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BRAND IMAGE, SELF CONCEPT, AND CONSUMER PURCHASING


BEHAVIORS IN THE UGANDAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY


BY
KHAMISI MUSANJE
2009/HD10/17138U


A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OF MAKERERE UNIVERSITY


JANUARY, 2012





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DECLARATION
I Musanje Khamisi solemnly declare to the best of my knowledge that this compilation is my
original piece work except where otherwise acknowledged and it has never been presented
anywhere or to any University.
Submitted by
Musanje Khamisi

Signature


Date
















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APPROVAL
This dissertation has been reviewed and approved by;


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1. Dr. Moses Kamya
Supervisor

...............................................................................................................
2. Mr. Sam Musigire
Supervisor

















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DEDICATION
I dedicate this piece of work with love to my dear mother Namitala Grace for everything she
has done for me in life. Mom you are the reason as to why I exist.


























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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I extend my heartfelt appreciation to my dear parents Mrs. Namitala Grace and Mr. Kato
Ndawula Mustapha for their constant love, financial and social support which have seen me
through this research project. My lovely parents, words are not enough to explain what I feel
for you.
Special thanks also go to my University Supervisors, Dr. Moses Kamya and Mr. Sam
Musigire for their invaluable supervision they have accorded me throughout this research
project. Am so grateful for your time, resources and guidance you have invested in me,
without which this piece of work would have been impossible.
I also feel obliged to thanks my dear brothers, Siraje and Ibrahim, Sisters Hadija and Aisha,
friends like Viola Birungi, Ibra Katusi, Perez Kiirya, Fred Kizire, Yusuf Kigozi and Paul
Wangonya for your constant support and encouragement you have always given to me
throughout my research project. I will always be grateful.
Finally but definitely most important, the Lord Almighty, your continuous favours, answered
prayers and blessings have taken me where I had never expected to reach. I truly thank you
lord.










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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Declaration.......2
Approval......3
Dedication........4
Acknowledgement.......5
Table of contents.....6
List of tables....9
List of figures......9
List of appendices...9
Abbreviations.....10
Abstract..11
Chapter one
1.0 Introduction.....12
1.1 Background..12
1.2 Problemstatement14
1.3 Purpose of the study.14
1.4 Objectives of the study.14
1.5 Research Questions..15
1.6 Scope of the study/...15
1.7 Significance of the study..15
1.8Conceptual frame work.16

Chapter two
2.0 Literature review..17
2.1 Brand image......17
2.2 Self concept........................20
2.3.0 Brand attachment....................23
2.3.1 Brand self connection......................23
2.3.2 Brand Prominence.....23
2.4 Customer purchase behaviours......25


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2.5.0 Competitive platformin Uganda..............................27
2.5.1 Retail outlets in Uganda.......................27
Chapter three
Methodology................29
3.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................................29
3.1 Research design...........................29
3.2 Study population and sample size.......................29
3.3 Data collection instruments..............................31
3.4 Measurement.................................31
3.5 Data sources..........................31
3.6 Reliability and validity....32
3.7 Data processing and analysis.......32
3.8 Limitations to the study.......32
Chapter four
4.0 Results & findings of the study........34
4.1 Introduction...................34
4.2.0 Background information..............................................34
4.2.1Age of the respondents......35
4.2.2 Gender of respondents.................................................................................................................35
4.2.3 ANOVA results for gender by variable ......................................................................................36
4.2.4 Marital status of respondents.......................................................................................................36
4.2.5 ANOVA results for marital status by variable ............................................................................37
4.2.6 Level of education of respondents ..............................................................................................37
4.2.7 ANOVA results for level of education by variable .................................................................38
4.3.0 How to build a successful brand image in the Petroleumindustry .........................................39
4.3.1 Factor analysis for brand image ..............................................................................................39
4.3.2 Factor analysis for self concept ...............................................................................................40
4.3.3 Factor analysis for brand attachment ...........................................................................................41
4.4.0 Relationship between variables ...............................................................................................42
4.4.1 Relationship between brand image and customer purchase behaviour ...................................42


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4.4.2 Relationship between brand image and brand attachment ......................................................42
4.4.3 Relationship between self concept and customer purchase behaviour.....................................43
4.4.4 Relationship between self concept and brand attachment .......................................................43
4.4.5 How brand attachment influence customer purchase behaviours ............................................43
4.5 Regression analysis .....................................................................................................................44
Chapter five
5.0 Discussion, Recommendations and Conclusion .........................................................................45
5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................45
5.2 Discussion of research results .....................................................................................................45
5.2.1 How to build a successful brand image ...................................................................................45
5.2.2 Relationship between brand image and customer purchase behaviours ..................................48
5.2.3 Relationship between brand image and brand attachment .......................................................48
5.2.4 Relationship between self concept and customer purchase behaviour ....................................49
5.2.5 Relationship between self concept and brand attachment .......................................................50
5.2.6 How brand attachment can influence customer purchase behaviour........................................51
5.3 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................51
5.4 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................52
5.5 Areas for further research ...........................................................................................................53
6.0 References ...................................................................................................................................54
Appendix ...........................................................................................................................................59












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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE DESCRIPTION PAGE
Table 3.1 Sampling frame 30
Table 3.2 Reliability & Validity results 32
Table 4.1 Age of respondents 34
Table 4.2 Gender results 34
Table 4.3 ANOVA for gender 35
Table 4.4 Marital status results 36
Table 4.5 ANOVA for marital status 36
Table 4.6 Level of education results 37
Table 4.7 ANOVA for education level 38
Table 4.8 Factor analysis results for brand image 39
Table 4.9 Factor analysis results for self concept 40
Table 4.10 Factor analysis results for brand attachment 41
Table 4.11 Correlation results 42
Table 4.12 Regression results 44


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Conceptual frame work 16

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Data collection instrument 63






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ABBREVIATIONS
UNBSUganda National Beaural of Standards
PSSPetroleum Service Stations
CSSCustomer Sample Size
SPSS..Statistical Package for Social Scientists
























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ABSTRACT
The study looked at brand image, self concept, brand attachment and customer purchase
behaviours in the Ugandan petroleum industry. It was conducted within the five divisions that
make up Kampala district which included Kampala central, Nakawa division, Makindye
division, Rubaga division and Kawempe division. A sample of 450 respondents was used.
The target population was all those customers who fuel or service their cars at the selected
fuel outlets and a self administered questionnaire was used. Stratified random sampling was
used to purposively select six petrol stations from each division, creating a sampling size of
30 petrol stations, from which 15 respondents were selected from each Petrol station in each
division so as to come up with a 450 respondents sample.
Data was analysed using SPSS, generating frequencies for the bio-data information, then
factor loadings in ascertaining factors necessary to establish a successful brand image, then
Pearsons (r) correlations in analysing relationships, then ANOVA to analyse factors for any
significant differences and finally regression analysis to examine the predictive potential of
the independent variables on the dependent variables.
Findings revealed that brand image accompanied with understanding the customers self
concept are key components in influencing a customers purchase decision. Furthermore,
findings also showed that a well built brand image will create customer brand attachment
which is very important in influencing a purchase decision. Finally, findings also showed that
focusing on the product benefits, is the most important element in building a successful brand
image.
Basing on the research findings, recommendations like recruiting people who are skilled,
trained and experienced in brand management, focusing a lot of attention on promoting
product benefits, setting up performance evaluation checklists at service stations and also
setting up incentive schemes for the employees who work at the forecourts with direct contact
with the customers were made.




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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
The liberalization of the petroleum industry in Uganda has led to stiff competition in the once
oligopolistic market structure. The country now boosts of over 90 licensed players and more
still picking interest in the market (Alexander 2008).
The increased level of competition has prompted fuel dealers to start building on all those
fundamentals that can give them a competitive edge in this growing Ugandan market.
Companies have embarked on engaging in price wars and building brand images as way of
influencing customers purchase behaviours (Alexander 2008).
Brand image is the current view of the customers about a brand. Its a unique bundle of
associations within the minds of target customers and signifies what the brand presently
stands for (Dwayne 2005). It is a set of beliefs held about a specific brand, that is to say, it is
nothing but the consumers perception about the product. It is the manner in which a specific
brand is positioned in the market, which does not only convey mental images, but also
emotional value. According to Grewal, Krishnan, Baker, and Borin (1998), the better a brand
image is, the more recognition consumers give to its product quality.

According to Dixon (2005), People engaged in consumption do not merely buy certain
products to satisfy basic needs. In fact, consumer buying habits are at a much deeper level.
Owning a certain brand can help consumers to express and build their own self-concept.
Specifically, consumers will only purchase certain trademarks when they find a match
between the brand image (communicated through advertisement, design of retail shop, or
even package design) and his/her own self-concept. The value of a brand therefore also
depends on its ability to help consumer to build and create self-concept.
According to Pervin and John (2001), self-concept is often viewed as a component of
personality. A number of researchers have suggested that there is a positive association
between self-concept and brand image.



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Aaker (1991) believes brand establishment and management should not only be one of the
operating focuses for major industries but viewed as a source of competitiveness.
For consumers, a brand provides a certain degree of product guarantee. Shopping around can
be time- and energy-consuming, and consumers do not always possess enough product
knowledge to ensure the best buy. Under such circumstances, consumers usually go by
Well-known brands, which may result in higher costs but requires less research efforts, thus,
brand image not only affects how consumers view a product but also has the benefit of
lowering purchase risks (Loudon and Bitta, 1998).

A poor or affected brand image can hinder the companys overall performance. A case in
point is, BP (British petroleum) with their recent spill in the Gulf that has affected their brand
image. Since BPs petrol first went on sale in Britain in the 1920s, the brand grew to become
recognized worldwide for quality gasoline, transport fuels, chemicals and alternative sources
of energy such as wind, solar and bio fuels. The company helped the world meet its growing
need for heat, light and mobility. However, the companys image came to suffer following
the 2010 spill in the Gulf. BPs response to the accident diminished consumer confidence in
the brand to the extent that the stigma is still attached to the brand up to now.

Consumer purchasing behavior according to Lars Perner (2009), is the study of when, why,
how, and where people do or do not buy a product. It attempts to understand the buyer
decision making process, both individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of
individual consumers such as demographics and behavioral variables in an attempt to
understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such
as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general. Thus, the marketer must devise
means of how to influence a customer buy his product through influencing his purchase
decision.
Purchase intention means a subjective inclination consumers have towards a certain product,
and has been proven to be a key factor in predicting consumer behaviour (Fishbein and
Ajzen, 1995).
According to Kotler (2000), consumer behaviour occurs when consumers are stimulated by
external Factors and come to a purchase decision based on their personal characteristics and


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decision making Process. Through brand image, consumers are able to recognize a product,
evaluate the quality, lower Purchase risks, and obtain certain experience and satisfaction out
of product differentiation. When it comes to experiential product evaluation, a positive brand
image may make up for an inferior image of the origin country and raise the possibility of the
product being selected (Thakor and Katsanis, 1997).

1.2 Problem Statement


The liberalization of the once protected petroleum industry in Uganda has increased
competition and worsened the fight for customers making survival difficult. Many small
players have joined the market, worsening the already competitive market structure.
However, despite this influx and the continuous efforts by the small petroleum companies to
engage in all activities that make them look more favourable and economical in the eyes of
the customers, market share statistics have continuously showed that big names like Shell and
Total are still preferred by customers. Thus the failure by many petroleum companies to
understand the relevance of building a strong brand image has made their survival difficult.

1.3 Purpose of the study

The study aimed at establishing the relationship between brand image, self concept, brand
attachment and consumer purchase behaviours in the Ugandan petroleum industry.

1.4 Objectives of the study
The study addressed the following objectives;
1. Establish how to build a successful brand image in the petroleum industry
2. Examine the relationship between brand image and customers purchase behaviours
3. Examine the relationship between brand image and brand attachment
4. Analyse the relationship between self concept and customer purchase behaviours
5. Analyse the relationship between self concept and brand attachment
6. Analyse how brand attachment can influence customers purchase behaviours



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1.5 Research Questions
1. How can a company build a successful brand image in the Petroleum industry of
Uganda?
2. Does brand image influence a customers purchase behaviour?
3. Is building a brand image relevant in creating Customer-brand attachment?
4. Does a customers self concept influence his purchase behaviours?
5. Is self concept relevant in Creating Customer-brand attachment?
6. Does brand attachment influence customers purchase decision?

1.6 Scope of the study
Geographically, the study was limited to Kampala city. Much as the researcher intended to
study five selected Petroleum companies, all the retail outlets (stations) that were included in
the study, were selected randomly from Kampala city.
Content wise, the researcher investigated on brand image, its connection with the customers
self, their impact on brand attachment and how this affects a customers purchase behaviours.

1.7 Significance of the study
The study benefited the researcher by enabling him add on his body of knowledge and also in
accomplishing his academic objectives.
Furthermore, results of this study are beneficial to all petroleum companies through gaining a
clear understanding of how important brand image is, how to build and maintain a successful
brand image and how to use brand image to influence customers to buy their products.
The study has also added more knowledge to the existing literature on brand image
specifically in the petroleum industry where not much has been so far done. This will help to
provide more reference to all the future researchers who may pick interest in this field.




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1.8 Conceptual framework
Figure 1











Source; (Sprott, Sandor Czellar, Eric Spangenberg 2006, and Shaver 2007)











BRAND IMAGE
Attributes
Benefits
personality
SELF CONCEPT
Actual self
Ideal self
Social self
BRAND ATTACHMENT
Brand self connection
Brand prominence

CUSTOMER
PURCHASE
BEHAVIOR
Habitual
Dissonance




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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction
This chapter contains literature on the study variables with specific respect to brand image,
self concept, brand attachment and customer purchase behaviours.
2.1 Brand image
According to Vineath (2007), brand image is a unique set of associations in the mind of the
customer concerning what a brand stands for and the implied promises the brand makes. It is
a sum of all tangible and intangible traits, it represents all internal and external characteristics
and its anything that influences how a brand or a company is perceived by its target
constituencies.
For a brand to be successful, its images and symbols must relate to, and indeed, exploit, the
needs, values and life-styles of consumers in such a way that the meanings involved give
added values, and differentiate the brand from other brands (Broadbent & Cooper, 1997).
Consumers may likely use brand and products in line with their own personalities. In other
words, all marketing activities should be aimed at having consumers believe and recognise a
brand (Groovers 2005)
Since it was first introduced formally into the marketing discipline by (Gardner and Levy
1955), communication of a brand image to a target segment has been regarded as an
important marketing activity. Particularly, it became common place in consumer behavior
research from the 1980s ((Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990). The trend has never faded ever since.
Nevertheless, brand image has been assigned different meanings from the day it was
introduced into the marketing discipline. Researchers tend to use brand image and other
brand related constructs interchangeably, for example, brand identity. Aaker (1996) cautioned
against a brand image trap in brand identity and brand management literature and
illustrated that brand image and brand identities are different concepts, although both of them
are drawn from associative network theory. According to Kumar et al (2006) the crucial
element in constructing brand image is to have a clear differentiation with other products.
When trying to change the way a brand image is conveyed, the original brand personality and


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value should first be strengthened in order to reduce to the minimum customers feelings of
chaos and inconsistence (Long 2010).
One of the fundamental tenets of marketing is that brand images are an important determinant
of buying behavior (Burmann 2008). The construct of brand image can be understood as the
associations external target groups have in their minds about brands. These associations can
be further divided into those concerning the functional attributes of a brand and those
concerning the symbolic attributes of a brand (Burmann 2008). Due to the importance of
brand images for the behavior of various target groups, considerable attention has been paid
to factors that possibly influence brand images. These influencing factors can be divided into
three groups: (1) determinants that originate directly from the internal brand identity and can
thus be directly influenced by brand management, (2) personal/individual determinants, for
example, the motives and experiences of those who perceive the brand, and (3) external
factors, that is determinants that affect the brand image from outside and which cannot be
directly influenced by brand management, for example industry image (Schaefer 2008).
How do you create a positive brand image? Cavelle (2010) suggested that the first step in
creating a positive brand image is finding out specifically how members currently perceive
the association. This includes aspects like; 1) Are members satisfied with the products and
services offered by their association? Do they meet, exceed or fall below members'
expectations? 2) Do members think that they can get the same or better service elsewhere?
3) Exactly what does their association provide that members feel they would not get from
another association? What is unique about this association? 4) How important is it to belong
to this particular association? 5) Does the association have a strong, clear image? What is it?
Is the association following through on its mission statement?
In a marketplace cluttered by clones and homogeneous products and services, it is important
to create a brand image that differentiates itself from competitors and suggests integrity,
dependability, and high quality with an emphasis on excellent service. This is the key to
ensuring customer satisfaction and loyalty, which in turn translates into a larger market share
for the company concerned (Philip 2008).
According to Delong et al (2004), customers appear to rely on the brand image as long as
they have little or no knowledge about the product, so managing brand image is of utmost


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importance. A well-communicated brand image should help to establish a brand's position,
insulate the brand from competition, enhance the brand's market performance, and therefore
plays an integral role in building long-term brand equity (Keller, 2006). The product
attributes, the benefits/consequences of using a brand, and brand personality are the three key
components of the brand image (Plummer, 2000).
Brand personality
The brand personality factor enables a consumer to express his/her own self (Hem and
Iverson, 2002) or specific dimensions of the self (Kleine 1993). It serves as a symbolic
function and helps consumers differ from or integrate themselves with others (Keller 2006). It
also projects the brand's values and creates an image of the brand's typical user which might
be the ideal image of the consumer. This brand information may actually encourage the use
of a given brand as a self-expressive device by consumers who hold a similar position and
want to present a similar image or ideal self. Previous research suggests that favorable brand
personalities are a central driver of consumer preference and usage (e.g. Freling and Forbes,
2005), as consumers are more likely to associate them with a desired group, or ideal self-
image (Aaker, 1997).
Perceived product attributes
Product attributes can be categorized in a variety of ways. Keller's (2006) broad view of
product attribute notion suggests that attributes are those descriptive features that characterize
a product. Stockmans' (1999) narrow view indicates that a product can be viewed as a
bundle of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes, or as a bundle of perceived attributes. The intrinsic
attributes of the product are information cues directly linked to the product, and the extrinsic
attributes are information cues, which are indirectly connected to the product.
The consumer uses perceived attributes in the decision-making process (Puth 1999). A
positive relationship between linkage of the brand and perceived product attributes and brand
choice/preference has been found by many researchers (e.g. Nedungadi 1999) whose research
indicates that the more positive the consumers' perceptions of the product attributes of a
specific brand are, the more chance there is of the branded product being purchased. This
research therefore proposes that Consumers' perceptions of product attributes have a positive


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influence on the purchase intention. Customers usually form associations towards the brand
which contributes to a specific brand image (Yasin et al 2007).
Another important attribute of brand image is perceived quality. It is defined as the
customers perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service (Yasin
2007). Perceived quality could generate value by providing a pivotal reason to buy (Delong
2004).
Perceived benefits
Perceived benefit is what consumers think the product can do for them (Keller, 2006); it is
associated with perception of product attributes and brand personality. Benefits are what
consumers seek when purchasing a product/brand (Kotler, 1999). These benefits lead to
certain end states or values that consumers wish to achieve (Kotler, 1999). Numerous
previous studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between perceived benefit and
consumer decision making (e.g. Cho, 2002; Bove and Johnson, 2000)
2.2 Self Concept
Self concept can be viewed as a set of self-schemas representing stable knowledge structures
about the self that organize incoming self related information and help people make sense of
themselves in their environment (Markus 1997). People vary in their tendency to possess
particular self schemas and this variation leads to differential attitude and behaviours towards
objects relevant to those schemas. For example, Sentis and Markus show that consumers with
a strong masculine self schema described fragrance brands in more accentuated gendered
terms and held sharply different brand preferences than those with weaker masculine self
schema.
Customers usually select brands having their ideal self concept or the social self concept in
play (Kotler & Keller 2005). Thus brand personality should serve a function of demonstrating
and expressing a customers personality at the same time. A study conducted by Govers
(2005), showed that customers preference would be influenced when their self concept is in
conformity with product personality. Brand personality can only have influence on customer
brand preference, affection, loyalty and purchasing intentions only if its in line with a
customers self (Mengxia 2007).


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Each individual has a perceived self-image as a certain kind of person with certain traits,
habits, possessions, relationships and ways of behaving. This self-concept or self-image can
be defined as the individual as perceived by that individual in a socially determined frame of
reference (Kumar et al 2006). Preferences may actually develop for certain brands because
the consumer perceives them as reflecting his/her own self-image. Or some brands may be
desired because the consumer views them as projecting an image that the individual presently
does not possess but aspires to have (Schoormans 2005). So it is possible to claim that
consumers self-perception can have a strong influence on their behaviour in the marketplace.
Self-concept is composed of multidimensional characteristics and includes physical as well as
psychological attributes and interacts with the various roles a person must take on (Mehta,
1999).
This leads to a multiple component perspective of the self. Loudon and Bitta (1988) brought
together several approaches, mainly based on Sirgys (1982, 1985) work. Single component
perspective depends on actual-self, the perception of oneself, as one believes he/she actually
is. According to the authors the ideal-self may be defined as the perception of oneself as one
would ideally like to be. Social-self (the perception of oneself as one believes others actually
perceive him to be), ideal-social-self (the perception of oneself as she/he would like others to
perceive him/her) and the expressive-self (the ideal-self or the social-self depending on
situational and social factors) were added to the single component perspective to extend the
viewpoint
Rogers (2010) proposed that individual behaviour is regulated by each persons perceived
similarities (or dissimilarities) of environmental conditions to the self image. Products and
brands have images that are perceived by individuals as having various symbolic meanings.
Therefore, products and brands are part of the environment. Accordingly, only those products
or brands symbolized as similar to the self concept and reject brands with images dissimilar
to the self concept.
Consumers tend to compare their self-image with the product images in the pre-purchase
stage of the decision-making process. This kind of comparison is known as self-
image/product image congruence process. Self-image congruence models predict that
products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspect of the self (Mengxia 2007
). The simplest form of this model can be seen in Figure 2. Many findings support the


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argument that consumers prefer, intend to purchase, or actually use brands with images they
see as being congruent with their actual self-concept (Malhotra, 1988). Other studies also
report that consumers are more likely to prefer, intend to purchase or use brands with images
that they see as being congruent with their ideal self-concept (Malhotra, 2001). Brand/social-
self-image relationship is not strongly supported by studies in the literature (Sirgy, 1982).
However, the relationship with brand/ideal-social-self-image is supported by empirical
evidence.
The discussion of self concept and product image congruity was initiated by Gardner and
levy 1957. By this time, the main attention was focused upon the images projected by various
products. Consumers were thought to prefer products with images which are congruent with
their self concept (Alvarez 2005).
Self image / product image congruity specifically to the match or mismatch of one or more
actual self image, or ideal self image, social self image or ideal social self image with the
corresponding personality images of the designated product. The match between actual self
image and product image has been referred to as self congruity.
Self concepts represent knowledge structures that consist of beliefs about the self, including
ones attributes, social roles and goals (Cassielles 2005). The individual, relational and
collective self concepts refers to whether the self is viewed as separate from others, linked to
others through relationships or included in large groups, respectively (Bremer & Chen 2007).
Consumers appear to hold images of various products, and these images can be viewed as
symbols that communicate meaning about those who purchase them (Rama 2010). Therefore,
an area of considerable practical interest is the degree to which a consumer might actually
prefer certain products or brands because she perceives their images as consistent with her
view of herself, what she would like to be or some other aspect of self concept. An
explanation of this behavior can only be understood following these steps (Rama 2010)
Consumers form their self concepts through psychological development and social
interaction. Because the individuals self concept has value to him, he will act to define,
protect and further it. Secondly, Products and brands are perceived by consumers as having
images or symbolic meaning. Thirdly, Because of their symbolic role, selective possession,
display and use of these good symbols assists an individual in defining and enhancing his self
concept for himself and for others. Therefore, the behavior of individuals will be motivated


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toward furthering and enhancing their self concept through the consumption of goods as
symbols. And lastly, the brands that will e preferred are those that the consumer perceives as
having images which are most consistent with his self concept (Rama 2010)
2.3 Brand attachment
Brand attachment refers to the strength of the bond connecting the brand with the self (Shaver
2007). This bond is exemplified by a rich and accessible memory network (mental
representation) that involves thoughts and feelings about the brand and the brands
relationship to the self.
According to Mikulincer (2007), two critical factors reflect the conceptual properties of brand
attachment, thats brand self connection and brand prominence.
2.3.1 Brand self connection;
This refers to the cognitive and emotional connection between the brand and the self. By
categorising the brand as part of the self, a consumer develops a sense of oneness with the
brand, establishing cognitive links that connects the brand with the self (Chaplin & John,
2005). Though cognitive in its representation, this brand-self image is inherently emotional
(Thomson, Shaver, & Park, 2005), involving myriad and potentially complex feelings about
the brand, including sadness and anxiety from brand self separation, happiness and comfort
from brand-self proximity, and pride from brand-self display. Consumers can be connected to
the brand because it represents who they are or because it is meaningful in light of goals,
personal concerns and life projects (Mittal 2006).
According to the study conducted by Chaplin (2005), Consumers can form such a strong
emotional connection with a brand that when that brand is replaced by a competitors
product, they can suffer separation anxiety. The bond can be strong enough, to the extent that
consumers are willing to sacrifice time, money, energy, and reputation to maintain their
attachment to a certain brand. As a result, competing brands are less likely to be regarded as
substitutes.
2.3.2 Brand prominence
In addition to brand self connection, previous researchers suggest that the extent to which
positive feelings and memories about the attachment object are perceived as top of mind, also


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serves as an indicator of attachment. According to Mikulincer (1998) and Collins (1996),
positive memories about the attachment object are more prominent for people who are highly
attached to an attachment object than for people who show weak attachment.
The notion that brand self connection develops over time and through experience, suggests
that brand related thoughts and feelings become part of a persons memory and vary in the
perceived fluency or the ease with which they are brought to mind.
Prominence reflects the salience of the cognitive and affective bond that connects the brand
to the self. This salience is reflected by the perceived ease and frequency with which brand
related thoughts and feelings are brought to mind. Thus consumers attachment in relation to
two brands with the same degree of brand self connection is greater for the brand that they
perceived as more prominent (Thomson, 2006).

The brands to which consumers are highly attached capture consumers mind and heart.
Therefore, attached consumers would be less likely to rely on alternatives, even in other
categories. The greater the attachment, the more difficult the behaviour the consumer is
willing to enact in order to maintain the brand relationship (Shaver, 2007).
Self congruity theory
Self-congruity theory asserts that consumer behaviour is partially determined by the
congruence resulting from a psychological comparison involving the product-user image or
brand image and the consumers self-concept (i.e. actual self-image, ideal self-image, social
self-image). This psychological comparison can lead to high self-congruity when the
consumer perceives the product user image or brand image to match that of his or her self-
image. The opposite generates low self-congruity. The underlying rationale is consumers
cognitive consistency needs. Specifically, consumers have psychological needs for self-
consistency and self-esteem (Sirgy, 1986).

Product that is perceived to have consistent image with ones self image satisfies his or her
needs. In turn, high self-congruity enhances the consumers positive attitude toward the
product (Johar & Sirgy, 1991). Conversely, product that is seen as inconsistent with ones


25
self image arouses cognitive dissonance, which the consumer will attempt to resolve by
bringing these inconsistencies into balance (Markin, 1974). Theoretically, therefore, self-
congruity theory is embedded in consumer psychology and is well-grounded.
2.4 Customer purchase behaviour
According to Richards (2009), customer purchase behavior is what influences consumers to
purchase products or services. Customer purchasing behaviors further refers to the activities
in which people acquire, consume and dispose products and services (Blackwell et al 2001).
Kanuk (2000) defines customer behavior as a way in which people make their decisions on
products with the use of their available resources such as time, money and efforts. Arnoud
(2004) proposed the circle of consumption that recognize the purchasing process as a loop
comprising of acquisition of goods and services, consumption as well as disposal.
There are four typical types of buying behaviors based on the type of products that intends to
be purchased. Complex buying behavior is where the individual purchases a high value brand
and seeks a lot of information before the purchase is made. Habitual buying behavior is
where the individual buys a product out of habit e.g. a daily newspaper, sugar or salt. Variety
seeking buying behavior is where the individual likes to shop around and experiment with
different products. So an individual may shop around for different breakfast cereals because
he/she wants variety in the mornings! Dissonance reducing buying behavior is when buyer is
highly involved with the purchase of the product, because the purchase is expensive or
infrequent. There is little difference between existing brands an example would be buying a
diamond ring, there is perceived little difference between existing diamond brand
manufacturers (Shaver 2007).
A consumers purchase behavior is influenced by a number of factors, many of which are
uncontrollable factors. Just think, what influences you before you buy a product or service?
Your friends, your upbringing, your culture, the media, a role model or influences from
certain groups?
Culture is one factor that influences behavior. Simply culture is defined as our attitudes and
beliefs. But how are these attitudes and beliefs developed? As an individual growing up, a
child is influenced by their parents, brothers, sister and other family member who may teach
them what is wrong or right (Edward & Harrison 2009). They learn about their religion and


26
culture, which helps them develop these opinions, attitudes and beliefs. These factors will
influence their purchase behavior however other factors like groups of friends, or people they
look up to may influence their choices of purchasing a particular product or service.
Reference groups are particular groups of people some people may look up to that have an
impact on consumer behavior (Patterson 2005). So they can be simply a band like the Spice
Girls or your immediate family members. Opinion leaders are those people that you look up
to because your respect their views and judgments and these views may influence consumer
decisions. So it maybe a friend who works with the IT trade who may influence your decision
on what computer to buy. The economical environment also has an impact on consumer
behavior; do consumers have a secure job and a regular income to spend on goods?
Marketing and advertising obviously influence consumers in trying to evoke them to
purchase a particular product or service (BTEC national marketing UK 2008).
According to Mehta, (1999), when purchasing a product there several processes which
consumers go through and these include; Problem recognition; How do you decide you want
to buy a particular product or service? It could be that your car has run out of gasoline and
you need to refill or you have just bought a new car and you need to service it.
Secondly, they do Information search; Consumers often do some form of information search
to help them through their purchase decision. Sources of information could be family, friends,
neighbors who may have the product you have in mind, and alternatively you may ask the
sales people, or dealers, or read specialist magazines (Mehta 1999).After searching for
information, they evaluation the different purchase options; Consumers allocate attribute
factors to certain products, almost like a point scoring system which they work out in their
mind over which brand to purchase. This means that consumers know what features from the
rivals will benefit them and they attach different degrees of importance to each attribute.
Consumers usually have some sort of brand preference with companies as they may have had
a good history with a particular brand or their friends may have had a reliable history with
one (Williams2006).
Finally, they make a purchase decision; Through the evaluation process discussed above
consumers will reach their final purchase decision and they reach the final process of going
through the purchase action e.g. The process of going to the shop to buy the product, which
for some consumers can be as just as rewarding as actually purchasing the product(William
2006). The final stage in the entire process is the post purchase behavior; ever have doubts


27
about the product after you purchased it? This simply is post purchase behavior and research
shows that it is a common trait amongst purchasers of products. Sellers of products clearly
want recent consumers to feel proud of their purchase; it is therefore just as important for
sellers to advertise for the sake of their recent purchaser so consumers feel comfortable that
they own a product from a strong and reputable organization Mehta (1999).
From the customers perspective, brand image is a guarantor of reliability and quality
(Roman 2005). Thus customers would like to buy and use brand names with a view to
highlight their personality in different situational context (Fennis & Pruyn 2006). Therefore,
advertising efforts should focus on influencing brand attitude which affects a customers
intention to purchase (Tsai et al 2007). Customers are always well equipped with comparative
elements to judge which products or services to purchase (Alvarez & Cassielles 2005).
2.5 Competitive platform in Uganda
The demand for petroleum products has been steadily growing over the past two decades in
Uganda. The demand for gas oil has doubled since 2003 largely as a result of licensing
generation plants using diesel and also as a result of more vehicles being imported into the
country (Alexander 2008). The large oil companies dominate the market, taking over 80%
market share. Shell is still the market leader with 31% market share, then Total in the second
place at 24% with its acquisition of Chevron as of 2008 (Kisaka 2008). These large
companies have scale advantages in purchasing bulk products, thus are in a position to
negotiate large discounts and make efficient use of expensive brand strategies compared to
smaller oil companies.
2.5.1 Retail Outlets
The retail outlets in Uganda are either Company owned and managed, company owned but
dealer run, dealer owned or company run or dealer owned and run. These retail outlets are
spread throughout the country, and they range from big retail sites that are owned by
multinational companies, to single pump filling stations owned by the locals. The marketing
strategies usually employed by these sites, range from price under cuttings, offering under
canopy discounts to brand image management especially with big recognized names.


28
However, no matter the intensity of competition that exist between these retail stations, most
of the petroleum companies cooperate to the extent that some are offering hospitality and
through put arrangements to those without their own storage facilities at an agreed fee. Shell
and Total are always the price makers in this market and then others follow.





















29
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This section presents the methodological aspects that were used in attaining the research
objectives. It highlights the research design, target population, sampling design, research
procedure, data collection instruments and mode of data analysis.
3.1 Research design
The study was quantitative and descriptive in nature. That is to say, it involved understanding
what petroleum consumers always consider in selecting where to refill from, it also analyzed
the impacts of various in built brand images on different customers. These enabled the
researcher gauge and measure the existence and strength of the relationship between
variables.
3.2 Study population and sample size
The study looked at Petroleum companies in Uganda and the specific unit of analysis was
service stations. The study population consisted of 32 registered Petroleum companies in
Uganda (PC), according to Ministry of energy and mineral development report of February
2010 and the sampling frame was made up 159 Petrol service stations (PSS) found in
Kampala city, thats according to the UNBS (2010). The target customers were those who
were refueling or servicing their vehicles at these stations at the time of the survey. PSS
refers to those stations that sell fuel and its other related products like lubricants.
The sample elements / participating petroleum companies (PC) were randomly selected and a
total of 6 petroleum companies were considered. The sample size for the PSS was based on
the five (5) divisions of Kampala city, namely, Kampala central division, Kawempe,
Makindye, Rubaga and Nakawa. This stratified random sampling led to purposively select 6
stations from each division making a sample size of 30 stations. Only one PSS belonging to
Total, Shell, Engen, Kobil, Petrocity and Super oil were selected in each division.



30
Table 3.1 Sampling frame
DIVISIONS PC
PSS
Sample
Customer sample
size (CSS)
Total 1 15
Shell 1 15
Kampala central Engen 1 15
Kobil 1 15
Petrocity 1 15
Super oil 1 15
Total 1 15
Shell 1 15
Nakawa Division Engen 1 15
Kobil 1 15
Petrol city 1 15
Super oil 1 15
Total 1 15
Shell 1 15
Makindye Division Engen 1 15
Kobil 1 15
Petrocity 1 15
Super oil 1 15
Total 1 15
Shell 1 15
Rubaga Division Engen 1 15
Kobil 1 15
Petrocity 1 15
Super oil 1 15
Total 1 15
Shell 1 15
Kawempe Division Engen 1 15
Kobil 1 15
Petrocity 1 15
Super oil 1 15
TOTAL 30 450

A sample size of 450 customers was considered manageable and a representative of the
study. This sample size took into consideration the lack of a sample frame and scholars such
as Roscoe (1975) who proposed a sample size of 30 to 500 as appropriate for studies with
large samples and Barley (1994) who proposed a minimum of 100 respondents for large
populations. 15 customers from each PSS were purposively selected to participate in the
survey. Only those customers who were servicing their vehicles at the time of the survey
were requested to fill in the questionnaire since they had sometime to self-administer the
questionnaire.



31
3.3 Data collection instruments
The researcher used self-administered questionnaires, which were given to the selected
customers at each service station. Questions on brand image were based on literature by
David (2005), then self concept on literature by Linda (2009), brand attachment on literature
by Lesley (2010) and customer purchase behavior on literature by Mehta (1999).
3.4 Measurement
Measurement of concepts was based on constructs identified in previous research. Brand
image was measured using attributes, benefits and personality as identified in the previous
research by David (2005), then the self concept measured basing on research by Linda, and
focus was on the actual self, ideal self and the social self, then brand attachment was
measured focusing on brand self connection and brand prominence as identified by Lesley
(2010) and lastly customer purchase behaviors was measured basing on previous research
conducted by Mehta (1999).
3.5 Data sources
Data for the study was obtained from both sources, that is to say, primary and secondary
sources. Primary data was collected using self administered questionnaires that were
physically given to the selected customers at the chosen service stations within Kampala.
Reliability and validity of this instrument was ascertained by conducting a pilot study prior to
data collection.
Secondary data was obtained from documentaries, magazines, statistics and books at the
ministry of Energy, independent research organizations like Kisaka, Uganda national beaural
of statistics, oil company records, and from previously conducted research studies.







32
3.6 Reliability and Validity
Table 3.2 Reliability and Validity Results table
Cronbach Alpha was used to measure the reliability and the Content Validity Index values
Variable
Number Of
Items
Cronbach
Alpha
Content Validity
Index
Brand Image 11 .763 .727
Self Concept 16 .710 .813
Brand Attachment 12 .761 .833
Customer Purchase Behaviour 11 .590 .750

The questionnaire items used to measure the variables were both valid and reliable as
indicated by the Cronbach Alpha and the Content Validity Index values which were above
0.550 for all the variables
3.7 Data processing and analysis
Primary quantitative data obtained from the study, was properly coded, edited, entered into
the computer and analyzed using (SPSS 12). Percentages, frequencies and Pearsons
correlations, factor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA), were used to analyze
variables.
3.8 Limitations to the study
The researcher was faced with the following limitations to this study which made it slightly
difficult than anticipated;
Unwillingness to fill questionnaires by the selected respondents; Being a type of study that
was conducted at service stations where people would wish to spend less time, some of the
respondent hesitated filling these questionnaires, claiming not have time. The researcher
therefore had to conduct the study in the evenings when respondents were a bit relaxed,
coming from work, as opposed to conducting them in the morning when they were rushing to
offices.


33
The second limitation was unwillingness by some of the station managers to grant the
researcher permission to collect data from customers at their stations. Since some of the
stations were company run, most of the posted station managers thought it was an attempt by
management to spy on them, while at other stations, dealers thought this was information
being gathered to be published in news papers. The researcher had a lot of explanations to do
in order to be allowed, and at certain moments, had to move with permission letters from
different head offices.
The third limitation was time. Since the study was conducted in Kampala, which is a very
busy district, yet the researcher had to administer questionnaires to 450 respondents, time was
not enough to enable him administer all the questionnaire alone. Thus the researcher had to
use research assistants to help him in administering questionnaires at certain points.
















34
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

4.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the research results. It explores the presentation, analysis and
interpretation of results from the data collected. The chapter comprises of four sections,
where Section one presents the sample characteristics showing age, gender, marital status and
level of education. The second section is for loading factors necessary in establishing how to
build a successful brand image in the petroleum industry. The third section examines the
relationships between variables using Pearsons correlations (r) then the fourth section deals
with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the final section looks at regression analysis
showing the predictive potential of the study variables.
The study addressed the following objectives;
1. Establish how to build a successful brand image in the petroleum industry
2. Examine the relationship between brand image and customers purchase behaviours
3. Examine the relationship between brand image and brand attachment
4. Analyse the relationship between self concept and customer purchase behaviours
5. Analyse the relationship between self concept and brand attachment
6. Analyse how brand attachment can influence customers purchase behaviours

4.1 Background Information
Data was analyzed to establish variations in age, sex, marital status and level of education of
the respondents. ANOVA analysis was also done to analyze the factors for any significant
differences between the means of the study variables in relation to these demographic
variables respondents. Results of the findings are displayed in the figures below.




35
4.2.1 Age Group of Respondent
The results in the table below indicate the nature of the respondents who participated in the
study.
Table 4.1 age of the respondents


Frequency Valid Percent

18-29 151 33.6
30-40 183 40.7
41-50 79 17.6
Above 50 37 8.2
Total 450 100.0

Results indicated that the majority of the respondents were in the 30 40 year age bracket
(40.7%), followed by the 18-29 year age bracket (33.6%), while the least represented of the
age groups was the above 50 year age bracket (8.2%). Finally, the respondents in the 41-50
year age bracket constituted 17.6%. This means that the biggest percentage of the driving
class in Uganda is within this age bracket.
4.2.2 Gender of respondent
The results below indicate the gender of respondents who participated in the study;
Table 4.2 gender


Frequency Valid Percent

Male 296 65.8
Female 154 34.2
Total 450 100.0

From the results above, majority of the respondents who participated in the study were males
(65.8%), while the females constituted only (34.2%). This indicates that both males and
females were covered in the study.




36
4.2.3 ANOVA results for Gender by Variable
The analysis of variance results for gender categories of the customers against the variables
were as indicated below.
Table 4.3 ANOVA for gender


N Mean
Std.
Deviation
Std. Error F Sig.
Brand Image
Male 296 2.688 .720 .114
5.174 .027
Female 154 2.296 .492 .105
Self Concept
Male 296 3.282 .759 .122
1.839 .180
Female 154 3.000 .817 .174
Brand Attachment
Male 296 2.976 .707 .110
2.050 .157
Female 154 2.705 .735 .157
Customer Purchase
Behaviour
Male 296 2.790 .741 .120
13.967 .000
Female 154 2.071 .638 .139


Results indicated that there are some differences among the gender categories on Brand
Image and Customer Purchase Behaviour. On the contrary, with Self Concept and Brand
Attachment, these customers dont differ significantly when it comes to their dealings with
the Petroleum Service Stations.

4.2.4 Marital status of respondent
The results in the table below indicate the marital status of all respondents that participated in
the study.
Table 4.4 marital status


Frequency Valid Percent

Single 218 48.4
Married 232 51.6
Total 450 100.0

Results from the study indicated that majority of the respondents involved were married
(51.6%), while the singles comprised of (48.4%). This showed that the biggest percentage of


37
people within the 30-40 age bracket are married and also form the biggest percentage of the
driving class.
4.2.5 ANOVA results for marital status by Variable
Table 4.5 ANOVA for marital status


N Mean
Std.
Deviation
Std. Error F Sig.
Brand Image
Single 218 2.625 .725 .137
.662 .419
Married 232 2.485 .627 .108
Self Concept
Single 218 3.259 .789 .152
.485 .489
Married 232 3.118 .789 .135
Brand Attachment
Single 218 2.966 .550 .102
.733 .395
Married 232 2.809 .844 .145
Customer Purchase Behaviour
Single 218 2.539 .836 .164
.002 .969
Married 232 2.530 .749 .130

There were no significant differences among the customers on all the variables when
examined in light of their marital status (sig. >.05).
4.2.6 Level of education of respondent
Results in the table below shows the highest levels of education acquired by the respondents
who participated in the study
Table 4.6 Level of education


Frequency Valid Percent

Primary 6 1.3
Secondary 72 16.0
Diploma 117 26.0
Degree 195 43.3
Post graduate 60 13.3
Total 450 100.0

Basing on the above findings, the biggest percentage of respondents were degree holders
(43.3%), followed by the diploma holders (26.0%), then secondary school level (16.0%),
postgraduates (13.3) and the least represented were the primary level at (1.3%). Since the


38
questionnaires were self administered, all the respondents were educated enough to
understand the questionnaire.
4.2.7 ANOVA results for highest level of education by Variable
Table 4.7 ANOVA for education level
N Mean
Std.
Deviation
Std. Error F Sig.
Brand Image
Primary 6 2.500 .354 .250
.684 .606
Secondary 72 2.750 .418 .171
Diploma 117 2.706 .532 .129
Degree 195 2.491 .719 .138
Post graduate 60 2.325 .898 .284
Self Concept
Primary 6 2.000 .000 .000
1.311 .277
Secondary 72 3.417 .665 .271
Diploma 117 3.219 .515 .129
Degree 195 3.204 .812 .156
Post graduate 60 3.150 1.081 .342
Brand Attachment
Primary 6 1.750 .354 .250
1.889 .124
Secondary 72 3.250 .689 .281
Diploma 117 3.000 .586 .142
Degree 195 2.839 .695 .131
Post graduate 60 2.800 .919 .291
Customer Purchase
Behaviour
Primary 6 3.000 .707 .500
1.021 .405
Secondary 72 2.750 .822 .335
Diploma 117 2.750 .658 .165
Degree 195 2.404 .872 .171
Post graduate 60 2.278 .667 .222

There were no significant differences among the customers on all the variables when
examined in light of their levels of education (sig. >.05), measuring that they understood the
questionnaire.






39
4.3.0 Establish how to build a Successful Brand Image in the petroleum industry
Factor analysis was employed to establish whether the items were measuring the same
constructs and also establish whether the variables have contributions that are significant.
Factor loading of 0.50 and above were considered significant for this study (Steven 1992)
Table 4.8 Factor analysis results for brand image


Factor Analysis Results for Brand Image



B
e
n
e
f
i
t
s

P
e
r
s
o
n
a
l
i
t
y

A
t
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
s

This company is always my first choice when it comes to car
servicing.
.672
Amsatisfied with the services offered here. .805
I always read magazines and papers to find out whats new
about this company.
.640
I can only trust my car with products provided by this company .903
This Petroleumcompany stands for good quality. .820
I can recommend a friend to this particular company .744
This companys brand name is so appealing. .566
The company logo symbolizes quality .606
I can mention a number of products provided by this company .885
This petroleumcompany is obviously different fromothers. .840
I agree with the decision to change the name of this petroleum
company.
.704
Eigen Value 4.883 1.568 1.307
Variance % 41.472 14.253 11.880
Cumulative % 41.472 55.725 67.605

Brand image construct was examined by 11 scale items which accounted for 67.6% of the
variance of the overall brand image scale. Four items were loaded on benefits, more four
loaded for personality and three items loaded for attributes and their significant contributions
were, Benefits 41.5%, Personality 14.2% and attributes 11.9%. Eigen values were greater
than unity (1.0).





40
4.3.1 Factor analysis for Self Concept

Table 4.9 factor analysis results for self concept

Factor Analysis Results for Self Concept

I
d
e
a
l

A
c
t
u
a
l


S
o
c
i
a
l


All I care about is getting the car serviced no matter where I do it from. .525
I think associating with this company says a lot about me. .740
Purchasing fromthis company symbolizes a bond with friends and
family.
.629
People always associate this brand with special people. .808
Being part of this company, symbolizes what I stand for. .794
This brand stands for a particular way of life. .766
I like to be considered outstanding in whatever I do .736
Ammore careful with my car than my friends are with their cars. .868
I think its fun trying out something new. .838
I go to this station because its where all my friends go. .553
I always consult my friends before servicing my car. .765
I always try to behave like my friend so that I feel ampart of the group. .761
Eigen Values 3.086 1.6025 1.091
Variance % 38.572 20.032 13.641
Cumulative % 38.572 58.604 72.245

Self concept construct was examined by 12 scale items which accounted for 72.2% of the
variance of the overall self concept scale. Six items were loaded on the ideal self, three items
loaded on the actual self and more three loaded on the social self. Their contributions were
Ideal self 38.5%, Actual self 20% and Social self 13.6%. Eigen values were greater than unity
(1.0).








41
4.3.2 Factor analysis for brand attachment
Table 4.10 factor analysis results for brand attachment


Factor Analysis Results for Brand Attachment



B
r
a
n
d

S
e
l
f

C
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n

B
r
a
n
d


P
r
o
m
i
n
e
n
c
e

To a large extent, this brand is part of me. .723
I feel personally connected to this company. .660
Amemotionally bonded to this company. .783
My thoughts and feelings about products offered are often automatic. .680
J ust a mention of this brand evokes many thoughts about the past, present and future. .735
I can't imagine life without products of this company. .668
Associating with this company reminds me of who I am. .782
I would rather drive to find another branch other than going to a different company. .805
This Petroleumcompany means a lot to me. .835
If I were to describe myself, this petroleumcompany would be something I can
mention.
.584
If someone ridiculed this company, I would feel bad. .676
Eigen Values 2.378 1.339
Variance % 39.629 22.311
Cumulative % 39.629 61.940

Brand attachment was examined by 11 scale items which accounted for 62% of the variance
of the overall brand attachment scale. Seven items were loaded on brand self connection,
while four items were loaded on brand prominence and their contributions were, brand self
connection 40%, brand prominence 22.3%. The Eigen values were greater than unity (1.0).








42
4.4.0 Relationships between variables
The researcher used the Pearson (r) order correlations to establish the relationships between
the variables.

Table 4.11, Correlation results
Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Benefits-1 2.64 .68 1.000
Personality-2 2.44 .86 .442** 1.000
Attributes-3 3.13 1.10 .245 .095 1.000
Brand Image-4 2.55 .67 .436** .259* .223 1.000
Self Concept-5 3.18 .79 .347** .094 .447** .378** 1.000
Brand Attachment-6 2.88 .72 .445** .113 .430** .599** .428** 1.000
Customer Purchase Behaviour-7 2.53 .78 .343** .168 .314* .596** .355** .446** 1.000
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

4.4.1 Examine the relationship between brand image and customer purchase behaviour
Results indicated that brand image is positively related to customer purchase behaviour
(r=.596**, p<0.01). When a company builds a sound brand image, it will always come as a
first priority when a customer is making a purchase decision. Usually many fuel consumers
go to buy from outlets with sound names because this is what comes to their minds first when
they think of buying.

4.4.2 Examine the relationship between brand image and brand attachment
Findings from the study indicated that brand image is positively related to brand attachment
(r=.599**, p<0.01). Every customer will at one time in his / her buying process wish to
associate with a certain product or company. Thus when a brands image is well established,
customers will also want to associate with it and thus creating a customer-brand attachment.






43
4.4.3 Analyse the relationship between self concept and customer purchase behaviour
Results indicated that there is a positive relationship between self concept and customer
purchase behaviour (r=.355**, p<0.01). Customers will always want to make a purchase
decision that fits their self. For example, to a customer who is over shadowed by the social
self, will always make a purchase decision of buying from a petroleum company where his
friend, relative or in-laws buy from so as to that social feel

4.4.4 Analyze the relationship between self concept and brand attachment
Research findings revealed that there is a positive relationship between a customers self and
brand attachment (r=.428**, p<0.01). When a customer defines who he is and what he stands
for, he will try to associate with brands that portray that desire character and hence
developing an attachment to that brand since it easily communicates who he is.

4.4.5 Analyse how brand attachment can influence a customers purchase behaviours.
Results indicated that Brand attachment is positively related to customer purchase behaviour
(r=.446**, p<0.01). Since a customer in his daily life is always faced with many and similar
petroleum products and service providers, the possibility of getting confused while making a
choice on where to buy is always high. However, when a petroleum company through
building a brand image manages to create an attachment with its customers, it will help in
guiding a customer on where to buy petroleum products from. When customers build an
emotional attachment with a certain brand, they will keep coming back to purchase, they will
always endeavour to find out whats new about that brand, they will keep referring friends
and relatives to the same brand, they will become loyal and satisfied with the brand, and
finally they will become less price sensitive, creating a scenario that even when prices are
slightly lower elsewhere, they will not be moved.









44
4.5 Regression Analysis
The regression model below shows the predictive potential of Brand Image, Self Concept and
Brand Attachment on Customer Purchase Behaviour

Table 4.12 Regression results for the study variables
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t Sig.
Model B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) .036 .401 .089 .930
Brand Image .750 .138 .622 5.424 .000
Self Concept .138 .105 .136 1.313 .031
Brand Attachment .062 .131 .055 .473 .053
Dependent Variable: Customer Purchase Behaviour
R Square .505

Adjusted R Square .478
F Statistic 18.737
Sig. .000

It is evident from the results that Brand Image, Self Concept and Brand Attachment have the
potential to explain 50.5% of the variance in the Customer Purchase Behaviour. The model
further tells us that it is very essential for the Oil Industry firms to deal with Brand Image
(Beta =.622, Sig. <.01) before they address any other issue.









45
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the discussion, conclusion and recommendations arising out of the
research findings and research objectives in chapter four and suggested areas for further
study. The study has generated several findings most of which are in line with existing
literature and previous research findings
. The discussion is about the following research objectives:
1. Establish how to build a successful brand image in the petroleum industry
2. Examine the relationship between brand image and customers purchase behaviours
3. Examine the relationship between brand image and brand attachment
4. Analyse the relationship between self concept and customer purchase behaviours
5. Analyse the relationship between self concept and brand attachment
6. Analyse how brand attachment can influence customers purchase behaviours

5.2 Discussion of the research results
The study revealed the following findings, most of which are in line with the precious
scholarly findings from other researchers work.
5.2.1 Establish how to build a Successful brand image in the petroleum industry
Results in the previous chapter indicated that for any Petroleum Company to be able to build
and profit from a successful brand image, three cardinal issues need to be addressed. First of
all, emphasis should be put on portraying the product benefits (with a significant contribution
of 41.5% on overall brand image), then put focus on promoting both product and company
personality and then show the product benefits.


46
Secondly, after successfully going through the first step, attention should now be shifted to
linking the above components to the customers ideal, actual and social self. Once this link is
created, the customers will start to develop attachments to the product and thus the company
will have succeeded in creating a customer-brand attachment.
To expound more on the observations made, Petroleum companies need to clearly show the
benefits the customer obtains from using the products that they market and sell, so as to
enhance the customers ability to recall the products they offer and also develop confidence
that the quality is the best that they could ever acquire on the market. These findings can
further be expounded with regard to the work of Plummer (2000) and Burman (2008) who
contends that, product attributes, the benefits/consequences of using a brand, and brand
personality are the three key components of the brand image. Hence in order to build a brand
image, petroleum companies should majorly focus on the major attributes of their products
(both functional and symbolic) as earlier proposed Cavelle (2010), portray the product
benefits and try to create a product personality that fits its target customers. Further empirical
and theoretical foundations were expounded in the work of Stockmans (2000) who examined
the relevance of product attributes in building brand image, Aaker (1997) who analyzed the
importance of product personality and Kotler (1999), Bove & Johnson (2000) who examined
product benefit in relation to brand image.
Furthermore, findings showed that benefits account for 41.472% of the Brand Image.
Thus it is really critical for the Petroleum Company to ensure that the customer rates them as
number one when it comes to car servicing (.672). Furthermore, its the duty of the company
to make sure the customer is satisfied with its services (.805). This is because the satisfied
customer will always return for more of the services. Other important issues with benefits
offered by the company had to do with the desire of the customer to continually read
magazines and papers to find out whats new about the company (.640) and fostering trust for
the company products among the various customers (.903). These results are supported by the
previous work done by Kotler (1999), where he asserts that benefits lead to certain end states
or values that consumers wish to achieve. Another study done by Bove and Johnson in (2000)
came up with similar findings demonstrating a positive relationship between perceived
benefits and consumer decision making.



47
Besides product benefits, the personality of the company and its products is also paramount
as it contributes 14.253% of overall brand image. Findings showed that its also very
important for a petroleum company to build a personality that can easily be matched with its
customers. When customers realise that a given petroleum company stands for quality as its
distinguishing characteristic (.820), they will always want to associate with it. These
customers, who get contented with quality products offered by these companies, are more
likely to recommend friends to buy from the same company (.744).furthermore, when
customers start associating quality with the company, whenever they see its logo, it will be
seen as a sign of quality (.606) and same will apply to its name (.566). These results are
supported by the previous work of Freling and Forbes who noted that favourable brand
personalities are a central driver of customer preference and usage. Further findings by
Keller 2006 also support the results by emphasising that Personality projects the brands
values and create an image of the brands typical user which might be the ideal image of the
customer

Then product attributes were also found to be useful with its significant contribution 11.880%
of brand image. It is the responsibility of the Petroleum Company, to expose those descriptive
features that characterize their products. This will automatically distinguish a particular
companys products from the others and this will in turn put a customer in a position where
he / she can mention a number of products provided by the company (.885). Customers of
that nature will always know what to buy when need arise. Once customers are in position to
distinguish between companies basing on the perceived attributes, they will obviously see
that their particular company is different from others much as they are all dealing in
petroleum products (.840). Another important attribute in building brand image, relates to the
company name. Once customers build an association with a given brand name, they will
prefer to always keep it rather than voting for change of that name since it will require
development of a totally new mental picture (.704). Previous work done by Puth (1999)
confirms the findings. He observed that consumers use perceived product attributes in the
decision making process. Stockman (1999) also noted that products are usually viewed as a
bundle of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes in the eyes of a customer.

Once these elements are embraced, they should then be linked to the customers self (ideal,
social or actual) so as to create a customer-product connection that further results into brand


48
attachment. These findings are further supported by the work of Chaplin & John (2005), who
contend that by categorising the brand as part of the self, a customer develops a sense of
oneness with the brand, establishing cognitive links that connects the brand with the self.

5.2.2 Examine the relationship between brand image and customers purchase
behaviours
Correlation analysis showed a significant positive relationship between brand image and
customer purchase behaviour. This means that customers while in their purchase decision
making process will always try to look for well established product names so as to shorten the
entire process. Petroleum companies with well established brands will become the number
one priority when a customer is bound to make a purchase decision. Thus, while building a
strong brand image, Petroleum companies should first look at the various reasons why
customers make a purchase so as to customise the brand image elements to the different types
of buying behaviours. For example, if a customers buying intention is influence by the
dissonance reducing buying behaviour, where a buyer is highly involved with the purchase of
a product; the Personality aspect of a brand should be given utmost importance. Then when
customers are influenced by habitual buying behaviours, benefits and attributes as aspects of
brand image should be emphasized most.
These results are supported by Yasin et al (2007) who noted that brand image is important for
product development in that it can be instilled in customers minds and hence it could have a
beneficial or detrimental effect on customers buying decision. Previous findings by Williams
(2006) also support the results, by asserting that consumers usually have some sort of brand
preferences with companies as they may have had a good history with a particular brand or
their friends may have had a reliable history with one.
5.2.3 Examine the relationship between brand image and brand attachment
According to the results of the study, a positive significant relationship between brand image
and brand attachment was observed. This means that, well established brand image aspects
like benefits, personality and attributes, will prompt customers to try and link them with their
personalities and once a fit is established, product-customer attachment will developed.


49
Basing on the brands attributes, benefits or personality, the customer will develop a deep
liking for that particular brand, he will start to develop cognitive and emotional connections
between the brand and the self (brand self connection) and hence brand attachment will
develop. Furthermore, this connection will start to evoke positive feelings and memories
about a brand (brand prominence).
These findings are in line with previous work done by Kumar (2006) who noted that its very
vital to build a strong brand image so as to create a customer brand attachment, and the
crucial elements are to have a clear differentiation with other products, to the extent that even
when trying to change the way a brand image is conveyed, the original brand personality and
value should first be strengthened in order to reduce to the minimum customers feelings of
chaos and inconsistence.
5.2.4 Analyse the relationship between self concept and customer purchase behaviours
According to the results of the study, a positive and significant relationship was observed
between self concept and customer purchase behaviour. This means that, before making a
purchase decision, customers are influenced by their ideal, social and actual self. Customers
will always want to buy products that portray their personalities. Individuals have perceived
self-images as certain kinds of people with certain traits, habits and relationships. These
preferences will dictate their purchase behaviours. For example an individuals ideal self with
a certain habit in mind, will always make a habitual purchase decision on a product that
brings out the habit.
Previous research done by Kotler & Keller (2005), confirm the results by showing that
customers usually select brands having their ideal and social self concepts in play. Goovers
(2005) also noted that customers preference would be influenced when their self concept is
in conformity with product personality. Mengxia (2007) also asserted that consumers tend to
compare their self image with the product image in the pre-purchase stage of the decision
making process and thus products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspects of
the self.





50
5.2.5 Analyse the relationship between self concept and brand attachment
Correlation results from the study indicated that there is a strong positive relationship
between self concept and brand attachment. When customers fall in love with certain brands,
they will try to find a link between those brands and how they perceive themselves pr how
they would like to be perceived by others. Once this link is established, the will start to
develop cognitive and emotional connections with that particular brand and hence resulting
into customer brand attachment. Thus Petroleum companies should try to create a match
between their product offerings and their customer self.
These findings are in line with previous research conducted by (Chaplin 2005), where he
identified that consumers can form strong emotional connections with certain brands that
match their ideal, social and actual selves, to the extent that when that brand is replaced by a
competitors product, they can suffer separation anxiety.
5.2.6 Analyse how brand attachment can influence customers purchase behaviours
According to the results of the study, a positive and significant relationship was observed
between brand attachment and customers purchase behaviours. The implication of this
finding is that, when customers become attached to a certain brand, it will always become
their number one choice when it comes to making a real purchase.
When customers develop cognitive and emotional connections with the brand (brand self
connection), this will result into a dissonance reducing buying behaviour since the buyer will
be always highly involved with the purchase of the product. Secondly, when a customer
develops positive feelings and memories about the attachment object (brand prominence), he
will now make it a habit to purchase such a product and thus resulting into habitual purchase
behaviours. Regression results showed that a combination of brand attachment, self concept
and brand image have a 50.5% predictive potential of customer purchase behaviour, thus
supporting the correlation results.
These findings are supported by the earlier work done by (Chaplin 2005), where he noted that
once the attachment is created, the bond will be strong enough to the extent that consumers
will be willing to sacrifice time, money, energy and reputation to maintain their attachment
and thus competing brands are less likely to be regarded as substitutes.



51
5.3 Conclusions
The study found that brand image is a very important aspect in influencing a customers
purchase decision in the Petroleum industry. Most of the customers give it a number one
priority in deciding where to fuel from. Thus Petroleum companies should treat building a
brand image with outmost importance in order to succeed.
Furthermore, the study also revealed that when a Petroleum company wants to build a long
lasting successful brand image, three major components should be given the number one
priority. These components are product benefits, attributes and personality. Exposing your
product benefits to your target customers puts them in a position where they are much a ware
of what they are buying. In regards to attributes, It is of a great significance for a company to
have a unique position such that the customer perceives them as unique on a desirable
characteristic for example customer care.
Focus should be put on the perceptual components of brand image and how they relate to
customer preferences. Advertising can make positive brand evaluations and attitudes readily
accessible in memory. This is crucial to the development of brand image because favourable
brand attitudes will only guide perceptions and behaviour if those attitudes can be instantly
evoked. In relation to Personality of a Petroleum company, focus should be on a set of unique
characteristics that distinguish a certain Petroleum company from others. Thus a well
moulded Personality will create a long lasting impression in the mind of the customer when it
gets to decision making in the buying process.
From the observations made in the study, the different components of brand image (benefits,
attributes and personality), can shape the type of purchase behaviour the customer is likely to
exhibit. For example if emphasis is put on product personality, and the customer develops an
attachment, dissonance reducing purchase behaviours are more likely to be exhibited and so
is habitual purchase behaviours when benefits and attributes are given greater attention.
From the study, we can also conclude that brand image alone without relating it to the
customers self, may not have a long lasting impact on the customers purchase behaviours.
Thus, when promoting brands, we also need to understand the different customer selves and
relate them to the brands so that we can create a customer brand attachment which is very
influential in the purchase decision making process.


52
Finally, basing on findings from the study, we can conclusively say that brand attachment
components (brand self connection and brand prominence) have the capacity to influence the
nature of purchase behaviour the customer is more likely to exhibit. Customers who have
developed a brand self connection will start to make it a habit to purchase that product and
thus will portray a habitual purchase behaviour, and so is dissonance reducing behaviour in
relation to brand prominence.

5.4 Recommendations
Basing on the findings from the study, the discussion that followed and the conclusions
drawn in line with the study objectives, the following recommendations can be made.
Brand image was found to be a major tool that can be used to remain competitive in the
Petroleum industry. It is thus imperative that Petroleum companies employ people who are
skilled, trained and experienced at brand management. Focus should shift from employing
people who have simply excelled in other fields like sales management to experience brand
managers.
Secondly, building a strong brand image requires focusing attention on benefits, attributes
and personality of the product. Once this is achieved, a number of benefits will accrue to the
company such as customer loyalty and less vulnerability to competitive marketing actions.
Thus Petroleum companies should make sure that customers identify with their brands and
are able to form associations of their brands. These companies should strive to establish
brand meaning in the mind of the customer by strategically linking tangible and intangible
brand associations. Sponsoring of events, programmes and other activities that benefit the
community are issues that should not be overlooked since these efforts consequently lead to
improved brand image.
Marketers of various Petroleum companies should know that brand image can be activated
either by external aids present in the market like package displays, labels or poster displays or
can be activated from memory by means of cues that associate the brand with the situation.
Complaints that the customers raise about the brand should be quickly addressed rather than
denied. A denial and dismissal of these complaints by management would make customers
develop negative attitudes towards the brand.


53
While promoting a certain petroleum brand, companies need to first understand the different
purchase behaviours the customers are more likely to exhibit and then work backwards to see
how they can relate them to the various components of brand image. This can only be done
by conducting market research in the petroleum industry.
The stations managers for the different Petrol stations should ensure that they have
performance evaluations for their staff. These evaluations / checklists should take into
consideration issues such as the manner in which an employee deals with the customer,
whether there are complaints about a particular employee.
Petroleum companies should also setup incentive schemes for all their staff that work at the
forecourt. It is important to note that the employees at the forecourt have more interactions
with the customers than anyone else in the company. Thus the brand image can be either
made or destroyed at the forecourt. Therefore, since these people act as the company
ambassadors, they need to be motivated so as to keep up with the desirable image.
5.5 Areas for further research
This particular study explored brand image, self concept, brand attachment and customer
purchase behaviours in the Petroleum industry, however, future researchers can still look at
different aspects surrounding this area like customer loyalty and brand equity to give it a
more broader body of knowledge.
Since this study was conducted in Kampala, another study needs to be done outside Kampala
so as to assess whether geographical location has any impact on the findings. This will help
in drawing final conclusions that can either be generalized or attributed to situations.
A study needs to be done to examine the various dimensions / components of brand image
that is, Personality, benefits and attributes to identify what determines the profitability of the
brand more than the other. This study will be very interesting since most of the Petroleum
companies are profit motivated and would be interested in assessing the various aspects of
generating more revenue for the firm.





54
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APPENDICES
4.3 QUESTIONNAIRE ON BRAND IMAGE, SELF CONCEPT, AND CONSUMER PURCHASING
BEHAVIORS IN THE UGANDAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
Dear respondent, this questionnaire is for academic purposes only; kindly fill it honestly as at most
confidentiality will be kept. Thank you a lot for your time.
Name of petrol station where you usually fuel or service your car
fromDivision where its found
Bio-data information
1. Age of the respondent
A. 18-29 years B. 30-40 years C. 41-50 years D. Above 50 years
2. Gender
A. Male B. Female
3. Marital status
A. Single B. Married
4. Level of education
A. Primary B. Secondary C. Diploma D. Degree
E. Post graduate
Brand image
Use the scale below and circle what you feel is appropriate in relation to this particular petroleum
company.
A- Totally agree B- Agree C- Neutral D- Disagree E- Totally disagree
1. I can mention a number of products provided by this company
A B C D E
2. This petroleum company is obviously different from others.
A B C D E
3. This company is always my first choice when it comes to car servicing.
A B C D E
4. This Petroleum company stands for good quality.


60
A B C D E
5. I can recommend a friend to this particular company
A B C D E
6. This companys brand name is so appealing.
A B C D E
7. I agree with the decision to change the name of this petroleum company.
A B C D E
8. Am satisfied with the services offered here.
A B C D E
9. The company logo symbolizes quality
A B C D E
10. I always read magazines and papers to find out whats new about this company.
A B C D E
11. I can only trust my car with products provided by this company
A B C D E
Self concept
Kindly circle on the response that match your description using the scale below
A- Totally agree B- Agree C- Neutral D- Disagree E- Totally disagree
1. I like to be considered outstanding in whatever I do?
A B C D E
2. Am more careful with my car than my friends are with their cars.
A B C D E
3. I only take my car to Petrol stations with well known brands.
A B C D E
4. I think its fun trying out something new.
A B C D E
5. I go to this station because its where all my friends go.


61
A B C D E
6. I always consult my friends before servicing my car.
A B C D E
7. I feel so proud associating with this petroleum company.
A B C D E
8. I always try to behave like my friend so that I feel am part of the group.
A B C D E
9. I always plan on where to service my car from before I take it there.
A B C D E
10. All I care about is getting the car serviced no matter where I do it from.
A B C D E
11. I think associating with this company says a lot about me.
A B C D E
12. Probably people, who know me, might think of this product when they think of me.
A B C D E
13. purchasing from this company symbolizes a bond with friends and family.
A B C D E
14. People always associate this brand with special people.
A B C D E
15. Being part of this company, symbolizes what I stand for.
A B C D E
16. This brand stands for a particular way of life.
A B C D E
Brand attachment
Kindly circle on the response that match your description using the scale below
A- Totally agree B- Agree C- Neutral D- Disagree E- Totally disagree
1. To a large extent, this brand is part of me A B C D E


62
2. I feel personally connected to this company A B C D E
3. Am emotionally bonded to this company A B C D E
4. My thoughts and feelings about products offered
Here are often automatic A B C D E
5. Just a mention of this brand evokes many thoughts
About the past, present and future A B C D E
6. I cant imagine life without products of this company A B C D E
7. I would rather drive to find another branch other
Than going to a different company A B C D E
8. This Petroleum company means a lot to me A B C D E
9. Even a completely similar product cannot replace
Products offered here A B C D E
10. Associating with this company reminds me of who I am A B C D E
11. If I were to describe my self, this petroleum company
Would be something I can mention A B C D E
12. If someone ridiculed this company, I would feel bad A B C D E
Customer purchasing behaviour
Please circle on the appropriate response basing on the scale below
A- Totally agree B- Agree C- Neutral D- Disagree E- Totally disagree
1. Even if prices are slightly higher, I can still buy from here A B C D E
2. I always look at value for money before buying A B C D E
3. Am extremely loyal to this product A B C D E
4. I get fully satisfied when I use this companys products A B C D E
5. I can pay an extra cost simply to get what I want A B C D E
6. I can only buy from where I save a lot A B C D E
7. Since all companies have similar products, I dont
Care buying from any where A B C D E


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8. I always think about quality before buying A B C D E
9. Pricing will always be my number one concern A B C D E
10. If am offered a better scheme, I can shift to
Another company A B C D E
11. My status always influences the decisions I make A B C D E
THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION