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# Expansion loop calculation

Index
1 Expansion loop

2 Deduction

3 Table A-1.

4 Lambda.

## Coefficient of linear expansion of some of the m

5 Elasticity module

6 Spiraxsarco.

7 Vitaulic.

References

## xpansion loop calculation

expansion loop equation
for the material as functiuon of temperature

## art for expansion loops sizing

for expansion loops sizing

Expansion loop
Steel pipe expansion loop with nominal diameter "dn" shedule "SCH" and length "Linst"
The given length "Linst" refers to an installation at a temperature "tinst".
The pipe will expand with respect to its length "Linst", due to the temperature rise t = tmax - tinst
The maximum temperature could be reached due to the pipe temperature and solar radiation,
or due to fluid flowing through it.
Similarly, the pipe will shrink due to low temperatures and clear sky nights.
Data
Material:
dn =
SCH =
Linst =

A 53 - Gr. B

10
40

in

Elasticity module
Elasticity module of selected material

100

at operation temperature

tinst =

10

toperation =

174.2

## Polar inertia moment

Material type, to obtain "E"

I=
de =

Allowable stress

E=

1.93E+11 Pa

re =

## Allowable stress of selected material

Auxiliary data

di =

at operation temperature
allow =
137.9

ri =

MPa

## Linear expansion coefficient

Expansion coefficient of selected material

in

SCH =
di =

40

de =

Carbon Steel

1.29E-05

10

di =

at operation temperature

dn =

m/(m*K)

de =

Pipe_Imp_CS_Dint_dn_sch

#VALUE!

mm

Pipe_Imp_CS_Dext_dn

#VALUE!

mm

I=
Temperature differential
t =
toperation =
tinst =
t =

Note 1. The pipe dimensions are automatically calculated only for carbon steel materials. For other materials,
the interior and exterio diameter dimensions must be entered manually into the corresponding cells
Carbon steel expansion loop

## Length "L" of expansion loop

0.378 * ( (3 * E * d * L) / (allow) )^0.5
L=

L = 0.378

E=
d=
L =
allow =

3 E d f tot

1.93E+11 Pa
#VALUE! m
0.211
m

L=

1.38E+08
#VALUE!

Pa
m

W=

#VALUE!

## Length "L" of expansion loop

0.378 * ( (3 * E * d * DL) / (sadm) )^0.5
L=
E=
3.0E+09 Pa
d=
#VALUE! m
L =
0.090
m
allow =
4.96E+07 Pa
L=
#VALUE! m
W=

#VALUE!

Tensile strength @ 23 C
=
7200
=
5.0E+04

## Carbon steel pipes

dn
Sch
in
1/ 2
5
1
10
1
20
2
30
2
40
3
60
4
80
5
100
6
120
8
140
10
160
12
STD
14
XS
16
XXS
18
20
22
24
26
28
30

3 E d f tot

PVC
Modulus of elasticity @ 23 C
E=
4.3E+05 psi
E=
3.0E+06 kPa

Annexes A, B y C
Do not delete these lines

L = 0.378

psi
kPa

Expansion (PVC)
L * * Dt
DL =
L=
91.4
=
0.000054
t =
18.3
L =
0.090

32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48

## Rev. cjc. 06.04.2014

L/2

L/2

D
C

Esquema de la lira

/4 *(re^4-ri^4)
#VALUE!

#VALUE!

Pipe expansion L

#VALUE!

mm

## The expansion loop will absorb this length

#VALUE!

#VALUE!

emperature differential
toperation - tinst

L =

* Linst * Dt

=
Linst =

1.29E-05
100

t =

164.2

K
m

m/(m*K)

174.2

L =

0.21

10

L =

211.27

mm

164.2

L =

0.211

## . For other materials,

ponding cells

www.piping-tools.net
Expansion_loop.xlsm
Carbon steel expansion loop

pansion loop

pansion loop

L=

E=

## Allowable stress for selected mater

at its temperature
allow =
Rev. Cjc, 22,01,2013

Pipe dimensions
dn =
SCH =
de =
de =

d=

## Linear expansion coefficient

Expansion coefficient of selected m
at operation temperature
=

L=

## Pipe installed length

Linst =
Rev. Cjc, 22,05,2013

m
m / (C * m)
C
m

ww.piping-tools.net
xpansion_loop.xlsm
arbon steel expansion loop

Temperature differential
toperation - tinst
t =
toperation =
174.2

## asticy module for carbon steel C < 0.3%

1.93E+11

Pa

tinst =

10

t =

164.2

Pipe expansion L
The expansion loop will absorb this length

## lowable stress for selected material

its temperature
1.379E+08

Pa

pe dimensions
10
STD

in
-

Pipe_Imp_CS_Dext_dn

#VALUE!

mm

L =
=
Linst =
t =
L =

* Linst * t
1.29E-05
100
164.2
0.211

m/(m*K)
m
K
m

## Length "L" of expansion loop

L = 0.378 * ( (3 * E * d * L) / (allow) )^0.5

E=

1.93E+11 Pa

#VALUE!

## near expansion coefficient

xpansion coefficient of selected material
operation temperature
1.29E-05
m/(m*K)

#VALUE!
0.211

m
m

1.38E+08
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Pa
m
m

## Total pipe lenght

Ltot =
2*L+W

pe installed length
100

d=
L =
allow =
L=
W=

Ltot =

#VALUE!

Clculo de lira considerando la flexin en los dos brazos y el giro en los codos

El clculo de la longitud "L" de los brazos se realiza considerando la condicin de que se produzca como mximo un es
El aumento de temperatura produce una extensin de Linst en la caera

Lira

## La dilatacin de la caera produce una deflexin "Linst/2"

en el punto "C" del a brazo izquierdo "AC" de la lira.
Lo mismo ocurre en el brazo "BD" de la lira.
A

## En los extremos "C" y "D" de la lira se produce una flecha

f = Linst/2
Esta flecha se debe en parte a una flexin de los brazos
y en parte al giro en los codos en "A" y "B".
Estas dos flechas se deben a la fuerza "P" originada por
la extensin de la caera. Esta fuerza produce una flecha
"f1" debida a la flexin del brazo y una flecha "f 2" debida
al giro del codo.

en el extremo libre (brazos)
L

## Una flecha "f2", debida al giro del codo

de la lira en el punto "A", se agrega a
la flecha "f1" debida a la flexin del
f = f1 + f2
brazo. La flecha total es
P

f1

se tiene

## Flecha. [1]. Tabla 8.1, pgina 218

Flecha debida a la flexin de la viga

f 1=

PL 3
3EI

(1)

P=

3EI f
L3

1

EI

Figura 2
(2)

d y
= PL
dx 2

Intergrando

x
A

d2y
=M
dx 2

M = PL

Lira

EI
con

D
C

Figura 1

## Ecuacin diferencial de la curv

deformada de la viga "A-B" (Fi

d dy

EI dx dx dx = P
EI

dy
=P L x +c
dx

dy
P L x +c
=
dx
E I

La pendiente es

luego,

dy
P L
=
( x m / 2)
dx
E I

tan( ) =

## Pendiente en el codo A (en x = 0)

=
x =0

=
x =0

dy
dx

f2 =

con c = d/2

P L2
4 E I

f1 =

de (3)

(5)

d
I2

M = PL
y reemplazando P de (2)

P=

3 E I f1
L3

d
I 2
3 E I f1
d
=
L
L3
I 2
3 E f1 d
=

L2
2

max = P L
max
max

P L3
P L3
f2 +
3E I
4E I
P L3 4
P L3 3
f =
+

3E I 4 4 E I 3
4 P L3 3 P L3
f =
+
12 E I 12 E I
7 P L3
f =
12 E I
f =

P L3
4 E I

(4)

(1)

P L3
3 E I

Reemplazando f1

M max
I /c

max =M max

f = f1 + f 2

## La flecha en el punto C debida a la

flexin del largo "L" de la lira es

Esfuerzo mximo

max =

f2
L

f2
P L2
=
L
4 E I

P L L / 4
E I

x =0

La flecha total en C es

luego

P L m / 2
E I

P L3
f2 =
4 E I

tan( ) =

L/m =
2
m=
L/2

dy
dx

P L2
4 E I

dy
PL0 PLm/2
x=0 =
dx
EI
dy
dx

## y la flecha en el punto C debid

giro en el codo A es

(6)

f
max

max

(1)4

1=

## Para la lira completa, es decir

considerando la deflexin de l
brazos, se tiene que

f tot = 2 f

3 E 4
d
= 2 f
L 7
2

6 E f d
=
7 L2

Despejando

6 E d f
L2 =
7 max

L=

6Edf
7 max

(7)

de un brazo

L=

6 E d ( f tot /
7 max

L=

6 E d f tot
14 max

L=

3 E d f tot
7 max

## Momento en el codo (punto A)

M max =PL
Reemplazando la fuerza P por (2)
(2)

M max =

3EI f
L

## Para una viga en cantilever "AC",

el momento inducido en "A" por
una flecha impuesta en el punto "C,
debida a la dilatacin de la caera,
es

M max =

3EI f
L2

1 de 4

f

f
C

D
C

L/2

2 de 4

## cuacin diferencial de la curva

eformada de la viga "A-B" (Figura 2)

EI

d2y
=M
dx 2

Para x = m/2
dy/dx =

luego

c =P L m / 2

M = PL

(3)

Reemplazando en (3)

EI

dy
= PLx PLm/2
dx

EI

d y
= PL
dx 2

EI

d dy

EI dx dx dx = P L dx
EI

dy
=P L x +c
dx

dy
P L x +c
=
dx
E I

(4)

dy
= P L ( x m / 2 )
dx

3 de 4

## a flecha en el punto C debida al

ro en el codo A es

f2 =

PL
4 E I
3

(5)

a flecha total en C es
= f1 + f 2
P L3
P L3
f2 +
3E I
4E I
P L3 4
P L3 3
=
+

3E I 4 4 E I 3
4 P L3 3 P L3
=
+
12 E I 12 E I
7 P L3
=
12 E I
=

7 P L3
12 E I
4 P L3
f1 =
12 E I
3 P L3
f2 =
12 E I
4 P L3
f1 12 E I
4
=
=
3
7PL
f
7
12 E I
4
f1 = f
7
3 P L3
f 2 12 E I
3
=
=
3
7PL
f
7
12 E I
3
f2 = f
7
f =

4 de 4

## ara la lira completa, es decir

nsiderando la deflexin de los dos
azos, se tiene que

f tot = 2 f

f =

tot

L=

1
7

3 E d f tot

max

3Edf
max

L=

6 E d ( f tot / 2 )
7 max

L=

6 E d f tot
14 max

## Esta es la longitud del brazo de la

lira que, para la expansin dada de
la caera, produce el esfuerzo

3 E d f tot
7 max

## Ver Hoja Vitaulic. Vitaulic propone

misma ecuacin, con la diferencia
que el factor 0.378 es redondeado
a 0.4 (Hoja 7)

L=

L =0 . 378

tot

## Allowable stress as function of temperature [MPa]

3
1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Material 38
1
2
3
A 53(Type F) Gr.A
110.3
A 53 - Gr. A
110.3
A 53 - Gr. B
137.9
A 106 - Gr. A
110.3
A106 - Gr. B
137.9
A106 - Gr. C
160.6
API 5L - Gr. A
110.3
API 5L - Gr. A25
103.4
API 5L - Gr. B
137.9
API 5L - Gr. X42
137.9
API 5L - Gr. X46
144.8
API 5L - Gr. X52
151.7
API 5L - Gr. X56
163.4
API 5L - Gr. X60
172.4
API 5L - Gr. X65
177.2
API 5L - Gr. X70
188.2
API 5L - Gr. X80
206.8
A312 - Gr. TP 304
137.9
A312 - Gr. TP 304L
115.1
A312 - Gr. TP 304H
137.9
A312 - Gr. TP 309
137.9
A312 - Gr. TP 310
137.9
A312 - Gr. TP 316
137.9
A312 - Gr. TP 316L
115.1
A312 - Gr. TP 316H
137.9
A312 - Gr. TP 317
137.9
A312 - Gr. TP 317L
137.9
1
2
3

10

11

12

13

93
4
110.3
110.3
137.9
110.3
137.9
160.6
110.3
103.4
137.9
137.9
144.8
151.7
163.4
172.4
177.2
188.2
206.8
137.9
115.1
137.9
137.9
137.9
137.9
115.1
137.9
137.9
137.9
4

149
5
110.3
110.3
137.9
110.3
137.9
160.6
110.3
100.0
137.9
137.9
144.8
151.7
163.4
172.4
177.2
188.2
206.8
137.9
115.1
137.9
137.9
137.9
137.9
115.1
137.9
137.9
137.9
5

204
6
110.3
110.3
137.9
110.3
137.9
157.9
110.3
95.1
137.9
137.9
144.8
151.7
163.4
172.4
177.2
188.2
206.8
128.9
108.9
128.9
137.9
137.9
133.1
106.9
133.1
133.1
130.3
6

260
7
"N/A"
110.3
130.3
110.3
130.3
148.9
"NA"
"NA"
130.3
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
120.7
102.0
120.7
137.9
137.9
123.4
99.3
123.4
123.4
122.0
7

316
8
"N/A"
102.0
119.3
102.0
119.3
135.8
"NA"
"NA"
119.3
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
113.1
96.5
113.1
132.4
132.4
117.2
93.1
117.2
117.2
115.8
8

343
9
"N/A"
100.0
117.2
100.0
117.2
133.8
"NA"
"NA"
117.2
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
111.7
94.5
111.7
129.6
129.6
115.1
91.0
115.1
115.1
114.5
9

371
10
"N/A"
99.3
113.8
99.3
113.8
132.4
"NA"
"NA"
113.8
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
110.3
93.1
110.3
126.2
126.2
112.4
88.9
112.4
112.4
111.7
10

399
11
"N/A"
73.8
89.6
73.8
89.6
102.0
"NA"
"NA"
89.6
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
107.6
91.7
107.6
124.1
124.1
111.0
86.9
111.0
111.0
108.9
11

427
12
"N/A"
64.1
74.5
64.1
74.5
82.7
"NA"
"NA"
74.5
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
104.8
89.6
104.8
120.7
120.7
109.6
85.5
109.6
109.6
106.9
12

454
13
"N/A"
54.5
60.0
54.5
60.0
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
60.0
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
102.7
88.3
102.7
100.7
100.7
108.2
83.4
108.2
108.2
104.8
13

TEMPERATURE C
14
15
16
482
14
"N/A"
44.8
44.8
44.8
44.8
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
44.8
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
100.7
82.0
100.7
95.8
95.8
106.9
81.4
106.9
106.9
"N/A"
14

510
15
"N/A"
31.0
31.0
31.0
31.0
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
31.0
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
99.3
68.3
99.3
86.2
86.2
106.2
79.3
106.2
106.2
"N/A"
15

538
16
"N/A"
17.2
17.2
17.2
17.2
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
17.2
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
95.1
53.8
95.1
72.4
75.8
105.5
77.2
105.5
105.5
"N/A"
16
t=
S=

17

18

19

20

566
17
"N/A"
11.0
"NA"
11.0
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
11.0
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
84.1
43.4
84.1
58.6
49.0
100.0
74.5
100.0
100.0
"N/A"
17

593
18
"N/A"
6.9
"NA"
6.9
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
6.9
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
66.9
35.2
66.9
44.8
34.5
85.5
70.3
85.5
85.5
"N/A"
18

621
19
"N/A"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
53.1
27.6
53.1
34.5
24.8
67.6
60.7
67.6
67.6
"N/A"
19

649
20
"N/A"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
"NA"
41.4
22.1
41.4
26.2
17.2
51.0
44.1
51.0
51.0
"N/A"
20

593
66.9

621.0
53.1

Table A-1. Basic alowable stresses in tension for metals (Page 157 - 161) de ASME B31.3-2002
ASME B31.3-2002

Table A-1. Basic alowable stresses in tension for metals (Page 157 - 161)

## Allowable stress as function of temperature [MPa]

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Spec
A 53
A 53
A 53
A 106
A106
A106
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
A312
A312
A312
A312
A312
A312
A312
A312
A312
A312

TEMPERATURE C
38
93
149
Gr. A 110.3 110.3 110.3
A
110.3 110.3 110.3
B
137.9 137.9 137.9
A
110.3 110.3 110.3
B
137.9 137.9 137.9
C
160.6 160.6 160.6
A
110.3 110.3 110.3
A25 103.4 103.4 100.0
B
137.9 137.9 137.9
X42 137.9 137.9 137.9
X46 144.8 144.8 144.8
X52 151.7 151.7 151.7
X56 163.4 163.4 163.4
X60 172.4 1482.4 172.4
X65 177.2 177.2 177.2
X70 188.2 188.2 188.2
X80 206.8 206.8 206.8
TP 304 137.9 137.9 137.9
TP 304L 115.1 115.1 115.1
TP 304H 137.9 137.9 137.9
TP 309 137.9 137.9 137.9
TP 310 137.9 137.9 137.9
TP 316 137.9 137.9 137.9
TP 316L 115.1 115.1 115.1
TP 316H 137.9 137.9 137.9
TP 317 137.9 137.9 137.9
TP 317L 137.9 137.9 137.9

204
110.3
110.3
137.9
110.3
137.9
157.9
110.3
95.1
137.9
137.9
144.8
151.7
163.4
172.4
177.2
188.2
206.8
128.9
108.9
128.9
137.9
137.9
133.1
106.9
133.1
133.1
130.3

260

316

343

371

399

427

454

482

510

538

566

593

110.3
130.3
110.3
130.3
148.9

102.0
119.3
102.0
119.3
135.8

100.0
117.2
100.0
117.2
133.8

99.3
113.8
99.3
113.8
132.4

73.8
89.6
73.8
89.6
102.0

64.1
74.5
64.1
74.5
82.7

54.5
60.0
54.5
60.0

44.8
44.8
44.8
44.8

31.0
31.0
31.0
31.0

17.2
17.2
17.2
17.2

11.0

6.9

11.0

6.9

130.3

119.3

117.2

113.8

89.6

74.5

60.0

44.8

31.0

17.2

11.0

6.9

120.7
102.0
120.7
137.9
137.9
123.4
99.3
123.4
123.4
122.0

113.1
96.5
113.1
132.4
132.4
117.2
93.1
117.2
117.2
115.8

111.7
94.5
111.7
129.6
129.6
115.1
91.0
115.1
115.1
114.5

110.3
93.1
110.3
126.2
126.2
112.4
88.9
112.4
112.4
111.7

107.6
91.7
107.6
124.1
124.1
111.0
86.9
111.0
111.0
108.9

104.8
89.6
104.8
120.7
120.7
109.6
85.5
109.6
109.6
106.9

102.7
88.3
102.7
100.7
100.7
108.2
83.4
108.2
108.2
104.8

100.7
82.0
100.7
95.8
95.8
106.9
81.4
106.9
106.9

99.3
68.3
99.3
86.2
86.2
106.2
79.3
106.2
106.2

95.1
53.8
95.1
72.4
75.8
105.5
77.2
105.5
105.5

84.1
43.4
84.1
58.6
49.0
100.0
74.5
100.0
100.0

66.9
35.2
66.9
44.8
34.5
85.5
70.3
85.5
85.5

621

649

53.1
27.6
53.1
34.5
24.8
67.6
60.7
67.6
67.6

41.4
22.1
41.4
26.2
17.2
51.0
44.1
51.0
51.0

ASME B31.3-2006

## Table A-1. Basic alowable stresses in tension for metals (Page

Carbon
157
steel
- 161)
pipes and tubes. Pag. 140- 144

## Allowable stress as function of temperature [ksi]

1 ksi =

Material
Type F

Butt weld

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

6.895 Mpa
TEMPERATURE C
38
93
Temperature F
100
200
A 53
Gr. A, Type F 16
16
A 53
A
16
16
A 53
B
20
20
A 106
A
16
16
A106
B
20
20
A106
C
23.3
23.3
API 5L
A
16
16
API 5L A25
15
15
API 5L
B
20
20
API 5L X42
20
20
API 5L X46
21
21
API 5L X52
22
22
API 5L X56
23.7
23.7
API 5L X60
25
215
API 5L X65
25.7
25.7
API 5L X70
27.3
27.3
API 5L X80
30
30
A312 TP 304
20
20
A312 TP 304L 16.7
16.7
A312 TP 304H 20
20
A312 TP 309
20
20
A312 TP 310
20
20
A312 TP 316
20
20
A312 TP 316L 16.7
16.7
A312 TP 316H 20
20
A312 TP 317
20
20
A312 TP 317L 20
20

149

204

260

316

343

371

300
16
16
20
16
20
23.3
16
14.5
20
20
21
22
23.7
25
25.7
27.3
30
20
16.7
20
20
20
20
16.7
20
20
20

400
16
16
20
16
20
22.9
16
13.8
20
20
21
22
23.7
25
25.7
27.3
30
18.7
15.8
18.7
20
20
19.3
15.5
19.3
19.3
18.9

500

600

650

16
18.9
16
18.9
21.6
16

14.8
17.3
14.8
17.3
19.7
14.8

14.5
17
14.5
17
19.4
14.5

14.4
16.5
14.4
16.5
19.2
14.4

18.9

17.3

17

16.5

17.5
14.8
17.5
20
20
17.9
14.4
17.9
17.9
17.7

16.4
14
16.4
19.2
19.2
17
13.5
17
17
16.8

16.2
13.7
16.2
18.8
18.8
16.7
13.2
16.7
16.7
16.6

16
13.5
16
18.3
18.3
16.3
12.9
16.3
16.3
16.2

700

399

427

454

482

510

538

566

593

621

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1100

1150

10.7
13
10.7
13
14.8
10.7

9.3
10.8
9.3
10.8
12
9.3

7.9
8.7
7.9
8.7

6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6

1
1
1
1

7.9

6.5

4.5

2.5

1.6

13

10.8

8.7

6.5

4.5

2.5

1.6

15.6
13.3
15.6
18
18
16.1
12.6
16.1
16.1
15.8

15.2
13
15.2
17.5
17.5
15.9
12.4
15.9
15.9
15.5

14.9
12.8
14.9
14.6
14.6
15.7
12.1
15.7
15.7
15.2

14.6
11.9
14.6
13.9
13.9
15.5
11.8
15.5
15.5

14.4
9.9
14.4
12.5
12.5
15.4
11.5
15.4
15.4

13.8
7.8
13.8
10.5
11
15.3
11.2
15.3
15.3

12.2
6.3
12.2
8.5
7.1
14.5
10.8
14.5
14.5

9.7
5.1
9.7
6.5
5
12.4
10.2
12.4
12.4

7.7
4
7.7
5
3.6
9.8
8.8
9.8
9.8

ASME B31.3-2002
Table A-1. Basic alowable stresses in tension for metals (Page 157 - 161)
38

Material Spec
A 285 Gr. AA 134
A 285 Gr. AA 672

A45

to
100
15
15

Butt weldAPI 5L
smls
API 5L

A25
A25

15
15

Type F

A 53

Gr. A

16

A 53
A 106
A 135
A 369
API 5L

A
A
A
FPA
A

16
16
16
16
16

A 285 Gr. AB 672
285 Gr. B A 134

A 50

16.7
16.7
18.3

A 515 Gr. A60671
A 515 Gr. A61672
A 516 Gr. A62672

CC60
C860
B60
C60

20
20
20
20

B
B
6
6
FPB
Y35
B

20
20
20
20
20
20
20

A 53
A106
A 333
A 334
A 369
A 381
API 5L

X42
X46
X52
X56

100
20
21
22
23.7

## A 516 Gr. A65671

A 515 Gr. A65671
A 515 Gr. A65672
A 516 Gr. A65672

CC65
C865
B65
C65

100
21.7
21.7
21.7
21.7

A 516 GR.A70
671
A 515 GR.A70
671
A 515 GR.A70
672
A 516 GR.A70
672

CC70
CB70
B70
C70

100
23.1
23.1
23.1
23.1

API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L

A106

23.3

API 5L
API 5L
API 5L
API 5L

X60
X65
X70
X80

25
25.7
27.3
30

Table C
ASME B31.3

1
1
Material

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

(Through
3Cr-Mo)
9Cr-Mo
18Cr-8Ni
27Cr
25Cr-20Ni
67Ni-30Cu
3.5Ni
Alloys
Aluminum
Iron
Bronze
Brass
70Cu-30Ni
Ni-Fe-Cr
Ni-Cr-Fe
Ductile
Iron

2
-536
2
-

3
-522
3
-

4
-508
4
-

5
-494
5
-

1.1E-05
-

1.2E-05
-

1.2E-05
-

1.3E-05
-

6
-480
6
-

1.4E-05
-

7
-466
7
9.0E-06
8.4E-06
1.5E-05
7.7E-06
9.9E-06
8.5E-06
1.4E-05
1.8E-05
1.5E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
-

8
-452
8
9.1E-06
8.5E-06
1.5E-05
7.8E-06
1.0E-05
8.8E-06
1.4E-05
1.8E-05
1.5E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
-

9
-438
9
9.2E-06
8.6E-06
1.5E-05
7.8E-06
1.0E-05
9.0E-06
1.5E-05
1.8E-05
1.5E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
-

10
-424
10
9.3E-06
8.7E-06
1.5E-05
7.9E-06
1.1E-05
9.2E-06
1.5E-05
1.9E-05
1.5E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
-

11
-411
11
9.4E-06
8.8E-06
1.5E-05
8.0E-06
1.1E-05
9.5E-06
1.5E-05
1.9E-05
1.5E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
-

12
-397
12
9.5E-06
9.0E-06
1.5E-05
8.1E-06
1.1E-05
9.8E-06
1.5E-05
1.9E-05
1.5E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
8.4E-06

13
-383
13
9.7E-06
9.2E-06
1.5E-05
8.3E-06
1.2E-05
9.9E-06
1.5E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
8.6E-06

14
-369
14
9.9E-06
9.3E-06
1.5E-05
8.5E-06
1.2E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
8.8E-06

15
-355
15
1.0E-05
9.5E-06
1.5E-05
8.5E-06
1.2E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
8.9E-06

16
-341
16
1.0E-05
9.5E-06
1.5E-05
8.6E-06
1.2E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
9.2E-06

17
-327
17
1.0E-05
9.7E-06
1.6E-05
8.8E-06
1.2E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
9.4E-06

18
-313
18
1.1E-05
9.9E-06
1.6E-05
9.0E-06
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
9.6E-06

19
-299
19
1.1E-05
9.9E-06
1.5E-05
9.0E-06
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
2.1E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
9.8E-06

20
-286
20
1.1E-05
9.9E-06
1.5E-05
9.0E-06
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
9.9E-06

21
-272
21
1.1E-05
1.0E-05
1.5E-05
9.0E-06
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
2.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
7.7E-06

22
-258
22
1.1E-05
9.8E-06
1.6E-05
9.0E-06
1.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.1E-05

23
-247
23
1.1E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
9.4E-06
1.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
2.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.1E-05

24
-230
24
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
2.3E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.1E-05

25
-216
25
1.1E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
9.8E-06
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
2.3E-05
1.0E-05
1.8E-05
1.7E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.1E-05

26
-202
26
1.1E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
9.9E-06
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
2.3E-05
1.0E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.1E-05

27
-188
27
1.1E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
9.9E-06
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
2.3E-05
1.0E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.1E-05

28
-174
28
1.1E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
9.9E-06
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
2.3E-05
1.0E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.1E-05

29
-161
29
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
2.3E-05
1.0E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.1E-05

30
-147
30
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
2.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.1E-05

31
-133
31
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
2.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.1E-05

32
-119
32
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
2.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.1E-05

Table C-1
Thermal expansion coefficient " " [m/(m*K)] for metals

33
-105
33
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
2.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.1E-05

34
-91
34
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
2.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.1E-05

35
-77
35
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
2.4E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05

36
-63
36
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
2.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05

37
-49
37
1.2E-05
1.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
2.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.8E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05

38
-36
38
1.2E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
2.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05

39
-22
39
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
2.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05

Temperatura C
40
41
-8
6
40
41
1.3E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.5E-05
1.2E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
2.5E-05
2.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.1E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.2E-05

Table C-1

mperatura C
42
20
42
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
2.5E-05
1.1E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.2E-05

43
34
43
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
2.5E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

44
48
44
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.7E-05
2.6E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

45
62
45
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

46
76
46
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
1.9E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

47
89
47
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

48
103
48
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

49
117
49
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

50
131
50
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.6E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05

51
145
51
1.4E-05
1.2E-05
1.8E-05
1.1E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.7E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05

52
159
52
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.7E-05
1.5E-05
1.3E-05

53
173
53
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

54
187
54
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.2E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

55
201
55
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
2.0E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

56
214
56
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.6E-05
1.3E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

57
228
57
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

58
242
58
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.7E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

59
256
59
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.8E-05
1.2E-05
1.6E-05
1.7E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

60
270
60
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
1.3E-05

61
284
61
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
1.9E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
-

62
298
62
1.4E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
2.0E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
-

63
312
63
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
2.0E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
-

64
326
64
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
2.0E-05
2.1E-05
1.7E-05
-

65
339
65
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
-

66
353
66
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
-

67
367
67
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
-

68
381
68
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
1.7E-05
-

69
395
69
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.7E-05
-

70
409
70
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.7E-05
-

71
423
71
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.7E-05
-

72
437
72
1.5E-05
1.3E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
-

73
451
73
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
-

74
464
74
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
-

75
478
75
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
-

76
492
76
1.5E-05
1.4E-05
1.9E-05
1.2E-05
1.7E-05
1.8E-05
1.8E-05
-

77
506
77
1.9E-05
1.8E-05
-

78
520
78
1.9E-05
1.8E-05
-

79
534
79
1.9E-05
1.8E-05
-

80
548
80
1.9E-05
1.8E-05
-

## Table B. Young Modulus of Elasticity E

1
2
3
4
5

Metal
1
1
1
Carbon steel C <= 0.3%
Carbon steel C => 0.3%
Carbon-moly steels
Nickel steels Ni 2% - 9%
Cr-Mo steels Cr 1/2% - 2%

6
7

## Cr-Mo steels Cr 2 1/4% - 3%

Cr-Mo steels Cr 5% - 9%

## 2.2E+11 2.2E+11 2.2E+11 2.1E+11 2.1E+11

2.3E+11 2.2E+11 2.2E+11 2.1E+11 2.1E+11

2
-200
2
2.2E+11
2.2E+11
2.1E+11
2.0E+11
2.2E+11

3
-129
3
2.1E+11
2.1E+11
2.1E+11
2.0E+11
2.1E+11

4
-73
4
2.1E+11
2.1E+11
2.1E+11
2.0E+11
2.1E+11

## Gray cast iron

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d_773.html
Mpsi =
6.9E+09 Pa

5
21
5
2.0E+11
2.0E+11
2.0E+11
1.9E+11
2.0E+11

6
93
6
2.0E+11
2.0E+11
2.0E+11
1.9E+11
2.0E+11

Cast iron
1.3E+01 1.3E+01

## Young Modulus of Elasticity E [Pa]

Temperature (oC)
7
8
9
10
149
204
260
316
7
8
9
10
2.0E+11 1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.8E+11
1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.8E+11
1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.8E+11
1.8E+11 1.8E+11 1.8E+11 1.7E+11
2.0E+11 1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.9E+11

11
371
11
1.8E+11
1.7E+11
1.7E+11
1.7E+11
1.8E+11

12
427
12
1.7E+11
1.7E+11
1.6E+11
1.6E+11
1.8E+11

13
482
13
1.5E+11
1.5E+11
1.5E+11
"N/A"
1.7E+11

14
538
14
1.4E+11
1.4E+11
1.4E+11
"N/A"
1.6E+11

15
16
593
649
15
16
1.2E+11 "N/A"
1.2E+11 1.1E+11
1.2E+11 1.1E+11
"N/A"
"N/A"
1.6E+11 1.5E+11

2.0E+11 2.0E+11 2.0E+11 1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.8E+11 1.8E+11 1.7E+11 1.6E+11 1.6E+11
2.0E+11 2.0E+11 2.0E+11 1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.8E+11 1.7E+11 1.6E+11 1.4E+11 1.3E+11
1.9E+11 1.9E+11 1.8E+11 1.8E+11 1.8E+11 1.7E+11 1.6E+11 1.5E+11 1.3E+11 1.1E+11
1.9E+11 1.8E+11 1.8E+11 1.7E+11 1.7E+11 1.7E+11 1.6E+11 1.6E+11 1.5E+11 1.5E+11
Cast iron
1.3E+01 1.3E+01 1.2E+01 1.2E+01 1.1E+01 1.0E+01

Temperature
Metal

-200

-129

-73

21

93

149

204
4

## Carbon steel C <= 0.3%

Carbon steel C => 0.3%
Carbon-moly steels
Nickel steels Ni 2% - 9%
Cr-Mo steels Cr 1/2% - 2%

31.4
31.2
31.1
29.6
31.6

30.8
30.6
30.5
29.1
31

30.2
30
29.9
28.5
30.4

29.5
29.3
29.2
27.8
29.7

28.8
28.6
28.5
27.1
29

28.3
28.1
28
26.7
28.5

27.7
27.5
27.4
26.1
27.9

## Cr-Mo steels Cr 2 1/4% - 3%

Cr-Mo steels Cr 5% - 9%
Chromium steels Cr 12%,
17%, 27%
Austenitic steels (TP304,
310, 316, 321, 347)

32.6
32.9

32
32.3

31.4
31.7

30.6
30.9

29.8
30.1

29.4
29.7

28.8
29

31.2

30.7

30.1

29.2

28.5

27.9

27.3

30.3

29.7

29.1

28.3

27.6

27

26.5

## Gray cast iron

13.4

13.2

Cast iron
12.9
12.6

Temperature (oC)
260

316

371

427

482

538

593

649

5
27.3
27.1
27
25.7
27.5

26.7
26.5
26.4
25.2
26.9

25.5
25.3
25.3
24.6
26.3

24.2
24
23.9
23
25.5

22.4
22.2
22.2

20.4
20.2
20.1

18
17.9
17.8

15.4
15.3

24.8

23.9

23

21.8

28.3
28.6

27.7
28

27.1
27.3

26.3
26.1

25.6
24.7

24.6
22.7

23.7
20.4

22.5
18.2

26.7

26.1

25.6

24.7

23.2

21.5

19.1

16.6

25.8

25.3

24.8

24.1

23.5

22.8

22.1

21.2

12.2

11.7

11

10.2

st iron

http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steam-engineering-tutorials/steam-distribution/pipe-expansion-and-suppor

## For expansion "

pipe nominal diameter "dn
Spiraxsarco graph provide
expansionloop width "W" (

L =
dn =
Estimated value from Fig.
W=

e-expansion-and-support.asp

## or expansion "L" (mm), and a

pe nominal diameter "dn" (in),
piraxsarco graph provides an
pansionloop width "W" (m).

90
mm
273
mm
stimated value from Fig. 10.4
2.55
m

Vitaulic equation for an expansion loop
Vitaulic equation

H = 0 .4
5W =
W=
H=
H=
H=

3 E d f tot

L
L/5
2*W
2*L/5
0.4 * L

L = 0.378

3 E d f tot
max

## E: Elasticity module of material

d: exterior pipe diameter
ftot: total pipe expansion
S: Allowable stress of material

3 E d f tot

H=

3 E d f tot
max

ed in sheet 2

ule of material

ess of material

[1]

## Elementos de resistencia de materiales

S. Timoshenko, D. H. Young
Ed. Limusa, 1996

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steam-engineering-tutorials/steam-distribution/pipe-expansion-and-su

[5]

## F(Simple drive):\Libreria\Piping\Piping Handbook (7th Edition)

[6]

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d_773.html

distribution/pipe-expansion-and-support.asp

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