set is working on the second energy system described above. This second energy system can
replenish energy in about a /.F$7 minutes. ;epending on what your goals are you may want to rest
longer or shorter periods between sets. *f you ?ust want to +be fit, then :$7 minutes rest would be fine
between sets, if you want to gain more strength 7$F minutes rest would work, and if you want to put on
mass 70$I0 seconds rest would be for you.
*est and !ircuit Training
8ircuit training is when several different strength training exercises are preformed one after the
other. !or example)
CF &econds of Push$ups
70 &econds of #est
CF &econds of &5uats
70 &econds #est
CF &econds of Pull$ups
70 &econds of #est
CF &econds of &tiff$<eg$;eadlift
70 &econds of #est
#epeat all F times
#esting between circuit training sessions should be treated ?ust like regular strength training
sessions 2rest a muscle C@$D/ hours before training it again3.
The example above is a traditional circuit training routine, which is good for maintaining fitness
and increasing strength, but does not increase strength as 5uickly as a traditional strength training
program. The traditional circuit training routine only provides a low or moderate aerobic workout,
which is not as beneficial as a traditional aerobic workout. 9owever, if during the circuit training
workout rest is replaced with aerobic activities between strength activities at a :): ratio the workout has
similar aerobic benefits to a traditional aerobic workout, with strength gains.
*est and )erobic training
Moderate, low impact aerobic training 2walking, slow swimming, slow rowing3 can be done
daily, without adverse affects.
*ntense aerobic training allow C@$D/ hours for main muscles used to recover 2like strength
taining3. !or example)
;ay :) #un :0 :00 yard sprints
;ay /) &wim :000 yards
;ay 7) #est
;ay C) #un 7 miles
;ay F) &wim :0 F0 yard sprints
;ay ILD) #est
+tress *eduction
4esides physical rest sometimes our body need mental rest as well. *f the body is mentally
stress it can release hormones that can cause you to put on fat, and increase risk of cardiovascular
problems. To reduce the release of these hormones it is best to try and prevent their release rather than
deal with them once they are flowing through the body. To reduce the release of these hormones
anticipate stressful situations and relax your body before the situation starts. *t is not always possible to
foresee stressful situations, but being conscious of them helps. To relax your body follow the following
!ocusing on your breathing 2breath in and out slowly3
bout F$@ seconds in and about F$@ seconds out
;o this for F$:F minutes
This is one of the best ways to reduce stress. *f you can try and clear your mind and not think
about anything this will help relax you too. This is basically a form of meditation, and if done at least
once a day can help reduce mental stress.
Take )way:
Eet as much sleep as you need
%sually rest a muscle C@$D/ hours before working it again
#est a muscle at least :.F minutes between strength training sets
#educe mental stress by focusing on breathing
Why its important
*t get blood to muscle before a workout
*n?ury prevention
9ow often to do warm$ups
4efore every workout 2aerobic or strength3
9ow to do warm$ups
warm$up should last F$:0 minutes
Moves to get your blood flowing
"eck rolls
rm &wings
9igh >nees
4utt >ickers
<eg &wings
9ip 8ircles
&tart with small ranges of motion and increase to full range of motion by the end of the
warm$up 2starting with to large of a range of motion could cause in?ury3
'ou should be winded after a warm$up but not exhausted.
Take )way:
Eet blood flowing to full range of motion before any workout
)erobic "!ardiovascular or !ardio# Training
hy is it im,ortant
The more in shape your cardiovascular system the less heart problems you have
*t can help with insulin sensitivity
*t can help reduce
4ody !at
Waist &ize
4lood Pressure
#isk of 8ardiovascular ;isease
hat is aerobic training
nything that increases your metabolic rate for an extended period of time
*ncreased heart rate is a side effect of increased metabolic rate
erobic tapes
4oxing69eavy bag work
&tair 8limbing
ny moving you do that increases your metabolic rate
How much do you need
:F$70 min per workout
7$F times a week
M*f you are doing other physical activity 2such as playing sports, or have a physical ?ob3
you can do a little less aerobic training.
How hard do you need to ,ush it
'ou can use a heart rate monitor
//0 minus your age is a good estimate for your max heart rate
I0N$@0N of your max heart rate is the range your heart rate should be in during
an aerobic workout
.r use the following guidelines
<ow intensity) 'ou can sing while working out
Medium intensity) 'ou can have a conversation while working out but sound
winded while working out 2this is the level most should exercise at3
9igh intensity) 'ou can only say a few words while working out
1ery 9igh intensity 2probably to high3) 'ou can say anything without deep gasps
Work out hard for a short period then lighten up for a short period and repeat until done
#un fast for 70 sec then ?og slow for : min repeat for :@ min
;o : min of fast calisthenics then do : min slow repeat for /0 min
hat is best intervals or one long workout2
The one you are most likely to do.
'ou will have the same aerobic benefit either way.
hen is the best time to do a aerobic workout2
When every you will do it is the best time. .n an empty stomach before breakfast you
might burn more fat, but you may lose muscle to muscle cannibalization for protein.
'ou get the most benefit if you do your aerobic training separate from your strength
training, but if you don(t have time to do them separate do them together. *f you do
aerobic training before strength your strength workout will suffer a little and vise versa.
!ircuit Training
'ou can also do circuit training. 8ircuit training is when you do several different
strength exercises in a row. *f you do aerobic exercises between strength exercises rather than
rest you can get aerobic benefits as well as strength benefits. Try and do aerobic exercises that
do not only use the same muscle you ?ust worked during the last strength exercise. !or
example, do push$ups, then ?og, or do s5uats then ?umping ?acks. "ot s5uats, then running
Take )way:
7$F times a week do an aerobic workout lasting at least :F minutes at a pace that allows barely
allows you to have a conversation
+trength Training
Why is it important64enefits
4est way to loose fat
&trength training burns calories faster than aerobic training
4est way to build muscle
9elps with in?ury prevention
9elps with everyday task
4etter sleep
How to strength train
&tress muscles to build strength.
Here are some things to know about strength training:
=xample of repetitions and sets
:0 push$ups preformed 7 times with rest between every :0 push$
ups is 7 sets of :0 repetitions 2the push$up movement is a repetition or rep3
9ow to preform one repetition 2=xample is push$up3
Take 7 sec to move down
28ount :$/$7 moving from up position until chest is touching floor3
Pause for : sec at full range of motion
2Pause : sec while chest is barely touching floor not resting on floor3
ccelerate as you preform the movement
2Push up from the down position to extended arms 5uickly3
#est 4etween Workouts
;epends how hard you work a muscle group
The more you stress a muscle the more rest it needs
;epends on what kind of condition you are currently in
The better shape you are in the faster you recover
;epends on your age
The younger you are the faster you recover
;epends on what other physical activity you do besides working out
*f you have physical ?ob you may need more recovery time
'ou need C@$D/ hours rest before working out the same muscle again
=ach muscle is usually worked /$7 times a week
9ow do you know
<isten to your body
T9*& *& ".T " =O%&8= T. &>*P W.#>.%T 4%T)
*f you notice any of the following rest more
'ou(re getting weaker not stronger
'ou(re fatigued << the time 2not ?ust before your
'ou(re constantly sore
Ma?or 4ody reas to train 2see appendixes for diagrams and exercises for each area3
Pectorals Ma?or 28hest3
<atissimus ;orsi 2<ats3
;eltoids 2&houlders3
Trapezius 2Traps3
4iceps 24is3
Triceps 2Tris3
bdomenals 2bs3
Puadriceps 2Puads3
Eluteals 2Elutes3
9amstrings 29ams3
Eastrocnemius 28alfs3
9ow many sets to preform
;o one set if an factors that cause you to need more rest between workouts apply
to you.
s you start to become more fit add more sets 2usually 7$C is plenty3 to increase
stress on the muscle and increase benefits of your workouts.
) %ew ords )bout +trength Training
!or a muscle to become stronger it must be stimulated. The more effort you use to move a
muscle the more that muscle is stimulated.
*f you do /0 push$ups the first one is easier than the /0
one. When you do your first push$up
only a part of your muscle fibers are stimulated, as it gets harder to do push$ups more muscle fibers are
stimulated. Muscles work in a progressive system so the fibers that are used first are still being used in
later reps. <ets look an example to simplify itQ 2the number are ?ust used for explanation purpose and
are not accurate as to how many fibers a body may have.3
<ets say your chest has :00 muscle fibers in it. s you do your first push$up muscle fibers :$:0
are use, when you do your :0
push$up muscle fibers :$F0 are stimulated, and when you do your /0

push$up fibers :$DF are stimulated. Muscle fiber D0 can only be stimulated when fibers :$IB are fully
used. "ow lets say you do a bench press of :F0 pounds on the first rep fibers :$D0 are engaged, this is
because fibers :$IB could not handle the stress of the weight and more fibers where needed to
overcome the stress. "ow say we put //F pounds on the bench press and you are only able to lift it one
timeQ this is known as your : rep max and nearly all :00 muscle fibers are engaged 2it is almost
impossible to stimulate :00N of muscle fibers3.
=ffort determines the number of muscle fibers that are stimulated not the weight load.
To get the most out of your strength training program each set lifted should take between 70
seconds and / minutes to reach maximum effort usually @$:F repetitions. *f it takes longer than /
minutes to reach maximum effort the body starts rely more on different energy sources, making the
strength workout more of an endurance aerobic workout. *f you are not able to reach max effort in less
than / minutes than you need to increase stress in your set.
To increase stress increase reps, increase resistance, or decrease rest between sets. *ncreasing
reps in the same amount of time is difficult if you are using proper form 2going down slow, pausing,
then accelerating up to finish the movement3. 'ou can increase reps by adding additional sets if time
allows. *f rest between sets is decreased to much then the strength workout becomes more of an
aerobic workout. &o that leaves increasing resistance.
*ncreasing resistance can be done several ways the most common is to increasing weight on a
lift. 9ere are some example of how to increase resistance without needing additional weight)
%se a slightly different angle
=levate feet higher for push$ups
%se single limb movements
.ne arm push$ups
.ne legged s5uats
Take )way:
&trength training is one of the best ways to lose fat and gain strength
#est a muscle between strength workouts 2usually C@$D/ hours3
Train the :: ma?or muscle groups
%sually strength train a muscle /$7 times a week
&tart with one set per muscle and slowly work up to three or four sets
=ffort determines how hard a muscle is worked not weight lifted
*ncrease stress to increase effort
=asiest way to increase stress is by increasing resistance
.ne strength training set should generally last 70 second to / minutes, and
&ee appendixes for)
=xercises for each muscle group
;iagrams of muscle groups
*deas for increasing resistance
%le3ibility "+tretching#
How to +tretch
;. ".T 4.%"8=
&lowly move to a fully stretched position
Kust before you feel discomfort stop stretching
9old that position for :F$70 seconds
How often to stretch
/$7 times a week
&tretch at a separate time than your workouts
!an you over stretch
*f you stretch to hard you could slightly tear muscle fiber leading to soreness
*f you increase your range of motion without increasing your strength it could
result in in?ury because the strength was not built to accommodate the new range
of motion
hat muscle to stretch
ll :: ma?or muscle groups plus the back
Take )way:
;. ".T 4.%"8= while stretching
.ver stretching is possible
&tretch all ma?or muscle groups and lower back /$7 times a week
.esigning a fitness ,rogram
*t depends on several factors
9ow much time do you have
This is the most important factor because if you plan a great fitness program but
don(t have the time you won(t do it
What works best for your body
.nly you can determine this
*f you know that you recover slower from interval training aerobic workouts you
may chose to do less interval aerobic training.
*f it is hard for you to build muscle without adding more resistance you may need
to figure out how to increase resistance
This goes for nutrition too if you need more protein to recover from you
workouts you may need to eat more lean meat
*f you(re hungry all the time you may need to eat more snacks
What type of workouts do you en?oy
;o workouts you en?oy so that you are willing to actually do them
What does your diet typically look like
*f you try and change your diet too drastically over a short period of time you
won(t be able to stick to your new diet
'ou need to change things slowly I months to a year to change your diet
What e5uipment do you have available
This goes without saying but plan workouts based on e5uipment you already
have. 'ou spend less money and you are more likely to do your workouts.
What are your goals
;o you want to lose fat
!ocus on strength training it is burns the most calories even after the
workout is done.
;o at lest 7 aerobic workouts a week
=at F small meals rather than 7 big meals 2snacking will increase your
&top eating once you are full
;o you want to increase stamina
!ocus on higher rep lighter weight strength training
2&ets should each take about /$7 minutes to complete3
*ncrease time on your aerobic training
;o you want to increase muscle
!ocus on strength training. 'our should continually increase resistance.
=at F small meals a day rather than 7 big meals 2this will give your
muscle a continuous energy supply.
;o you want to tone muscle6?ust be healthy
;o the basics
;rink @ cups of fluid a day
=at F small meals rather than 7 big meals
Warm$up before each workout
7 aerobic workouts a week
&trength train each ma?or muscle group / times a week
&tretch /$7 times a week
re you training for a specific sport or race
Train similar to the sport you are in
*f you are in an endurance sport such as foot races, or triathlons you need
to focus on doing that for your aerobic workouts. lternate between
intervals and distance aerobic workouts.
*f you are in an explosive sport such as football, rugby, or baseball you
need to focus on explosive strength. ;o heavier resistance for sets that
last 70$I0 seconds. !ocus on doing more interval aerobic training.
&tretch / days a week 2:0$:F minutes each time3
8ircuit train C days per week 2/F min per workout3
/ days of circuit training strength train part of the muscles the other / days train
the other muscles
&unday) #est
Monday) %pper$4ody6 &tretch at a different time
Tuesday) <ower$4ody
Wednesday) #est
Thursday) %pper$4ody
!riday) <ower$4ody6 &tretch at a different time
&aturday) #est
This workout gives you the minimum amount of workouts needed to be healthy and
receive some fitness benefits.
;o 7 aerobic workouts a week 2/0 minutes each3
&trength train each muscle group / times a week 2/0 minutes each workout3
&tretch /$7 times a week separate from other workouts 2:0$:F minutes each3
&unday) #est
Monday) &trength train full$body
Tuesday) Moderate aerobic workout
Wednesday) Moderate aerobic workout
Thursday) &trength train full$body
!riday) Moderate aerobic workout
&aturday) #est
Take )way
$4)N ) $*'5*)M 6'1 I44 )!T1)446 .'
)erobic !alisthenics
These are movements that you can do without any e5uipment to get a great aerobic workout.
*t is similar to ?oggingQ if you push yourself to go faster it becomes harder.
'ou can do these movements for a set amount of time or a set number of reps.
#ecommend :0$/F reps for a set number or 70sec R / min for a set time.
*f you are using calisthenics for a aerobic workout you should try and have at least C different
movements in your workout, more than :0 gets a confusing though.
=xample workouts
Movement Time
Eet %ps : min
Kumping Kacks 70 sec
4urpees : min
8ross 8ountry &kiers 70 sec
*ce 4reakers : min
Kog in Place 70 sec
#epeat for :@ min
Movement *e,s
cross the >nee 4reakers :0 each side
@ 8ount 4ody 4uilders /0
Kumping 8urls /0
!loor to &ky /0
Mountain 8limbers /0
Eet ups /0
#epeat as many times as possible in /0 min
Eet ups
&tart in the standing position
&5uat down
&it on the floor
<ay on your back with legs extended straight and arms extended above your head
&it up 2knees bent3
&tand back up on both feet at the same time 2arms may be behind you for support3
&tart in the standing position
&5uat down
Place hands on the ground about shoulder with apart
>ick feet out behind body with arms extended 2push$up position arms extended3
<ower chest to touch the floor by bending at the elbows then extended arms straight 2a push$up3
With hands still on the ground ?ump both feet back underneath your body so you are in a s5uat
position with hands on the floor
Kump up reaching high with hands over head
*ce 4reakers
&tart in the standing position
While standing raise right hand over head with elbow bent as if lifting a hammer extra high
&5uat down as bringing right hand down 5uickly as if hammering an ob?ect while s5uating
&tand back up as you do so bring left hand up over head in the same way you did the right hand
in step /
&5uat down as bringing left hand down 5uickly as if hammering an ob?ect while s5uating
down 2&ame as step 7 but with left hand3
#epeat steps /$F
Throw downs
&tart in the standing position
8lasp both hands together interlocking finger
#aise both hands overhead with elbows bent as if raising a hammer very high
&5uat down as bringing hands down 5uickly as if hammering an ob?ect while s5uating down
&tand back up as bringing hands overhead with elbows bent as if raising a hammer overhead
#epeat steps C$F
cross the >nee 4reakers
&tart in the standing position
#aise hands overhead with elbows bent
Puickly raise right knee while bring hands down on each side of knee as if breaking a stick
across you knee
#epeat for left leg
@ 8ount 4ody 4uilders
&tart in the standing position
&5uat down
>ick feet out behind body 2push$up position arms extended3
<ower chest to touch floor by bending elbow 2push$up position arms bent chest on floor3
Push up by extending arms 2push$up position arms extended3
Kump feet out to the side while keeping hand on the floor with arms extended
Kump bring feet back together 2push$up position arms extended3
Kump bring feet back underneath body to a s5uat position
!loor to &ky
&tart in the standing position
&5uat down and touch the floor
&tand back up reach for the sky
8ross 8ountry &kier &5uats
&tart in the standing position
lternate swinging arms forward and backward as s5uating up and down
&peed &kater &5uats
&tart in the standing position
lternate swinging arms across the body back as s5uating up and down
<awn Mower &5uats
&tart in the standing position
&5uat down touching right hand to left toes
&tand up and pull right hand across body as if pull starting a small engine
&5uat down touching left hand to right toes
&tand up and pull left hand across body as if pull starting a small engine
&tar Kumpers
&tart in the standing position
&5uat down with hand touching ground
Kump up with feet out to each side and arms stretched overhead at about a CF degree angle
s you come back down bring feet back to shoulder width apart and hands back to the ground
and land in the s5uating position
Power &kips
&tart in the standing position
&kip up with right leg as raising left hand straight overhead
&kip up with left leg as raising right hand straight overhead
<ow &ide >icks
&tart in the push$up position with arms extended
Pick left hand up off the ground as bringing right leg underneath left leg and kicking to the left
as body rotates
#otate body back to push$up position with arms extended
Pick right hand up off the ground as bringing left leg underneath right leg and kicking to the
right as body rotates
#otate body back to push$up position with arms extended
Tuck Kumps
&tart in the standing position
&wing arms upward as ?umping as high as possible and bringing knees as high as possible to the
!ront >icks
&tart in the standing position with hand held up near face in a boxer fashion
lternate kicking forward with each foot as if kicking a wall with the ball of the foot 2these
kicks are usually around waist high or a little higher, this is not like kicking a ball3
!ront Kabs
&tart in the standing position with hand held up near face in a boxer fashion
lternate forward punches 2?abs3 rotate body as if throwing a really ?ab
#eaching 4ody 4uilders
&tart in the standing position
&5uat down
>ick feet out behind body 2push$up position arms extended3
<ower chest to touch floor by bending elbow 2push$up position arms bent chest on floor3
Push up by extending arms 2push$up position arms extended3
#each up toward the sky with the right hand while rotating body putting weight on left hand and
both feet
#otate back to push$up position with extended arms
#each up toward the sky with the left hand while rotating body putting weight on right hand and
both feet
#otate back to push$up position with extended arms
Kump bring feet back underneath body to a s5uat position
Kumping Kacks
&tart in the standing position with feet together and arms at the sides
Kump up while moving feet out to the side and moving arms overhead with elbows bent and out
to the side
Kumping 8urls
&tart in the standing position
Kump up moving right foot forward and left foot backward while moving arms upward in a
curling motion
Kump up moving feet back to starting position and bringing hands back down to sides palms
facing up
Kump up moving right foot backward and left foot forward while moving arms upward in a
curling motion
Kump up moving feet back to starting position and bringing hands back down to sides palms
facing up
Kumping 8hest Press
&tart in the standing position with feet together and arms at chest level with elbows drawn back
Kump up while moving feet out to the side and moving arms straight out in front of chest as if
pushing something away from chest
#unning in Place
#un in place
#unning in Place .verhead Press
#un in place while moving arms up and down overhead as if pushing a bar overhead
#unning in Place 9igh >nees
#un in place but bring knees extra high
8ross 8ountry &kier
&tart in the standing position
Kump while moving right foot forward and left foot back 2about / feet between each3, and
swinging right arm backward and left arm forward with elbow extended 2arms straight3
Kump while moving left foot forward and right foot back 2about / feet between each3, and
swinging left arm backward and right arm forward with elbow extended 2arms straight3
&peed &kater
&tart in the standing position
Kump to right and put weight on right foot while swinging both arms to the right.
2left arm comes across body and right arm is extended behind body3
Kump to left and put weight on left foot while swinging both arms to the left
2right arm comes across body and left arm is extended behind body3
Mountain 8limbers
&tart in the push$up position with arms extended 2keep hands on the ground while preforming
this exercise3
Kump feet up moving right foot forward under the body
Kump up moving right foot back and left foot forward under the body
Kump up alternating feet forward and backward
!oot !ire
lternate picking up each foot ?ust off the ground as fast as possible 2heels shouldn(t hit the
&tart in the standing position
Touch chest to floor
Eet back to standing position
2This is basically a sloppy burpee preformed as fast as possible3
73ercises by muscle grou,
$ectorals Ma8or "!hest#
!eet higher than shoulders
!eet lower than shoulders
&ingle arm
.n a ball
8hest Press
&ingle arm
#otating as pressing
4atissimus .orsi "4ats#
4ent$.ver #ows
&ingle arm
With bench
ll grip variations
*ncline rows
&ingle arm
&ingle arm
&eated #ows
.eltoids "+houlders#
.verhead Press
&ingle arm
<ateral raises
!ront raises
Tra,ezius "Tra,s#
&ingle arm
-ice,s "-is#
&ingle arm
Erip variations
#everse Erip Pull$%ps
Trice,s "Tris#
Triceps Press ;owns
&ingle rm
Triceps =xtensions
)bdominals ")bs#
&ide 8runch
#everse 8runch
9anging >nee #aises
4icycle 8runch
9uadrice,s "9uads#:5luteals "5lutes#
&ingle <eg
&ingle <eg Kumps
Hamstrings "Hams#
&ingle <eg
<eg 8urls
&ingle <eg
5astrocnemius "!alfs#
Toes *n
Toes .ut
Muscle .iagrams
bove) Pectorals Ma?or 28hest3
bove) <atissimus ;orsi 2<ats3
bove) ;eltoids 2&houlders3
bove) Trapezius 2Traps3
bove) 4iceps 24is3
bove) Triceps 2Tris3
bove) bdomenals 2bs3
bove) Puadriceps 2Puads3
bove) Eluteals 2Elutes3
bove) 9amstrings 29ams3
bove) Eastrocnemius 28alfs3
eight "Higher +tress# Ideas
'ou can use ?ust about anything for a weight.
&ometimes you need a little weight to get enough stress on a muscle group to gain strength
*deas 2you may want to wear gloves for some of these3
grocery bag full of books
4uckets, bottles, or ?ugs full of water
Pieces of pipe
!illed with concert,metal,sand, or dirt
4ricks6cinder blocks
.ther things you can fill with sand6dirt
.ld basket6kick balls
.ld luggage
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