You are on page 1of 3

Air Conditioning System Components:

The compressor separates the high-pressure and low-pressure sides of the system.
The primary function of the compressor is to draw the low-pressure and low-
temperature vapor from the evaporator and compress this vapor into high-
temperature, high-pressure vapor. The secondary purpose of the compressor is to
circulate or pump the refrigerant through the A/C system under the different
pressures required for proper operation.
Some of the types of compressor used are:-
.!iston Compressors: This two-cylinder compressor uses a cran"shaft to move the
pistons up and down. #efrigerant flow is controlled $y the suction and discharge
reeds in the valve plate.
Scroll Compressors: The or$iting scroll is driven $y the cran"shaft and moves in
a small circular or$it. The fi%ed scroll remains stationary.
&.Swash !late Compressors: 't has a swash plate mounted at an angle onto the
drive shaft. 't drives three dou$le-ended pistons. Two sets of reeds control the
refrigerant flow in and out of the cylinders.
(.)ane Compressors: The rotor is driven $y the clutch and drive shaft. The vanes
move in and out of the rotor to follow the outer wall to pump refrigerant.
Compressor Clutch:
Clutch is used to engage and disengage the compressor. Current is sent to the
clutch coil to energi*e the magnet and apply the clutch. Shutting off the
current flow releases the clutch and stops compressor operation. +ost
compressors use a three-part clutch: the hu$, rotor, and coil. The hu$ is
attached to the compressor drive shaft. 't has a plate that is pulled against
the rotor when the clutch is applied. The rotor is driven $y the accessory drive
$elt, it is mounted over the front of the compressor using a $earing so it can
rotate. The coil $ecomes an electromagnet when current is sent through it.
-ot, high pressure gas is pumped from the compressor to enter the condenser.
The gas gives up its heat to the air passing through the condenser and thus
removing heat from the hot gas in the process and the gas changes in state and
e%its the condenser in the liquid state. Condenser Types
. #ound tu$e, serpentine condensers
&. .val/flat tu$e, serpentine condenser
(. .val/flat tu$e, parallel flow condenser
/. 0lat tu$e
Serpentine Condenser:
'n a serpentine condenser the refrigerant flows from the upper inlet to the
$ottom outlet through two tu$es. These tu$es wind $ac" and forth through the
!arallel 0low Condenser:
'n a parallel flow condenser #efrigerant flows from the upper inlet to the
$ottom outlet through groups of parallel tu$es. Some carry refrigerant from the
right to the left, and others move it $ac" to the right side.
#eceiver 1ryers:-
A receiver dryer is mounted in the liquid line of a T2) system. 't is used to:
.To store a reserve of refrigerant.
&.-old the desiccant $ag that removes water from the refrigerant.
(.0ilter the refrigerant and remove de$ris particles.
/.!rovide a sight glass so refrigerant flow can $e o$served.
3.!rovide a location for switch mounting.
Accumulators are used in the suction line of all .T systems. 't performs pretty
much the same functions as the receiver/dryer with the e%ception that it is
found in the low side after the evaporator. 't stores low pressure, low
temperature vapor and removes any moisture that may $e present in the system.
This ensures only vapor reaches the compressor. 'n a nutshell the accumulator:
.Separates liquid refrigerant so only gas flows to the compressor.
&.Allows oil in the $ottom of the accumulator to return to the compressor
(.!rovides storage for a refrigerant reserve
/.Contains the desiccant $ag for water removal
3.!rovides a place to mount low pressure switches and sensors
4%pansion valve or orifice tu$e
the refrigerant flow to the evaporator must $e controlled to o$tain ma%imum
cooling, while ensuring complete evaporation of the liquid refrigerant within
the evaporator. 't separates the high-pressure side of the system from the low-
pressure side. The two most commonly used e%pansion devices are
Thermal 4%pansion )alves, T2)s
&. .rifice Tu$es
Thermal 4%pansion )alve
T2) regulates refrigerant flow to the evaporator to prevent evaporator flooding
or starving $y $alancing the inlet flow to the outlet temperature. 't controls
the refrigerant flow from the high pressure side to the evaporator
three ma5or types of e%pansion valves:
.'nternally $alanced T2)s are the most common.
&.4%ternally $alanced T2)s are used on some larger evaporators.
(.6loc" valves route the refrigerant leaving the evaporator past the thermal
sensing diaphragm so a
thermal $ul$ is not needed.
.rifice Tu$e:
.rifice tu$e is a tu$ular, plastic device with a small metal tu$e inside. The
fi%ed orifice tu$e has a set restriction and the system is cycled to maintain
correct pressures. 0i%ed diameter orifice is simple and cheap to produce $ut it
cannot respond or change according to evaporator temperature. The color of the
.T is used to determine the diameter of the tu$e. A plastic filter screen is
used to trap de$ris that might plug the tu$e. Some older 7eneral +otors vehicles
used an .T that resem$led a $rass fuel filter.
The evaporator consists of a refrigerant coil mounted in a series of thin
cooling fins. 't is usually located $eneath the dash$oard or instrument panel.
.n receiving the low-pressure, low-temperature liquid refrigerant from the
thermostatic e%pansion valve or orifice tu$e in the form of an atomi*ed 8or
droplet9 spray, the evaporator serves as a $oiler or vapori*er to $oil the
refrigerant. -eat from the core surface is lost to the $oiling and vapori*ing
refrigerant, which is cooler than the core, there$y cooling the core. Air
passing over the evaporator loses its heat to the cooler core, there$y cooling
the air. Any moisture 8humidity9 in the air passing over the core condenses on
the outside and is drained off as water.
4vaporator Types
!late evaporators - A series of stamped aluminum plates that are 5oined together
Tu$e and fin evaporators - -ave tu$es for the refrigerant that are 5oined to the
:ow Side Components are
. 4%pansion device
&. 4vaporator
(. Accumulator 8if equipped9
-igh Side Components are
. -igh $egins at compressor and ends at e%pansion device
&. Compressor
(. Condenser
/. #eceiver-drier 8if equipped9