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44 Aufrufe7 SeitenMoving target detection and tracking is an important subject for research in the domain of image processing and computer vision. Motion of the object to be detected / tracked can be categorized in two ways i.e. linear and non-linear. Analysis of the given problem for nonlinear motion is complicated. Different detection and tracking algorithms can be applied for both linear and non-linear motion of objects and the effect of certain conditions such as illumination changes in environment and occlusion is also to be considered. Results obtained are presented graphically. Mean-shift tracking algorithm, kalman filter for tracking and particle filter algorithm are implemented which covers linear and non -linear scenarios. It has been observed that mean-shift tracking and kalman filter tracking is effective when we are dealing with linear motion and linear objects, while in case of nonlinear motion and non-linear objects; particle filter tracking is more effective. Developed system has application in the domain of traffic analysis, sport analysis and surveillance.

Jun 10, 2014

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Moving target detection and tracking is an important subject for research in the domain of image processing and computer vision. Motion of the object to be detected / tracked can be categorized in two ways i.e. linear and non-linear. Analysis of the given problem for nonlinear motion is complicated. Different detection and tracking algorithms can be applied for both linear and non-linear motion of objects and the effect of certain conditions such as illumination changes in environment and occlusion is also to be considered. Results obtained are presented graphically. Mean-shift tracking algorithm, kalman filter for tracking and particle filter algorithm are implemented which covers linear and non -linear scenarios. It has been observed that mean-shift tracking and kalman filter tracking is effective when we are dealing with linear motion and linear objects, while in case of nonlinear motion and non-linear objects; particle filter tracking is more effective. Developed system has application in the domain of traffic analysis, sport analysis and surveillance.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

44 Aufrufe

Moving target detection and tracking is an important subject for research in the domain of image processing and computer vision. Motion of the object to be detected / tracked can be categorized in two ways i.e. linear and non-linear. Analysis of the given problem for nonlinear motion is complicated. Different detection and tracking algorithms can be applied for both linear and non-linear motion of objects and the effect of certain conditions such as illumination changes in environment and occlusion is also to be considered. Results obtained are presented graphically. Mean-shift tracking algorithm, kalman filter for tracking and particle filter algorithm are implemented which covers linear and non -linear scenarios. It has been observed that mean-shift tracking and kalman filter tracking is effective when we are dealing with linear motion and linear objects, while in case of nonlinear motion and non-linear objects; particle filter tracking is more effective. Developed system has application in the domain of traffic analysis, sport analysis and surveillance.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Non-Linear Moving Target Tracking: A Particle

Filter Approach

Arshad Iqbal

Dept. of Electrical Engineering

University of Engineering and Technology

Peshawar, Pakistan

khanan_5@yahoo.com

Syed Waqar Shah

Dept. of Electrical Engineering

University of Engineering and Technology

Peshawar, Pakistan

waqar.shah@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Shamim Khan

Dept. of Physics

Islamia College University

Peshawar, Pakistan

shamimkhan81@yahoo.com

AbstractMoving target detection and tracking is an

important subject for research in the domain of image processing

and computer vision. Motion of the object to be detected /

tracked can be categorized in two ways i.e. linear and non-linear.

Analysis of the given problem for nonlinear motion is

complicated. Different detection and tracking algorithms can be

applied for both linear and non-linear motion of objects and the

effect of certain conditions such as illumination changes in

environment and occlusion is also to be considered. Results

obtained are presented graphically. Mean-shift tracking

algorithm, kalman filter for tracking and particle filter algorithm

are implemented which covers linear and non -linear scenarios. It

has been observed that mean-shift tracking and kalman filter

tracking is effective when we are dealing with linear motion and

linear objects, while in case of nonlinear motion and non-linear

objects; particle filter tracking is more effective. Developed

system has application in the domain of traffic analysis, sport

analysis and surveillance.

I ndex TermsObject Tracking, Linear Motion, Non-Linear

Motion, Kalman Filter, Particle Filter.

I. INTRODUCTION

In past few years, with the help of technological

enhancement, the application based on the use of camera has

evolved enormously and the content produced by them is also

overwhelming. So automating objects detection in camera

frames and then tracking of those objects is a new evolving

subject. This paper focuses on the study and implementation

of efficient object tracking and detection techniques. These

techniques can then efficiently be used for the video

surveillance systems where physically people are present to

monitor the displayed camera feed.

With the recent evolution of computer vision, research has

been conducted to automate the processing of some data,

which results in decrease of human involvement in the

process. Research has been conducted in the individual blocks

of surveillance automation systems, such as event recognition,

object tracking and analysis and at distance human

identification. The most important task in these surveillance

automation systems is the object detection and tacking, on

which the use of other advanced technologies is based. Object

tracking is following one or more objects of any shape or size

across the scene and that tracking start when the object first

appeared in the scene. The target object can be anything of

interest from the scene [2]. Objects are to be detected and

matched in every frame. Different features can be extracted

from the current frame and then be compared to the target

object, explained in detail later in thesis. Problems such as

errors in detection (false detection or missed detection) and

occlusion are to be taken care of.

Object tracking is usually targeted for surveillance

systems where it is commonly desired to monitor vehicles and

people. These systems need to perform in real time and should

be able to handle changes in the environment such as change

in lightness and cluttered background. There are many

applications of these systems other than the surveillance, one

of which is sports. The ball tracking system also known as

Hawk-Eye is most famous for tracking of tennis and cricket

ball [14][1]. Another example of use of such systems is

development of smart rooms where occupants are being

monitored continuously, and tasks are performed according to

the response of occupants [15].

As already mentioned, tracking systems should function

under wide range of conditions. System should have the

ability to work correctly in both outdoor and indoor

environment and should also be able to handle varying

lightning conditions and also weather conditions. Another

challenge, which also is to be tackled, is occlusion for which

reasonable approximation of the objects position is to be

maintained [16]. To overcome these challenges multi camera

models are common.

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II. COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF MOVING TARGET TRACKING

Moving target detection and tracking is difficult task in

computer vision. The main focus of this paper is the tracking

of moving objects especially the comparison of linear and

nonlinear motion of objects and their shape objects. The

implementation detail of following algorithms is presented:

mean-shift tracking, kalman filter for tracking and particle

filter for tracking.

A. Mean-Shift Tracking Algorithm

Mean-shift tracking algorithm is a statistical approach

towards tracking of moving targets. It uses the color based

statistical model for the estimation of next position of the

target. Bhattacharyya coefficients are used to measure

similarity and new position of the object is located [5]. The

main objectives of mean shift algorithm are mode seeking,

clustering density estimation and tracking.

Mean-shift iteratively shifts data points in its

neighborhood and locate the new position of the target using

density estimation and color histograms. Mean is estimated

using kernel function, that is a function of ||x||

2

and is given

by,

(1)

Where the profile of K is denoted by k and has the

properties, k is non-increasing and non-negative. Commonly

used kernels are: Flat kernel, Gaussian kernel and

Epanechnikov kernel. Flat kernel is represented as

(2)

And Gaussian kernel is represented as

(3)

d is the dimensionality of the kernal.

There are three main steps in mean shift tracking. In the

first step PDF (Probability Density Function) of the candidate

and target model are estimated and represented by p

u

and q

u

respectively [4].

(4)

(5)

In the second step Bhattacharyya coefficients are used to

calculate similarity measure between the candidate and target

model.

(6)

Let the current target location is denoted by y with color

distribution {p

u

(y)}, p

u

(y) > 0 for u = 1, . . . ,m and the

estimated new location near y is represented by z under the

supposition the no rapid change occurs in color distribution

[6]. Now using taylor formula above equation can be reduced

to

(7)

Where

(8)

In the last step the new position is estimated near the

previous position of target using similarity measure. The new

position is represented by z and is calculated as,

(9)

where

operation performed is shown in fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Mean-shift tracking flowchart

B. Kalman Filter

Kalman filter have its own importance in the studies of

system state prediction, analysis, control and processing in

linear motion scenarios. It is an ideal solution to problems like

discrete data linear filtering. It consists of mathematical

equation that is useful to solve sequential system efficiently.

The filter has many properties like it can estimate the past,

present and future states even if the complete nature of the

system is unknown [7]. The dynamic and measurement

models are given by the following equations,

(10)

(11)

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Where x

k

is state vector of the system, process noise vector

is w

k

, z

k

is measurement vector and v

k

is measurement noise

vector.

The kalman filter tracking algorithm can be described in

two steps: the prediction state and the correction state. The

prediction state is represented by the equations given below,

(12)

(13)

The above equations use time state k to project to time state

k+1 to obtain the priori estimates for the time state k+1.

Correction of measurement update equations obtains an

improved a posteriori estimation by incorporating a new

observation in the a priori estimation [8]. The measurement

update equations are

(14)

(15)

(16)

Kalman filter calculates prior error covariance on the

completion of prediction state. On the basis of matching where

the target model mostly matches the candidate model kalman

filter finds the position in the search area.

Kalman filter has its own importance in tracking object

when the motion of the object is linear. Here Kalman filter is

implemented in Matlab and the results are obtained for both

linear and nonlinear motion. The complete stepwise flow of

the implemented algorithm is given in the fig. 2. The

algorithm takes a video as input, extracts the video frames and

detects the foreground in each frame respectively.

Start

Input Video

Extract

Frames

Detect

Foreground

Blob Analysis/

Detect Object

Location

Is Tracking Started

Is Object

Detected

Is Object Detected

Predict

Location

Correct

Location

Predict

Target

Location

Find

Coordinates

Show

Tracked

Object

Plot

Trajectory

End

Configure

Kalman Filter

Frame < No. Frames

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Fig. 2. Kalman filter flowchart

In the next step, check if tracking is not started and object is

detected then configure kalman filter parameters according to

the specifications of the object. If tracking is not started then

check whether if the object is detected or not. In case the

object is detected, predict the location of the object and the

correct the location of target. If the object is not detected then

on the basis of previous information predict the current state

of the target and go to the next step. Find coordinates of the

tracked object and show the tracked object. Repeat the process

until the video ends. Plot the trajectory of the target.

Algorithm can be summarized as; current state is actually

linearly dependent on previous state and some control

sequence and the relation is also linear between estimated

state and the actual state. New state can be estimated as a

linear combination of priori and posteriori state estimation.

C. Particle Filter

For non-Gaussian and non-linear state-space models,

problems like estimation do not accept analytic answers. Since

1993, particle filtering plays a very vital role in in solving the

problems of estimation numerically in a very effective

manner, i.e. observations becomes available recursively and

now can be used normally in the diverse fields of computer

vision, robotics and navigation [9].

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Particle filter uses the idea of general hidden Markov

models and semantic Monticello method. For modeling tame

parameters and series a flexible framework is provided by the

general state space hidden Markov models. These models are

expansive in intractability, analytic solutions to the inference

problems are difficult are even impossible with the exception

of minimum number of specifically simple cases. The particle

filter method is developed over the past fifteen years to

provide approximate and nearest solutions to these intractable

inference problems.

In computer vision moving target detection and tracking

is an area of interest. Features of a good tracking algorithm

may be described as accuracy in tracking, speed and

robustness. Particle filter is one of the stochastic algorithms

used for tracking purposes. Basically it is an estimation

algorithm and is based on semantic Monte Carlo method [10].

The main idea of the particle filter is it maintains the record of

the tracking objects having probability distribution over some

state. This distribution is represented by particle filters as set

of weighted particles and samples. Each sample represents

objects possible state. In other words the tracked object is

being represented by a possible location denoted by the

particle. A particle set comprises more weights at places

where the estimated tracked position lies. Now using Bayesian

filtering equations the weighted distribution is propagated

through time and the trajectory of the tracked object is

determined at the places where the particles have highest

weights [10].

The main goal of the Bayesian her is to estimate the state

x

n

, if we have all of the results and observation up to that point

(

y1:n

), or alternatively we are interested in posterior distribution

on the basis of current state. Having Bayesian theorem as,

(17)

And the joint probability can be written as,

(18)

The algorithm has two main stages: the prediction stage

and the update stage. In the prediction stage the prior samples

are generated by passing the particles from the time step using

the equation described in equation (18), while in the update

stage the generated prior samples are updated. The likely hood

estimation is given by equation (20).

(19)

(20)

The particle filter tracking algorithm here is implemented

in Matlab on the basis of color histogram and is capable of

single object tracking at a time. The complete flow of the

algorithm and steps are shown in fig. 3. A video is taken as

input to the program. Frames are extracted from the video.

Parameters containing number of particles be used, color to be

tracked and motion model etc. The efficiency of tracking

depends upon the number of particles to be used for tracking

[11]. If particles are in excess tracking will be good at the cost

of extensive computation. In the next step create particles that

should be used in tracking. Read the frame from video and

update the particles with respect to that frame. Calculate the

likelihood of the particles using constant acceleration model.

Resample the particles on the basis of likelihood estimated

previously. Show the particles in the same frame as the image

and observe that if the image is tracked. Show the tracked

object if the video is processed completely.

Input Video

Initialize Parameters

Extract Frames

Create Particles

Frame=1:No.Frames

Read Object

Update Particles

Calculate Likelihood

Resample Particles

Show Particles

Show Estimated

State

Frames< No.Frames

Plot Trajectory

End

Start

Yes

No

Fig. 3. Particle filter tracking flowchart

III. MOTION MODEL

While we are doing tracking of moving target we may

have a motion model for our system, particle filter. There are

two motion models for particle filter using for moving target

tracking: constant velocity model and constant acceleration

model [12]. On the basis of these models we can achieve the

task of moving target tracking or analysis of objects in motion.

Arshd Iqbal et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE)

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The constant velocity model is represented by A in the

above matrix, where T represents the time space among the

observation.

In the current work we used constant velocity model for the

moving target tracking task having T=1. The algorithm is

implemented on the basis of color density and is tested upon

different videos.

IV. RESULTS

Moving target tracking is achieved in linear and non-linear

scenarios using the algorithms discussed in detail in section.

The tests are performed in indoor environment. The algorithms

are capable of single target detection and tracking. The tracking

objects in this work was a ball moving linearly and a women

moving non-linearly. Both the cases are evaluated and the

results are obtained. Three different techniques are

implemented in this regard to achieve the task of moving target

tracking.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 4. (a) Tracking of object using Mean Shift Tracking Algorithm for linear

motion of objects

(b) Tracking of object using Kalman Filter linear motion of objects

(c) Tracking of object using Particle Filter linear motion of objects

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 5. (a) Tracking of object using Mean Shift Tracking Algorithm for non-

linear motion of objects

(b) Tracking of object using Kalman Filter for non-linear motion of objects

(c) Tracking of object using Particle Filter for non-linear motion of objects

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

Arshd Iqbal et al. / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE)

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Fig. 6. (a) Tracking trajectory of object during linear motion using Mean Shift

Tracking Algorithm, (b) Tracking trajectory of object during non-linear motion

using Mean Shift Tracking Algorithm, (c) Tracking trajectory of object during

linear motion using Kalman Filter, (d) Tracking trajectory of object during non-

linear motion using Kalman Filter, (e) Tracking trajectory of object during linear

motion using Particle Filter, (f) Tracking trajectory of object during non-linear

motion using Particle Filter

Figure 7a shows Error with respect to actual trajectory of

linear motion of objects in case of Mean shift, Kalman filter

and Particle filter. Kalman filter is observed to be performing

better in specified scenario. Figure 7b shows Error with respect

to actual trajectory of non-linear motion of objects in case of

Mean shift, Kalman filter and Particle filter. Particle filter is

observed to be performing better in specified scenario. Figure 8

depicts change in performance for Particle filter as numbers of

particles are changed.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7. (a) Tracking Error for Mean-Shift, Kalman Filter and Particle Filter in

case of linear motion of object (b) Tracking Error for Mean-Shift, Kalman

Filter and Particle Filter in case of non-linear motion of object

Fig. 7. Tracking error depiction of particle filter for different number of

particles

V. CONCLUSION

Moving target detection and tracking is a challenging task

and is of great importance in computer vision. To achieve the

task of moving target tracking different algorithms are

implemented to track objects in linear as well as nonlinear

motion. Mean-shift algorithm, kalman filter and particle filter

algorithm for tracking are implemented both in linear and

nonlinear motion to track the moving objects and then the

results of all the algorithms are compared.

Mean-shift tracking algorithm depends on the color

histogram of the target and the candidate model. It is effective

in case of linear motion and scenes having multiple objects.

Mean-shift is less effective in case of non-linear motion

because it is based on histogram and rapid change in it will

disturb the tracking.

Kalman filter is a good option in case of linear motion

single object tracking. It depends upon the previous state of

the object to estimate the current state or upon the current state

to predict the next state. Kalman filter first predict the target

location on the basis of previous state and some motion model

i.e. constant acceleration model in our case. The accuracy is

satisfying in case of linear motion and less effective in case of

non-linear motion.

Particle filter has the concept theory like kalman filter, but

is most effective in case of non-linear motion. It is based on

semantic Monte-Carlo method and hidden markov model. It

estimates the posterior probability in case if the observation

variables are known. It has application in computer vision,

robotics and navigation where we require non-linear tracking.

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