Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

I mpr ovi ng Tr uc k -Shovel Mat c hi ng

Dr Mehmet Kizil
Prof Peter Knights
Stephen Nel
Over vi ew
Shovel-Truck mining system
Standard time definitions
Key Performance Indicators
Case study
Fleet Optimsation
Conclusions
Ai m and obj ec t i ves
Aim:
to optimise a truck and shovel mining system

Objectives:
to analyse the data sample;
to assess the current fleet performance levels;
to identify means for improving performance
and reducing downtime; and
to increase the efficiency or effectiveness of the
fleet.
Tr uck -Shovel Mi ni ng Syst em
Costs 50-60% of the total Mining cost
St andar d Ti me Def i ni t i on
Total Calendar Time
(CT)
Scheduled Time
(ST)
Working Time
(WT)
Available Time
(AT)
Operating
Time
(OT)
Operational
Delays
(OD)
Maintenance Time
(MT)
Planned
Maintenance
(PM)
Breakdown
Maintenance
(BM)
Idle Time
(IT)
Unscheduled
Time
(UT)
Key Per f or manc e I ndi c at or s
Productivity: Production (tonnes
or BCM) per operating hour (h)

Utilisation: The percentage of
available time that is consumed
by operating time (OT/AT)

Availability: The proportion of
scheduled working time for
which the equipment is available
(ST/CT)
Fac t or s I nf l uenc i ng Tr uc k -Shovel
Pr oduc t i vi t y
Several factors can affect the productivity of a
truck and shovel fleet, including:
Truck-shovel match and allocation;
Shift operating schedules;
Haul road design and ramp gradients;
Haul road rolling resistance; and
Mix truck sizes in the fleet (Runge Mining, 1993).
Dat a and Met hodol ogy
Sample period: 01 Nov 2008
31 Jan 2009
Sample size: 90 Scheduled
working days, 180 shifts
Limitations: Seasonal effects,
FMS outages and machine
module malfunctions
FMS: Real-time monitoring and
recording but no truck
assignment
Case St udy Tr uck and Shovel
Fl eet
Code Machine Model Capacity
EX01 Hydraulic Excavator O&K RH170 22 m
3

EX02 Hydraulic Excavator Liebherr R996 34 m
3

EX03 Hydraulic Excavator O&K RH120 16.5 m
3

EX04 Hydraulic Excavator Liebherr R996 34 m
3

SH01 Electric Rope Shovel Marion 301M 35 m
3

SH02 Hydraulic Shovel Liebherr R996 34 m
3

TR01-07 Rear Dump Truck Komatsu 830E 147 m
3

TR08-20 Rear Dump Truck Terex MT4400 144 m
3

TR21-23 Rear Dump Truck Cat 785C 78 m
3

TR24-26 Rear Dump Truck Cat 789C 105 m
3

TR27 Rear Dump Truck Cat 785 78 m
3

Oper at i ng Del ay Summar y f or t he
Exc avat or Fl eet
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
S
h
i
f
t

C
h
a
n
g
e
W
a
i
t

o
n

T
r
u
c
k
C
r
i
b
N
o

O
p
e
r
a
t
o
r
S
t
a
n
d
b
y

-
N
o

W
o
r
k

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
R
e
l
o
c
a
t
e
S
a
f
e
t
y
R
e
f
u
e
l
i
n
g
S
t
a
n
d
b
y

-
R
e
p
a
i
r
s

C
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
W
a
i
t

O
t
h
e
r

E
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t
W
a
i
t

D
o
z
e
r

-
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
A
c
c
i
d
e
n
t

D
a
m
a
g
e
W
a
i
t

B
l
a
s
t

-
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
W
o
r
k

I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
s
H
o
u
s
e
k
e
e
p
i
n
g
T
o
t
a
l

T
i
m
e

(
h
)
Oper at i ng Del ay Summar y f or t he
Ter ex MT4400 Tr uc k Fl eet
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
C
r
i
b
W
a
i
t

L
o
a
d
i
n
g

U
n
i
t
S
t
a
n
d
b
y

-
N
o

W
o
r
k

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
Q
u
e
u
e

a
t

L
o
a
d
e
r
N
o

O
p
e
r
a
t
o
r
S
h
i
f
t

C
h
a
n
g
e
S
t
a
n
d
b
y

-
R
e
p
a
i
r
s

C
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
A
c
c
i
d
e
n
t

D
a
m
a
g
e
W
a
i
t

O
t
h
e
r

E
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t
S
a
f
e
t
y
R
e
f
u
e
l
i
n
g
W
a
i
t

B
l
a
s
t

-
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
Q
u
e
u
e

a
t

D
u
m
p
T
r
a
v
e
l

T
o
/
F
r
o
m

W
o
r
k
s
h
o
p
W
o
r
k

I
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
s
T
o
t
a
l

T
i
m
e

(
h
)
Shovel Wai t Ti me
Tr uck Wai t Ti me
Shovel Tr uc k Li mi t ed
Cost I mpl i c at i ons of Tr uck -
Shovel Wai t
Fleet
Sample Period
Cost
Projected Annual
Cost
Wait on Shovel
Caterpillar 785 $128,428 $513,712
Caterpillar 789C $231,104 $924,417
Komatsu 830E $122,273 $489,094
Terex MT4400 $422,172 $1,688,691
Subtotal $903,977 $3,615,914
Wait on Truck
Excavator $291,807 $1,167,229
Shovel $77,604 $310,419
Subtotal $369,411 $1,477,648
Total $1,273,389 $5,093,562
Assumptions: Shovel= $600/h; Exc= $800/h; Truck= $400/h
Tr uck Shovel Assi gnment
Shovel
Truck Fleet
785 789C 830E MT4400
R996 (EX) 3 4 6 6
R996 (SH) 3 4 6 6
O&K RH120 6 9 12 12
O&K R170 5 7 10 10
Marion 301M 2 3 4 4
Shovel MF
SH Cycle
(s)
TR Cycle
(s)
Truck
No.
R996 (EX) 1 113 861 7
R996 (SH) 1 186 892 4
O&K RH120 1 175 666 3
O&K RH170 1 177 995 5
Marion 301M 1 108 706 6
Fleet Pass Count Summary
Optimal Truck Number based on MF
Tr uck Al l oc at i on f or Li ebher r
R996 on Pr e-st r i p Mat er i al
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
T
r
u
c
k

N
u
m
b
e
r
Haul Distance (km)
Caterpillar 785 Caterpillar 789C Komatsu 830E Terex MT4400
Opt i mum Tr uck Al l oc at i on f or
Li ebher r R996 on Coal
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
T
r
u
c
k

N
u
m
b
e
r
Haul Distance (km)
Caterpillar 785 Caterpillar 789C Komatsu 830E Terex MT4400
Rec ommendat i ons
Switch from a semi-automatic to automatic
dispatch system;
Reduce truck and shovel wait time through
mix fleet simulation in TALPAC or CAT FPC;
Manage crib break and shift change-over
delays;
Minimise shutdown delays by conducting
opportunity maintenance; and
Conduct a time and motion study to qualify
the FMS data.
Concl usi ons
Truck-shovel operations typically have high
operating costs;
Maximise productivity, availability and
utilisation to achieve operational efficiencies
and lower cost per tonne;
Optimisation closes the gap between current
and capacity production levels; and
One challenge is Truck-Shovel
interdependency.