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It is our privilege to express profound gratitude and admiration to our

esteemed Project in charge Mr. Nitin Singla, whose unlimited
guidance, innovative ideas and tireless efforts helped along the way in
completing the project.

It gives me immense pleasure to put on record my sincere thanks to

…….our Supervisor officer. I had the privilege of starting and
completing my Final Year Project.

This fruitful, as it has given me the feel of the part of an industry and
has helped me to understand the engineering profession in the better

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We hereby declare that the project work titled, “Hydraulic Press”

submitted as part of Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical engineering at
Chitkara Institute of Engineering and Technology, Punjab, is an
authentic record of our own work carried out under the supervision of
Er. Nitin Singla.

Place: Chitkara Institute of Engineering and Technology

Verified by:


Name(s): Abhinav Kumar Sharma (L-7005111107)

Anuj Grover
Avinash Bhama (L-7005111110)
Ayush Mahajan
Parul Gupta
Sahil Morya
Shashi Shekhar

Signature of Supervisor:


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Title Page No.

Declaration I
Acknowledgement II
List of Abbreviations III
List of Figures and Tables IV

1. Introduction
1.1 subheading 1
1.2 subheading 3
1.2.1 sub-subheading 4

2. Literature Survey 6

** The important/relevant content from the previously submitted

literature survey report can be added in this section.
3. Work Done 18

4.Conclusion and Future Scope 30

*Give sub headings and sub-sub headings specified wherever necessary in the same format as
in 1.

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Fluid power is the technology of exploiting the properties of fluids to generate,
control, and transmit power as a result of the pressurization of fluids. Fluid power is
a term which was created to include the generation, control, and application of
smooth, effective power of pumped or compressed fluids (either liquids or gases)
when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This force
and motion may be in the form of pushing, pulling, rotating, regulating, or driving.
Fluid power includes hydraulics, which involves liquids, and pneumatics, which
involves gases. Liquids and gases are similar in many respects.

As the term fluid refers either to gases or to liquids, fluid power is also subdivided
into the categories of hydraulics and pneumatics. The differences being that with
hydraulics the medium used is a liquid (i.e. mineral oil or water) and for pneumatics it
is a gas (i.e. air or another inert gas).

A fluid power system with a pump or prime mover motor or IC engine converts
mechanical energy in to fluid energy. This fluid flow is used to actuate a device.

In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of
power by the use of pressurized liquids.

Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover
concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control etc.

The extensive use of hydraulics and pneumatic to transmit power is due to the fact
that properly constructed fluid power systems possess number of favorable
characteristics. They eliminate the need for complicated systems of gears, cams, and
levers. Motion can be trans-mitted without the slack inherent in the use of
solid machine parts. The fluids used are not subject to breakage as are mechanical
parts, and the mechanisms are not subjected to great wear. The different parts of a
fluid power system can be conveniently located at widely separated points, since
the forces generated are rapidly transmitted over considerable distances with
small loss. These forces can be conveyed up and down or around corners with small
loss in efficiency and without complicated mechanisms. Very large forces can be

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controlled by much smaller ones and can be transmitted through comparatively
small lines and orifices. If the system is well adapted to the work it is required to
perform, and if it is not misused, it can provide smooth, flexible, uniform
action without vibration, and is unaffected by variation of load. In case of an
overload, an automatic release of pressure can be guaranteed, so that the system
is protected against breakdown or strain. Fluid power systems can provide widely
variable motions in both rotary and straight-line trans-mission of power. The need for
control by hand can be minimized. In addition, fluid power systems are
economical to operate. The question may arise as to why hydraulics is used in some
applications and pneumatics in others. Many factors are considered by the user and/or
the manufacturer when determining which type of system to use in a specific
application. There are no hard and fast rules to follow; however, past
experience has provided some sound ideas that are usually considered when such
decisions are made. If the application requires speed, a medium amount of
pressure, and only fairly accurate control, a pneumatic system maybe used. If the
application requires only a medium.

Hydraulics includes the manner in which liquids act in tanks and pipes,
deals with their properties, and explores ways to take advantage of these properties.

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Our survey is regarding Hydraulic system. Because for much accuracy and power we
use the Hydraulic system. For the Hydraulic Press we had visited many places in
Punjab where we found its applications. In market various specifications of the
Hydraulic Presses are available. These specifications are according to the type of
work taken from the Press.

We had studied the constructional features for the Press which we are going to Start.
These Presses are according to the Pressure created inside cylinder and work
requirements. In its work it has to press a sheet of thickness 20 gauge (up to 1mm). So
we have selected a cylinder who can generate a Pressure of up to 2000 kg say 2 tons.
For this we had searched, analyzed, construct the type of requirements used which
will help us in making complete specified Hydraulic Press of Bench Type.

From our study, the hydraulic system theory proves that in a hydraulic cylinder, the
force that can be exerted by the cylinder is dependent on the bore size, length of
stroke as well as the pressure exerted by the pump. Also the speed at which the piston
in the pump will move depends on the flow rate from the pump as well as the area of
the cylinder.

We have studied throughout the fluids used in the Hydraulic system for the generation
of amount of power needed.

The study of liquids is divided into two main parts:

Liquids at rest (hydrostatics) and liquids in motion (hydraulics).

The effects of liquids at rest can often be expressed by simple formulas. The effects of
liquids in motion are more difficult to express due to frictional and other factors
whose actions cannot be expressed by simple mathematics.

There have been many liquids we had studied for use in hydraulic systems. Currently,
in today’s generation liquids being used include mineral oil, water, phosphate ester,

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water-based ethylene glycol compounds, and silicone fluids. The three most common
types of hydraulic liquids are petroleum-based, synthetic fire-resistant, and water-
based fire-resistant.

We will discuss the analyzed part in the later section.


The hydraulic press is one of the oldest of the basic machine tools. In its modern
form, is well adapted to presswork ranging from coining jewelry to forging aircraft
parts. Modern hydraulic presses are, in some cases, better suited to applications
where the mechanical press has been traditionally more popular.

Pascal Law: Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics

Hydraulic systems use a incompressible fluid, such as oil or water, to transmit forces
from one location to another within the fluid. Most aircraft use hydraulics in the
braking systems and landing gear. Pneumatic systems use compressible fluid, such as
air, in their operation. Some aircraft utilize pneumatic systems for their brakes,
landing gear and movement of flaps.

Pascal's law states that when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a
confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container.

A container, as shown below, contains a fluid. There is an increase in pressure as the

length of the column of liquid increases, due to the increased mass of the fluid above.

For example, in the figure below, P3 would be the highest value of the three pressure
readings, because it has the highest level of fluid above it.

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If the above container had an increase in overall pressure, that same added pressure
would affect each of the gauges (and the liquid throughout) the same. For example
P1, P2, P3 were originally 1, 3, 5 units of pressure, and 5 units of pressure were added
to the system, the new readings would be 6, 8, and 10.

Advantages of Hydraulic Presses

The mechanical press has been the first choice of many press users for years. The
training of tool and die makers and manufacturing engineers in North America has
been oriented toward applying mechanical presses to sheet-metal press working.
Modern hydraulic presses offer good performance and reliability. Widespread
application of other types of hydraulic power equipment in manufacturing requires
maintenance technicians who know how to service hydraulic components. New fast
acting valves, electrical components, and more efficient hydraulic circuits have
enhanced the performance capability of hydraulic presses.

Factors That May Favor the Use of a Hydraulic Press

Factors that may favor the use of hydraulic presses over their mechanical counterparts
may include the following:

1. Depending on the application, a hydraulic press may cost less than an equivalent
mechanical press.
2. In small lot production where hand feeding and single stroking occurs, production
rates equal to mechanical presses are achieved.
3. Single stroking does not result in additional press wear.
4. Die shut heights variations do not change the force applied.
5. There is no tonnage curve de-rating factor.
6. Forming and drawing speeds can be accurately controlled throughout the stroke.
7. Hydraulic presses with double actions and or hydraulic die cushions are capable
of forming and drawing operations that would not be possible in a mechanical

Unique Features of Hydraulic Presses

In most hydraulic presses, full force is available throughout the stroke.

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Figure illustrates why the rated force capacity of a mechanical press is available only
near the bottom of the stroke. The full force of a hydraulic press can be delivered at
any point in the stroke. This feature is a very important characteristic of most
hydraulic presses.
Deep drawing and forming applications often require large forces very high in the
press stroke. Some mechanical presses do not develop enough force high enough in
the downward stroke to permit severe drawing and forming applications such as
inverted draw dies to be used without danger of press damage. But we are not
concerning with the invert of the die direction.

Hydraulic Presses Have Full Force through the Stroke

The rated capacity of a mechanical press is available only at the bottom of the stroke.
The full force of a simple hydraulic press can be delivered at any point in the stroke.
Another advantage is that the stroke may be adjusted by the user to match the
requirements of the job. Only enough stroke length to provide part clearance is
required. Limiting the actual stroke will permit faster cycling rates and also reduce
energy consumption.
The desired pre-set hydraulic pressure provides a fixed working force. When

changing dies, different shut heights do not require fine shut height adjustment.

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Different tool heights or varying thicknesses of material have no effect on the proper
application of force.
The availability of full machine force at any point in the stroke is very useful in deep
drawing applications. High force and energy requirements usually are needed
throughout the stroke. The ram speed can also be adjusted to a constant value that is
best for the material requirements.

Built-in Overload Protection

The force that a hydraulic press can exert is limited to the pressure applied to the total
piston area. The applied pressure is generally limited by one or more relief valves.
A mechanical press usually can exert several times the rated maximum force in the
event of an accidental overload. This extreme overload often results in severe press
and die damage. Mechanical presses can become stuck on bottom due to large
overloads, such as part ejection failures or die setting errors.
Hydraulic presses may incorporate tooling safety features. The full force can be set to
occur only at die closure. Should a foreign object be encountered high in the stroke,
the ram can be programmed to retract quickly to avoid tooling damage.

Hydraulic presses have very few moving parts. Those parts that do move, operate in a
flood of pressurized oil, which serves as a built-in lubrication system. Should leakage
occur, it is usually caused by the failure of an easily repairable part such as the ram
packing, or a loose fitting.
Advantages of Adjustable Force
The force of a hydraulic press can be programmed in the same way that the
movements of the press are preset. In simple presses, the relief valve system that
functions to provide overload protection may also serve to set the pressure
adjustment. This allows the press to be set to exert a maximum force of less than
press capacity.

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Figure shows Cutting soft materials and laminating work may require a low force
capacity machine with a large bed area such as the one illustrated in this simplified
Press Construction Depends on the Type of Work Performed
The bed size, stroke length, speed, and tonnage of a hydraulic press are not
necessarily interdependent. Press construction depends upon the amount of total
force required and the size of dies to be used.
Figure illustrates a large bed size press having low force capacity. Note the small
cylinder size. Some uses for these presses include cutting and pressing soft materials
such as fabric, and in wood or plastic laminating applications.

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Key Guide Lines for Press Selection

Figures illustrate how bed size does not directly relate to press force capacity.
Both if these illustrations show presses that use the tie rods for ram guiding which is
suitable for jobs that do not produce lateral or side loads. Hydraulic presses are
available in many types of construction which is also true of mechanical presses.
There are many factors to consider when deciding between a hydraulic and
mechanical press. These include stroke length, actual force requirements, and the
required production rate.

Hydraulic Press Speeds

Most press users are accustomed to describing press speeds in terms of strokes per
minute. Speed is easily determined with a mechanical press. It is always part of the
machine specifications.
The number of strokes per minute made by a hydraulic press is determined by
calculating a separate time for each phase of the ram stroke. First, the rapid advance
time is calculated. Next the pressing time or work stroke is determined. If a dwell is
used that time is also added. Finally the return stroke time is added to determine the
total cycle time. The hydraulic valve reaction delay time is also a factor that should
be included for an accurate total time calculation.
These factors are calculated in order to determine theoretical production rates when
evaluating a new process. In the case of jobs that are in operation, measuring the
cycle rate with a stopwatch is sufficient.
Most hydraulic presses are not considered high speed machines. In the automatic
mode, however, hydraulic presses operate in the 20 to 100 stroke per minute range or
higher. These speeds normally are sufficient for hand fed work. The resulting
production rate speeds are comparable to that of mechanical OBI and OBS presses
used single stroking applications. Here, there is no additional clutch and brake wear
to consider in the case of the hydraulic machine.

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Force Requirements
When choosing between a mechanical or hydraulic press for an application a number
of items should be considered. The force required to do the same job is equal for each
type of press. The same engineering formulas are used.
There is always a possibility that an existing job operated in a mechanical press
requires 20 to 30 % more force than the rated machine capacity. The overloading
problem may go unnoticed, although excessive machine wear will result. If the job is
placed in a hydraulic press of the same rated capacity, there will not be enough force
to do the job. Always make an accurate determination of true operating forces to
avoid this problem. Press that Uses the Tie Rod for Ram Guiding

Machine Speed
The forming speed and impact at bottom of stroke may produce different results in
mechanical presses than their hydraulic counterparts. Each material and operation to
form it has an optimal forming rate. For example, drop hammers and some
mechanical presses seem to do a better job on soft jewelry pieces and jobs where
coining is required. In some cases, a sharper coined impression may be obtained at a
rapid forming rate. In deep drawing, controllable hydraulic press velocity and full
force throughout the stroke may produce different results. Often parts that cannot be
formed on a mechanical press with existing tooling can be formed in a hydraulic press
that has controllable force throughout the press stroke and variable blank holder
pressure as a function of the ram position in the press stroke.

The Type of Press Frame

Like the mechanical press, open gap-frame machines provide easy access from three
sides. Four-column presses such as the machine shown in Figure insure even pressure
distribution provided that there is little or no off-center loading.
Some two piston presses similar to the design feature a system of linear position
transducers and servo valves to vary the force to each piston in order to maintain the
ram level with the bed. How well such a system works depends on the accuracy of

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the position sensors and reaction speed of the servo valving. If snap through energy
release is involved, the servo system may not be able to react quickly enough to
prevent ram tipping that may be harmful to the press, tooling and process.
Press Quality
Since the applications for hydraulic presses ranges all the way from simple hand
pumped maintenance presses, to machines having very high force capacities, types of
construction and desirable features varies accordingly.

Here are just a few design and construction questions that will
provide a basis for comparison of one machine with another.
Compare the weight if possible. Try to determine the character of the frame
construction. If a weldment, look at the plate thicknesses, extent of ribbing, and stress

Cylinder and slide construction:

The cylinder size, type of construction used, and availability of service parts are
important. Also determine how well the ram travel is guided.

Maximum System Pressure:

The pressure at which the press delivers full tonnage is important. The most common
range for industrial presses is from 1000 psi (6,894 kPa) to 3000 psi (20,682 kPa).
Some machines operate at substantially higher pressures. Higher pressures may
accelerate wear. Make sure that replacement parts are readily available.

The duration, length, and speed of the pressing stroke are the major factors that
determine the required horsepower.

Take the time to calculate the speed based on the operations you intend to perform.
There are wide variations in hydraulic press speeds.

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