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Editura Romania de Maine, 2007

Editura acreditata de Ministerul Educafiei Cercetiirii

prin Consiliul National a/ Cercetiirii Stiintifice
din invatiimantul Superior
Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Nationale a Romaniei
A Practical English Handbook for Law Students.
Intermediate Level I Adina Radulescu- Ed. a 3-a-
Editura Fundatiei Romania de Maine, 2007
ISBN 978-973-163-043-4
811.111 :34(075.8)
Reproducerea integrala sau fragmentara, prin orice forma
prin orice mijloace tehnice, este strict interzisa
se conform legii.
Riispunderea pentru confinutul # originalitatea textului
revine exclusiv autoruluilautorilor.
Redactor: Andreea DINU
Tehnoredactor: Vasilichia IONESCU
Coperta: Marilena BALAN
Bun de tipar: 30.11.2007; Coli tipar: 8
Format: 16/61x86
Editura Fundatiei Romania de Maine
Bulevardul nr.58, Sector 6
Tel./Fax:021/444 20 91;
Intermediate Level
Third Edition
Unit 1. British Law vs. US Law.... . . . ....... . ................... . .......... 7
Unit 2. Forms of Punishment...................... . .. .. .................. .. 16
Unit 3. The European Court of Justice- Composition and Structure . . . 24
Unit 4. Institutions of the Community........ . ........... . .. . .... . .. . .... 32
Unit 5. Daily Telegraph.................... . .... . ................... . .... ... . 39
Unit 6. Daily Telegraph..... . ... ... .................. ...................... . . 47
Unit 7. Home Confinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53
Unit 1. Student First Amendment Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Unit 2. Contempt of Court or Violation of Freedom of the Press? 67
Unit 3. The Role of Federal Courts in Balancing Liberties and Safety 75
Unit 4. United States Constitution: Amendments...... . .. .... .... .. .. . 81
Unit 5. Disclosure of Classified Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 88
Unit 6. Health Care Fraud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 95
Unit 7. Identity Theft.... ... .. .. . .. ..... . ........ . ................. . . . ........ 103
Key to Exercises
Part I .. . ..... . .. . .. ... . ....... . .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. ....... . .... .. ......... . .......... 112
Part II ... .... . . . ..... . ... . . . .. . ...... . . .. . . ...... . .. . .. . ......... .. ........... .. 114
Appendix A - Phrasal Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116
Appendix B- English-Romanian Glossary of Legal Terms ... .. .... . ... . 121
Bibliography .. ... .... .. ... . ..... .. ... ... .. ... .. .. .. ............ . ........... . .. ... 128
The main sources of British law are common law, legislation
and, more recently, European Community law. Scotland and Northern
Ireland have their own legal system and lawcourts, distinct from those
in England and Wales.
A distinctive ancient British law is that of habeas corpus. This
Latin phrase literally means 'you must have the body', and is the
opening words of a 17th -century writ guaranteeing a person a fair trial.
A person who believes that he is being wrongly held by the police can
issue a writ of habeas corpus to have his complaint heard by a court.
This is also part of the US Constitution.
A trial in a criminal court is a contest between the prosecution,
who put the case and call the evidence against the defendant, and the
defence. The defendant normally has a lawyer to represent him and act
as his legal adviser. An accused person pleads 'guilty' or 'not guilty'.
It is a principle of English law that a person is presumed to be
innocent until proved guilty, and the Prosecution have to satisfy the
Court of the defendant's guilt so that the Court is sure of it, otherwise
he must be found 'not guilty'.
The jury, who make the eventual decision in the Crown Court as
to whether the defendant is actually 'guilty' or 'not guilty', is normally
composed of 12 people chosen at random from the list of local people
who have a right to vote in the area. Their decision is called a verdict.
The lawyers who speak for the prosecution or the defence in
magistrates' courts and county courts are normally solicitors, while in
the Crown Courts they are barristers. In Scotland a barrister is known as
an 'advocate'. Barristers are so called because they have been 'called to
the Bar' by one of the Inns of Court.
Young people under 1 7 are tried in a special juvenile court, a
kind of magistrates' court which is held separately from the other
courts. Sudden or suspicious deaths are investigated in a special
coroner's court.
US law is based on English law and is represented by common
law, statute law, and the US Constitution. There are two types of
court, state and federal, with each state having its own distinctive
laws, courts and prisons. Federal law cases are first heard before a
federal district judge in a district court presided over by a Chief Judge.
Appeals are made to one of 13 Courts of Appeal or to the Supreme
Court, the highest in the country. The federal legal system has its own
police force, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
A sheriff in the USA is the chief law enforcement officer in a
county, with the power of a police officer in the matter of enforcing
criminal law. In his judicial role he is entitled to serve writs. He is
elected by the local people in all states except Rhode Island.
In England and Wales the sheriff is the principal officer of the
Crown in a county, with mainly ceremonial duties. In Scotland,
however, he is a judge in a sheriff court, which deals with most types
of crimes.
(Oxford Advanced Learner's Encyclopedic Dictionary)
I. Match the words in column A with their definitions in
column Band then with their Romanian equivalents in column C:
2. habeas corpus
3. writ
4. the prosecution
a. a person against whom an
action or claim is brought in a
court of law.
b. a lawyer who has been called
to the bar and is qualified to
plead in the higher courts.
c. the judicial review by a
superior court of the decision of
a lower tribunal.
d. lawyer who advises clients on
matters of law, draws up legal
documents, prepares cases for
barristers, etc., and who may
plead in certain courts.
m. ordonantii,
n. apararea
o. Barou
p. avocat
insarcinat cu
5. defendant e. the four private unincorporated q. drept comun
societies in London (Lincoln's
Inn, Inner Temple, Middle Temple,
Gray's Inn) that function as a law
school and have the exclusive
privilege of calling candidates to
the English bar.
6. the defence f. a document under seal, issued r. cladiri
in the name of the Crown or a londoneze
court, commanding the person to apaqinand Ia
whom it is addressed to do or patru societati
refrain from doing some specified juri dice
7. solicitor g. a public official responsible s. procuratura,
for the investigation of violent, acuzarea
sudden, or suspj.cious deaths.
8. barrister h. the institution and conduct of t. medic legist
legal proceedings against a person ~ procuror
msarcinat cu
9. the Bar 1. the body of law based on u. avocat
judicial decisions and custom, as pledant
distinct from statute law.
10. Inns of Court j. all those who belong to the v. habeas corpus
profession of barrister.
11. coroner k. a writ ordering a person .to be w. apel, recurs
brought before a court or j:udge,
especially so that the court may
ascertain whether his detention
is lawful.
12. appeal 1. the defendant and his legal x. acuzat,
advisers collectively. inculpat, parat
II. Complete the following sentences using the words in the box
in different expressions. Each word will be used more than once:
I verdict appeal evidence law cnme trial
1. There was enough . : ........ to prove hini guilty.
2. Has the jury reached a ........... ?
3. The client has decided not to .......... .
4. The police are there to enforce the ....... .
5. What ........... has he committed?
6. I thirik that the criminal will be brought to ........ .
7. I never break the ..... ... I am a ...... -abiding citizen.
8. Have you any ......... to support this statement?
9. After the jury has announced the ...... , you may have the right of
10. He. is now forced to stand . . . .. . . . . . . for trying to get round the
11. His statement to the police.was used in ........ against him.
12. His case is still on ...... . He has promised to keep on the right
side of the ..... from now on.
ill. Extract from the sentences in exercise II. the English
equivalents for the following Romanian expressions; the first one
has been done for you as an example:
Romanian expressions
EnKlish equivalents
a dovedi vinovatia cuiva to prove sb. guilty
1. a stabili un verdict 1.
2. a pune in aplicare legea 2.
3. a co mite o infractiune 3.
4. a fi actionat in justitie 4.
5. a incalca legea 5.
6. a avea dreptul de a face un recurs/apel 6.
7. a fi supus unui interogatoriu{la un proces) 7.
8. a ocoli legea 8.
9. a fi in curs de judecare (un caz) 9.
10. a actiona pe cale legala 10.
IV. Choose the correct version, looking the new words up in
the Glosarry:
1. A person who steals money placed in his care.
a) a forger b) an arsonist c) an embezzler d) a poacher
2 ................. means catching game birds, animals or fish without
permission on somebody else's property.
a) hunting b) stealing c) trespassing d) poaching
3. A person who enters a building illegally, especially by force,
in order to steal.
a) a burglar b) a robber c) a hooligan d) a vandal
4. A person who steals money, etc from other people's pockets,
especially in crowded places.
a) a thief b) a pickpocket c) a shoplifter d) a robber
5. The judge has pronounced of ten
a) an accusation b) a punishment c) a sentence d) a conviction
6. The correct spelling for
Romanian word - delapidator- is:
the English equivalent of the
a) imbezzler b) embezler c) embezzler d) embezller
7. He has been released from prison .................... and if he does
not behave satisfactorily, he will be sent back.
a) on probation b) on remission c) into custody d) on testing
8. There was no need for a trial, because the client decided to
.................... and forgive the attacker.
a) serve his sentence b) appear in court c) drop all the charges
d) commute his sentence
9 . ............... means money paid by or for a person accused of a
crime, as security that he will return for his trial if he is allowed to go
free until then.
a) Probation b) Bribe c) Bail d) Fine
10. A .................... is a lawyer who prepares legal documents,
advises clients on legal matters and speaks for them in lower courts.
a) solicitor b) prosecutor c) judge d) barrister
11. A person who takes people hostage for a ransom is called a
a) hijacker b) bandit c) kidnapper d) rapist
12.The correct spelling for the English equivalent of the
Romanian word- omor prin prudenta- is:
a) mens laughter b) manslother c) manslaughter d) manslauther
13. After ten hours, the Jury fmally reached its ................ : the
prisoner was guilty.
a) sentence b) verdict c) point d) conclusion
14. A person who willfully gives a false statement while under
oath, concerning a material matter in a judicial proceeding is said to
commit .................. .
a) slander b) bribery c) perjury d) treason
15. A ....................... is someone who testifies, especially in a
court of law to events or facts within his own knowledge.
a) registrar b) spectator c) witness d) friend
V. Provide the Romanian translation for the following
English words, using the Glossary:
n ~ l i s h terms Romanian equivalents
1. a forger 1.
2. an arsonist 2.
3. an embezzler 3.
4. a poacher 4.
5. a burglar 5.
6. a robber 6.
7. a hooligan 7.
8. a vandal 8.
9. a thief 9.
10. a pickpocket 10.
11. a shoplifter 11.
12. a hijacker 12.
13. a bandit 13.
14. a kidnapper 14.
15. a rapist 15.
16. a smuggler 16.
1 7. a trespasser 17. -
18. a mugger 18.
19. an assassin 19.
20. a terrorist 20.
VI. Choose the correct version, paying attention to the use of
English tenses:
1. Judge Williams ........................ today as judge Thomson has
been taken ill.
a) presides b) will preside c) is presiding d) presided
2. Before taking up his duty, each judge ................ an oath to
respect his responsabilities.
a) takes b) is taking c) took d) has taken
3. The members of the jury ....... now ................... on the murder
a) is_ deliberating b) were_ deliberating c) are_ deliberating
d) have _ been deliberating
4 ............................. to represent yourself in the trial?
a) Will you b) Are you going c) You are going d) Will you be
5. Look out! One of the robbers .......................... .
a) will shoot b) is shooting c) was shooting d) is going to shoot
6. I ....................... my solicitor tomorrow; I am changing my will.
a) am seeing b) will see c) see d) would see
7. As soon as I .............. from my lawyer, I will let you know.
a) will hear b) heard c) will have heard d) hear
8. You cannot enter this room. The witness ........................ ..
cross-examined right this moment.
a) is being b) is c) will be d) has being
9. The coroner .......................... the case right now.
a) investigates b) is investigating c) will investigate
d) has been investigating
10. My client will make an appeal when the verdict
a) will be b) was c) has been d) is being
Vll. Match the English expressions in column A with their
equivalent Romanian translations in column B, using the Glossary:
to serve a sentence = a executa o sentinta
1. to pronounce a sentence a. a comuta o pedeapsa
2. to be released on probation b. cu domiciliu foqat
3. to be taken into custody c. a fi eliberat pe cautiune
4. to drop all the charges d. a suspenda o sentinta
5. to commute a sentence e. a depune un juramant
6. to be released on bail f. a renunta la toate acuzatiile
7. to take an oath g. a pronunta o sentinta
8. to suspend a sentence h. a urmari in iustitie
9. under house arrest i. a fi arestat
10. to bring to court j. a fi pus in libertate sub supraveghere
vrn. Match the verbal tenses in the left column with their
corresponding grammatical term; the first one has been done for
you as an example:
Verbal tenses Corresponding grammatical term
is investigating Present Tense Continuous
1. will have prosecuted a. Past Tense Simple
2. has been protecting b. Past Perftct
3. was advising c. Present Tense Simple
4. had been examining d. Present Perfect Continuous
5. defended e. Future Tense Continuous
6. will dismiss f. Past Tense Continuous
7. had robbed g. Past Perfect Continuous
8. have committed h. Future Tense Simple
9. will have been pleading i. Present Perfect
10. will be analysing j. Future Perfect Continuous
11. convicts k. Future Perfect
IX. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal
tense indicated in italics:
l. I ...................... (see) my solicitor tomorrow. (Present Tense
2. What . ........... you (think) about? (Present Tense Continuous)
Why .......... you (not talk) to me about your problems? (Present
Tense Simple)
3. After deliberating for hours, the jury .... . ... . .......... (decide) to
declare the defendant not guilty. (Present Perfect)
4. Why ...... .. . . .... you (accept) to take this case if you consider
your client to be guilty? (Present Perfect)
5. Yesterday he .... .. .... (come) into my office and ....... . . (ask) for
my help. I ......... (tell) him that I would help him but he ... . ..... .
(not seem) to trust my words. (Past Tense Simple)
6. I .............. (wait) for you in front of the cinema when I ........ .
(realize) that somebody ............... (watch) me insistently. Soon
after I . .......... (decide) to leave. (Past Tense Continuous and
Past Tense Simple)
7. Judge Moony ............... (preside) in this court of law for more
than ten years. (Present Perfect Continuous) He . ... . ....... (retire)
next week. (Present Tense Continuous)
8. The journalist ............. (not make) the story public until he
. . ........... (fmd) enough hard evidence to incriminate the suspect.
(Past Tense Simple, Past Perfect)
9. They ............... (work) together for five years when they
............ (find out) that they .... . .......... . (be married) to the
same woman. (Past Perfect Continuous, Past Tense Simple, Past
10. By the time you . .. .. . . . ... (arrive) at the airport, his plane
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (land) for more than half an hour. (Present Tense
Simple, Future Perfect)
11. When I . . . . . . . . . .. (graduate) I was very determined to pursue a
career in the law field. (Past Tense Simple). But since then I
. ........... .. (reconsider) my options and I ......... . ... . . (decide) to
tum politician. (Present Perfect)
12. She ........... .... already (address) her appeal to the High Court of
Justice in London when she ............. (be summoned) to appear
in the local court. (Past Perfect, Past Tense Simple)
When people are sent to prison in Britain after being found guilty
of a crime, they are given a sentence that specifies the length of their
punishment. Most, however, will be eligible for a remission of one third
of the period stipulated. This means that a person sentenced to a year's
imprisonment will normally be released after eight months, and one
sentenced to three years will leave prison after two. Moreover, most
prisoners sentenced to 12 months or more are also eligible for parole
when they have served one third of the stated period, after a minimum
of six months in prison. At present, about three prisoners out of four
obtain parole. However, prisoners sentenced to five or more years for
serious offences involving violence, arson or sexual crimes are rarely
granted parole. A person on parole is released from ,prison on condition
that he or she remains in touch with a probation officer over the period
of time for which the original sentence would have run. If parole
conditions are abused, the offender is liable to be recalled to prison.
Although a 'life sentence' for murder rarely means imprisonment
for life, it can last for 20 years or more if the crime was the murder of a
police officer or -prison officer, if it was carried out during a terrorist
attack or a robbery, or if it involved the sexual or sadistic killing of a
child. The government minister responsible for law and order, the
Home Secretary, decides when a prisoner sentenced to life should be
released. Such prisoners remain on parole for the rest of their lives, and
may be imprisoned again if it seems likely that they will commit a
further offence.
On the whole, many courts try to avoid passing ptison sentences
in the first place, and instead impose some other punishment, such as a
fme, or probation, or a community service order. A court may impose a
prison sentence 'suspended' for up to two years: the offender will not
have to serve the sentence unless he or she commits other offences
during the period. Fines are awarded in about eight cases out of ten.
' Probation' involves the offender leading a normal life but under the
supervision of a probation officer. Community service involves doing
unpaid physical work for between 40 and 240 hours, to be completed
within 12 months. Typical exemples of community service are painting
an elderly person's house or building a playground for children.
Courts also have the power to allow a convicted person to go
free, ie to discharge him or her conditionally, especially if imprisonment
or other punishment seems inappropriate. If convicted for another
offence of the same kind, however, such a person will be brought back
to court and be liable for punishment that could have been imposed in
the first place. For a trivial offence, such as a single instance of drunk
and disorderly behaviour, the court may 'bind over' the offender,
requiring him or her to 'keep the peace' and 'be of good behaviour'. If
this condition is not observed, the person may be given a punishment
for the original offence, or have to pay a sum of money stipulated
when 'bound over'.
(Oxford Advanced Learner's Encyclopedic Dictionary)
I. State whether the following sentences are true or false and
correct the false ones:
Example: A person sentenced to a year's imprisonment will normally
be released after five months. FALSE
CORRECTION: A person sentenced to a year's imprisonment will
normally be released after eight months.
1. A person sentenced to three years will normally leave prison after

2. Most prisoners sentenced to 12 months are eligible for parole
when they have served four months of the stated
3. At present, one prisoner out of four obtain
4. Prisoners sentenced to five or more years for serious offences are
granted parole very often.
5. A 'life sentence' for murder can last for 20 years or
6. The High Court of Justice decides when a prisoner sentenced to
life should be released.
7. Fines are awarded in about six cases out
8. 'Probation' involves that a probation officer will be living with the
offender over the period of time estimated initially.
9. The number of hours that can be imposed for community service
vary between 40 and 240 hours.
10. Irrespective ofthe number of hours, the community service has to
be completed within one
II. Match the half-sentences in column A with the half-
sentences in column B to make complete and logical sentences.
1. Almost all prisoners will be a .... will leave prison after two.
eligible ...
2. A person on parole will have b .... doing unpaid physical work.
to remain in touch ...
3. A convict sentenced to a c . ... if imprisonment or other
year's imprisonment will ... _punishment seems inappropriate.
4. Prisoners that are guilty of d. . . . he or she will be liable for
serious crimes will remain ... the punishment imposed in the
first place.
5. A prisoner sentenced to three e .... with a probation officer over
years's imprisonment ... the period of time estimated.
6. The less severe forms of f .... for a remission of their initial
punishment are: ... sentence.
7. Community service involves g. . .. the offender may simply get
... away with a verbal warning .
8. Typical exemples of h. . . . normally be released after
community service are ... eight months.
9. One of the trivial offences i .... "to place a person under a
we can mention ... legal obligation, such as one to
keep the peace.
10. For a trivial offence, . .. j .... on parole for the rest of their
11. If parole conditions are k. ... have to pay a fme at a
abused, ... second offence.
12. Courts have the power to 1. ... is drunk and disorderly
allow a convicted person to go behaviour.
free, ...
13. If a person on parole is m. ... a fme, probation, or
convicted for the same offence, community service .
14. To 'bind over' means ... n .... painting an elderly person's
house or building a playground
for children.
15. Ifthe offender fails to 'keep o. . . . the offender is liable to be
the peace', he or she will ... recalled to prison.
III. Choose the correct meaning of the following expressions
selected from your text:
1. 'To be eligible for a remission' means:
a) to deserve to be punished for a remission.
b) to be unworthy or unfit for a remission.
c) to have the right or proper qualification for a remission.
2. 'To be liable for punishment' means:
a) to be legally obliged or responsible for something and be
punished accordingly.
b) to be suspected of an offence and be punished for it.
c) to deserve a form of punishment.
3. 'To observe a condition' (in the context of its use) means:
a) to listen to a condition but not to respect it.
b) to notice a condition carefully.
c) to legally respect an official law.
4. ' To carry out a crime' means:
a) to bring to completion, to accomplish a crime.
b) to be acquitted for a crime.
c) to serve a sentence for committing a crime.
5. 'To bind somebody over' means:
a) to make sb. take an oath that he will respect the law.
b) warn sb. that he will apear in court again if he breaks the law.
c) to punish sb. for breaking the law.
IV. Match the following words and expressions with their
Romanian translation:
1. crime a. condamnat
2. offender b. pedeapsa cu suspendare
3. remission c. delict, infractiune
4. parole d. incendiere premeditata
5. probation officer e. reducere de pedeapsii, gratiere
6. life sentence f. munca in interesul comunitiitii
7. community service g. ofiter de politie insarcinat cu suprave-
gherea unei persoane eliberate conditionat
8. convict h. condamnare pe viata
9. arson i. contravenient
10. suspended sentence j. eliberare conditionata
V. Complete the following derivational pattern noun - verb -
noun, paying attention to the first example. Then translate the
noun in the third column:
Noun Verb Noun
1. prison imprison imprisonment
2. empower
3. enforce
4. discourage
5. disengage
6. disfigure
7. displace
8. enact
9. enlist
10. impair
VI. Select from the box below the legal terms that belong to
the class of FELONY (infracfiune grava/act criminal) and those
that belong to the class of MISDEMEANOUR (delict/infractiune
minora). These two. legal terms felony - misdemeanour were
known to have imposed two different forms of trial in England
and Wales until1967.
armed robbery shoplifting arson libel attempted murder
high treason manslaughter pickpocketing adultery
burglary kidnapping rape embezzlement prostitution
bigamy petty larceny terrorism extortion/blackmail
bribery smuggling poaching trespassing forgery perjury
grand larceny indecent exposure treason fraud hijacking
armed robbery shoplifting
VII. Choose the correct version, looking the new words up in
the Glosarry:
1. Any witness shall take an oath that the ........ .. .. .. .... he/she is
about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.
a) confession b) testimony c) verdict d) statement
2. To .................... means to go or intrude on the property,
privacy, or preserves of another with no right or permission.
a) trespass b) forge c) break in d) burgle
3 ................... is defmed as giving or promising to give a public
official something of value with a corrupt intention to influence the
official in the discharge of his or her official duty.
a) Forgery b) Larceny c) Bribery d) Perjury
4 . ............. : ....... is the false making or altering of any document
that either has legal significance or is commonly relied upon in
business transactions.
a) Deceit b) Smuggling c) Corruption d) Forgery
5. Since the defendant did not have a criminal record, he got
away with a small ........... .
a) ransom b) punishment c) fme d) ticket
6. Many civilized countries have long abolished the death ........... .
a) penalty b) punishment c) conviction d) sentence
7. A threat of attack to another person, followed by actual attack
which need amount only to touching with hostile intent is called
a) rape b) assault and battery c) threat d) vandalism
8. The defendant was able to prove his innocence at the trial and
was ..................... .
a) absolved b) acquitted c) forgiven d) pardoned
9. The judge recommended more humane forms of punishment
for juvenile ..................... .
a) convicts b) villains c) sinners d) delinquents
10. The police have to ................... the law, not to take it into
their own hands.
a) press b) break c) force d) enforce
VIII. Choose the correct version, paying attention to the use
of English tenses:
1. He ................... a solicitor for more than a year now.
a) was b) had been c) has been d) is
2. We ......................... for the verdict for almost two hours!
There must be something wrong.
a) are waiting b) were waiting c) waited d) have been waiting
3. She ...... .............. released on bail last week.
a) has been b) was c) will be d) had been
4 ............. the jury .................. a verdict?
a) Have ... reached b) Has ... reached c) Had ... reached
d) Did .... reach
5. The leader of the gang .... ,. just ............ acquitted by the court
of justice.
a) has ... been b) had ... been c) was ... been d) is ...
6. He was placed under investigation only after they ............ ..
hard evidence against him.
a) found b) had found c) has found d) fmded
7. His sentence was by far more severe than everybody ............. . .. ..
a) expected b) was expecting c) had expected d) has expected
8. As soon as the jury .. .. .. .. .. ........ the verdict, the case was
a) had pronounced b) pronounced c) has pronounced d) pronounces
9. Everybody wondered why he ................. caught red-handed
a) hasn't been b) wasn't c) hadn't been d) wouldn't be
10. The members of the jury ................. for hours when they
fmally reached a verdict.
a) were deliberating b) deliberated c) have been deliberating
d) had been deliberating
11. She told me that she ..................... filing for divorce for a
long time.
a) considered b) had been considering c) would consider
d) has been considering
12. I ......................... in a court of law since my parents filed for
a divorce.
a) wasn't b) haven't been c) won't be d) hadn't been
13. As soon as the search warrant .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ... they will be
allowed to look for the documents.
a) has been issued b) will be issued c) was issued d) had been issued
14 . ................ his criminal record ..................... to the slightest
a) Was_ checked b) Has_ being checked
c) Has_ been checked d) Would_ been checked
15. The suspect ...... .. .. .. .. . under investigation long before the
police found irrefutable evidence.
a) was placed b) has been placed c) had been placed d) will be placed
The reprezentatives of the member states did not by common
accord agree on the seat of the Court until 1992, when they were
empowered to do so by Article 216 EEC. As a result, they took the
decision that the Court of Justice should remain in Luxembourg. This
rooting of the Court in Luxembourg is one factor in helping to give
the Court a strong esprit de corps.
The Court of Justice consists of fifteen judges and nine
advocates-general, who are appointed by common accord of the
governments of the member states for a renewable term of six years.
To be appointed to one of these offices a person has to either possess
the qualifications required for appointment to the highest judicial
offices in his or her respective countries or be jurisconsults of
recognized competence. Although in strict law the judges and
advocates-general could be of any nationality, in practice each
member state will nominate one of its own nationals as a judge, and
the five largest states - France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United
Kingdom - will each nominate an advocate-general. The remaining
advocates-general are appointed by the smaller member states
in accordance with a system of rotation. Belgium had an
advocate-general from 1988 to 1994, Denmark from 1991 to 1997,
Greece from 1994 to 2000 and Ireland from 1995 to 2000. A
disadvantage of the rotation system is that no matter how outstanding
the person is, it is impossible for him or her to be reappointed at the
end of six years.
An odd number of judges is maintained in order to allow the full
court to sit and to reach a majority decision. All decisions of the Court
are signed by all the judges whether they were in the mjnority or the
majority, so it is impossible to know whether the decision was reached
by a bare majority or by unanimity.
The Council has the power, acting unanimously on a
request from the Court, to increase the number of judges and
advocates-general. In the past the size of the Court was expanded
upon the accession of new member states, but not on other occasions,
to help it cope with extra business. The Court initially started with
seven judges, expanded to nine in 1973 (accession of Denmark,
Ireland and the United Kingdom), to eleven in 1981 (accession of
Greece), to thirteen in 1986 (accession of Spain and Portugal) and to
fifteen in 1995 (accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden).
The Court has coped with the increase in its workload in part by
increasing the number of cases that it handles in a chamber rather than
by a plenary session. The EEC Treaty always allowed the Court to
form chambers consisting of three or five judges, but originally
insisted that cases brought before the Court by a member state or by a
community institution must be heard in plenary session.
The Court now has four chambers of three judges and two
chambers of seven judges. Each chamber has a president, who is
elected annually, and it seems that by convention the presidencies of
the chambers rotate around all the judges apart from the President of
the Court.
(Adapted from EC Law. The Essential Guide to the Legal Workings
of the European Community, by Stephen Weatherill&Paul Beaumont)
I. Fill in the gaps with the missing words from the text:
1. Luxembourg is the seat of the actual ...................................... .
2. The members of the European Court of Justice are appointed by
the .................................................. .
3 ....................................... has the right to nominate one of its O}Vn
nationals as a judge.
4. Five advocates-general are appointed by ........... ................... , while
the other four are appointed by ............................. .
5. The disadvantage of ........................ is that a member of the Court
of Justice cannot be reappointed at the end of six years.
6. How do we know whether a decision of the Court of Justice was
reached by a ......................... or by unanimity?
7. The Council has the power to increase the number of ........... ... .
8. The right of the Court to form chambers was granted by the
9. The actual Court consists of ... , .................. .... of three judges and
of.. .................... of seven judges.
10. The president of a chamber is elected ........................ , according to
a rotation system.
II. Ask questions for the following answers; the first two
have been done for you as examples:
Answer: In 1992
Question: When did the reprezentatives of the member states agree on
the seat of the Court?
Answer: Fifteen judges and nine advocates-general.
Question: How many judges and advocates-general does the Court of
Justice consist of?
1. Answer: Six years.
2. Answer: France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom.
3. Answer: From 1988 to 1994.
4. 1\nswer: I>enmark
5. Answer: In order to allow the full court to sit and to reach a
majority decision.
6. Answer: i\ll the judges.
7. Answer: Upon the accession of new member states.
8. Answer: Seven.
9. Answer: Austria, Finland and Sweden.
10. Answer: Six chambers of judges.
III. Translate the following sentences into Romanian, paying
attention to the words in italics:
1. This rooting of the Court in Luxembourg is one factor in helping
to give the Court a strong esprit de corps.
2. To be appointed to one of these offices a person has to either
possess the qualifications required for appointment to the highest
judicial offices in his or her respective countries or be jurisconsults
of recognized competence.
3. A disadvantage of the rotation system is that no matter how
outstanding the person is, it is impossible for him or her to be
reappointed at the end ofsix years.
4. All decisions of the Court are signed by all the judges whether
they were in the minority or the majority, so it is impossible to
know whether the decision was reached by a bare majority or by
5. The Court has coped with the increase in its workload in part by
increasing the number of cases that it handles in a chamber rather
than by a plenary session.
IV. Find the synonymous terms (right column) for the
expressions extracted from the text above (left column):
1. by common accord
2. as a result
3. in strict law
a. according to
c. on demand
e. therefore
b. irrespective of
d. except for
f. by rule
4. in accordance with g. regardless of h. consequently
5. no matter how i. by convention
6. apart from j. by common agreement
7. on request
V. Read the following expressions and their equivalent
Romanian translations and then use them to complete the gapped
1. to be appointed to an office = 1. a fi numit intr-o functie/pozitie
2. to be elected = 2. a fi ales
3. to sit= 3. a fi in a se intruni
4. to convene a meeting/session= 4. a convoca o
5. to convene a person before trial/ 5. a cita o persoana sa se prezinte
to summon sb. = la tribunal
6. to run for a post/an office = 6. depune candidatura pentru
un post/functie
7. to stand for Parliament = 7. a candida pentru Par lament
8. to dissolve Parliament= 8. a dizolva Parlamentul
9. to hear a case/a witness= 9. a audia un caz/un martor
10. to dismiss a case = 10. a declara un caz 'inchis
1. The Minister of Justice is going to ................... presidency.
2. The debtor was .................... to appear before the magistrates.
3. The judges and advocates-general are ........................ by the
governments of the member states.
4. The manager of the company has ................ an urgent meeting
with the shareholders.
5. James was ............... chairman by a majority of25 voters.
6. The Court is now ................ in plenary session.
7. I do not think that his qualifications recommend him to ................ .
8. This case is far too important to be ............... in a chamber.
9. Who has the authority to ............... Parliament?
I 0. The Court ............... the case due to lack of hard evidence.
VI. Choose the correct version, looking the new words up in
the Glosarry:
1. She will soon ................. trial for the part she played in the
recent robbery.
a) give b) perform c) make d) stand
2. Detectives are said to be ....................... into the causes of the
recent fire.
a) looking b) investigating c) checking d) searching
3. The victim ............... the law into her own hands by killing
her attacker.
a) took b) seized c) grabbed d) put
4. Ted Bundy was a hardened criminal who showed no
...... ............ for his crimes.
a) penance b) pity c) remorse d) reproach
5. His sentence has been commuted to six months on the
..... ........... of failing health.
a) bases b) causes c) grounds d) reasons
6. He was convicted to 10 years of prison and ................. of his
a) confiscated b) denied c) removed d) deprived
7. If you can't resolve the dispute, it will have to be settled
by ............. , ........ .
a) arbitration b) court c) election d) referee
8. All his friends thought he was guilty, but no one could
................ anything against him.
a) accuse b) ensure c) point d) prove
9. As the result of a police ............. on the disco, twenty
teenagers were arrested.
a) invasion b) raid c) intrusion d) entry
10. As he didn't have a criminal ............. , the judge sentenced
him to 50 hours of community work.
a) case b) file c) record d) dossier
VII. Choose the correct version, paying attention to the use
of English tenses:
1. By the time you reach the Court, he ........................... released
on bail.
a) had been b) will have been c) has been d) was
2. While the people . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. for the verdict, the judge
was talking to the defendant about the weather.
a) had been waiting b) are waiting c) were waiting d) wait
3. Right now I think I am ....... ................ . Come and pick me up!
a) followed b) being followed c) been followed d) following
4. He .. .................... . down a street near his home when he was
a) walked b) was walking c) had been walking d) is walking
5. One of the kidnappers ................ to kill him while they were
driving away.
a) threatens b) threteaned c) is threatening d) had threthened
6. How long ago ....... you .......... an appeal?
a) did ... made b) had ... made c) did ... make d) were ... made
7. I saw you yesterday, while you .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . that famous
a) were defending b) defended c) had been defending d) defending
8. The witnesses were still being heard when I ............. the court
of law.
a) left b) leaved c) was leaving d) had left
9. She told me that she ..................... filing for divorce for a long
a) considered b) had been considering c) would consider
d) has been considering
10. This time tomorrow they .................... the witness.
a) will cross-examine b) would cross-examine
c) will be cross-examining d) are cross-examining
11. By the end of this year he ... . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . . ten years in
a) will be spending b) will spend c) will have spent d) has spent
12. We knew that the defendant .............. to do such a thing.
a) will never be able b) are never able c) would never be able
d) can never
13. They said that the new constitution ................ .... ... soon.
a) would be voted b) will be voted c) would vote d) is voted
14. By this time next year, he ..................... his prison sentence.
a) would have served b) will have served c) will serve d) is serving
15. The criminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to trial if there is enough
evidence against him.
a) would be brought b) will have been brought c) will be brought
d) was brought
Section 4 - The Court of Justice
Article 170
A Member State which considers that another Member State has
failed to fulfil an obligation under this Treaty may bring the matter
before the Court of Justice.
Before a Member State brings an action against another Member
State for an alleged infringement of an obligation under this Treaty, it
shall bring the matter before the Commission.
The Commission shall deliver a reasoned opinion after each of the
States concerned has been given the opportunity to submit its own case
and its observations on the other party's case both orally and in writing.
If the Commission has not delivered an opinion within three
months of the date on which the matter was brought before it, the
absence of such opinion shall not prevent the matter from being brought
before the Court of Justice.
Article 171
l. If the Court of Justice fmds that a Member State has failed to
fulfil an obligation under this Treaty, the State shall be
required to take the necessary measures to comply with the
judgement of the Court of Justice.
2. If the Commission considers that the Member State concerned
has not taken such measures it shall, after giving that State
the opportunity to submit its observations, issues a reasoned
opinion specifying the points on which the Member State
concerned has not complied with the judgement of the Court
of Justice.
If the Member State concerned fails to take the necessary measures
to comply with the Court's judgement within the time-limit laid
down by the Commission, the latter may bring the case before the
Court of Justice. In so doing it shall specify the amount of the
lump sum or penalty payment to be paid by the Member State
concerned which it considers appropriate in the circumstances.
If the Court of Justice fmds that the Member State concerned has
not complied with its judgement it may impose a lump sum or
penalty payment on it.
This procedure shall be without prejudice to Article 170.
(Blackstone's EC Legislation, Edited by Nigel G. Foster)
I. Match the new expressions (from the text above) in column
A with their Romanian equivalents in column B:
1. to fulfil an obligation = a. a nu prejudicia
2. to bring a matter before = b. a impiedica/a nu permite
3. to bring an action against sb. = c. a prevedea/stabili/specifica
4. an alleged infringement of an d. a indeplini o obligatie
obligation =
5. to deliver a reasoned opinion= e. a impune o plata forfetarii sau
o amendii
6. to be given the opportunity = f. a se conforma/a respecta
7. to submit a case to = g. a supune o problema atentiei
8. to prevent smth. from+ v-ing = h. a transmite o opinie intemeiaUi
9. to comply with= i. a intenta un proces cuiva
10. to lay (laid, laid) down = j. a supune un caz spre examinare
11. to impose a lump sum or a k. o presupusii inciilcare/violare a
penalty payment = unei obligatii
12. to be without prejudice to= I. a i se da n s
II. Complete the following sentences with logical and correct
phrases; the first one has been done for you:
Example: Ifhe refuses to fulfil his obligation, he .......................... .
If he refuses to fulfil his obligation, he will have to be fired
1. I think that you ........................ ............... before bringing
this matter before the Court of Justice.
2. If my neighbour ................................................... , I shall
bring an action against him.
3. The infringement of copy-right ......................................... .
4. After hearing his reasoned opinion, we ................................ .
5. All I need is to be given the opportunity to .......................... .
6. What ....... .. ... ... ... . . . . .. ... ... ... ...... ... ... ... .... in order to
submit this case to your commission?
7. The new legislation prevented him from .............................. .
8. You have to ............................................... to compy with
the second clause in our contract.
9. According to article 170, laid down by the . ... ................... .
10. Which is the heaviest penalty that .................................... .
11. Make sure that you respect the law, without any prejudice to
III. Form collocations (regular combinations of words) by
filling in the following collocational grids; check the correctness of
collocations using a legal dictionary:
breach (of)= infractiune, violare, mcalcare (a unei conventii)
violation (of) = violare, abuz, mcalcare, contravenire (la o regula)
infringement of= infractiune, violare, abuz, mcalcare, reproducere ilicita
to break (the law)= a mcalca (legea), a nu respecta
contract copy-right a treaty (the) trust sb's promise
.peace privacy
breach of
violation of
infringement of
to break (a/an)
the law human patents confidence sb's protocol
highway rights liberty
breach of
violation of
infringement of
to break (a/an)
IV. Choose from the collocations in exercise III. the English
equivalents for the following Romanian expressions and then use
them in your own sentences:
abuz de mcredere =
inciUcarea ordinii pub lice = ______ _
violarea secretului =

reproducere ilicita a dreptului de autor = -----------
reproducere ilicita de brevete = _____________ _
V. Choose the correct version, looking the new words up in
t he Glosarry:
1. The woman sitting in the witness . . . . . . . . .. . . will certainly
commit perjury.
a) box b) stand c) seat d) bench
2. A ....... ....... will be appointed to investigate the violent and
suspicious death of the teenager.
a) prosecutor b) doctor c) coroner d) judge
3. He was caught ... ..... .......... ... stealing money from the cash-box.
a) red-handed b) heavy-handed c) light-rmgered d) heavy-set
4. You can't have burgled the house alone, so who was your
.. ............ . ?
a) ally b) accomplice c) assistant d) associate
5. Wilkinson is alleged to have ... ..... ..... ...... a number of serious
a) done b) made c) committed d) discharged
6. 'I object, Your Honour, the lawyer is ....... .......... the witness!'
a) harassing b) intimidating c) offending d) leading
7. The man jumped out of the window and committed ... ... ...... ... .
a) death b) homicide c) murder d) suicide
8. The police said there was no sign of a ... .... ... entry even
though the house had been burgled.
a) broken b) burst c) forced d) smashed
9. He was placed ............ house arrest for his own safety.
a) on b) in c) under d) within
10. Is the defendant going to ............ guilty or not guilty?
a) plead b) play c) appeal d) appear
11. Mr. Johnson was .............. fifty pounds for drinking and driving.
a) charged b) fmed c) ordered d) penalized
12. As it was her first offence, the judge gave her a .............. .
a) kind b) lenient c) severe d) tolerant
13. I ............... to say anything unless I am allowed to speak to
my lawyer.
a) deny b) neglect c) refuse d) resist
14. The new harassment law comes into ............... on September 15.
a) force b) condition c) date d) power
15. He was charged . . .. .. . . ...... assault and battery and taken to
a) of b) with c) on d) in
VI. Choose the correct version, paying attention to the use of
Modal Verbs:
1. Judges ............ never take bribe from the defendants.
a) should b) must c) can d) will
2. The window is broken; the intruder ............. .. tried to get into
their bedroom.
a) can have b) should have c) would have d) must have
3. He was innocent! They ................ . have taken him into
a) shouldn't b) mustn't c) needn't d) can't
4. He ................ have committed the crime! He was immobilized
in bed at that time!
a) mustn't b) couldn't c) wouldn't d) shouldn't
5. I am sorry you didn't ask for help; I ....................... introduced
you to my lawyer.
a) can't have b) must have c) could have d) was able to
6. The legislation says that the judges . .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . immune
from legal proceedings.
a) shall be b) will be c) should be d) must be
7. A judge .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . of his office if he no longer fulfils the
legal conditions.
a) can be deprive b) must deprive c) may be deprived
d) may been deprived
8. This procedure ........... be without prejudice to Article 170.
a) will b) shall c) must d) can
9. You .................. submitted the case to a higher court! The
verdict was in your favour!
a) couldn't have b) mustn't have c) needn't have d) may not
10. Any Member State ..... ..... comply with the judgements ofthe
European Court of Justice.
a) shall b) must c) will d) have to
VII. The main functions of Modal Verbs have been indicated
in the box below. Identify each function illustrated in the following
present /past ability inability possibility remote possibility
impossibility perm1sswn obligation absence of obligation
necessity prohibition logical assumption (affirmative) logical
assumption (negative) advice criticism requests offers
suggestions regulations
Example: The Court of Justice shall have jurisdiction in any dispute
between Member States. regulations
1. The parties to the proceedings may appeal to the Court of Justice.

2. He couldn't testify against an innocent
3. I need to find a very good lawyer to get me out of prison.
4. He couldn't have been convicted to capital punishment; he was
just a pickpocket. _____ _
The Home Secretary must have advised the Queen on that
important matter.
6. He should have asked for legal aid when he needed it.
7. Can you tell me what papers I have to fill in ?
8. You should bring him to trial before he commits more criminal

9. Shall I assist you in this matter? _______ _
10. We should all vote for or against this new ___ _
11. May I be excused now ? ---:-----:---:---:-----:--
12. He might have tried to bribe the judge, but I doubt it. __ _
13. Both parties have to respect the binding agreements of this
contract. .,-------
14. She can't have broken her promise to give herself in.
15. The young lawyer was able to come up with a new idea to rest his
___ _
16. The members of the jury don't have to recess for deliberation if
the verdict is obvious.
17. You mustn't smoke in hospitals and _____ _
I. Read the following texts and choose the corresponding
headline for each of them:
12 years for thief who left 7m IOU
Valentine killer given life in jail
Life sentence for double rapist
Pc faces jail for sex assaults
A fmancial adviser who stole 10 million from 84 mainly elderly
private investors and the Halifax bank to feed his gambling habit was
jailed for 12 years yesterday.
Graham Price, 58, ofLlansamlet, near Swansea, an agent for the
Halifax and a consultant, was caught when the IOU for 7 million he
had left in a safe was found. He admitted 43 theft charges.
Swansea Crown Court was told that Price told detectives he
believed he needed one more week of gambling on horses to get the
money back.
IOU- (abbr of I owe you) = signed paper acknowledging that one
owes the sum of money stated
Crown Court = a court of criminal jurisdiction holding sessions in
towns throughout England and Wales at which circuit judges hear and
determine cases

A policeman who used his warrant card to lure women into his
car so he could sexually assault them was warned yesterday that he
faced prison.
Amir Butt, 24, of Watford, offered a lift home to women who
had been drinking and become separated from their friends. He was
found guilty on two charges of sexual assault at Luton Crown Court
and will be sentenced at a later date.
Pc - abbr of police constable (policeman)

A former soldier became a rapist after service in the Gulf war
changed his personality, a court was told yesterday.
Lee Walker, 32, of Wythenshawe, Manchester, was jailed for
life at Minshull Street Crown Court after pleading guilty to rape. He
was sentenced to five years for a second case of rape .

A man who murdered his fiancee after a row over doing the
laundry was told yesterday that he would serve at least 16 years in prison.
Paul Dyson, 31, was given a life sentence for what a judge
described as the "unspeakably evil deed" of strangling Joanne Nelson,
22, on the eve of St Valentine's Day, in Hull.
He dumped her body 1 00 miles away before making tearful
television appeals for her to get in touch.
Hull Crown Court heard that Dyson slashed his wrists and wrote
"sorry" in blood on his cell wall three days ago.
Passing sentence, Judge Tom Cracknell told Dyson: "You
executed a well thought-out plan without pity, except self pity,
without remorse."
The judge said the television appeal was "breathtaking and
nauseating hypocrisy", adding: "You led her family to think there
might be some hope when there was none."
Miss Nelson's body was found after 39 days.
("The Daily Telegraph", Wednesday, November 9, 2005)
II. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false
(F); when the sentences are false, correct them as in the following
Example: Lee Walker was sentenced to 12 years for two cases of rape. E.
Correction: Lee Walker was sentenced to five years for a second case
of rape.
1. Paul Dyson was given a life sentence for a double rape. _
2. Amir Butt was a 24-year-old policeman who sexually assaulted
women in his car.
3. Graham Price stole 15 million from 84 mainly elderly private
4. Lee Walker was a former soldier fighting in the Gulf war._
5. Paul Dyson committed suicide in prison, after he was convicted.
6. When brought before justice, Graham Price rejected all theft
7. Amir Butt offered a lift home to women who left their office too
late to catch the bus.
8. Paul Dyson's fiancee was called Joanne Nelson and was 22 yeards
9. PaulDyson killed his fiancee on Christmas Eve, by stabbing her
to death.
10. Graham Price had no connection whatsoever with the HalifaX.
11. Paul Dyson appeared on TV and offered a generous ransom for
his fiancee's possible kidnappers._
12. Amir Butt used his warrant card to lure women into his car.
13. Graham Price was caught when his IOU for 7 million was found
in a safe.
14. Judge Tom Cracknell congratulated Dyson on his well thought-out
plan of murdering his fiancee in cold blood._
15. Graham Price became a bank robber because he needed money for
his fiancee's surgery._
III. Pair-work: Take turns in answering your colleague's
questions by scanning the texts for information:
1. Who was Graham Price and what was he charged with?
2. What jail sentence did Graham Price receive?
3. What did Graham Price need the stolen money for?
4. How old was Amir Butt and what did he do?
5. What was Amir Butt found guilty of?
6. How did Lee Walker plead when he stood trial?
7. What sentence did Lee Walker receive?
8. How did Paul Dyson dispose of his fiancee's body?
9. How did Paul Dyson die?
10. When was Miss Nelson's body found?
! Remember the Passive Voice
IV. Read the chart below to see how the active to passive
tqmsformation works for the main verbal tenses:
Present Tense Simple charge am/is/are charged
Present Tense Continuous is/are examining is/are being examined
Past Tense Simple sentenced was/were sentenced
Past Tense Continuous was/were interrogating was/were being interrogated
Present Perfect has/have found has/have been found
Past Perfect had released had been released
Future Tense Simple will/shall include will/shall be included
Future Perfect will/shall have admitted will/shall have been admitted
Conditional would reject would be rejected
Perfect Conditional would have arrested would have been arrested
Gerund , practising being practised
Long Infinitive to convict to be convicted
Perfect Infinitive to have committed to have been committed
V. Put the verbs in brackets into the passive voice of the
tense indicated:
Example: A value added tax (VAT) rate of25 per cent ... .... ............... .
(apply- Past Tense Simple) to wine in Belgium.
A value added tax (VAT) rate of 25 per cent was applied to wine in
1. This case ...................... (decide - Present Perfect) against
2. The notion of protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (illustrate - Future
Tense Simple) in the next paragraph.
3. A charge that ................ (catch - Present Tense Simple) by
Article 12 is unlawful.
4. The matter ................ Gudge- Past Tense Simple) in the light
of Article 95.
5. The repayment to an exporter of a sum exceeding the internal duty
.. .. .............. (prohibit- Present Tense Simple) by Article 96.
6. Taxing exports at a lower rate than domestic products
................... (consider - Present Perfect) a discriminatory
7. The terms of the contract ..... already... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (discuss -
Past Perfect) before the two parties signed it.
8. The main witnesses in the murder case . . . . . . . . . still ........... .
... ... ..... ... (hear- Past Tense Continous) by the judge when the
politician made a press release.
9. The two diplomats ..... now ................... (escort - Present
Tense Continous) to the American Embassy.
10. Six bomb attacks seem ........................ (report - Perfect
Infinitive) in London for the last 1 0 hours.
11. A new warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (issue - Future Tense
Simple) for the refugees to leave the camp immediately.
12. More funds ......................... (allocate -Perfect Conditional)
to the Ministry of Justice if the government had voted the new
budget law.
VI. Change the following sentences from Active Voice into
Passive Voice; the underlined direct objects will become the
subjects of the passive sentences:
Example: This Article entitles the holder of intellectual property rights
to financial compensations.
The holder of intellectual property rights is entitled to financial
compensations by this Article.
1. They all considered that the Court of First Instance had used
Article 86 improperiy.
They all considered that Article 86 ................................... .
2. The Court will take measures to reconcile the incompatibility of
national property rights with the pursuit of economic integration.
Measures ................................................................................... .
3. Smith Drug Pharmaceuticals had patented a drug called Negram
under British law.
A drug called Negram ...................................... under British law
4. The Commission rejected this Article on the grounds of
unjustified discrimination.
This Article ................. by ............. , ............................. .
5. The members of the Jury were still deliberating upon the matter
of reasonable doubt.
The matter of reasonable doubt ...... still ........................... .
6. The client has just dropped all charges against the advertising
agency that did not respect its deadlines.
All charges ....................................................................... ..
7. Any lawyer grants the benefit of the doubt even to a hardened
The benefit of the doubt ................................................. .
Even a hardened criminal ............................................... .
8. The Court dismissed your appeal due to lack of further evidence.
Your appeal ............................................................... .
9. The members of the family will defmitely contest this will.
This will ................................................ by ............... .
10. They wouldn't have closed that controversial file if they had
found at least one eye witness to testifY.
That controversial file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . if at least one
eye witness ......................................................... .
Vll. Choose the correct version by paying attention to the
use of Passive Voice:
1 Many houses in this area ............... into by burglars.
a) have been being broken b) have been broken c) are been broken
d) have being broken
2. A photofit picture of the wanted man ....................... last week.
a) had been issued b) was issuing c) was issued d) has been issued
3. After the verdict ...... .... .... ......... ... ... , the case ............................ by
the judge.
a) had been pronounced, was dismissed
b) will be pronounced, will be dismissed
c) will have been pronounced, has been dismissed
d) has being pronounced, will be dismissed
4. He ........ just .. .. ................... with sexual assault on a six-year-old boy.
a) was ..... charged b) had ...... been charged c) has ...... been charged
d) has ...... be charged
5. He .. ......................... to 1 00 hours of community work only because
he was at his frrst offence.
a) have been sentenced b) was sentenced c) will be sentenced
d) had being sentenced
6. Before .......... ....... .. ....... of breach of trust, the lawyer ........... also
... .................... with perjury in a divorce case.
a) been accused, was ..... charged
b) beingaccuse, has ..... been charged
c) being accused, had .... been charged
d) being accused, was .... been charged
7. Choose the correct passive form of the following active sentence:
The Commission has just appointed the new President of the
Europea11 Court of Justice.
a) The new President of the European Court of Justice had just been
appointed by the Commission.
b) The new President has just been appointed by the European Court
of Justice.
c) The Commission has just been appointed to vote the new
President of the European Court of Justice.
d) The new President of the European Court of Justice has just been
appointed by the Commission.
8. Choose the correct passive form of the following active sentence:
The members of the European Parliament were still debating the
issue of competition law at that point.
a) The issue of competition law was still debated at that point by the
members of the European Parliament.
b) The issue of competition law was still debating at that point the
members of the European Parliament.
c) The issue of competition law was still being debated at that point
by the members of the European Parliament.
d) The members of the European Parliament were still being debated
by the issue of competition law.
9. Choose the correct English translation for the following Romanian
passive sentence: Nu s-a ajuns inca Ia 11ici o co11cluzie cu privire Ia
noua lege a adop(iei.
a) No conclusion hasn't yet been reached regarding the new adoption
b) No conclusion has yet been reached regarding the new adoption law.
c) No conclusion was reached yet regarding the new adoption law.
d) Yet, no conclusion is reached regarding the new adoption law.
10. Choose the correct equivalent sentence for the following: People
say that Mr. Johnson had business difficulties in the past.
a) Difficulties are said to have been had by Mr. Johnson in the past.
b) Mr. Johnson is said to having had business difficulties in the past.
c) Mr. Johnson is said to have had business difficulties in the past.
d) It is said that Mr. Johnson has had business difficulties in the past.
Iraqi Jailed Over
British Aid Worker Killing
1. Life in prison for the abetter of Margaret Hassan's kidnappers C J
An Iraqi man has been sentenced to life in prison in connection
with the murder of Margaret Hassan, the British aid worker abducted
and killed in Iraq in 2004. Mustafa Salman was charged with aiding and
abetting the kidnappers. Two other defendants in the case were freed.
The judge said Salman had received a plastic bag from an
associate who asked him to hold on to it. Four months later Iraqi
security forces raided Salman's home and found Mrs Hassan's purse
and documents in the bag.
Today's sentence is the first handed down in connection with the
abduction or killing of a foreign-born civilian in Iraq. More than
200 foreigners and thousands of Iraqis have been kidnapped since the
US-led invasion in 2003, and over 40 have been killed.
Born in Dublin, 59-year-old Mrs Hassan had British, Irish and
Iraqi nationality and had lived in Iraq for 30 years with her Iraqi
husband. The CARE International head was taken hostage in October
2004 while travelling to work in Baghdad. She appeared in a video
appealing for the British forces to withdraw from Iraq, but was killed
just under a month later. Her body has never been found, and no group
has claimed responsibility for her death.
Her family has implored Foreign Secretaries Jack Straw and
Margaret Beckett, as well as the Foreign Office, to question the
suspects about the location of Mrs Hassan's remains. "They have
refused this request even though this is the only way that Margaret's
remains will be found and we can bring her home to be buried with
the dignity she deserves.", they said.
Yesterday her family said that, during her captivity, the
kidnappers made four calls to her Iraqi husband Tahseen in Baghdad,
demanding to speak to a member of the British Embassy. But the
British told him they would not speak to the hostage-takers.The
Foreign Office confmned that Mrs Hassan's husband was called from
her phone by someone claiming to be holding her, but said they had
been unable to confmn the claims.
Deidre, Geraldine, Kathryn and Michael Fitzsimons said in a
statement released yesterday: "We believe that the refusal by the
British Government to open a dialogue with the kidnappers cost our
sister her life."
During her kidnap, in which video recordings of her pleading for
her life were released, officials were keen to distance her from the
British Government and emphasise her charity work in Iraq. "Our
strategy was one of 'personalisation and localisation', minimising the
links between Mrs Hassan and the UK", a Foreign Office spokesman
said. "We understand her family having criticisms of the Government
approach and we remain in regular contact with them."
("The Daily Telegraph", Monday, June 5, 2006)
I. Choose from A to H the sentence that best summarises each
paragraph (1-8) of the article above and insert them in the boxes
preceding each paragraph. The first one has been done for you:
A. Justice at work - the first sentence against an Iraqi hostage-taker
B. The British Embassy refuses any communication with Iraqi hostage-takers.
C. Life in prison for the abetter of Margaret Hassan's kidnappers
D. The British Government's strategy of assuming political distance
E. Finding evidence against Mustafa Salman
F. Iraqi citizen killed due to her British nationality?
G. Margaret Hassan's family blame the British Government for her death.
H. The British authorities fail to comfort the grieved family.
II. For questions 1-5, choose the answer (A, B, Cor D) which
you think fits best according to the test; sometimes more than one
option may be valid:
1. Why did Mustafa Salman keep Margaret Hassan's purse and
documents in his house?
A. He wanted to ask Margaret's family for a ransom.
B. The purse contained valuable possessions that he intended to sell.
C. Margaret Hassan's purse and documents had been placed under
his care.
D. Mustafa's associates threatened to kill him if he didn't take them.
2. Why was Margaret Hassan allowed to appear in a video?
A. Her appeals might have determined the British forces to withdraw
from Iraq.
B. The hostage-takers wanted to offer a proof of life to her family.
C. The hostage-takers wanted to negociate a ransom with the British
D. That was the last chance she had to save her life.
3. Why did the kidnappers make contact with her Iraqi husband?
A. They wanted to negociate the ransom for Margaret's release.
B. They needed an intermediary to establish a contact with the
British Embassy.
C. They wanted Margaret's family to put some pressure on the
British Government.
D. They wanted to put Margaret's future execution down to the
British Government.
4. Why did the British Government refuse to open a dialogue with the
A. The British Government no longer considered Margaret Hassan
a British citizen.
B. The British Government didn't want to give in to an Iraqi
technique of political manipulation.
C. The British Government chose to distance itself from any acts of
Iraqi terrorism.
D. Opening a dialogue with the kidnappers meant withdrawing
military forces from Iraq.
5. Margaret's family criticisms of the British Government approach
were directed at ...
A. the British Government refusal to pay the ransom requested by
the kidnappers.
B. the British Government strategy of minimising the links between
Mrs Hassan and the UK.
C. the British Government refusal to open a dialogue with the
D. the British Government refusal to withdraw the military forces
from Iraq.
Ill. Match the linking words/phrases in column A with their
corresponding parts in column B:
1. According to the latest a. ... more measures will be
statistics, ... taken in convicting terrorists.
2. Due to the hard evidence b. to open dialogues with the
found in his house, ... kidnappers of their citizens.
3. Up to a point, the kidnappers c. . .. . more than 200 foreigners
seemed interested in ... and thousands oflraqis have been
kidnapped and over 40 killed since
the US-led invasion in 2003.
4. As a general rule, the d. ... there should be some
Government is not supposed ... hidden political agenda related to
his/her kidnapping.
5. Despite the fact that Margaret's e. . . . Mustafa Salman could be
appeals could have been her last, taken into police custody.
.. .
6. To put it briefly, ... f. ... the British Government
didn't take any military or political
7. I am inclined to believe that g . ... but a terrorist way of
from now on, ... negociating military and political
8. The hostage-takers didn't obtain h .... establishing a contact with
what they wanted, consequently, the British Embassy.
.. .
9. It is my firm belief that i. ... Margaret was another
hostage-taking is nothing ... vitctim oflraqi terrorism.
10. That is to say, if a citizen of a j .... they executed the useless
certain nationality is kidnapped, hostage.
N. Choose the correct preposition:
!.Terrorists resort ..... violence as a political weapon.
a) at b) to c) on d) into
2. The unknown foreigner carried .... a bombing in the centre of Paris.
a) out b) in c) round d) on
3. How should Governments deal ...... terrorist attacks?
a) on b) without c) with d) about
4. The Iraqi citizen had been suspected .... many offences before.
a) about b) in c) with d) of
5. Who was held responsible .... the journalist's death?
a) for b) of c) about d) on
6. The home-made bomb may have been destined ..... the recruits.
a) to b) for c) at d) upon
7. The Palestinian blew himself . ... in a crowded bus.
a) out b) in c) up d) against
8. The terrorist attack coincided .... an important religious celebration.
a) with b) to c) on d) into
9. The attack, attributed ...... a new terrorist group, had many casualties.
a) with b) on c) to d) up to
10. How can the government prevent journalists . . . . . . endangering
their lives?
a) for b) to c) against d) from
11. I am sure that this is one of the exceptions ...... the rule.
a) of b) to c) from d) with
12. The Ministry of Defence has laid . . . . . strict procedures for this
kind of situation.
a) on b) down c) up d) out
13. Quite . . . . . . . . . from this problem, can such tests predict what the
future holds in store for us?
a) aside b) apart c) away d) out
14. I generally agree .... you, but I strongly object ..... your behaving
so rudely.
a) to, to b) with, to c) to, at d) with, with
15. He pleaded guilty ..... manslaughter after trying to escape from
police custody.
a) of b) to c) against d) for
16. The lorry belonged .... an ex-convict that rented land on Smiths
Farm, in Northolt, west London.
a) with b) to c) of d) in
17. Both men were meant to be . . . . . . . surveillence at the time of the
a) on b) above c) under d) below
18. Another person at the scene said that children were . . . . . . . the
hostages taken by the gunmen.
a) between b) among c) within d) inside
19. This prisoner is not ..... our jurisdiction. We have to call the
district authorities.
a) above b) below c) under d) on
20. He draws evidence for his claim ..... Court history.
a) from b) out of c) within d) with
Arrested and charged with possession of a controlled substance
with intent to distribute, William, a 30-year-old man with a history of
substance abuse, awaits his "day in court", which is 3 months away.
Meanwhile, William must remain at home, except for a fow select
activities. During the week, he leaves the house for his job as a welder
at precisely 7 a.m. and returns home no later than 5 p.m. He attends the
7 p.m. meeting of Narcotics Anonymous at the local library every
Thursday. He grocery shops at 2 p.m. every Saturday and goes to
church - always attending the 10 a.m. service - every Sunday.
William is not just on a rigid schedule, he is under home
confinement. Instead of sending him to jail, the court decided to release
him to the community on the condition that he remain at home except
for certain approved activities. His presence in his home and his
absences from it are monitored electronically by an ankle bracelet he
wears 24 hours a day.
A Supervision Tool
Home confinement is a tool that helps U.S. probation and
pretrial services officers supervise, or monitor, defendants and
offenders in the community. In the federal courts, home confmement
is not a sentence in and of itself but may be a condition of either
probation, parole, supervised release, or pretrial release. A person
placed under home conf'mement is conf'med to his or her residence,
usually linked to an electronic monitoring system, and required to
maintain a strict daily activity schedule. When the person is allowed to
leave home, and for what reasons, is determined case by case.
Home confinement's purpose depends on the phase ofthe criminal
justice process in which it is used. In all cases, it is a means to restrict a
person's activity and to protect the public from any threat the person
may pose. In pretrial cases, home confinement is an alternative to detention
used to ensure that defendants appear in court. In post-sentence cases,
home confmement is used as a punishment, viewed as more punitive
than regular supervision but less restrictive than imprisonment. Courts
may use home confmement as a sanction for persons who violate the
conditions of their supervision. Also, the Federal Bureau ofPrisons may
use it for inmates released to serve the last part of their sentence under
the supervision ofU.S. probation officers.
Officers screen defendants and offenders to determine eligibility
for the home confmement program. Certain categories of serious or
repeat offenders are not allowed to participate. Prior criminal record,
history, of violence, and medical and mental health conditions and
needs are factors that officers carefully consider. Previous failures on
supervision, risk to the public that the person presents, third-party risk
(such as previous incidents of domestic violence in the household),
and the person's willingness to participate are considerations as well.
Close supervision by officers is a crucial component of the home
confmement program. The officer's job is demanding, time consuming,
and sometimes dangerous. It requires frequent phone calls to make
sure participants are adhering to their approved schedules; frequent
unannounced, face-to-face visits; and 24-hour, 7-day response to alerts
from the monitoring center.
I. Make sure you understand the meaning of the legal terms
in column A by matching them with their definitions in column B:
1. probation a. The release of a person who has been
arrested and charged with a federal crime
while he or she awaits trial; a pretrial services
officer supervises the person in the community
until he or she returns to court.
2. parole b. One of a number of people living together,
especially in a hospital, prison or some other
3. supervised release c. The penalty laid down in a law for
contravention of its provisions.
4. pretrial release d. Custody or confmement, especially of a
suspect awaiting trial.
5. detention e. Instead of sending an individual to prison,
the court releases the person to the community
and orders him or her to complete a period of
supervision monitored by a U.S. probation
officer and to abide by certain conditions.
6. sanction f. A term of supervision served after a person
is released from prison; it does not replace a
portion of the sentence of imprisonment but is
in addition to the time spent in prison.
7. inmate g. The release of a prisoner before his
sentence has expired, on the condition that
he is of good behaviour.
II. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false
(F); when the sentences are false, correct them:
1. Community Service is a special condition imposed by the court
that requires an individual to work - without pay - for a civic or
nonprofit organization. _
2. When a parolee is released to the community, he or she is no
longer placed under the supervision of a U.S. probation officer.
3. During the probation period, an individual is supervised by a
probation officer. __
4. A supervised release replaces a certain portion of the sentence of
imprisonment. __
5. In post-sentence cases, home confmementis seen as more punitive
than imprisonment. _
6. A person who violates the conditions of his/her supervision may
be sanctioned to home confinement.
7. All categories of offenders are allowed to participate in the home
confmement program. _
8. Home confmement may include the use of electronic monitoring
9. The only cases when a person placed under home confmement is
allowed to leave home are work and medical appointments. _
10. The judges determine if offenders are eligible for the home
confmement program. _
III. From the verbs in column A, derive the corresponding
nouns (column B) and adjectives (column C), using the suffixes
A B c
Verbs Nouns: -ance, -ion, Adjectives: -ed, -ing,
-ment, -al, -er -able, -ive
1. to punish punishment, punisher punished, punishable, punishing
2. to confme
3. to sentence
4. to release
5. to complete
6. to monitor
7. to possess
8. to select
9. to attend
10. to approve
11. to defend
12. to supervise
13. to restrict
14. to require
15. to consider
IV. Use the words given in capitals at the end of lines to form
a word that fits in the space in the same line; there is an example
on the first line:
Electronic Monitoring
In most cases, U.S. probation and pretrial services officers
use electronic monitoring in supervising persons placed
under home confmement. The individual wears a tamper- MONITOR
resistant ................ on the ankle or wrist 24 hours a day.
The transmitter emits a radio . ...... ...... . .... signal that is TRANSMIT
detected by a . .. .. . .. . . . ./dialer unit connected to the home
phone. When the transmitter comes within range of the FREQUENT
receiver/dialer unit, that unit calls a monitoring center to
indicate that the person is in range, or at home. The person RECEIVE
must stay within 150 feet of the receiving unit to be
...... . ..... in range. The transmitter and the receiver/dialer CONSIDER
unit work together to detect and report the times the person
enters and exits his or her home.
V. Choose the correct plural form of the following nouns to
complete the sentence:
1. We need a negotiator to talk to the ................... .
a) hostages-takers b) hostage-takers c) hostags-takers
2. Many ................ have been issued this week.
a) search warrants b) searches warrants c) searchs warrants
3. The .................. will be punished sooner or later.
a) laws-breakers b) c) law-breakers
4. The number of . . ............... in our city has been doubled this year.
a) holds-ups b) hold-ups c) helds-ups
5. Two ....................... have been accused of perjury.
a) woman-diplomats b) women-diplomats c) womans-diplomats
6. "My beloved ... . .................. , your claims will soon be solved."
a) fellow-citizens b) fellows-citizens c) felows-citizens
7. My ..................... have been charged with indecent exposure.
a) sisters-in-laws b) sister-in-law c) sisters-in-law
8. These .. . ............. . . are the result of hard work.
a) analysis b) analyses c) analises
9. Which are the ................ used in this classification?
a) criterions b) criteria c) criterias
10. Which are the daily .................. of a prisoner?
a) activityes b) activitis c) activities
VI. Combine the words from column A with words from
column B to form compound nouns and collocations:
trial offender
criminal lines
petit health
first lifting
death matters
community esteem
mental ship
guide courts
member exempt
probation slaughter
citizen jury
tax work
shop officer
self penalty
man state
1. trial courts
2. ______________ __
3. ______________ __
4. ______________ __
5. ______________ __
6. ______________ __
7. ______________ __
9. ________________ _
10. ______________ ___
11. -----------------
12. _______ _
13. _______ _
14. _______ _
15. ---------
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
Students enrolled in the Journalism II class at Hazelwood East
High School were responsible for writing and editing the school's
paper The Spectrum. Two of the articles submitted for publication in
the final edition of the paper contained stories on divorce and teenage
pregnancy. The divorce article featured a story about a girl who
blamed her father's actions for her parents' divorce. The teenage
pregnancy article featured stories in which pregnant students at
Hazelwood East shared their experiences. To ensure their privacy, the
girls' names were changed in the article. The Journalism II teacher felt
that the subjects of these two articles were inappropriate. He
concluded that journalistic fairness required that the father in the
divorce article be informed of the story and be given an opportunity to
comment. He also stated his concerns that simply changing the names
of the girls in the teenage pregnancy article may not be sufficient to
protect their anonymity and that this topic may not be suitable for the
younger students. As a result, he prohibited these articles from being
published in the paper. Because there was no time to edit the paper if
it were to go to press before the end of the school year, the teacher
eliminated the entire pages on which these articles were written. The
student authors then brought suit to the U.S. District Court for the
Eastern District of Missouri, alleging that their First Amendment
rights to freedom of speech had been violated. The U.S. District Court
concluded that they were not. The students appealed to the U.S. Court
of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, which reversed the ruling, stating
that the students' rights had been violated. The school appealed to the
U.S. Supreme Court, which granted certiorari.
U.S. District Courts = are the trial courts of the federal court system.
Within limits set by Congress and the Constitution, the district courts have
jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases, including both civil
and criminal matters. Every day hundreds of people across the nation are
selected for jury duty and help decide some of these cases. There are
94 federal judicial districts, including at least one district in each state, the
District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Three territories of the United States -
the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands - have district
courts that hear federal cases, including bankruptcy cases.
U.S. Court of Appeals =the 94 U.S. judicial districts are organized
into 12 regional circuits, each of which has a United States court of appeals.
A court of appeals hears appeals from the district courts located within its
circuit, as well as appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies.
certiorari = an order of a superior court directing that a record of
proceedings in a lower court be sent up for review.
I. Make sure you understand the meaning of the words and
expressions in column A by matching them with their Romanian
equivalents in column B:
1. to submit an article for publi- a. a proteja anonimatul cuiva
2. to feature (stories) (ofpubli- b. a afirma (tara dovezi), a pretinde
3. to state one's concerns= c. a aproba centiorari (vezi nota)
4. to protect one's anonymity= d. ( despre publicafii) a evidentia, a
pune in prim plan (povestiri)
5: to prohibit an article from e. a face un apel/recurs Ia o instanta
being published = superioara
6. to go to press (of an article) = f. a inainta un articol spre publicare
7. to allege = g. a audia apeluri/recursuri
8. to appeal to = h. a ~ i exprima ingrijorarea
9. to reverse a ruling = i. ( despre un articol) a merge/a fi
trimis la tipar
10. to grant centiorari = j . un proces verbal al procedurii
11. to hear appeals = k. a interzice publicarea unui articol
12. a record of proceedings = 1. a anula o sentinta judecatoreasca
II. Become familiar with the subject matter of the above case
by answering the following questions:
I. Who are the editors ofthe school's paper The Spectrum?
2. Which were the subject matters of the two articles submitted for
3. Why were the girls' names changed in the article?
4. Who prohibited these articles from being published?
5. What reasons did the teacher have to prohibit these articles from
being published?
6. What does the rule of journalistic fairness imply?
7. Why did the student authors bring suit to the U.S. District Court?
8. What is the content of the First Amendment?
9. Why did the students appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the
Eighth Circuit?
10. How did the U.S. Court of Appeals rule?
III. Practical task - Role playing: Starting from the case
presented, try to enact its presentation in front of the Supreme
Court, following the next instructions:
Role assigning: the class is divided into three groups of
students: the first group consists of justices (judecatori ai
Cuqii Supreme). One justice is designated as the Chief
Justice de tribunal); the second group consists of
lawyers (3) for Hazelwood School District (which represents
Hazelwood East High School); the third group consists of
lawyers (3) for the student authors, including Kuhlmeier.
Hazelwood School District is known as the petitioner
(petitionar/solicitant), while Kohlmeier is known as the
respondent (reclamat/parat). Other roles: a court timekeeper
(cronometror) and a marshal al curtii).
Procedure: two lawyers from the petitioner's side present the
main case to the Court; the third lawyer presents the rebuttal
case (dovedirea netemeiniciei cazului/dovada contrarie). The
lawyers for both sides put forth their best legal arguments and
answer any questions that the justices may have.
Note: It is important to remember that this is a simulation of
oral arguments in the Supreme Court and not a trial. No
evidence is collected and witnesses are not called.
The steps of presenting oral arguments:
The Chief Justice swears in student justices.
The Court timekeeper signals time limits to speakers.
The student marshal announces Court using the Supreme
Court cry.
The Chief Justice calls the Court to order, announces the case
and asks the petitioner to begin.
Student attorneys for petitioner argue (5 minutes).
Student attorneys for respondent argue (5 minutes).
Student attorney for petitioner-rebuttal (5 minutes).
Student attorney for respondent-rebuttal (5 minutes).
Justices deliberate in front of audience (5 minutes).
A justice in the majority announces decision( s) from the bench,
each student justice explains rationale (argumentarea) to the
audience (5 minutes).
Here is a list of expressions and linking words that can be used
in introducing arguments for or against:
To make general statements: As a general rule, By and large,
Generally, In general, On the whole;
To make partially correct statements: Up to a point, To a
certain extent/degree, To some extent/degree, In a sense/way,
there is some truth in this, To a limited extent;
To resort to general opinion: It is popularly believed that,
People often claim that, Some people argue that, It is widely
argued that, Some people point out that, It is often alleged
that, Many experts support/oppose the view that, Contrary to
popular belief;
To counter-balance an argument: While it is true to say
that ... , in fact ..... ; The fact that ... contradicts the belief/idea
that ..... ; On one hand .. . , on the other hand ... ;
To introduce arguments for or against: One very convincing
argument/point in favour of../against ... , A forther common
criticism of .. , It could be argued that .. . , One/another/a further
/an additional advantage/disadvantage of ... , Another positive/
negative aspect of .. , We strongly support/oppose the view
that..., We believe/claim/feel that this argument is incorrect/
misguided, We agree/do not agree that/with.
IV. Comment and compare the decision reached by the
experimental students' court with the actual decision of th(l U. S.
Supreme Court in the Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
case; the latter decision will be summarized below:
The U.S. Supreme Court held that the journalism teacher's
actions did not violate the students' free speech rights. The Court
noted that the paper was sponsored by the school and, as such, the
school had a legitimate interest in preventing the publication of
articles that it deemed inappropriate and that might appear to have the
imprimatur of the school. Specifically, the Court noted that the paper
was not intended as a public forum in which everyone could share
views; rather, it was a limited forum for journalism students to write
articles pursuant to the requirements of their Journalism II class, and
subject to appropriate editing by the school.
to deem inappropriate = a considera inadecvat
imprimatur = bun de tipar
pursuant to = conform cu, potrivit cu
V. Discuss the ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court in the
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier case, answering the
following useful questions:
Discussion Starters
1. What is the difference between editing and censorship?
2. Do you agree with the Supreme Court's decision?
3. The Supreme Court effectively said that the school authorities
could censor The Spectrum. Can you think of any instances in
which school authorities should or should not determine the
appropriateness of subject matter?
4. Just because the Supreme Court said that school authorities may
have the fmal word, does this mean that they should? Besides
newspapers, what other forms of expression might school authorities
control as a result of the Court's decision in this case?
5. Does the Supreme Court's decision mean that school authorities can
determine what is and is not appropriate in a school-funded paper?
6. Could the journalism teacher prevent the publication of articles
criticizing the school's administration by saying that they are
7. Would the ruling in this case have been different if the school
newspaper were written by members of an extracurricular club
and not a journalism class?
VI. Translate into Romanian the conditional sentences written
in italics from the chart below; reading the note below, you will get
familiar with the content of the grammar chart:
Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the subordinate clause or the
if-clause and the main clause. There are three main types of conditional
clauses and various mixed types. Each type is used to express different
real/unreal, present/past conditions, using certain pairs of tenses. There are
also many exceptions fmm each type but students dealing with conditionals
for the first time should simply concentrate on the basic rules that will be
presented in the following chart:
Types If-clause Main clause Meaning
Type I Present tense simple Future tense simple
If he is accused of he will receive a life
manslaughter, sentence. Real situation,
If they find hard present or future
evidence against him, he will be prosecuted. oriented
Present tense simple Modal verbs
If the de fondant pleads he must/should be sent
guilty, to prison.
Present tense simple take a break and then
If you get tired, start again.
TypeD Past tense would/ could/ should/
simple/continuous might+ short Unreal, hypothetic
infinitive situation, present
or future oriented,
If I were you, I would try the new unlikely to happen
If he had more time, he could come to see
me in Court.
If she did what her she might have a
lawyer says, chance to win the trial.
Type ill Past perfect would/ could/ should/ Imaginary
simple/continuous might+ have+ past situation, past
participle oriented (regrets,
unfulfilled plans,
If he had been he wouldn't have wishes to change
innocent, hidden the murder the past)
If they had published the girls 'private lives
the article, would have been
If I had known more I could have helped
about his intentions, him to be released on
Branzburg v. Hayes
Petitioner Branzburg, a reporter at the Courier-Letter in Louisville,
Kentucky, wrote two articles for his paper concerning drug use in
Kentucky. The frrst article, written in 1969, focused on drug use in
Jefferson County. Among other things, it contained a photograph of
hashish held in the hands of an unidentified person. In 1971,
Branzburg wrote an article on drug use in Frankfort, Kentucky. As
sources for this article, he spoke with several marijuana users. As a
condition for cooperating with Branzburg, his sources requested that
they not be identified.
When published, both of these articles came to the attention of
law enforcement personnel. In each instance, Branzburg was called to
testify before a grand jury concerning his knowledge of the drug
activities reported in his articles. The prosecutors in charge of these
grand jury proceedings ordered him to name his sources. Branzburg
refused on the grounds that the Freedom of the Press Clause of the First
Amendment protects the confidentiality of a journalist's sources. These
cases were heard by Kentucky judges, who disagreed and held that
Branzburg had to name his sources. Branzburg appealed these decisions.
The 1969 article gave rise to the case, Branzburg v. Hayes. The
1971 article gave rise to the case Branzburg v. Meigs. After moving
through the Kentucky court system, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to
hear these two cases, which it consolidated under the name Branzburg
v. Hayes.
I. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false
(F); when the sentences are false, correct them:
1. Branzburg's sources allowed the journalist to use their initials only.
2. Branzburg's sources accepted to cooperate with the journalist
provided that they were not identified. _
3. If Branzburg's articles had not been published, he wouldn't have
been summoned to appear in Court. _
4. Branzburg was called to Court to be investigated in the two cases of
drug use._
5. The prosecutors ordered Branzburg to reveal the names of his
6. Branzburg refused to name his sources on the grounds that they
were important public figures. _
7. The journalist invoked the Sixth Amendment in order to protect the
confidentiality of his sources. _
II. The left column presents Branzburg's argument points on
the case, while the right column contains the judge's argument
points on the same case. Summarize each of the four points
presented below, by making contrasting points. Here is an example:
While the journalist considers that the First Amendment entitles
him to protect the confidentiality of his sources, Judge Hayes opposes
the journalist 's viewpoint and states that the freedom of the press is
not above the law.
Argument Points
Branzburg (Reporter) Hayes (Judge Overseeing
a Grand Jury)
Freedom of the Press Freedom of the Press
1. The First Amendment 1. The First Amendment's
protects the freedom of the press. freedom of the press does not give
The press cannot truly be free the press freedom from all laws and
unless it is at liberty to report on regulations. For instance, members
stories of public interest, i.e., the of the press do not have the right to
drug crisis. In order to get these break into a building to get a story,
stories, reporters sometimes have to even if the story is one of most
promise confidentiality to their sources. pressing public concern. Freedom of
If reporters are forced to identify the press guarantees that the press
their confidential sources before a
grand jury, they will not be able to
publish such stories, and the press
will not truly be free.
Deterrent Effect on the Press
2. At the heart of the First
Amendment is the protection of the
free flow of information. Although
the government is not directly
censoring the press by requiring
journalists to reveal their confidential
sources, the effect is the same. The
public has a right to know about
pressing issues such as the drug
crisis. If a journalist's source is
engaged in illegal activities and
knows that the journalist could be
required to identify him/her, the
source will be hesitant to talk.
Effective Crime Prevention
3. Effective crime prevention
will not be hindered by protecting the
confidentiality of journalists' sources.
Just like any other citizen, law
enforcement personnel are entitled to
reap the benefits of a journalist's
work. For instance, police may not
have been aware of the extent of the
drug problem in this case without
Branzburg's story. If Branzburg is
forced to reveal his sources, law
enforcement may be able to
apprehend a few criminals, but the
deterrent effect will likely stifle the
future publication of stories, like the
one at issue in this case, that may be
beneficial to law enforcement.
will be free from prior restraint and
other government censorship. It has
nothing to do with the assertion that
a journalist may refuse to identify
confidential sources before a grand
jury when required to do so by law.
Deterrent Effect on the Press
2. With perhaps a few rare
exemptions, i.e., troop movements
during times of war, the First
Amendment prevents the government
from interfering with whatever truthful
statements the press decides to
publish. When the promise of confi-
dentiality is between a journalist and
an individual, this is a private, not
governmental action. As such, the
First Amendment is not implicated.
Effective Crime Prevention
3. Freedom of the press is not
the only right that comes into play
when members of the press are asked
to reveal their confidential sources.
Often, as in this case, prosecutors
ask journalists to reveal their sources
to a grand jury in order to investigate
crime. Even assuming, for the sake of
argument, that the First Amendment
protects journalists from revealing
their sources, why does this right
automatically trump the citizenry's
right to have law enforcement
personnel effectively fight crime?
Sometimes freedom of the press
must yield to the citizenry's right to
be free from crime.
Grand Jury Abuses
4. Since the grand jury conducts
its proceedings in secret, requiring a
journalist to reveal confidential sources
is prone to prosecutorial abuse. There
is no guarantee, for instance, that the
information sought will have any
bearing on a criminal investigation. A
prosecutor may simply ask for names
in order to harass certain individuals
and/or to fmd out information that
could subject others to public ridicule.
Grand Jury Abuses
4. There is no evidence that
prosecutors abuse their privilege to
conduct a grand jury. To the
contrary, grand juries serve as a
bulwark for the citizens against
overzealous prosecutors. Without an
indictment from a grand jury,
prosecutors cannot bring charges
against an individual. In the rare
cases where prosecutors do act
inappropriately, the Courts provide
suitable remedies.
III. Translate into Romanian the four conditional clauses in
bold, selected from the left column above.
IV. Translate into English:
1. Libertatea presei nu poate asigura protejarea identWitii surselor

2. In confonnitate cu legea, daca un jurnalist este adus in fata Curtii, el
va trebui sa depuna marturie in legatura cu cazurile despre care
detine infonnatii neoficial.
3. Este datoria presei sa semnaleze Cuqii acele cazuri suspecte care ar
face obiectul jurisdictiei sale?
4. Daca un jurnalist alege sa fie fidel sursei sale, aceasta inseamna
neaparat cajurnalistul respectiv comite o incalcare a legii?
5. Se face Branzburg vinovat de sfidare a cuqii prin faptul ca a refuzat
sa dezvaluie identitatea surselor sale?
6. Daca procurorii ar incalca legea ar comite abuzuri, ei ar fi
pedepsiti in mod corespunzator de instante superioare de judecata.
7. Daca ar fi sa alegeti intre protejarea libertatii presei oferirea de
infonnatii necesare pentru rezolvarea unui caz anchetat, pentru ce
ati opta ce?
V. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, paying
attention to the grammar rules used in conditional clauses;
sometimes more versions can be accepted:
1. He .................... (be release) to the community if he accepts the
home confinement program.
2. If the mayor .............. (approve) the community service program
for our town, we ............ , ...... (have) an opportunity to change
negative perceptions about offenders.
3. He wouldn't have appeared before the clerk of the court if he
........................... (not be summoned).
4. If an individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (meet) the legal qualifications for
federal jury service, he/she may stand a chance to be a member of a
5. If the jury had attentively listened to the evidence and arguments of
the respondent's lawyer, they .................................... (vote)
in his favour.
6. If a married couple ................. (decide) to legally separate, the
couple undergoes divorce proceedings.
7. If his wife had invoked 'irreconcilable differences' as the grounds
of their divorce, she .................................. (get) to keep the
8. Even if the spouses mutually ............... (want) to get a divorce,
the law .................... (prohibit) lawyers from representing both
9. If you have friends or relatives in your local area who have been
divorced, they ........... (refer) you to a lawyer appropriate for your
10. Ifl ......... (be) accused of medical malpractice, I ................. .
(fight) for my rights.
VI. Choose the correct versions, paying attention to the use
of verbal tenses, conditionals and modal verbs in conditional
1. If participants ................ any problems with the monitoring
equipment, they must notify officers immediately.
a) will experience b) experience c) experiences d) would experience
2. If the defendant has a prior criminal record, his sentence
.................. harsher.
a)willbe b)is c) would be d) should be
3. A grand jury decides if there ...... a probable cause to indict
(accuse) individuals or corporations on criminal charges based upon
the evidence presented.
a) will be b) has been c) is d) would be
4. If a person . . . . . . . . . . . . .. that he/she has been wrongfully
imprisoned, he/she ................ the right to challenge the legality of
the confmement.
a) believe, will have b) will believe, may have
c) believes, may have d) has believed, will have
5. If the writ of habeas corpus .................... , the prisoner will
be brought into court.
a) will be issued b) is issued c) had been issued d) were issued
6. If, after hearing both sides, the court ......... that the grounds
for the confmement are illegal, the petitioner .................. .
a) fmds, is released b) will fmd, is released
c) has found, had been released d) found, will be released
7. If I had known what an open-ended question is, I .............. .
my last exam.
a) will pass b) would pass c) will have passed d) would have passed
8. If you were such a good lawyer, your arguments ............. .
in the present situation.
a) will hold up b) would hold up c) would held up
d) would had held up
9. If you .............. the devil's advocate and ................ some
exceptions to the lawyers'argument, we could have won our last case.
a) have played, (have) found b) play, fmd
c) would have played, (would have) found
d) had played, (had) found
10. If you ........... journalists covering the Supreme Court,
what would you write in a murder case article?
a) are b) were c) had been d) have been
11. If the defendant were found guilty, the jury ................. ' ... .
the appropriate sentence, a life term or death.
a) will then determine b) would then determine
c) might then determine d) would then have determined
12. If the sentence of death for rape . . . . . . . . . . . the Eighth
Amendment, the rapist may receive a life sentence.
a) violates b) is violated c) will violate d) has violated
13. Judges ......... the authority to hold journalists in contempt
of court, if reporters . . . . . . .. to comply with an order to reveal the
identity of unnamed sources.
a) had, refused b) have, refuse c) have, would refuse
d) have, will have refused
14. If the grand jury ............... its proceedings in secret,
requiring a journalist to reveal confidential sources would have been
considered prosecutorial abuse.
a) had conducted b) has conducted c) conducted
d) would have conducted
15. If a journalist's source is engaged in illegal activities and
. . . . . . . . . that the journalist could be required to identify him/her, the
source .............. hesitant to talk.
a) knew, would be b) knows, will be c) is known, will be
d) will know, will be
16. If reporters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to identify their confidential
sources before a grand jury, the press will not truly be free.
a) will be forced b) must be forced c) are forced d) can be forced
17. Unless you ............. things out, we shall have to go to
a) don't work b) work c) will work d) won't work
18. If the pedestrian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. by a policeman, the
former should have made a complaint to the nearest police station.
a) has be assaulted b) is assaulted c) will be assaulted
d) were assaulted
19. If the journalist's story . .............. criminal activity, he
would have reported it.
a) has involved b) involves c) had involved d) will involve
20. If a prosecutor ....... . ... .. .......... a grand jury investigation
in bad faith, journalists might have a right to refuse to reveal their
a) were conducting b) is conducting c) had been conducting
d) will be conducting
During times of uncertainty and national crisis, often there is a
conflict between liberties and safety. Sometimes liberties must yield to
safety. Other times, safety must yield to liberties. The goal of the law
is to find the appropriate balance between liberty and safety.
One of the most important means for ensuring this balance, as
well as one of the most important means of protecting individual liberty
in general, is the writ of habeas corpus. A writ of habeas corpus allows
persons who believe that they have been wrongfully imprisoned to
challenge the legality of their confmement. To do so, a person must
petition a court to issue the writ. If the writ is issued, the court directs
the person who is holding the petitioner in confmement (usually a jailor)
to bring the prisoner into court and to explain the grounds for the
petitioner's detention. If, after hearing both sides, the court fmds that the
grounds for the confmement are illegal, the petitioner is released.
The writ of habeas corpus came about as a result of the English
Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, 31 Car. 2, c. 2. By the time of the
American Revolution, the writ was cherished to such an extent by
American colonists that it was the only British judicial writ (legal
command) to be specifically mentioned in the U.S. Constitution
(Article I, Section 9). Due to its role in protecting liberty, the writ of
habeas corpus is known as the Great Writ.
Although they hailed it as the Great Writ, the framers of the
Constitution also realized that there may be times when its application
is inappropriate, for example, during times of national crisis. In
pertinent part, Article I, Section 9, of the Constitution deals with this
situation by saying "The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall
not be suspended unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the
public Safety may require it".
Despite the fact that on rare occasions throughout United States
history this writ has been suspended (most notably by President
Lincoln during the Civil War), it has served its purpose and, even
during times of war and national crisis, provided a means for those
who felt that they were unjustly imprisoned to challenge the legality of
their confmements. For example, in Ex Parte Milligan (1866), Lamdin
Milligan, a civilian, used the writ to successfully challenge the legality
of his confmement following a conviction by a military tribunal
during the Civil War. Likewise, in Ex Parte Endo (1944), Mitsuye
Endo successfully used the writ to challenge the internment of persons
of Japanese ancestry during World War II.
In the cases mentioned above, the courts have had the difficult
task of weighing the rights of individuals with the right of the state to
protect itself during times of national emergency. Whether the issue is
unjust imprisonment, restrictions on free speech, or the loss of
property rights, it was the role of the courts to try to arrive at a
conclusion that balanced both liberties and safety.
Habeas Corpus = a writ ordering a person to be brought before a court
or judge, esp. so that the court may ascertain whether his detention is lawful
I. Extract from the text above the English equivalents for the
following Romanian words and expressions:
a fi bagat la mchisoare pe nedrept = ___________ _
a contesta legalitatea = ______________ _
a mainta o petitie ditre Curte = ____________ _
a emite o hotarare/ordonanta judecatoreasca = _______ _
a ~ i atinge scopul = ___________ _
a cantari/evalua =
a ceda (in fatalm favoarea) = _____ _
limitarea libertatii de expresie = ____________ _
pierderea drepturilor de proprietate = ------------
II. Match the Latin legal terms in column A with their English
explanatory definitions in column B:
1. (writ) capias a. 'do not leave the country' interdiction
(mandat de aducere) addressed to a debtor that is being prosecuted;
2. (writ) Habeas Corpus b. 'because of lack of care': decision wrongly
made by a court (which does not therefore
set a precedent);
3. (writ) certiorari c. 'after the event';
4. quid pro quo d. a writ directing a sheriff or other officer
to arrest a named person;
5. ne exeat regno e. 'eason of the law': the principle behind a
6. nolle prosequi f. 'n fact': as a matter of fact;
7. per incuriam g. ' on its own' or 'alone';
8. per procurationem h. a writ ordering a person to be brought
(per pro) before a court or judge, esp. so that the
court may ascertain whether his detention is
9. de facto i. 'one thing for another': action done in
return for something done or promised;
10. ex post facto j. with the authority of /on behalf of;
11. locus standi k. an order of a superior court directing that
a record of proceedings in a lower court be
sent up for review.
12. ratio legis I. 'do not pursue': power used by the
Attorney-General to stop a criminal trial;
13.per se m. 'place to stand': right to be heard in a court;
III. Use the Latin legal terms in exercise II. in your own
sentences, as in the following examples:
He didn't lie to you. He is the de facto owner of the property.
The taxpayer does not have locus standi in this court.
The secretary signed per pro the manager.
IV. Re-read the text The Role of Federal Courts in Balancing
Liberties and Safety. Then check your reading comprehension by
choosing the right version:
1. The writ of habeas corpus is:
a) a writ ordering a person to be released from prison immediately.
b) a writ ordering a person to be placed under house arrest.
c) a writ ordering a person to be brought before a court or judge, to
see whether his detention is lawful.
2. The application of the Great Writ:
a) has never been suspended throughout United States history.
b) has been suspended during times of war (the Civil War) and
national crisis.
c) has been suspended whenever the newly elected president of the
United States so decided.
3. In Ex Parte Milligan (1866), Lamdin Milligan used the writ:
a) to successfully challenge the legality of his death penalty.
b) to successfully challenge the legality of his confmement.
c) to set a precedent for similar cases in lower courts.
4. The writ of habeas corpus was first mentioned in:
a) the Declaration oflndependence.
b) the English Habeas Corpus Act of 1679.
c) the U.S. Constitution.
! Remember the forms of the Infinitive:
short infinitive: discuss, work
long/present infinitive: to discuss, to work
present continuous infinitive: to be discussing, to be working
perfect infinitive: to have discussed, to have worked
per:foct infinitive continuous: to have been discussing, to have been working
passive infinitive forms: (to) be discussed, (to) have been discussed
V. Choose the using the forms of the Infinitive:
1. You had better .............. : .... . your crimes right now, when you
still have a chance.
a) to confess b) confessing c) confess d) confessed
2. I would rather .......... the rest of my life in jail than confess to
a crime I did not commit.
a) spend b) to spend c) spending d) spent
3. He made me .............. all my charges, threatening me with a gun.
a) to drop b) drop c) dropping d) to have dropped
4. He let me .............. which option was the best for my difficult
a) decide b) deciding c) to decide d) being to decide
5. Let's ............. a short coffee break and will decide afterwards.
a) taking b) to take c) took d) take
6. Why not ................. your case later, when we have further
a) to discuss b) shall we discuss c) discuss d) discussing
7. He is far too unexperienced ... . ..... . .......... to chief justice.
a) to being promoted b) to be promoted c) to has been promoted
d) being promoted
8. The police are said . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for many months
on this case, without any results so far.
a) to be working b) to have been working c) to had worked
d) to being working
9. Apparently criminals tend ......... . ....... to the scene of the
a) to have returned b) returning c) to be returned d) to return
10. The Court is thought .............. unjustly ...... . ......... him
to 10 years in prison, without any possibility of parole.
a) to .... sentence b) to have ... sentenced c) to having ... sentenced
d) to being .. . sentenced
11. Several measures need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . before hearing he
a) be taken b) being taken c) to be taken d) to have been taken
12. He recommended us . . . . . . . . . . . an appeal as soon as the
verdict is pronounced.
a) to make b) making c) to have made d) make
13. We are sure that he didn't mean .............. perjury; he was
too afraid .............. the truth.
a) committing, to tell b) to commit, to tell
c) to have committed, telling d) commit, to be telling
14. They made him ........... under duress, without allowing his
lawyer ........... present during the cross-examination.
a) to speak, to be b) speaking, being c) to be speaking, to be
d) speak, to be
15. I hate ............... you but our witness seems ................. .
it after all.
a) to interrupt, to have made b) interrupting, to make
c) to interrupting, to have made d) interrupt, to make
VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct infinitive forms:
Can you help me fmd (fmd) better accomodation and a new job?
The judges seem ..... . ........... (1. grant) me parole due to my good
behaviour in prison. But my parole officer doesn't appear ............ .
(2. share) their opinion. Every time something bad happens in my
neighbourhood, he expects me . . . . . . . . . . (3. confess) to a crime I did
not commit. Sometimes he comes unexpectedly to check upon me. For
instance, yesterday, he pretended ................... (4. forget) to give
me an application form which had .......... (5. sign) for my job
interview. In other words, things appear ................. (6. go) from
bad to worse and sometimes I think I would rather . . . . . . . . . (7. serve)
the rest of my sentence in prison than .... , ....... (8. enjoy) a so-called
freedom. As to getting a job, all employers consider ex-convicts
........ (9. be) dangerous people. That's why I am supposed ........... .
(1 0. accept) any job that is offered to me. I can do nothing but
............ (11. wait) till my probation period is over and then .......... .
(12. start) a new life on my own. I hope soon .............. (13. work)
in a new job and . ............... (14. live) in a flat of my own. Till then
I am just trying ............... (15. keep) in mind that I am not the frrst
ex-convict .............. (16. treat) in this way.
Amendments to the Constitution
of the United States of America
Articles in addition to, and amendment of the Constitution of the
United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the
several states, pursuant to the Fifth Article of the original Constitution
Amendment IV [Annotations]
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
supported by Oath or affmnation, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Amendment V [Annotations]
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor
shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in
jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to
be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or
property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be
taken for public use, without just compensation.
Amendment VI [Annotations]
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to
a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall
have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his
favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
Amendment VIII [Annotations]
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Amendment IX [Annotations]
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
I. Find in the text above the synonymous words and
expressions for the followings:
1. to approve officially= _________ _
2. personal belongings = _________ _
3. notorious, shocking= _________ _
4. showing a document= ________ _
5. to determine defmitely = _______ _
6. obligatory= ________ _
7. to cause to suffer/affiict (with)= _____ _
8. act of bringing someone to court to answer a charge=-.,----,-,--------,--
9. list of charges given to a grand jury, asking them to indict the
accused= ___ _
10. taking possession of smth = ______ _
11. to interpret the meaning of words or of a document= ____ _
12. to speak contemptuously of/to damage the reputation of= __ _
II. Make sure you understand the content of the amendments
above by choosing the correct answer:
1. Amendment IV prohibits:
a) the security of people's lives, houses, papers and effects;
b) any unauthorized searches and seizures without a valid warrant,
legally issued for a specific purpose;
c) people's rights to offer resistance to having their houses serched
without a valid warrant.
2. Amendment V stipulates that:
a) no person shall be held responsible for a crime without the right
to speak in front of the Grand Jury;
b) no person shall be forced to answer for a crime in front of the
Grand Jury;
c) no person shall be kept in custody without an indictment of a
Grand Jury.
3. Amendment VI deals with:
a) the criminal's rights during the criminal proceedings;
b) the witnesses'right to decide whether to appear or not in a criminal
c) the public's right to witness the process of prosecuting a criminal.
4. Amendment VIII advocates that:
a) the arrested persons should be released on bail, receive a
minimum fme and have no punishment inflicted on them;
b) the arrested persons should be denied the right to be released on
bail, be fmed heavily and punished accordingly;
c) not all arrested persons should be granted bail and that neither
fmes nor punishments should be used excessively.
5. Amendment IX says that:
a) the rights stipulated in the Constitution can be interpreted and
applied as everyone pleases;
b) the rights stipulated in the Constitution shall not be misconstrued
so as to undermine others that people hold dear;
c) the rights stipulated in the Constitution can always be amended
in accordance with the old ones that people treasure.
III. Unscramble the following two sets of words to recreate
the text of two amendments:
citizens previous of States be denied condition of
by the United servitude. States to vote The right
on account of or abridged shall not by any State
race, or the United or color,
Amendment XV
The right of ___________
the President shall become the removal of
the Vice President of his death or resignation,
In case of from office President. or
Amendment XXV- Section 1
In case of
! Remember the forms of Gerunds:
present gerund: killing, being killed (passive form)
perfect gerund: having killed, having been killed (passive form)
and that Gerunds are used after: prepositions, verbs +
prepositions, and certain categories of verbs and expressions that
require the use of Gerunds, such as: detest, dislike, erijoy, hate, like,
love, prefor, resent, begin, stop, finish, start, admit, appreciate, avoid,
consider, deny, endure, fancy, forgive, imagine, involve, keep, mention,
mind, practice, prevent, recollect, report, risk, suggest, and expressions:
it's no use/good, it's (not) worth, there's no point (in), feel/ike, can't
stand/bear, can't help, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, have
difficulty (in), in favour of look forward to, etc.
IV. Practise the use of Gerunds after the following verbs and
expressions to say what we generally like or dislike doing:
I really like ... ... ............................ .
I really like spending time with my family and my friends.
He detests ................................... .
He detests being held responsible for something he did not do.
It's no good ........... .... ................. .
It's no good trying to be friendly with everybody.
1. My boss really detests . ......... : .......................................... .
2. She does enjoy ............................................................ .
3. I can't tell you how much I hate ........................................ .
(passive gerund).
4. Everybody loves .......................................................... .
5. I definitely prefer ............................. to ........................ ..
(prefer + gerund + TO + gerund = prefer doing smth to doing
smth else)
6. My teacher resents ........... , ........................................... ..
7. It's no use ................................................................... .
8. I am sure that it's not worth ............................................. .
9. If you think this is worth ..................................... , then
10. There's no point in ....................................................... .
11. Old people can't stand ................................................. ..
12. Though I hate saying this, I am used to ................................ .
13. Finally, I have got used to .............................................. ..
14. I have to admit, I am not accustomed to ............. ..... ........... ..
15. Sometimes, students have difficulty in ................................ .
16. I can't tell you how much I look forward to .......................... .
V. Practise the use of Perfect Gerund to refer to past actions:
He was accused of having trafficked arms.
He strongly denied having pointed a gun at her.
1. The man was charged with .............................................. .
2. The President has never been suspected of .. ........... .. ............. .
3. She admits ................................................................. ..
4. We really appreciate your ................................................ .
5. I remember ................................................................ ..
6. He will never forgive my ................................................ .
7. Do you recall .............................................................. .
8. They hold him responsible for .......................................... .
9. You should be ashamed of yourself for .............................. ..
10. In spite of .................................................. , the prisoner
VI. Choose the correct form oflnfinitive or Gerund:
1. Everybody hates ..................... the law expenses.
a) to pay b) paying c) to be paid d) to be paying
2. I look forward to ................... you in Court! We shall settle
things then.
a) seeing b) see c) have seen d) saw
3. 'Find me a good lawyer! I don't want to risk ' the
rest of my life in jail.'
a) spending b) to spend c) having spended d) spend
4. I advised him ..................... to the court and accuse him of
conspiracy crimes.
a) to go b) going c) to going d) to have gone
5. 'Shall we proceed? It's no use .................... for the witness!'
a) to wait b) having to wait c) waiting d) wait
6. 'I'm sorry Your Honour, but I can't help ................... when I
speak about my son.'
a) crying b) not to cry c) not crying d) cry
7. They arrived home .. .. . . . .. .. . . ... . . . . . . . . that the house had been
a) fmding b) having found c) to fmd d) to have found
8. Despite ........................ jailed for drug crimes 5 years ago, he
has just been taken into custody for the same count.
a) to have been b) having been c) to being d) having to be
9. British Airways regret .......................... that the flight BA541
from Paris has been cancelled.
a) annorincing b) having announced c) to announce d) announce
10. He couldn't help ...................... that the defendant showed no
a) not to notice b) not having noticed c) noticing d) notice
11. I don't intend ............................. according to the wishes of
this jury.
a) to act b) acting c) to have acted d) act
12. I suggest ...................... upon the case after a short break.
a) to deliberate b) deliberating c) to be deliberating d) deliberate
13. The judge admitte.d ..................... bribe from one of his
clients months before the trial.
a) to take b) to be taking c) having taken d) having took
14. He fmds it hard .......................... the corrupt system of
justice in this third world country.
a) enduring b) to endure c) having endured d) for him to endure
15. He has been charged with .................... and taken into
a) trespass b) trespassing c) tresspassing d) to trespass
16. It surprises me ................. that he has been accused of money
a) hearing b) to have heard c) to hear d) being heard
17. Would you mind ......................... up when the verdict is
a) to stand b) stand c) being stand d) standing
18. 'I strongly object to ........................ treated like a hardened
a) be b) is c) being d) been
19. We keep . , .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. the law-makers that new laws
should be instituted against public corruption.
a) telling b) to be telling c) being told d) having tell
20. All foreigners complain that they are not used to
....................... on the left.
a) drive b) have to drive c) driving d) having driven
One of the only ways that the general public learns about the
activities of its government is through the leaking of classified
information to the press. The news about the NSA's eavesdropping
programs and the CIA's alleged "black sites" was leaked to the press,
which put the leaker at risk of being prosecuted for grave national
security violations. The federal government takes these leaks seriously
and has vowed to prosecute any person who has disclosed or has
possessed classified information.
Receiving or obtaining classified information is covered by
section 793. In order to convict an individual for the unlawful
possession of classified information, the government must prove
beyond a reasonable doubt that:
the defendant possessed certain enumerated information, which
he knows has been obtained contrary to law;
the defendant received it from any person or any source;
the information related to the national defense and
the information was received for the purpose of obtaining
information respecting the national defense with intent or
reason to believe that the information is to be used to the
injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign
The punishment for a violation of section 793 is a fme,
imprisonment for up to 1 0 years, or both.
Section 798 covers disclosure of classified information. To
convict a person for disclosing classified information, the government
must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that:
the defendant provided classified information to another person;
that person was not authorized to receive the classified infor-
the classified information concerns the nature, preparation, or
use of any code, cipher, or cryptographic system of the
United States or any foreign government; or concerns the
design, construction, use, maintenance, or repair of any device,
apparatus, or appliance used or prepared or planned for use by
the United States or 1'1-flY foreign government for cryptographic
or communication intelligence purposes; or concerning the
communication intelligence activities of the United States or
any foreign government; or is obtained by the processes of
communication intelligence from the communications of any
foreign government, knowing the same to have been obtained
by such processes;
and the defendant knows that the information is to be used to
the prejudice of the United States, or for the benefit of any
foreign government to the detriment of the United States
The punishment for a violation of section 798 is a fme,
imprisonment for up to 10 years, or both.
I. Check whether you are familiar with the new vocabulary,
by choosing the right version:
1. In the sentence The news about the NSA 's eavesdropping programs,
to eavesdrop means:
a) to let one's ears drop;
b) to listen secretly to the private conversation of others;
c) to whisper secrets to someone' s ear.
2. In the sentence The federal government has vowed to prosecute,
to vow means:
a) to pledge, promise, or undertake solemnly;
b) to pronounce a vowel;
c) to take a solemn oath.
3. In the sentence The government must prove beyond a reasonable
doubt that, beyond any reasonable doubt means:
a) giving someone the benefit of the doubt;
b) beyond any suspicion of guilt;
c) almost certajn proOf needed to convict a person in a criminal case.
4. In the phrase obtaining information respecting the national defense,
respecting means:
a) regarding, concerning;
b) obeying, not violating;
c) showing or having respect for.
5. In the sentence To convict a person for disclosing classified
information, to disclose information means:
a) to make information known;
b) to receive money in exchange of information;
c) to look for more information.
II. Answer the following questions using information from
the text above or appealing to your own information:
1. How can the general public learn about the activities of its
2. What reasons could a leaker have to disclose classified information?
3. Which risks does the leaker take by disclosing classified information?
4. What measures can the federal government take to prevent leakers
from disclosing information?
5. What is the harshest sentence a leaker may receive?
6. In what situations can the disclosure of classified information affect
the national security of a country?
7. What can the intelligence bureau do to reduce the disclosure of
classified information?
8. Give some examples of how a leaker can use the diclosed
information for the benefit of a foreign government.
III. Translate the following fragment into Romanian:
To convict a person for disclosing classified information, the
government must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that: the classified
information concerns the nature, preparation, or use of any code,
cipher, or cryptographic system of the United States or any foreign
government; or concerns the design, construction, use, maintenance,
or repair of any device, apparatus, or appliance used or prepared or
planned for use by the United States or any foreign government for
cryptographic or communication intelligence purposes.
: Remember the use of Were Subjunctive (unreal past)
IV. Practise the use of were subjunctive/unreal past (verb+
-ed/ the 2nd form of irregular verbs) after the verbs in italics to
express unreal/improbable situations in the present:
I wish I ........ (be) a first offender so that I could receive a lenient
I wish I were a first offender so that I could receive a lenient sentence.
Suppose they ........... (offer) to reduce your prison sentence, would
you co-operate?
Suppose they offered to reduce your prison sentence, would you
I'd rather she ........... (spend) the rest of her life in jail than sell
drugs for a living.
I'd rather she spent the rest of her life in jail than sell drugs for a
1. I wish they . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (not fmd) him guilty of obstruction of
2. If only they . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (do) something to reduce the increasing
number of identity thefts.
3. Suppose another Attorney General ................... (be appointed)
to work with us, would it make any difference?
4. He puts on sw;>h a superior air as if he .......... (do) everybody a
huge favour by coming to Court.
5. I'd rather they ............ (keep) him behind bars for another year.
6.1fi ............. (be) in your place, I would deny any involvement
in the murder case.
7. It's time you ................ (decide) how you want to spend the
rest of your life.
8. She wishes her lawyer ............... (fmd) more time to review her
9. If only the jury ............ (fmd) him not guilty!
10. Imagine you ........ ; ........... (be kidnapped) and ......... (ask) to
reveal the sources of your information!
11. If the commission ......... (vote) against the motion, a new
delegation would have to be sent to London next week.
12. You treat me as ifi ............. (be) your slave!
13. I'd sooner the Congress ......................... (criminalize) the use
of a false identity in committing a felony.
14. We all wish that those who attempt to commit such crimes
................... (be punished) accordingly.
15. If only we ................ . .. (know) what to do when witnessing
different crimes!
: Remember the use of Perfect Subjunctive
V. Practise the use of Perfect Subjunctive (had + past
participle) to refer to imaginary, unreal or improbable situations
in the past:
I wish you ............... (adopt) a more mature attitude during crisis
I wish you had adopted a more mature attitude during crisis situations.
I'd rather they ...................... (vote) the fifth Amendment to the
Constitution many centuries ago.
I'd rather they had voted the fifth Amendment to the Constitution
many centuries ago.
1. The European Union wishes France ....................... (vote) the
E. U. Constitution.
2. Professors from the Romanian Academy wish the new legislation
against Intellectual Property Crimes .................... (implement)
by the European Commission. .
3. I'd rather the jury .............. (prove) beyoiitl any reasonable
doubt that the defendant of guilty of tax evasion.
4. If the plaintiff ................... (submit) all his claims on time, the
court would have discussed them in full session.
5. If only the Secretary of State ............ . ........ .. (certify) the
ratification of the new amendment before last September!
6. The voters behave as if their rights .................... (violate) in
the last election.
7. Suppose the Congress ... .. ............ (be) in session that month!
8. The hostage wishes his kidnappers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (consider)
and . . .......... (approve) his claims.
9. Suppose the kid's family . .. .................... (offer) to pay a
substantial ransom, would you have considered it?
10. If the authorities ................... (not have) second thoughts about
reopening the serial killer case, the results would have been
VI. Choose either were subjunctive or perfect subjunctive
forms to express present or past unreal situations:
1. I'd rather you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to your parents that I am an
a) don't mention b) didn' t mention c) haven't mention
d) won't mention
2. If only you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . me earlier about your previous
a) inform b) had informed c) informed d) informing
3. Even if they ......... . ...... willing to testify against him, the
sentence would have remained the same.
a) were b) are c) having been d) had been
4. It's time they . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with a solution against
international extradition.
a) came up b) had come c) will come up d) should come up
5. He was so anxious to leave the court room as if he ............. .
convicted to a life-time in jail.
a) has been b) had been c) were d) having been
6. I wish the police . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . all the witnesses under the
witness protection program; now it's too late for this!
a) placed b) had placed c) should place d) to place
7. Suppose you .......... .. ... of espionage, what would you do to
defend yourself?
a) are accused b) should be accused
d) are being accused
c) were accused
8. It's high time somebody ...... . .... .. .... him of bankruptcy
fraud crimes!
a) suspected b) had suspected c) should suspect d) suspect
9. If only they .............. more resources to taking care of their
a) investing b) have been investing c) should invest d) were investing
10. If we . . . . . . . . . . more about the verdict, we would be ready to
have a press release.
a) might know b) know c) will know d) knew
11. Imagine your first witness . . ....... ... not to testify in the last
minute, what would you do next?
a) decide b) decided c) has decided d) having decided
12. I wish you ............. to terms to the world you are living in!
a) come b) are coming c) came d) have come
13. If only they . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on what grounds he had been
a) have mentioned b) mention c) will mention d) had mentioned
14. They'd sooner she ............... a way to deal with her
present situation on her own.
a) found b) finds c) founded d) has found
15. Suppose the court ........... .... .... you to testify against your
friend, what would you do?
a) summons b) summoned c) will summon d) should summoned
Vll. Translate all the sentences from exercises IV, V and VI
into Romanian.
VITI. Create your own sentences using the were subjunctive
and perfect subjunctive forms after the verbal constructions in
Health care fraud is a serious crime which is investigated by the
FBI's Financial Crimes Section [hereinafter FCS]. The mission of the
FCS, in the FBI's words, "is to oversee the investigation of fmancial
fraud and to facilitate the forfeiture of assets from those engaging in
federal crimes." The FCS is divided into four sections, one of which is
the Health Care Fraud Unit [hereinafter HCFU]. The HCFU oversees
investigations that target individuals and organizations who defraud
the public and private health care systems. Among the activities that
are investigated by the HCFU are:
billing for service not rendered
billing for a higher reimbursable service than performed (also
known as "upcoding")
performing unnecessary services
unbundling of tests and services to generate higher fees
durable medical equipment fraud
pharmaceutical drug diversion
outpatient surgery fraud, and
internet pharmacy sales.
The HCFU estimates that fraudulent billings to health care
programs comprise between 3 to 10 percent of total health care
expenditures. Furthermore, the HCFU has noticed that the most
significant trend in recent health care fraud cases is ''the willingness of
medical professionals to risk patient harm in their schemes. Current
fraud schemes consist of traditional schemes that involve fraudulent
billing, but also incorporate unnecessary surgeries, diluted cancer
drugs, and fraudulent lab tests". In exchange for kickbacks, some
patients will willingly undergo "unnecessary and unwarranted medical
procedures to generate fraudulent claims and profits".
A person charged with a health care fraud can be punished by
a fme, imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both.
If the violation results in serious bodily injury that person can be
punished by
a fme, imprisonment for not more than 20 years, or both.
If the violation results in death, that person can be punished by
a fme, imprisonment for any term of years or for life, or both.
Long compound text reference words are specific to formal, legal style;
for those who are nor familiar with these terms, here is a short list of
examples, with their defmition and Romanian translation:
hereinafter = stated later in this = mentionat in continuare
document (intr-un document)
herein = in this document = aici, in acest document
hereby = in this way or by = prin aceasta, in felul acesta
this letter
hereunder = under this heading = maijos
or below this phrase
henceforth = from this time on = de acum inainte, in viitor
notwithstanding =in spite of = cu toate acestea
I. Match the new words and expressions in column A with
their Romanian equivalents in column B:
1. health care fraud a. a
2. to oversee the investigation b. a executa separat teste/servicii In
vederea taxarii unor tarife mai mari
3. the forfeiture of assets c. serviciu rambursabil
4. to defraud d. taxari frauduloase
5. billing for service not e. frauda In cadrul sistemului medical
6. reimbursable service f. a fi supus unor proceduri medicale
7. kickback g. lezare corporala grava
8. to unbundle tests/services h. a supraveghea/controla investigatia
to generate higher fees
9. outpatient surgery fraud i. mita/bani dati contra unui serviciu
10. fraudulent billings j. confiscarea bunurilor
11. to undergo unwarranted k. fraudarea serviciilor operatorii
medical procedures pentru pacientii extemi
12. serious bodily injury l. taxarea unor servicii neprestate
II. Match the four definitions below with their corresponding
words in the o x ~ to distinguish between different forms of bribes:
bribe boodle kickback hush-money
1. = illegal commission paid to someone (especially
a government official) who helps in a business deal;
2. = to promise, offer, or give something, usually
money, to a person to procure services or gain influence, esp. illegally;
3. = money given to a person, such as an
accomplice, to ensure that something is kept secret;
4. = (slang) money or valuables, esp. when stolen,
counterfeit, or used as a bribe.
III. Provide the nouns derived from the following verbs:
verbs nouns
1. to investigate 1. investigation
2. to forfeit 2.
3. to facilitate 3.
4. to engage 4.
5. to estimate 5.
6. to involve 6.
7. to incorporate 7.
8. to punish 8.
9. to injure 9.
10. to render 10.
IV. Answer the following questions, after re-reading the text:
1. Who investigates health care frauds?
2. What do FCS and HCFU stand for?
3. What is the mission of the FCS?
4. What is the mission of the HCFU?
5. Which types of health care frauds affect patients the most?
6. Why do some patients willingly undergo unwarranted medical
7. What is the punishment for a person charged with a health care fraud?
8. What is the punishment for a health care fraud when the patient is
seriously injured?
9. What is the punishment for a health care fraud when the patient dies?
10. What reasons do medical professionals have to risk patient harm
in committing frauds?
V. Translate the following fragment into Romanian:
"Current fraud schemes consist of traditional schemes that involve
fraudulent billing, but also incorporate unnecessary surgeries, diluted
cancer drugs, and fraudulent lab tests." In exchange for kickbacks, some
patients will willingly undergo ''unnecessary and unwarranted medical
procedures to generate fraudulent claims and profits."
! Remember the use of should + infinitive as an Analytic
Subjunctive after:
verbs of command and control: advise, agree, arrange, ask, beg,
claim, command, decide, demand, determine, insist, order, propose,
recommend, require, request, rule, stipulate, suggest, urge, etc.
o it is/was + adjective + that: it is/was absurd, advisable, amazing,
better, compulsory, desirable, essential, imperative, important, ludicrous,
natural, necessary, recommendable, ridiculous, strange, surprising, etc.
o so that, in order that, lest, in case, for fear that, in Purpose Clauses.
VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct should -
Analytic Subjunctive form:
The judge ruled that the jury should withdraw to deliberate upon the
It was absurd that he should have been arrested for such an
insignificant act.
He began to be worried lest they should have accused him of mortgage
fraud crimes.
1. Tax inspectors recommended that new rules against tax evasion
....................... (introduce).
2. The judge ordered that the court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (adjourn) for
3. The PM demanded that the spokesman ................... (withdraw)
his offending remark.
4. The police officer decided that the pimp .............. . ..... (call) his
lawyer the minute he was arrested.
5. The magistrate directed that the man ............ ... . .. ...... (release)
6. The police gave instructions that the pedestrians . .... . ............ .
(not approach) the crime scene.
7. The police issued a warning in order that the public ... . .... . .. .... .
(not come) in contact with any red-haired, suspicious looking
8. He keeps his precious coin collection in a safe deposit lest his
house . . . ...... . .... .. .. (burgle).
9. The protesters urged that the defendant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (be
released) on bail.
10. I suggested that they ................ . ... (take) legal advice long ago.
11. It's incredible that he . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (go) away with murder
after so much effort had been invested in finding hard evidence!
12. It's ridiculous that you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (miss) the only
testimony that was worth hearing.
13. It's essential that you ................ . .. (read) the contract before
signing it. .
14. It was important that he ..... . ..... . ........ (inform) himself on the
case, before agreeing to represent his client.
15. It's unbelievable that he ............ . ...... (share) the same cell with
another prisoner and (not say) a word to him ever.
! Remember the Synthetic Subjunctive- Be Subjunctive
Be-Subjunctive is competing with Analytic Subjunctive in the
contexts presented before exercise VI. The only difference is that
Be-Subjunctive is preserved in legalistic style, official announcements,
parliamentary style and is more frequently used in American English,
while the Analytic Subjunctive is preferred in British English.
The judge ruled that the jury withdraw to deliberate upon the verdict.
It was absurd that he be arrested for such an insignificant act.
He began to be worried lest they accuse him of mortgage fraud crimes.
VII. Translate the following sentences into Romanian:
The sentences below include more values of Be-Subjunctive that have
become obsolete; in most of the cases, Be-Subjunctive has been replaced by
the modal verb shall that is used in formulating articles, points of law and
legal documents; there are also some examples of May/Might- Subjunctives.
1. The police demand that the information be withheld until further
2. The buyers insisted that the program provide more functions.
3. They put in an application form so that she be accepted at the
University of Colorado.
4. It is decided that he take part in the following under-cover mission.
5. It is vital that the Member State in question intervene in the
proceedings before the Court of First Instance.
6. It is required that the Court ofJustice rule on such applications.
7. It is stipulated that an appeal to the Court of Justice be limited to
points oflaw.
8. So be it; no punishment shall be inflicted upon him!
9. Be that as it may, we shall go on with our plan.
10. Be he who he may think, he has no place here!
11. Suffice it to say that justice has been done, and everybody will
bless your name.
12. God save the Court of Justice!
13. Long live the President of the Court of Justice!
14. Justice be hanged! I shall make my own justice!
15. Damn the judges! They are not God's instruments on earth!
16. Far be it from me to testify against you!
17. May you win this case and many to follow!
18. However much he may charge, he does a great job!
19. However hard I may try, I don't seem to get to the bottom of it!
20. They were afraid that the results might discourage him.
VIII. Choose the correct forms of Analytic Subjunctive and
Synthetic Subjunctive:
1. It is vital that the defendant ..... .. ...... the benefit of the doubt.
a) be given b) can be given c) should be give d) is given
2. The judge insisted that the verdict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . before the
Court adjourns for lunch.
a) should be pronounced b) being pronounced c) be pronouncing
d) will be pronounced
3. Under no circumstances will I disclose the name of my sources!
Heaven . . ........... !
a) forbids b) forbid c) forbade d) will forbid
4 ............. it to say that she is terribly sorry for what she did.
a) Sufficient b) Suffice c) Suffices d) Sufficed
5 .............. what may, I shall not drop the charges against him!
a) Comes b) Coming c) Come d) To come
6. It was out of the ordinary that the judge ...................... .
the lawyers representing the plaintiff and respectively the respondent
to argue their cases in parallel.
a) should ask b) has asked c) should have asked d) to have asked
7. The members of the commission expressed a desire that the
participants ................ in an hour.
a) reconvened b) to reconvene c) might reconvene
d) should reconvene
8. The suggestion is that we ................ matters more seriously.
a) took b) taking c) should take d) would take
9. I didn't dare tell the truth lest I ................ arrested for
conspiracy crimes.
a) should.J:>e b) were . c)am d) will be
10. It is demanded that the Council . . . . . . . . . . common rules
applicable to international transport.
a) laid down b) lay down c) should laid down d) lays down
11. Wherever you ............. , I shall protect you against your
a) goes b) may go c) will go d) are going
12. However difficult this problem ............... , I will solve it in
a minute!
a) shall be b) will be c) may be d) be
13 ........... you make the best of you life!
a) Should b) Shall c) Might d) May
14. They were worried lest she ............... a prison sentence.
a) receives b) should receive c) may receive d) received
15. Far ...... it from me to make allegations before having some
a) away is b) is c) should be d) be
Identity theft is orie of the fastest growing crimes in the world.
The news has been filled with stories about how personal data have
been compromised from certain personal information aggregators. The
ITADA [Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998]
amended the fraud chapter of title 18 of the United States Code to
create a new crime prohibiting the unlawful use of personal
identifying information, including, but not limited to, names, social
security numbers, and credit card numbers. Identity fraud involves the
misappropriation of another person's personal identifying information.
Criminals use this information to establish credit in their name, run up
debts on another person's account, or take over existing fmancial
accounts. The IT ADA directed the Sentencing Commission to "review
and amend the Federal sentencing guidelines and the policy statements
of the Commission, as appropriate, to provide an appropriate penalty
for each offense under section 1028 oftitle 18.
One of the most common method of stealing identities is
through the theft of credit card numbers or Personal Identification
Numbers [hereinafter PINs] . This method is covered by 18 U.S.C.
1029, which uses the unfortunate terminology of"access devices".
The Crime
It is a crime to do any of the following ten offenses listed in
section 1029(a):
knowingly, and with intent to defraud, produce, use, or traffic
in one or more counterfeit access devices;
knowingly, and with intent to defraud, traffic in or use one or
more unauthorized access devices during any one-year period,
and, by doing so, obtain anything of value aggregating$ 1,000
or more during that period;
knowingly, and with intent to defraud, possess fifteen or more
devices which are counterfeit or unauthorized access devices;
knowingly, and with intent to defraud, produce, traffic in, have
control or custody of, or possess device-making equipment;
knowingly, and with intent to defraud, effect transactions, with
1 or more access devices issued to another person or persons,
to receive payment or any other thing of value during any
1-year period the aggregate value of which is equal to or
greater than$ 1,000;
without the authorization of the issuer of the access device,
knowingly, and with intent to defraud, solicit a person for the
purpose of either: offering an access device, or selling
information regarding or an application to obtain an access
knowingly, and with intent to defraud, use, produce, traffic in,
have control or custody of, or possess a telecommunications
instrument that has been modified or altered to obtain
unauthorized use of telecommunications services;
knowingly and with intent .to defraud use, produce, traffic in,
have control or custody of, or possess a scanning receiver;
knowingly use, produce, traffic in, have control or custody of, or
possess hardware or software, knowing it has been configured
to insert or modify telecommunication identifying information
associated with or contained in a telecommunications
instrument so that such instrument may be used to obtain
telecommunications service without authorization; or
without the authorization of the credit card system member or its
agent, knowingly, and with intent to defraud, cause or arrange
for another person to present to the member or its agent, for
payment, 1 or more evidences or records of transactions made
by an access device.
I. Check the meaning of the following words and expressions
by choosing the right version:
1. In the sentence The ITADA amended the fraud chapter oftitle 18 of
the United States Code ... , to amend means:
a) to alter or revise (legislation, a constitution, etc.) by formal
b) to make someone pay a certain amount of money exacted as a
c) to judge (something) with disapproval; censure.
2. In tbe sentence Identity fraud involves the misappropriation of another
person's personal identifYing information .. , to misappropriate means:
a) to have as one's property/to own;
b) to appropriate for a wrong or dishonest use/to embezzle or steal
c) to give (a person) wrong directions or instructions.
3. In the sentence Criminals use this information to run up debts on
another person's account ... , to run up debts means:
a) to get rid of one's debts by running;
b) to pay back one's debts;
c) to amass/accumulate or incur debts.
4. In the sentence Criminals use this information to take over existing
financial accounts, to take over means:
a) to cancel the validity of/ abolish;
b) to assume tbe control or management of;
c) to examine/ investigate smtb for accuracy.
5. In the phrase to provide an appropriate penalty for each offense . .. ,
penalty means:
a) a handicap awarded against a player or team for illegal play, such
as a free shot at goal by tbe opposing team, loss of points, etc;
b) loss, suffering, or other unfortunate result of one's own action,
c) a legal or official punishment, such as a term of imprisonment.
II. Provide the Romanian equivalent for the following phrases:
identity theft =
social security numbers= _________ _
credit card numbers =
financial accounts =

Personal Identification Numbers =
counterfeit documents =

telecommunications services =
scanning receiver=---------------
records of transactions =
ill. Answer the following questions, using your own words to
express personal opinion:
l.Which are the main reasons that determine criminals to commit
identity theft crimes?
In my opinion/view, I think that------------
2. Which are the weak points of the social security system that make
identity theft crimes possible?
I am inclined to believe that
3. Name some of the criminal methods used when committing identity
theft crimes.
To my mind,-------------------
4. Which criteria have been used in distinguishing the 10 particular
offences enumerated in the text?
It seems to me that
5. What could be done and in which areas to reduce the increasing
number of identity theft crimes?
To my way of thinking,--------------
IV. Translate the following fragment into Romanian:
Identity fraud involves the misappropriation of another person's
personal identifying information. Criminals use this information to
establish credit in their name, run up debts on another person's
account, or take over existing fmancial accounts. The IT ADA directed
the Sentencing Commission to "review and aniend the Federal
sentencing guidelines and the policy statements ofthe Commission, as
appropriate, to provide an appropriate penalty for each offense under
section 1028 oftitle 18".
! Remember Phrasal verbs
Phrasal verbs are idiomatic phrases consisting of verbs plus
adverbial particles or verbs plus prepositions.
Different from other free combinations or prepositional verbs,
where the meaning can be predicted from the meaning of verb and
particle in isolation, a phrasal verb has its own meaning, distinct from
that of separate words.
Therefore, a phrasal verb must be learnt as a whole unit with a
particular meaning, and not approximated by the meanings of its
She tried to take in her friends.
to take in= to deceive [not to bring in]
I think you should cut down your traveling expenses.
to cut down = to reduce
We arranged to meet in front of the cinema but she didn't turn up.
to turn up = to come
V. Rewrite the following sentences, using the phrasal verbs
in the box to replace the verbs in italics and making any necessary
changes in word order:
keep in with cutdown on do away with
book up cut somebody off check in breakaway
think over let somebody down hold on come up with
wear out put something down to call off break off
1. There are still many countries which have not decided to
abolish the death penalty.
There are still many countries which have not decided to do away with
the death penalty.
2. I can't possibly reduce his daily allowance. He would attribute
this to my decision to hire more staff.
3. I can always count on him. He has never dissapointed me.
4. After several unsuccessful attempts to escape from prison, the
prisoner decided to wait till he was to be moved to another prison.
5. How did you find that brilliant idea?
6. Please reflect upon this and let me know.
7. Have you managed to make a table reservation for dinner?
Yes, this is the ftrst thing I did after I registered myself at the hotel.
8. I remained in good terms with my relatives, though they tried
to disinherit me.
9. The negotiations with the Japanese company have been
suspended, consequently, all the meetings with the Japanese clients
had to be cancelled.
10. Children sometimes exhaust their parents, especially when
asking questions all the time.
VI. Replace the phrasal verbs in italics with an appropriate
verb or verbal construction; the first one has been done as an
1. I have neither the time nor the courage to go into/to investigate
this controversial case.
2. Who will stand in for/ Jane while she is away?
3. Who do you think I ran into/ yesterday?
4. I have a job now, so I no longer live on/ my parents.
5. The novel which I have been working on for such a long time will
eventually come out next month.
6. His coming into/ a big fortune turned out/ ___ _
to be a blessing in disguise.
7. I won't give your secrets away/ provided that you are
through with/ that man once and for ever.
8. He will never come up to/ her ,expectations.
9. Go ahead! I'll catch up/ with you in no time.
10. He has gone through/ a lot lately; but with some
effort you will get over/ it.
VII. Choose the right version to form phrasal verbs that fit
in the context; check the list of the main phrasal verbs selected in
the alphabetical order of the adverbial particle present at the end
of the book before making your choice:
1. I don't know how you can put . .. ... ... such an unbearable
a) by with b) up of c) up with
2. The good sales brought ..... . .... an increase in the employee's
a) in b) around c) about
3. I guess the printer has either run .. . ........ paper or has broken
a) away with, down b) out of, down c) off with, off
4. Several companies have decided to lay .... employees and call
..... all investment projects.
a) off, off b) out, off c) up, down
5. You have to learn how to ........... if you are suffering from
high stress levels.
a) drawback b) wind down c) hold up
6. My lawyer
substantial evidence.
can bear . . . . . . . the truth of my story with
a) in b) away c) out
7. I called at the restaurant, but all the tables were .......... up.
a) cleaned b) booked c) reserved
8. We tried to bring the unconscious woman ........... but
without any success.
a) round b) up c) over
9. Despite all difficulty, he fmally managed to carry ...... the
orders he had been given.
a) about b) off c) out
10. His joke caught .... right away and the public was very
a) on b) through c) out
11. The disastrous economic situation of our country
. . . . . . . urgent measures.
a) brings about b) lays down c) calls for
12. If nobody comes ............. a solution soon, we shall go
a) up with b) in with c) out with
13. If you don't know my phone number, you could look it
....... in the phone directory.
a) into b)on c) up
14. Our travel agency will be taken . . . . . . . . . . by a German
a) in b) out c) over
15. Now it would be a good time to bring ......... the matter of
child support in Romania.
a) in b) up c) out
16. I have a very urgent message. Could you put me ............ .
to Mr. Leigh, please?
a) through b) off c) up
17. He put his failure in Court ............ bad luck.
a) up to b) down to c) back to
18. I must admit it was hard for me not to give ..... to his threats.
a) away b) out c) in
19. We can't rule ..... this argument for the fmal hearing.
a) out b) off c) down
20. Our plan to call the witness for the defence fell .......... due
to a miscarriage of justice.
a) about b) away c) through
21. You are wearing me ...... with your annoying questions!
a) in b) out c) over
22. Everybody considered that the judge had a reason to let him
..... like that.
a) off b) on c) away
23. Why don't you put ...... your claim to be granted the right to
a fair trial?
a) in b) out c) forward
24. 'Your Honour, I can stand ............ the defendant! I demand
to be heard!'
~ i n ~ ~ ~ ~ w n ~
25. Your skillful lawyer will talk him ......... testifying before
the jury.
a) into b) about c) against
I. 1. i-q; 2. k-v; 3. f-m; 4. h-s; 5. a-x; 6. 1-n; 7. d-p; 8. b-u; 9. j-o; 10. e-r;
11. g-t; 12. c-w
II. 1. evidence; 2. verdict; 3. appeal; 4. law; 5. crime; 6. trial; 7. law,
law; 8. evidence; 9. verdict, appeal; 10. trial, law; 11. evidence; 12. trial, law.
IV. 1. c; 2. d; 3. a; 4. b; 5. c; 6. c; 7. a; 8.c; 9. c; 10. a; 11. c; 12. c;
13. b; 14. c; 15. c.
VI. 1. c; 2.a; 3. c; 4. b; 5. d; 6. a; 7. d; 8. a; 9. b; 10. c.
VII. 1. g; 2. j; 3. i; 4. f; 5. a; 6. c; 7. e; 8. d; 9. b; 10. h.
VIII. 1. k; 2. d; 3. f; 4. g; 5. a; 6. h; 7. b; 8. i; 9. j; 10. e; 11. c.
IX. 1. am seeing; 2. are you thinking, don't you talk; 3. has decided;
4. have you accepted; 5. came, asked, told, didn't seem; 6. was waiting,
realized, was watching, decided; 7. has been presiding, is retiring; 8. didn't
make, had found; 9. had been working, found out, had been married;
10. arrive, will have landed; 11. graduated, have reconsidered, have decided;
12. had already addressed, was summoned.
I. 1.T;2.T;3.F;4. F;5. T;6.F;7.F;8.F;9.T; 10.T.
II. 1. f; 2. e; 3. h; 4. j ; 5. a; 6. m; 7. b; 8. n; 9. 1; 10. g; 11. o; 12. c;
13. d; 14. i; 15. k.
III. 1. c; 2. a; 3. c; 4. a; 5. b.
IV. 1. c; 2. i; 3. e; 4. j; 5. g; 6. h; 7. f; 8. a; 9. d; 10. b.
VII. 1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. d; 5. c; 6. a; 7. b; 8. b; 9. d; 10. d.
VIII. 1. c; 2. d; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. c; 8. a; 9. c; 10. d; 11. b; 12. b;
13. a; 14. b; 15. c.
I. 1. Court of Justice; 2. governments of the member states; 3. Each
member state; 4. the largest states, the smaller member states; 5. rotation
system; 6. bare majority; 7. judges and advocates-general; 8. EEC Treaty;
9. four chambers, two chambers; 10. annually.
IV. 1. j; 2. e, h; 3. f, i; 4. a; 5. b, g; 6. d; 7. c.
V. 1. run for; 2. summoned; 3. appointed; 4. convened; 5. elected;
6. sitting; 7. stand for; 8. heard; 9. dissolve; 10. dismissed.
VI. 1. d; 2. a; 3. a; 4. c; 5. c; 6. d; 7. b; 8. d; 9. b; 10. c.
VII. 1. b; 2. c; 3. b; 4. b; 5. b; 6. c; 7. a; 8. a; 9. b; 10. c; 11. c; 12. c;
13. a; 14. b; 15. c.
I. 1. d; 2. g; 3. i; 4. k; 5. h; 6. 1; 7. j; 8. b; 9. f; 10. c; 11. e; 12. a.
IV. breach of trust; breach of the peace; breach of confidence;
infringement of copy-right; infringement of patents.
V. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. b; 5. c; 6. d; 7. d; 8. c; 9. c; 10. a; 11. b; 12. b;
13. c; 14. a; 15. b.
VI. 1. b; 2. d; 3. a; 4. b; 5. c; 6. a; 7. c; 8. b; 9. c; 10. a.
VII. 1. possibility; 2. inability; 3. necessity; 4. impossibility; 5. logical
assumption (affirmative); 6. criticism; 7. requests; 8. advice; 9. offers;
10. suggestions; 11. permission; 12. remote possibility; 13. obligation;
14. logical assumption (negative); 15. past ability; 16. absence of obligation;
17. prohibition.
II. 1. F; 2. T; 3. F; 4. T; 5. T; 6. F; 7. F; 8. T; 9. F; 10. F; 11. F; 12. T;
13. T; 14. F; 15. F.
V. 1. has been decided; 2. will be illustrated; 3. is caught; 4. was judged;
5. is prohibited; 6. has been considered; 7. had already been discussed;
8. were still being heard; 9. are now being escorted; 10. to have been reported;
11. will be issued; 12. would have been allocated.
VII. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. c; 5. b; 6. c; 7. b; 8. c; 9. b; 10. c.
I. 1. C; 2. E; 3. A; 4. F; 5. H; 6. B; 7. G; 8. D.
II. 1. C; 2. A; 3. B; 4. B; 5. B.
Ill 1. c; 2. e; 3. h; 4. b; 5. f; 6. i; 7. a; 8.j; 9. g; 10. d.
IV. 1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. d; 5. a; 6. b; 7. c; 8. a; 9. c; 10. d; 11. b; 12. b;
13.b; 14.b; 1 5 ~ 16.b; 17.c; 18.b; 19.c;20.a
I. 1. e; 2. g; 3. f; 4. a; 5. d; 6. c; 7. b.
II. 1.T;2.F;3.T;4.F;5.F;6. T;7.F;8. T;9.T; 10.F.
IV. transmitter, frequency, receiver, considered.
V. 1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. c; 8. b; 9. b; 10. c.
VI. criminal matters; petit jury; first offender; death penalty; community
work; mental health; guidelines; member state; probation officer; citizenship;
tax exempt; shoplifting; self-esteem; manslaughter.
I. 1. f; 2. d; 3. h; 4. a; 5. k; 6. i; 7. b; 8. e; 9. 1; 10. c; 11. g; 12. j.
VII. 1. may walk; 2. fail; 3. will return; 4. had announced; 5. would
ask; 6. might have had; 7. had let; 8. made; 9. could get; 10. had been
I. 1. F; 2. T; 3. T; 4. F; 5. T; 6. F; 7. F.
V. I. will be released; 2. approves/approved/had approved, will
have/would have/would have had; 3. hadn't been summoned; 4. meets;
5. would have voted; 6. decides; 7. would have got; 8. want, prohibits; 9. may
refer; 10. am/were/had been, will fight/would fight/would have fought.
VI. 1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. c; 5. b; 6. a; 7. d; 8. b; 9. d; 10. b; II. b; 12. a;
13. b; 14. a; 15. b; 16. c; 17. b; 18. a; 19. c; 20. a.
II. 1. d; 2. h; 3. k; 4. i; 5. a; 6. I; 7. b; 8. j; 9. f; 10. c; II. m; 12. e; 13. g.
IV. 1. c; 2. b; 3. b; 4. b.
V. 1. c; 2. a; 3. b; 4. a; 5. d; 6. c; 7. b; 8. b; 9. d; 10. b; II. c; 12. a;
13. b; 14. d; 15. a.
VI. 1. to have granted; 2. to share/to be sharing; 3. to confess; 4. to
have forgotten; 5. to be signed; 6. to be going; 7. serve; 8. enjoy; 9. to be;
10. to accept; II. wait; 12. start; 13. to work/to be working; living;
15. to keep; 16. to be treated.
I. 1. to ratify; 2. personal effects; 3. infamous; 4. presentment; 5. to
ascertain; 6. compulsory; 7. to inflict; 8. prosecution; 9. indictment;
10. seizure; 11. construe; 12. disparage.
II. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. c; 5. b.
ill. Amendment XV. The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Amendment XXV. In case of the removal of the President from office
or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
VI. 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. a; 5. c; 6. a; 7. c; 8. b; 9. c; 10. c; 11. a; 12. b;
13. c; 14. b; 15. b; 16. c; 17. d; 18. c; 19. a; 20. c.
I. 1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. a; 5. a.
IV. 1. didn't find; 2. did; 3. were appointed; 4. did; 5. kept; 6. were;
7. decided; 8. found; 9. found; 10. were kidnapped, asked; 11. voted;
12. were; 13. criminalized; 14. were punished; 15. knew.
V. 1. had voted; 2. had been implemented; 3. had proved; 4. had
submitted; 5. had certified; 6. had been violated; 7. had been; 8. had
considered, (had) approved; 9. had offered; 10. hadn't had.
VI. 1. b; 2. b; 3. d; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b; 7. c; 8. a; 9. d; 10. d; 11. b; 12. c;
13. d; 14. a; 15. b.
I. 1. e; 2. h; 3. j; 4. a; 5. 1; 6. c; 7. i; 8. b; 9. k; 10. d; 11. f ; 12. g.
II. 1. kickback; 2. bribe; 3. hush-money; 4. boodle.
VI. 1. should be introduced; 2. should adjourn; 3. should withdraw;
4. should have called; 5. should be released; 6. shouldn't approach;
7. shouldn't come; 8. should be burgled; 9. should be released; 10. should
have taken; 11. should have gone; 12. should have missed; 13. should read;
14. should have informed; 15. should have shared, shouldn't have said.
Vlll. 1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. c; 6. c; 7. d; 8. c; 9. a; 10. b; 11. b; 12. c;
13. d; 14. b; 15. d.
I. 1. a; 2. b; 3. c; 4. b; 5. c.
V. 2. cut down on, put this down to; 3. let me down; 4. to break away,
to hold on; 5. come up with; 6. think this over; 7. to book up, checked in;
8. kept in with, cut me off; 9. have broken off, called off; 10. wear out.
VI. 2. replace; 3. met unexpectedly; 4. depend on my parents for
fmancial support; 5. be published; 6. inheriting, proved; 7. disclose, end the
relationship with; 8. raise to; 9. reach you; 10. has suffered, overcome.
VII. 1. c; 2. c; 3. b; 4. a; 5. b; 6. c; 7. b; 8. a; 9. c; 10. a; 11. c; 12. a;
13. c; 14. c; 15. b; 16. a; 17. b; 18. c; 19. a; 20. c; 21. b; 22. a; 23. c; 24. b; 25. a.
Here are some of the main phrasal verbs with their equivalent, listed in
the alphabetical order of the adverbial particle:
bring about = to cause
come about = to happen
fall about = to laugh in an uncontolled manner
feel about= to fmd (one's way) or perceive sth by touching
fuss about = to be worried or excited, esp over small things
get about = to circulate, spread (about news, rumours etc)
hang about = to waste time, loiter
see about = to make inquires or arrangements
set about = to begin
throw about = to scatter sth everywhere
look after = to take care of
run after = to pursue
take after= to resemble (one's parents, relatives)
call at = to visit briefly
catch at sth = to try to seize sth
drive at = to imply
fly at sb = to rush to attack sb
get at sb = to criticize sb repeatedly; influence sb illegally
go at sb =to attack sb
come I fall/ run across = to find sth or meet sb by chance
get (sth) across (to sb) =to (cause sth to) be communicated or understood
put onesel' sth across (to sb) =to communicate or convey (one's ideas,
personality) to sb
break away = to escape from captivity
clear {sth) away= to remove (objects) in order to leave a clear space
die away = to become so faint or weak that is no longer noticeable
do away with sth = to get rid of sth, abolish sth
get away with = to escape punishment
give sth/sb away = to reveal or betray sth/sb; give sth free of charge
run away with = to steal sth and carry it away
take away = to remove
turn away = to refuse admittance to sb
wear {sth) away= to become thin, damaged, weak by constant use
answer (sb) back= to speak rudely (to sb), esp when being criticized
cut (sth) back or cut back on sth =to reduce sth considerably
fall back (on sb) = to retreat, turn back; to go to sb for help when in difficulty
hold sth/sb back = to prevent the development/advance of sth!sb, to delay
look back= to think about one's past
take back = to withdraw a statement or comment
break down = to collapse, cease to function; lose control of feelings
cut down on= to reduce (consumption)
get (sb) down= to make sb depressed or demoralized
get down to sth = to begin to do sth, give serious attention to sth
let sb down = to disappoint sb, fail to help sb
look down on sb =to despise sb
note down = to write from speech
put (sth) down to (sth) = to consider that sth is caused by sth; charge an item
to a particular account
run (sb/sth) down =to criticize; to gradually stop functioning; hit and knock
sth/sb to the ground
turn (sth/sb) down= to reject or refuse to consider; reduce heat, noise etc
break in= to enter a building by force; interrupt (a conversation)
bring in = to introduce (legislation) ; arrest sb; pronounce a verdict
come in = to become fashionable
come into = to inherit
check in = to register as a guest at a hotel
drop in = to visit unexpectedly
eat into sth =to consume a part of sth; destroy, corrode sth
fall in with = to agree to
fit in = to mix well with others
give in = to yield, cease to resist
go into = to investigate
go in for = to participate, take part in
keep in with sb = to continue to be friendly with sb
let sb in for = to cause sb to get into trouble
put in = to make an official request
run into = to meet by chance; collide with
stand in for = to replace temporarily
take in = to deceive; to understand; to make clothes smaller
talk sb into = to convince sb to do sth
turn in = to go to bed; to report to the authorities
turn into = to convert
break off= to end sth suddenly
bring off= to succeed in sth difficult
call off= to cancel
come off= to succeed; take place, happen as arranged
cut (sb) off= to disconnect; stop the supply ofsth to sb; disinherit sb; isolate
drop off /fall off = to decrease
get off= to send
get off with = to nearly escape punishment
give off= to send out or emit sth
go off= to explode
let sb off= not to punish severily
put off= to postpone
put sb off (sth) = distract sb, disturb sb who is doing sth
see sb off= to accompany a traveller to a railway station, airport etc
show off= to try to impress others by all means
take off= remove (clothing); leave the ground (of aeroplanes); imitate sb in a
comic way
turn off= to switch off
wear off= to disappear gradually (the effect of sth)
carry on (with)= to continue
catch on = to become popular
get on = to make progress
go on with = to continue sth esp after a pause
hold on = to wait
keep on = to continue doing sth
live on sb/sth =to depend on sb/sth for fmancial support
look on = to watch sth without taking part in it
move on to = to change the subject
take on = to undertake work; employ staff; accept as an opponent
try on = to try the fit (of clothes)
turn on = switch on; attack sb suddenly
work on = to be occupied with
back out of= to withdraw from
bear out = to support the truth of
bring out/ come out = to publish
carry out = to fulfil or perform sth
check out = to pay one's bill and leave the hotel
fall out with sb = to quarell with sb
give out = to come to an end; to announce; to distribute
look out = be careful; watch out
make out = to understand sth; claim to be; complete sth
put out = to extinguish
rule out = exclude, eliminate
run out of= to exhaust the supply of sth
see out = to accompany sb to an exit
turn out = to prove to be; produce
wear out= become useless or exhausted through use (clothes); cause sb to
become exhausted, tire sb out
work out = to fmd a solution by resoning; turn out successfully
blow over = to cease or fmish; be forgotten
come over = (of a feeling) affect sb; change from one side, opinion to another
get over = to recover from; overcome or master sth;
get sth over (with) =to communicate sth to sb; complete sth unpleasant but
make over = to transfer the ownership of sth
pass over (to)= to hand (to sb)
see over = to inspect by making a tour of
take over= to assume the control or management of
think over = to reflect upon sth before making a decision
turn (sth) over= to turn a page; to fall on one side; do business worth (the
specified amount); (of a shop) sell out and replace its stock
be through with = to put an end to (a friendship, practice)
break through = to make a discovery; come out from behind cover
carry through = to complete sth in spite of difficulties
fall through = to fail to take place
get through =to make contact with sb, esp by telephone; (with) sth = fmish or
complete (a job, task)
go through = to suffer; to examine sth closely and systematically
let sb through = to allow sb to pass an exam or a test
run through= to rehearse or practice; exhaust (money) by wasteful spending
see through sb/sth =not to be deceived by sb/sth; not abandon sth until it is
fmished; help or support sb esp in difficult times
be up to = to be required as a duty or obligation from sb; be left to sb to decide
book up = to make a reservation for
break up= to put an end to (a relationship); dissolve or disperse; lose control
of emotions
bring up= to care for and train (a child); raise a subject for discussion; vomit
catch up = to reach sb who is ahead; be absorbed or involved in
come up to = to equal or meet a standard
come up with= to produce or fmd (an idea)
draw up = to come to a stop (of vehicles)
give up = to stop doing sth; to surrender; admit one's defeat or inability to do
sth; to reveal or disclose information
hold up= to rob (a bank, vehicle); delay,hinder; survive or last
keep up with = stay at an equal level with
look up = to search for sth (a word) in a reference
look up to = to respect
make up = to invent a story; end a quarrel; compensate for sth; put cosmetics
on sb's face
live up to = to reach the standard that may be expected
put up with = to tolerate
set up= to start a business; make (an apparatus) ready for use; establish (a record)
stand up for sb/sth = speak /work etc in favour of sb/sth, support sb/sth;
take up= to begin a hobby, sport, study, language etc; shorten a garmet;
occupy or fill (space or time)
work up = to arose the feelings of, excite; cause to grow or develop; advance
in business
affray tulburare a ordinii publice
amnesty amnistie
appeal apel, recurs
armed robbery jafarmat
arsonist, arson incendiator, incendiere premeditatli
assault and battery molestare ~ i ultraj
Attorney General Procurorgeneral
bail, to bail smb. cautiune, a elibera pe cautiune
barrister avocat pledant, de obicei in instantele
beyond reasonable doubt in afarli de orice indoialli justli
boodle ~ p e r t mitli
breach (of) infractiune/ violare/ i:O.clilcare (a unei
bribery mituire/ luare de mitli
capital punishment pedeapsli capitalli
case law precedent juridic, jurisprudentli
civil law drept civil
common law drept comun, cutumier
community work/service muncli in interesul comunitlitii
contempt of court sfidarea cuqii
conviction condamnare
coroner medic legist ~ i reprezentant al parche-
tului, anchetand cazuri de deces violent
counsel consilier juridic
counsel ex officio (to assist a poor avocat din oficiu
count cap de acuzare
county court instantli judeclitoreascli civilli com-
petentli in cercetarea micilor debite
Court martial Curte martialli
Court of appeal Curte de apel
crime delict, infracpune, criml\
criminal jurisdiction jurisdictie penall\
crime rate rata criminalitl:ltii
criminal record cazier iudiciar
cross-examination contra-interogatoriu
Crown Court Curte de justitie criminala (in Anglia) .
death penalty pedeapsa cu moartea
decree law decret cu putere de lege
defence (liSl avocat
defendant inculpat/parat
delinquent delincvent
deterrent pedeapsa folosita ca mijloc de
intimidare pentru a impiedica pe
cineva sa mai comitl\ infractiuni
dock banca acuzatilor
duress privare de libertate
electoral law lege electorala
embezzler delapidator
extenuating circumstances/ circumstante atenuante
mitigating circumstances
extortion/blackmail jecml\nire,
felony infracpune grava/act criminal
fine amendl\
firebug piroman
first offender delicvent aflat la prima infrac!!une
forensic evidence' expertiza medico-legall\
forensic medicine medicinl\ judiciara
Grand Jury lnalta Curte cu Jurati (SUA)
grand larceny furt peste o anumita valoare
hard evidence _probe materiale
hardened criminal/recidivist criminal inrait/recidivist
hearing audiere
home confmement arest/detentiune la domiciliu
hush-money mita/cumpl\rare a tacerii cuiva care sl\
nu denunte
identity theft furt de identitate
incriminating evidence probe incriminatorii
indictment incriminare, punere sub acuzare
infringement of infractiune, violare, abuz, incalcare,
reproducere ilicita
Inns of-Court cladiri londoneze aparpnand la patru
societati juri dice
International Court of Justice Curtea Intemationala de Justitie
involuntary manslaughter omor prin imprudenta
judge judecator
judgement in civil matters sentinta civila
judgement in criminal case sentinta penala
judgement by default sentinta data ill lipsa
jurisconsult jurisconsult
jurisprudence jurisprudenta, ~ t i i n t dreptului
jury juriu
Jury box banca juriului
jury duty obligatia de a face parte din
componenta curtii cu jura?
jury-panel lista juratilor
kickback mit1!/bani dati contra unui serviciu
larceny furt
law-breaker contravenient
law court/court of law instanta de judecata, tribunal
law expenses cheltuieli de judecata
law giver/maker legiuitor
law term term en juridic
law-abiding (citizen) ( cetatean) care respecta legea
lawsuit j)I'OCeS civil
legal adviser consilier juridic
legal aid asistenta judiciara
legal proceedings urmarire judiciara
libel calornnie {ill scris)
life sentence condamnare pe viata
magistrate magistrat
manslaughter omor prin prudenta
martial law lege martiala
miscarriage of justice eroare judiciara
misdemeanor infractiune, delict
mugging/assault agresiune, atac
murder attempt/attempted murder tentativa de crima
offence delict/infractiune
offender delincvent/infractor
on parole eliberat din inchisoare pe cuvant de
onoare/pentru o conduitrt
on probation pus in libertate sub supraveghere
outlaw proscris
penalty pedeapsrt, amendA
perjury speijur/mArturie falsA
petitioner petitionar/solicitant
Petit Jury Curte cu jurati ce cerceteazA anumite
infractiuni (SUA)
petty crime infractiune minorA
petty larceny furt de lucruri mArunte
pickpocket hot de buzunare
plaintiff reclamant (civil)
plea pledoarie in aprtrare
poacher braconier
post-mortem autopsie
previous convictions condamnAri anterioare
probation eliberare conditionatA
probation officer ofiter de politie insrtrcinat cu
supravegherea unei persoane
eliberate conditionat
prosecution acuzarea, procuratura
prosecutor/ district attorney procuror
pursuant to conform cu/potrivit cu
rationale argumentare/explicare raponalA
rebuttal dovadA contrarie
recovery of judgement de cauzA
remission reducere de pedeapsa, gratiere
respondent reclamat/parat
retrospective law lege retroactiva
rules of procedure procedura judiciarrt
search warrant mandat de perchezitie
seizure of real estate sechestru imobiliar
shoJ>lifting, shoplifter furt din magazine, hot_ de magazine
slander calomnie
smuggler contrabandist
solicitor avocat consultant, insrtrcinat cu
procedura, care are voie sA pledeze
numai in anumite instante inferioare
sol!!a!Y_ confmement izolare Ia carcera
statement declaratie, depozitie
statute law drept scris
suspended sentence condamnare cu suspendare
the Bar Barou
to abduct, abduction, abductor a rl1pi (persoane), rl1pire, rl1pitor
to abet, abetter a fi complicele (cuiva), complice
to appear in court a fi adus in fata justitiei
to be caught red-handed a fi prins asupra faptului
to be placed under investigation a fi pus sub urml1rirea politiei
to be remanded/released on bail a fi eliberat pe cautiune
to be tried in one's absence a fi judecat in lipsl1, in contumacie
to break in, a break-in a pl1trunde prin efractie, o efractie
to bring an action (against) a intenta o actiune in justitie
to bring to court a urml1ri in justitie
to bring to trial a aduce la tribunal
to burgle, burglary, burglar a comite o spargere, spargere/furt
prin efractie, spl1rgl1tor
to commit a crime a comite un delict/o criml1
to commute a sentence a comuta o pedeapsl1
to comply with a se conformal a respecta
to convene a meeting/session a convoca o intrunire/sedintl1
to convene a person before trial/ a cita o persoanl1 sl1 se prezinte
to summon sb. la tribunal
to counterfeit, counterfeit a contraface/falsifica,
to defraud a defraudalinselalescroca
to dismiss a case a declara un caz inchis
to drop a charge a renunta la o acuzatie
to embezzle, embezzlement, a delapida, delapidare, delapidator
to enforce a judgement a pune in executie o hotl1rare
to enforce the law a pune in aplicare legea
to exonerate, exoneration a exoneraldisculpa,
exonerare/ dezvinovl1ti,re
to file against the plaintiff a pronunta sentinta impotriva
to fmd for the plaintiff a pronunta sentinta in favoarea
to forfeit, forfeit/forfeiture a pierde un drept (asupra unui lucru)
ca urmare a unui delict penal,
confiscare, dezicere, amendl1
to forge, forgery, forger a contraface/falsifica, contrafacere,
to fulfil an obligation a lndeplini o obligatie
to give smb. the benefit of the doubt a considera pe cineva nevinovat
to hear a case in camera a audia un proces cu lnchise
to hear a case/a witness a audia un caz, un martor
to hold up, a hold-up a ataca pentru ajefui (automobile),
un atac banditesc/un hold-up
to impose a lump sum or a penalty a impune o platA forfetarA sau
payment o amendA
to institute/take legal proceedings a acpona pe cineva In justitie
against smb.
to issue a photofit picture a publica un portret-robot
to issue a writ a emite o hotArare/ordonanfA
to kidnap, kidnapping, kidnapper a rApi, rApire, rApitor
to lead a witness a pune lntreMri tendenpoase unui
to mug/ to assault a ataca, a agresa
to murder, murder, murderer a asasina, asasinat, asasin
to petition a court a lnainta a cerere/petitie cAtre curte
to poach, poacher a face braconaj, braconier
to prosecute a urm&i In iustitie, a da In judecatA
to rape, rape, rapist a viola, viol, violator
to ratify, ratification a ratificalvalida, ratificare
to receive a jail sentence a primi o pedeapsA cu lnchisoarea
to remand in custody a cerceta In stare de arest
to reverse a ruling a anula o sentinta judecAtoreascA
to rob, robbery, robber a jefui, jaf, jefuitor
to seize, seizure a lua In posesie/a confiscala
sechestra, confiscare/sechestrare
to serve a sentence a executa o sentint!
to serve a writ/subpoena a trimite o hotarare judecAtoreascA/
o citatie
to serve one's sentence pedeapsa
to settle out of court a se rezolva pe cale amiabilA
to sit (of a court) a fi In a se lntruni
to smuggle, smuggling, smuggler a face contrabandA, contrabandA,
to submit a case/file to a supune un caz/dosar spre examinare
to subpoena a witness a cita un martor
to take exception to a witness a recuza un martor
to take into custody a aresta
to trespass, trespassing, trespasser inc1Hcarea granitei unei proprietap,
intruziune ilegala, intrus
to vandalize a vandaliza
trial by jury judecata inaintea jura til or
trial lawyer/barrister avocat pledant
under house arrest cu domiciliu fortat
vandalism, vandal vandalism, vandal
verdict verdict
voluntary manslaughter omor premeditat
warrant mandat
warrant for the arrest mandat de arestare
witness for the defence martor al apararii
witness for the prosecution martor al acuzarii
witness stand bara martorilor
writ ordonanta/hotariire judecatoresca
wrongdoing, wrongdoer taradelege, rautacator
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LLM, Dip German, Blackstone Press Limited, 1995.
Cobuild C., English Guides. Word Formation, Harper Collins Publishers,
Collins L., European Community Law in the United Kingdom, 4th edition,
London, Butterworths, 1990.
Hanga Vladimir, Calciu Rodica, Dicfionar juridic englez- roman roman-
englez, Editura Lumina Lex, 1994.
NMrag Lavinia, Stroescu Manuela, English for Law Students, Editura Fundatiei
Romania de Maine, 2002.
Oxford Advanced Learner's Encyclopedic Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University
Press, first published 1989.
Quirk R, Greenbaum S., Leech G., Svartvik J., A Comprehensive Grammar
of the English Language, Longman, 1985.
Schermers H. G. and Waelbroeck D., Judicial Protection in the European
Communities, 5th edition, Deventer, Netherlands, Kluwer, 1992.
Thomson A.J. and Martinet A.V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford
University Press, 1986.
Weatherill Stephen and Beaumont Paul, EC LAW, Second Edition, Penguin
Books, 1995.