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# Statistical Methods/Techniques and Their Applications

Situation: Trying to determine if the population means of 2 groups are significantly different from
one another. The observations are interval data.
Statistical Tool: t-test for two independent samples
equal variance
unequal variance
matched pairs
Situation: Trying to determine if 2 population proportions are significantly different from one
another. The observations are interval data.
Statistical Tool: z-test for two population proportions
Situation: Trying to determine if observed frequencies (in a fixed number of categories) differ from
expectations (past or from theory). The observations fall into nominal categories. We are
counting number of observations in each category.
Statistical Tool: Chi-Squared goodness of fit test
Situation: re t!o classifications of a population of nominal data independent of one another"
t!o#dimensional contingency table is used that has the count of a number of observations in each
cell.
Statistical Tool: Chi-Squared test for independence
Situation: We are trying to determine !hether or not there is a linear relationship (or correlation)
bet!een t!o interval variables. We !ant to forecast one thing from one other thing\$ if possible.
Statistical Tool: Simple linear regression
Situation: We are trying to determine !hether or not the means of a number of (%) groups of
interval data are significantly different from one another. The observations are interval.
Statistical Tool: One-way ANOA
Situation: We are interested in examining the effects on an interval response variable (or
observations) of t!o factors.
&s there a factor effect" re the means of the groups significantly different for factor "
&s there a factor ' effect" re the means of the groups significantly different for factor '"
&s there an ' interaction effect (the interaction should be analy(ed first). &s the response for
factor dependent on the level of factor ' and vice#versa"
Statistical Tool: Two-factor ANOA or !"M ANOA
Situation: We are trying to predict or estimate the value of one variable (interval) from several
other variables (interval or categorical). The relationship bet!een variables (iv and dv) can be
linear or non#linear.
Statistical Tool: Multiple #egression
&f the analyst believes there could be a quadratic relationship bet!een iv and dv\$ a quadratic term
should be included and tested. That is at middle values for the iv\$ the dv values are especially
high (or lo!). &f the scatter plot of the dv versus an iv loo%s approximately as belo!\$ !e should
li%ely test a quadratic term for significance\$ using a t test.
&f the analyst !ould li%e to determine if interaction terms are appropriate\$ these terms should be
included and tested using a t test. &f the interaction is significant\$ do not interpret the individual
variables in isolation.
)xample: *ultiple +egression model !ith 2 predictor variables (one !e believe has a quadratic
relationship !ith the dv)\$ and interaction.
+ + + + + =
2 1 4
2
1 3 2 2 1 1 0
x x x x x Y
)xample: *ultiple +egression !ith one &nterval variable and &ndicator (,ominal-.ategorical)
variables representing / groups
+ + + + =
2 3 1 2 1 1 0
I I x Y
Situation: We have historical data and !e !ant to forecast a single variable at some point(s) in
the future. The data has a long term up!ard or do!n!ard trend and seasonality.
Statistical Tool: Time-Series Analysis
t t t
SI X Y F

=
t
t
y
y
Ratio

=
ssessing the 0orecast or 0orecasting *ethods
periods time of number n
t period time at series time the of value forecasted F
t period time at series time the of value actual y
n
F y