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Epidemiology Cheat Sheet

Incidence= [Number of new cases in a time period/Population] x 100,000


Prevalence= [Number of existing cases in a time period/population] x 100,000
Bradford Hill Criteria of causation
Strengt of !ssociation
"onsistenc#
Specificit# in te cause
$emporalit#
%ose&response relationsip
Plausibilit#
"oerence
'xperimental e(idence
!nalog#
Cross-sectional study) assesses bot te ealt status and te exposure le(els of
indi(iduals witin a population at one point in time*
Case-control study) a retrospecti(e stud# tat initiall# identifies two groups of
sub+ects* !ll indi(iduals in one group a(e te particular disease or condition under
in(estigation ,te cases-, wereas e(er#bod# in te oter group is free from te disease
,te controls-*
Odds ratio) te ris. of te odds of de(eloping te disease in te exposed group
di(ided b# te odds of de(eloping te disease in te unexposed group*
"ases "ontrols
'xposed a b
Not exposed c d
/0= ,a/c-/,b/d-= ad/bc
1f exposure if armful, /021
1f exposure is protecti(e, /031
1f /0=1, no ris. can be attributed to te disease
Cohort study) 4ollows a group of sub+ects forward in time and compares teir
outcomes after one group is exposed to some .nown of suspected cause of disease wile
te oter group is not exposed*
Relative risk) compares te ris. of some ealt&related e(ent occurring in two
groups tat are included in a prospecti(e stud#* 1t is te probabilit# of disease occurring
in te exposed group di(ided b# te probabilit# of disease in te unexposed group*
%isease present %isease absent
'xposed a b
Not exposed c d
00= [a/,a5b-]/[c/,c5d-]
1f 0021, association is positi(e
1f 0031, association is negati(e ,or protecti(e-
1f 00=1, not associated wit ris. of disease
Attributable risk) te probabilit# of disease in te exposed group minus te
probabilit# of disease in te unexposed group*
!0= [a/,a5b-] 6 [c/,c5d-]
Absolute risk reduction) te difference in te probabilit# of disease between te
treatment and control groups* 1t is calculated te same as !0, but it tells #ou te ow
muc of te difference in reduction of disease incidence between te groups is due to te
treatment*
!00= [a/,a5b-]& [c/,c5d-]
Relative risk reduction) te comparati(e reduction in rates of bad outcomes
between te experimental and control groups in an 0"$ or coort stud#*
000= absolute ris. reduction/probabilit# of disease in unexposed group, tus
000= 7a/,a5b-] 6 [c/,c5d-]8/[c/,c5d-]
Number needed to treat) number of patients wo would need to be treated in
order to pre(ent one additional bad outcome*
NN$= 1/!bsolute ris. reduction= 1/[a/,a5b-] 6 ,c/,c5d-]