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Threats to Media Freedom: The Real and The Imagined

Sashi Kumar
Rural women take to journalism, redene lives
Shoma A. Chatterji
Let us Adapt to Digital Platforms
A note on the WAN IFRA digital media conference
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8 Threats to Media Freedom: The Real and The Imagined
Sashi Kumar
12 A diffcult phase, when the media is in transition
Sashi Nair
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18 Changes in Media Education
Necessitated by Media Technology
in the New Millennium
J V Vilanilam
22 Rural women take to journalism,
redefne lives
Shoma A. Chatterji
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33 Let us adapt to digital platforms
Shyam Krishna and K.Sreejith
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Im\mSv, sImn 682 030
t^m: 0484 2422275
E-Mail: media.kpa@gmail.com
Website: www.keralapressacademy.org
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(8)
G{]n 2012
T
he Chairman of the Press council, Justice Katju, has
set out the reasons why he thinks the Press Council
of India needs more powers and a structural shif into a
Media Council of India to include the electronic media.
He has been very forthright in his views on what ails
the news-media in the country today. The issue needs
to be joined by the journalistic fraternity and by the
media organisations, not in the myopic, short-sighted
sense that we saw the News Broadcasters Association
joining the issue - by issuing guidelines on how to cover
the pregnancy and birth of a child to the Bachchans.
That is almost proving Justice Katjus point right, that
the intellectual realm in the journalism that we see and
practice today is marked by exception. He qualifed his
condemnation of the press by saying that he does not tar
all the press with the same broad brush, but goes on to
say that 80% of what we see as journalism today is trivial,
is tabloid, is not addressing itself to the impinging social,
economic concerns of our day, skirting the issues and is
probably unrepresentative of the reality of society out
there.
One of Justice Katjus clinging arguments has
been why should the press be exempted from a
regulatory body when other democratic institutions
and professional bodies are subject to regulation and
these are not, according to him, purely voluntary self-
regulatory exercises. This, I think, is the essential fallacy
or the weakness of his argument. In a democracy like
India, a democracy of the liberal, freewheeling kind that
Justice Katju and you and I are familiar with, there are
the clear separation of powers. We have the executive,
the legislature and the judiciary and these are the three
constitutional pillars of our democracy. But we give
the news-media the stature, the status and the moral
high ground of being the fourth pillar of democracy.
The accountantability of these four pillars needs to
be investigated and this has been writen about, by
scholars like Umberto Eco. He says that in a democracy
the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are
accountable to the people in an institutionalised and
constitutionalised sense. And, this is what Justice Katju
is arguing, therefore why should the fourth pillar of
democracy be exempt from such regulations.
That is precisely the defning characteristic of the
free press in a democracy - that it should not lend itself
to regulation of any external agency. In the moment it
lends itself to regulation of any external agency, it loses
the qualifcation of a free press. It becomes a qualifed
or a controlled press. If you want to use the picturesque
terminology of Mani Shankar Aiyer, it becomes a kept
press. Therefore, this rudimentary proposition by Justice
Katju should be opposed tooth and nail, not just by the
journalistic fraternity and the media organisations but
by civil society and agents of democracy at large, in
defense of democracy. Because, if the fourth estate is
to be regulated, it will lose its very rationale, its raison
dtre, as you call it. Freewheeling freedom, unrestricted
freedom, even irresponsible freedom, as Jawaharlal
Nehru said, is the privilege and the prerogative of the
fourth estate. Because, the function of the fourth estate is
to enhance and deepen and be a vigilante of democracy,
to ensure that there is no erosion in the freedoms that the
democracy gives us.
There are very important roles that the Press Council
needs to play, in terms of furthering the freedoms of
the press but not in terms of abridging them. In the
Indian context the freedom of the press is an evolved
constitutional right and not a prescribed constitutional
right. But, the fact of the mater is that, there is a contract
and connect with the society, and afer the Emergency,
every government has been very weary about stepping
on the freedom of the press. The people in this country
Sashi Kumar
Threats to Media Freedom:
The Real and The Imagined
The ordinary, sensible citizen will ask, 'yes you are a business, you compete like a
business in the market and if I like your product, I will buy it. Why do you want moral
high ground? Why do you raise this whole cry about the freedom of the media in peril
everytime somebody wants to regulate that market?' If you are a market, you will have to
be regulated. If you do not want regulation, don't be a product of the market, don't be a
product for the consumer. Be an agent for the reader, for the viewer.
(9)
G{]n 2012
believed that the press is the bulwark of their freedoms,
that the press represents them, represents their
grievances, their rights, their liberties, their problems to
those in power. That, the press will tell truth to power.
There is no doubt that we have had several instances and
we continue to have several instances when the press has
spoken truth to power, however uncomfortable it might
have been, both for the press and for those in power.
These have meant a change in terms of governance, in
terms of responsibility and accountability, in terms of
what we expect of those who are in positions of power.
We are speaking in the context of another explosion of
information parallely, not quite part of the organised
structure of the press but an explosion in terms of right to
information, in the form of Wikileaks phenomenon. So,
when, in fact, technologically, ideologically, thematically,
philosophically the thrust and emphasis is on expanding
the scope of freedoms of information of which the
freedom of press is the centre plank, the move to create
borders or conditionalities must be seen almost as a
counter-liberal move.
There are some real threats and there are some
mantra of the media and journalism becomes an also-ran,
a corollary, a kind of prop to give the media the pretense
of the rights and privileges of the press so that it can
continue its basic, core business and proft maximisation,
there is something wrong with the entire dispensation.
We are seeing the emergence of big media baronages,
not just in India. It is a world phenomenon and
unfortunately in a fnance capitalised globalised world,
trend is as much ours as in the rest of the world. We
are seeing a form of political capitalism in the media in
this country where political parties are owning channels
- run as purely commercial enterprises - and therefore
they refect a particular point of view. So, you fnd this
whole mix of power politics and proft maximisation of
the media, the convergence that is taking place which is
typifed by Murdoch and Murdochism. And you know
what is happened to the story of News of the World in
England, how it get intrusive into the lives of people. We
have seen thats happened, and we are also tailing that,
not perhaps in that scale. But, there is a huge problem in
the way we are also tailing that problem.
The media decides that the Anna Hazare movement is the movement of the millenium,
irrespective of what really happened on the ground.
imagined threats to the freedom of the press. The real
threats of the freedom of the press are of the kind that
the Press Council under the Chairmanship of Justice
Katju are advancing because they become part of
public discourse. They are tapping a popular sense of
resentment against the media today. I think we need
to acknowledge that. There is great cynicism about the
news-media in the country today. Because, the people are
seeing, particularly the electronic media, the way we are
rushing to conclusions, the way we are being judgmental,
the way we are opinionated, the way we dont think
about puting somebody in the dock, about damaging
someones reputation. And, therefore, when you see the
Rs. 100 crores fne being levied against a channel for,
what looks like to me, a very trivial technical error, it is
the cumulative image of the genre of the news which
also, I assume, infuences the gravity of a judgment. It
is not only the gravity of the specifc ofence, it is also a
generic sense of how this is afecting community at large
which seems to have a bearing.
Therefore, the media needs to introspect.
Because, if the fourth estate of democracy is not to be
dictated to, it becomes a moral responsibility of the
fourth estate to put itself in the dock and asks itself
whether it is serving by the responsibility entrusted to
it by the people it serves. When we ask that question,
again some of the real threats to the freedom of the press
emerge. I personally feel that to cite a Majithia Wage
Board award as a threat to the freedom of the press
is honestly ludicrous. When you look at the botom-
line, we have a press in this country, particularly the
big media in this country, whose proft margins are
very, very healthy. In fact, the media is an exemplar
of capitalist proft maximisation in India so much so
that a disjuncture is developing between the concept
of media as business on the one hand and journalism
as a democratic agency on the other hand. Of course,
it is a valid argument that unless you have a proftable
business you can not be bold to say what you want to
say. But, there is a diference between healthy proft lines
and freewheeling proft maximisation which marks the
media today. If proft maximisation becomes the main
(10)
G{]n 2012
So, these are the kind of dangers of the media. We
need to separate, as I said, the concept of media and the
concept of journalism. What is endangered in India today
most is journalism. Where is the working journalist? I
am yet to meet journalists who feel proud that they are
journalists. They are all apologetic about the fact that
they have to do this or do that. Sometimes, if they are
writing something, it is purely by default, because there
is nobody to see it, or nobody understands what they
write. So, freedoms are not positive, they are by default.
You slip in the freedom between the cracks that appear.
Surely, a fourth estate of that kind can not hold alof the
fag of democracy. It is itself a victim of that process and
this has a resonance in the popular mind. So, today if
the government were to initiate a draconian law against
the media, I personally am not sure that the people in
this country will come out onto the streets, shoulder
to shoulder with the media, to protest that, like they
did during the emergency, and like they did in several
instances afer that. I think it is important for us to be
brutally frank about the fact that we can not continue to
be defned as business, that we must retake some of the
lost ground in terms of the best practices in journalism.
There are several restraints and botlenecks in the
media that have appeared, sometimes unknown to
us. Increasingly I can see that distribution is going to
become the big threat for the media and a media which is
produced but not distributed or disseminated is of litle
use to anybody. It is happening in the electronic media, in
television, in the DTH platforms. In this country, there is
no prescribed tarif for any channel on a DTH platform. It
is purely the whimsicality of the DTH operator. There is
no law or any regulatory mechanism. The Press Council
should address itself on the free availability of media, not
just the rich media but also the middle media, the poor
media and try to make these platforms of distribution
accessible equally or as equitably as possible to all social
classes of the media. Now the whole atmosphere is
prejudiced and biased in favour of the rich media. The
practice of the electronic media in this country is making
a mockery of the historic judgment where Supreme
Court ruled that the air waves are public property. Public
property can not be suborned or hiacked by a few rich
people in a club. It is impossible for a middle-order
businessman today to start a channel, because you will
have no distribution. Slowly, the sense of distribution is
also creeping into the reality of the printed press. When
you hear about those who are reaching the papers to
the homes organising and going on strike, I think, this
is the beginning of a symptom. The press in the country
thrives on the fact that the end-distribution, the last mile
coverage is almost free labour, or small penny labour.
But we shouldnt assume that with the free market
price determining mechanisms that we are moving
into and with generational changes, this rosy picture
will continue. Those were also become monopolised or
cartelised or oligopolised and you will fnd distribution
mechanisms geting distorted, even for the newspapers.
That is going to be the lynchpin which will determine the
success or failure of newspaper or that media.
So, there are structural issues which should be
addressed and I wish an organisation like the Press
Council of India should set up commissions and expert
bodies to look at these issues. It is part of its mandate
When you hear about those who are reaching the papers to the homes organising and going on strike,
I think, this is the beginning of a symptom.
(11)
G{]n 2012
to keep under review any development likely to restrict
the supply and dissemination of news of public interest
and importance. We have as never before in the history
of India such restrictions operating. And, I am telling
this as a prime concern, to keep under review cases of
assistance received by any newspaper or news agency
in India from any foreign source including such cases
as are referred to it by the Central Government . This
may be a bit outdated because post liberalisation we are
not allergic to foreign investment in the media. But, yet,
we should at least know what is the extent of foreign
infuence on the media here. Do we know how much
of Indian media is owned by Murdoch today, directly
or indirectly, in sectors of distribution, productions,
channels, newspapers? We do not know that because
there is no such study. And which is the body than the
Press Council of India should initiate such a study? You
should know the media you are talking about, before
you begin to start restricting it. Because, there are already
strong restrictions in place. And if you are bring in the
restrictions that you are talking about, it will be a double
whammy, it will be compounding the distinctions for
the poorer press, for the middle press. The rich press
somehow goes untouched by all this. It is the diversity
and variety of the media that will get afected. We will
have more and more homogenous, lesser and lesser
media telling us more and more the same.
So, these are, I think, some of the dangers of the
way we are moving in terms of the news-media in this
country and these dangers can prove very adverse and
damaging to democratic process itself. The Anna Hazare
movement, we are not debating the merits or demerits of
the Anna Hazare movement, but the media decides that
this is the movement of the millenium, irrespective of its
core strength, irrespective of the number of the people
who are there, irrespective of what really happened
on the ground, and then we are lef to believe that this
indeed is a great movement. Not that anything wrong
in the movement, but there is a sense of disproportion,
there is a sense of exaggerating it all out of proportion.
So, the media does not err only by not telling us what is
happening, or by telling us lies about what is happening
but also by not giving us it in the right proportion, in the
context. Context is everything in the media. We dont get
any of these contexts.
So, I think, I will end by saying that the litmus
test for the free media, news-media in this country is
whether the journalist will re-emerge; the thinking,
concerned, commited, dedicated, open-minded
journalist will re-emerge as the central fgure of this new
media environment. If it is not the journalist, but the
business of the media, the market of the media, the reach
and extent of the media, the sophistication of the media,
the technology of the media, that we are going to be
enamoured of, that is going to dazzle us, I think, it then
ceases to be a democratic agent. Then it becomes a force
from the market. And, the ordinary, sensible citizen will
ask, yes you are a business, you compete like a business
in the market and if I like your product, I will buy it.
Why do you want moral high ground? Why do you raise
this whole cry about the freedom of the media in peril
every time somebody wants to regulate that market? If
you are a market, you will have to be regulated. If you
do not want regulation, dont be a product of the market,
dont be a product for the consumer. Be an agent for the
reader, for the viewer. Even the terms have changed. We
talk about consumers. We talk about media products. So,
there is need for resistance within the media, within the
media organisations. There is a need for rehabilitating
the working journalist, making the sovereignty of the
working journalist at the core of the issue. Unless we
address that issue, the aberrations, the alibis, the false
implications (not in a criminal sense) that even the
Chairman of the Press Council of India are puting out
into the public realm are likely to be lapped up and that
would be the beginning of the end of free media in this
country. The media would then have really dug its own
grave. We ofen heard on the channels and newspapers,
dont kill the messenger. The paradox of the times is
that the messenger doesnt need to be killed, because he
is already shooting himself in the foot.
Sashi Kumar is Chairman of Asian College of Journalism,
Chennai. This is an edited version of the talk by Sashi Kumar
made on National Press day in the function organised by
Kerala Press Academy in Kesari Hall Thiruvananthapuram
on 16th November 2011.Transcript by Kiran Paul,
Institute of Communication, Kerala Press Academy.
The Chairman of the Press council, Justice Markandey Katju
The Press Council should address itself on
the free availability of media, not just the rich
media but also the middle media, the poor
media and try to make these platforms of
distribution accessible equally or as equitably as
possible to all social classes of the media.
(12)
G{]n 2012
A
s I write this, news is everywhere, about senior
journalists working for The Sun (the sister paper
of Rupert Murdochs News of the World) having been
arrested over allegations of inappropriate payments to
police and public ofcials. Those arrested include the
deputy editor, the photo editor, the chief reporter and
chief foreign correspondent. A shocker at the heart of its
newsroom, as the Guardian reported. The story, as most
people in the media may know, goes back to the hacking
of the phone of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler. Its
a sad day not only for The Sun and, indeed, for Rupert
Murdochs empire, especially afer the News of the World
had to close down, but also for all honest and upright
journalists and editors for whom journalism is a calling,
a deep responsibility to society that is ofen echoed in
journalism schools but seldom practised.
Ultimately, its all about infuencing people in power
or bribing your way through a labyrinth of streets to
reach your goal. The Sun is now facing the thrust of
Scotland Yards Operation Elveden, but would it be able
to serve its readers well as its editor was quoted as saying
he wanted to? Well, corruption is as old as the hills and
exists worldwide. Sadly, India happens to be one of the
top ten countries where corruption is the most rampant.
Malpractices in the media are nothing new. We will all
remember the Radia tapes for quite a while. It is not as
though the tapes suddenly opened out a whole new
world that was hitherto unknown. What it brought into
sharp focus was the fact that even some of the superstars
of media were dabbling in dangerous territory. It is a
malaise that not only all well-meaning journalists but
also PR practitioners and communicators must strive
to eradicate, and eradicate quickly. Making words
work is not enough for a journalist or editor. It must be
accompanied by a pledge to remain above board and
earn the respect of people.
Open Magazines expose, what it called the X-Tapes,
came as a rude shock and media gained an unsavoury
hue. Were there clean-up operations in the media
thereafer, or are such operations possible at all? Will
some journalists be tempted again to string a source
along? Would the BBC, The Guardian or The New
York Times have tolerated such errant behaviour from
their reporters? There is no doubt that the bar needs to
be set higher. Journalists must be governed by a code
of ethics, or there must be a set of codifed rules and
anyone transgressing the line should have no place in the
profession.
Unless stringent steps are taken, unless there is a
continuing debate among senior editors, publishers and
those who mater, about journalistic ethics and what
constitutes right and wrong, unless mechanisms are
put in place to redress grievances voiced by the reader
or viewer and to admit and correct mistakes, it will be
difcult for the Fourth Estate to regain credibility. What
really is meant by credibility? Its an asset, like goodwill.
Its earning the respect of the reader. When I recently met
the editor and managing director of the Kalki Group,
one thing she said still echoes within me. Speak the
truth. Everything is contained in that. To speak the truth
we should know the truth, so we should be there and
ensure for ourselves that we give a true story, she said.
A similar sentiment was expressed at a seminar on new
media in a Kolkata college, when the vice chancellor
of the Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of
Journalism, Bhopal, using a Punjabi folk parable, said
that a journalist must always refect whether he was
speaking the truth, doing something immoral, or creating
friction between people. If the answer was no to all the
three, then there was nothing to worry, he said.
But how easy is it to bring credibility at a time when
people are talking about the media going Page 3, when
there is a sort of unabashed celebration of a personality
cult, promotion of consumerism, and trivialisation of
and dumbing down serious issues has become routine?
An academician said the trivialisation process is eating
A Diffcult Phase,
When The Media Is In Transition
There is no doubt that print and television are focused more on entertaining
rather than on informing or educating the reader. Where are the feel-good
real-life stories, stories of people who are fghting the odds at the grassroots and
turning achievers? Also, in the mad scramble for news and bytes, checking,
condensing and clarifying have taken a back seat. So, is Justice Katju completely
wrong in saying what he did?
Sashi Nair
(13)
G{]n 2012
into the vitals of a healthy socialisation process while
another wondered whether there would come relief
from drowning in this tidal wave of trivialisation, of
crass commercialisation. Today, we all talk about the
Internet and the new (social) media, forgeting that it is
still television that drives the agenda and to which people
turn to in a jify. We all know how television anchors and
reporters play up hard due to cut-throat competition for
eyeballs, for TRPs. What television anchors dont seem
to understand is that when viewers realise the news put
out is not credible, the TRPs will automatically sink. And
it is quite a discerning reader/viewer we are catering to
nowadays. Sadly, creating frenzy by appealing to the
emotions, not the mind; ignoring reality and any search
for uncomfortable truth ... that seems to be the media of
today.
There is no doubt that print and television are focused
more on entertaining rather than on informing or
educating the reader. Where are the feel-good real-life
stories, stories of people who are fghting the odds at
the grassroots and turning achievers? Also, in the mad
scramble for news and bytes, checking, condensing
and clarifying have taken a back seat. How many
young reporters today double-check and cross-check
facts and thoroughly know the subject they are covering,
or even make an honest atempt to understand things?
How many have the patience for legwork and the desire
to put in hard hours of work to get to the botom of a
story, rather than Googling up information or using
the mobile phone to network and put together a hastily
writen piece? Perhaps it is symbolic of the times we live
in, when we do not even have time to talk or socialise
with our own family members. A reporter neednt be
exceptionally intelligent, but surely he or she must have
more than a passing interest and a worldview of things.
So, is Justice Katju completely wrong in saying what
he did? May be it was his manner of saying it all too
blunt for anybodys liking. But his comments cannot be
rubbished and buried under the carpet.
One of the points raised by Justice Katju is indeed
a pertinent one the quality of journalism on ofer
today, in terms of language, style and substance.
Despite journalism schools doing a fairly good job and
youngsters today having good opportunities to train
or apprentice, why do we hear the familiar refrain:
Standards have fallen it is not what it was like years
ago? Because accuracy, fairness and balance have
taken a beating. Like a senior writer said, facts are ofen
randomly selected for inclusion, the main points made
at an event are missing, facts are rarely presented with
the context necessary for a reader to make sense of them,
direct quotes atributed to speakers are ofen not correct
and sometimes even atributed to the wrong speaker. She
ofers suggestions: prcis writing, listening atentively,
taking notes, doing background research. The other
worrying aspect she points out is the fall in the standard
of English used (other languages, too). The same is
the case with editing skills. And do journalism schools
have specifc courses on media ethics? It may be a harsh
statement to make, but it is to a large extent true that
there is a serious problem with the depth of knowledge
and awareness apparent in young journalists today. May
be corporatisation of media houses has something to do
with it.
For youngsters, it is a good time to be in the media
when there are so many opportunities available to test
a range of skills. But it is a difcult time no doubt, with
huge challenges to be met. Earning trust is not easy. It
never was, and is likely to be much more difcult in
todays world. And then again, no mater what they teach
you at journalism school, the classroom is as far removed
from the theatre as make-believe is from reality.
The writer is the Editor, Press Institute of India Research
Institute for Newspaper Development, Chennai.
News of the World last edition;
First edition of The Sun on
Sunday and Rupert Murdoch,
poses for a photograph with
the frst edition of The Sun on
Sunday
(14)
G{]n 2012
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(15)
G{]n 2012
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(16)
G{]n 2012
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AhcpsS ssI]nSnv Ipepm t]mepw
Rm CjvSsSpn''.
`qtmbpsS Chyq IqSn ASnp
htXmsS \bX{hr Aem
nembn. t\cs Xocpam\nscp
knwe DtImSn apSpsambn. cp
cmPyfnsebpw hntZi Imcya{nam
Xn kwkmcnp. `qtmCnc IqSn
mgv Nbvp km[yX an. Xs
hmNI \ntj[nm Hmdnbm\
tbmSv `qtm Xs t\cnmhiysp.
Ah AXn\v hgnbn. HSphn X{
imenbmb CncmKmn As
]mew hnam\mhfn `qtmsb
ssIsImSpp kzoIcnp. B cwKw
(17)
G{]n 2012
Ign \qmnse an
t\Xmfpw Hmdnbm\bpsS
tNmZyfn hoWphe
hcmWv. Inkn HcnsegpXn;
""]{XtemIv BtcmsSnepw
kwkmcnv Rm A]ISn
NmSnbXv Hcn am{Xw, AXv
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sSenhnj\n Iv e\n Ccpv
Hmdnbm\ t]mepw ssIbSnp. A`napJ
kw`mjWw Ncn{Xnse AhnkvacWo
bamb aplqambn amdpIbmbncpp.
t\mhenpw ]{X{]hI\pamb
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Wv. cp t]pw \ Xm]cyaps
nte kw`mjWw AhmIpIbp
q. Csn Hcp Iqw tNmZyfpw
\nPohamb Dcfpw am{Xw.''
Hmdnbm\bpsS A`napJ kw`mjW
acymZbpsS koaI ewLnp
XmsWv Bt]nhcpv. Ah
Ftmgpw {]tIm]\]cambn tNmZy
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Ah tNmZnp; ""tamsj Ubm\
sbIpdnv \n Fp ]dbpp?
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pIfn ]mSn.'', InktdmSv kwkm
cnptm Hmdnbm\ tNmZnp ""A[n
Imcw \nsf Da\mpptm?''
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thfbn Cdm\nse jmtbmSv Ah
tNmZnXv Cs\; ""Xm Hcp GIm
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hp. kw`mjW thfbn Ccphpan
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km[mcW KXnbn Hcm Cs\sbm
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snepw Hcnepw Atls Xm
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lnv tImv `oIckn\naI am{XsaSp
m ImcWsav? ]epw Am
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lnvtImns kw`mjWn hmbn
mw. sPkymv ]ptcmlnXsmamWv
_meyn lnvtImv PohnXv.
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smncpp. Ctm Fs DugamWv.
Rm kn\naIfneqsS temIs t]Sn
npp''. _meyImem\p`h Hcp
a\pjys kz`mh cq]oIcWsbpw
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sav lnvtImns hmNIn
\np hyw.
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fpsSbpw {Iaw amnfbmdpsv
kl{]hI IpsSpnbnpv.
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AhtcmSv Xnbdn; ""hrnsI \pW
n, sacpanm \mbv,'' Fsmw
hnfnp. Chyq ASnp htm
Hmdnbm\ AsXmpw hnpIfn.
tNmZyfpambn Dc tXSn
AebpXn\nSbn Hcn Xs Hcp
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bpsS PohnXntep ISp hp.
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Imcn tPmv ]m t{Um ]ueohns\
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t\Xmhv AeIvkm ]\Kuenkv
Bbncpp B adp tNmZymc. Pbn
in A\p`hnph AeIvkmsd
tSXmbn Dv. 1991 Ghpw IqSpX
hngns IrXnsb AwKoImcw
t\Snsbnepw t\mh kmlnXyn
Ahv Imcyamb Ne\apmm
Ignn. ]{X{]h\ambncpp
Hmdnbm\bpsS alna apgph t{]mPze
amnb taJe. s]gvkWmenn Chyq
A\yq\amb Hcp Iebmn hfn
Hmdnbm\^mkn Ncn{Xn kzam
bn Hcp CSw t\Sn. Cy D]\njn
se \NntIXkns\ t]mse Hcnepw
Dcw e`nm tNmZyhpw sXmSpp
hnv PohnXtmSp bm{X ]dtm;
Dkplrmb amIzkv FgpXn;
""A`napJ bp`qanbnse Dze
t]mcmfnbpw hoWp''. Ah Ctm
kzn {InkvXphpambn kmms\
pdnv kwkmcnpIbmIpw.
teJI hoWw ]{Xnse
s]mfnn FUndmWv.
A[nIrXcpsS A\phmZtmsS Pbn
en sNpIv Hmdnbm\ kwkmcnp.
B kw`mjW {]knoIrXamb
tXmsS a\pjymhImi {]hI
{]tm`w XpSn. As\ s]mXpam
n in Cfhv sNbvXv hnbs
AeIvkm IrXXm ]pjv]fp
ambn Hmdnbm\sb kao]np. Abmfp
sS adptNmZyw AhcpsS PohnXns
KXn amnsbgpXn. Ccphcpw hnhmlnX
cmbn. GXm\pw amk am{Xta B
ZmXy_w \ne\npq. AXn\Iw
Zpcql kmlNcyn AeIvkm
]\Kuenkv sImsp. "F am' F
t]cn ^mkn AtXpdnv A\p`h
XovWamb Hcp t\mh cNnp.
Xp]ndmsX t]mb asfp
dnv "Spssa Nn{U s\h t_m'
F cmas t\mhepw Hmdnbm\bp
(18)
G{]n 2012
C
ommunication to the modern world is what the
nervous system is to the human body. It became a
separate and serious branch of academic learning about
150 years ago when it received recognition in certain
universities in the New World of which the United
States was the most important region. The Old World
of Europe continued to be conservative, especially in
academic course oferings, but the U.S. led the world in the
evolution of new courses, particularly in the technology
of mass communication. Morse and Marconi had already
revolutionized telecommunication; and the science of
electricity and electronics had registered great progress in
Britain and Europe in the 19th century itself.
Today communication has grown into the most
important branch of human knowledge, especially because
of the tremendous progress made by the U.S. and Japanese
technologists in space science, miniaturization, tele-
medicine, biotechnology, nano sciences and oceanography.
There are unprecedented sociological developments too
that have afected the contents, quality and diferential
spread of the media of inter-personal and mass
communication globally.
Training and education in communication had to
change according to the new requirements identifed in
the Western world. Changes did occur in the West but
in the East (with the exception of Japan, Malaysia, Hong
Kong and Singapore) did not see changes for a long
time especially in South Asia. Even the nomenclature
of the training institutes in India did not have the word
Communication.
In fact, when this writer wanted to change the name of
the Department of Journalism in the University of Kerala
to Department of Communication & Journalism in 1985,
there was a hue and cry against the change, raised not only
by some ignoramuses who atributed personal motives
to me, but by well-informed journalists, journalism
educators, and members of the University syndicate. Their
opposition was based on the premise that Communication
had nothing to do with journalism and vice versa! Luckily
the controversy died down when it was pointed out to the
opponents that well-known universities in the U.S. had
changed the names of their departments of journalism to
Department of Telecommunication!
Mass communication has undergone a sea change
all over the world and it is but proper that this change
is refected in the nomenclature, content and practice
of media education and training. The management of
newspaper organizations and that of institutes run by
journalists professional bodies in Kerala and India
must seriously consider the question of introducing
appropriate changes in their course curriculum and
syllabi to embrace the big changes that have occurred in
the functioning of the mass media in the world.
Besides theories, all aspects of communication (intra-
personal, inter-personal and mass) must be known to
the students who should also be aware of at least the
fundamentals of the modes and principles of the new
developments in the feld satellite and cable TV,
international communication, the use of new devices
such as blogging, e-mail, Internet, SMS, Twiter, mobile
phones, broadband spectra (2-G, 3-G, 4G etc.) and above
all the Combo medium and Palm Top where various
media can be conveniently used in the Convergence
Mode.
The Contemporary Scene
Access: Though communication is as old as humanity,
the most signifcant changes in several aspects of it
Changes in Media Education
Necessitated by Media Technology
in the New Millennium
The biggest change that occurred in the media world during the past two decades is that the
media users have been empowered since they are no longer passive receivers of mediated
messages but active creators of messages. Mass communication has always functioned as an
immensely large, heterogeneous, anonymous activity organized by huge conglomerates that
considered communication as one of their industries. They have considered that the consumers of
their media products had litle say in the organization and spread of messages. But today, the new
technologies of interneting, blogging, u-tubing, mobile phoning, SMS-sending, twitering, etc.,
have made users and consumers, active producers of messages.
J V Vilanilam
(19)
G{]n 2012
took place in the last three hundred years, especially in
the later part of the 20th century And the most rapid
changes occurred in recent decades of the 21st century
that witnessed the electronic revolution in all branches of
the one-way mass media and the two-way social media.
What is of great importance is that the scientifc factors
that brought about the big changes in both sectors
mass and inter-personal are common: digitalization,
rapid transmission, computerization, transistorization,
and the use of microelectronic and miniaturized systems
of communication, the linking of networks of mass
and inter-personal communication, and above all the
development of Combo sets where the art and science
of combining diferent media systems telephone,
television, radio, flm, Internet, e-mail, SMS, Twiter, etc.
are combined under the same miniature palmtop device.
This is the ultimate experience in communication and
the freest and most convenient device a human being can
carry wherever she or he goes and still be in touch with
the outside world!
But can we ignore that despite the availability of all
these new devices of communication, there are severe
problems of communication experienced by a very large
number of people in India primarily because of the
structure of the Indian society. No doubt the number
of people using the modern devices has increased and
is still increasing, although as a proportion of the total
Indian population, namely 120 crores (1200 million or 1.2
billion), the number of modern media users is still small.
In other words, the access to these modern devices of
communication will continue to be limited for a long time
to come. The reasons for this are not far to seek; they are
mainly economic and sociological, although a minister
recently observed that half the Indian population is
demanding mobiles, not comfort cabins!
The use: Another question of importance before
us is the use to which the modern devices are put by
the limited number of their users. Are they using it
for building bridges of understanding among people
coming from various ethnic, socioeconomic and cultural
backgrounds or using them for silly preoccupations such
as gossiping, listening to some meaningless songs and
watching movies. Some politicians were recently spoted
watching pornography on their mobiles and that too
in the Legislative Assembly, instead of using them for
being in touch with the people of their constituencies!
Thus there is a fip side to the use of technological
progress for not-so-important personal pleasures rather
than for social beneft. But we cannot condemn all the
modern devices of communication as meaningless and
dangerous, (yes, dangerous when mobiles are used by
terrorists for detonating explosive devices!) Despite all
these undesirable uses of the TC devices, human beings
have to recognize their benefcial boons.
Still another aspect of technological progress leading
to deviant media behaviour is their heavy use for
entertainment. Although life without entertainment
is dull, dreary and sometimes very dissatisfying to
the human psyche, no society should be entertained
Changes in Media: From Paper to Tablet
(20)
G{]n 2012
to death!, as a famous communication scholar,
Neil Postman, once said. Another world famous
communication scientist, George Gerbner, said that the
modern man is so dependent on flm and television that
he organizes his life on the models and styles propagated
through stories presented in them. The stories that
appeal the most to humans are now the ones that are
presented on the mini and maxi screens! This may be
an exaggeration but it is an exaggeration of a vital truth.
Gerbner reminds people that even news stories are
presented in cinema style.
Story-selling VS Story-telling: The modern media
are story-sellers, not conventional story-tellers, because
their main aim is to sell goods. Facts are not sacred any
more for them whereas fction is! Selling news stories
is considered good for selling goods! Once upon a time,
stories were hand-crafed but today they are crafed
by trained crafsmen, for huge audiences readers,
listeners and viewers running into millions in all parts
of the globe, mainly aimed at selling goods. The needs of
small groups are ignored in this modern crafsmanship.
Daily violations of human rights are ignored too. And
even the needs of women (forming half the worlds
population) are ignored in this scheme of things except
for entertainment!
Perhaps from the beginning of the 20th century, the
big scientifc and technological changes that occurred
in various felds infuenced the modes and contents of
communication its systems, concepts and equipment,
although the latest media revolution occurred through
the most recent changes that happened since the 1980s
e-mail, Internet, digitalization, computerization,
microelectronic systems, glass fbres, miniaturization and
storage of millions of bits of information on silicon chips
of the size of a human nail. All this has provided us a
new worldthe e-world, a far cry from the cave walls
where our primitive ancestors scribbled their ideas and
stories in pictures.
It is exciting and essential for the academies,
universities, and training institutes to provide their
scholars with a systematic narration of the story of
human journey from the hot coves to the cool cyber cells.
The story of scraggy humans uterances of meaningless
(as well as meaningful) sounds that later developed into
speech, writing, printing, radio difusion, television and
the present-day instant devices for social communication,
is worthy of the closest atention of teachers and students
of communication. But the basis of all these changes
is Electronics, and modern students and teachers of
communication in every training institution have to
know at least the basics of Electronics.
Electronics: Everything in, on, above or below the
earth, in fact, everything in our infnite universe consists
of atoms. The structure of all atoms including those of
human beings, animals and objects, is the same. All
atoms consist of a nucleus which, in turn, consists of a
positively charged proton and chargeless neutrons. The
negatively charged electrons are revolving around the
nucleus. Electrons help in moving information from
one point to another in all the media of communication
except perhaps the traditional media of staged
performances.
Modern media are all electronic. Until the 1970s in
India and the 1960s in Europe, North America and Japan
(ENAJ countries), printing was mechanical and types
were cast in hot metal but when electronic processing
was started, printing was cold and called the cold process
printing, Most newspapers in the West were produced
using the Video Display Terminals (VDTs). Modern
printing became a safe and clean processno more dirty
black hands and stinking sweat for the press workers!
Digitalization followed, and whatever information
was gathered was stored in databanks from where
the required information could be retrieved whenever
needed and printed quickly. The computer could be
hooked to the printer and the whole process of printing
could be completed in a short time. * We called the new
process of printing as the cold process.**
But training institutes have to discuss the history and
background, progress and evolution of modern systems
of printing and production. Leter presses and metal
types are now museum pieces!
Another question of importance before us is the
sociology of the mass media. Every training institute has
to teach the sociology of the media against the backdrop
of the sociology of knowledge in India. This will include
not only the technological aspects of the new devices
but the sociology of media ownership. No media system
can escape the economic aspects of media ownership
since the later tends to infuence the contents of the
media and practices of the media owners, publishers and
workers as proved by the operation of the phenomenon
of Paid News and Private Treaties in recent years, all
of which coloured and controlled the credibility of the
media. Media workers (editors, feld workers such as
reporters, television camera persons, selectors of those
aspects of reality supposed to atract the media users
and thereby infuence television/media rating) have to
assert their independence in the name of truth and social
relevance. Should there not be some emphasis on the
use of journalism and communication for the beneft of
the people. This is a land where the Father of the Nation,
among other things, emphasized that journalism was
service to the people.
Perhaps from the beginning of the 20th century, the
big scientifc and technological changes that occurred
in various felds infuenced the modes and contents of
communication its systems, concepts and equipment,
although the latest media revolution occurred through
the most recent changes that happened since the 1980s
(e-mail, Internet, digitalization, computerization,
microelectronic systems, glass fbres, miniaturization and
storage of millions of bits of information on silicon chips
of the size of a human nail.) All this has provided us a
new world the e-world, a far cry from the cave walls
where primitive beings recorded their ideas and stories in
a crude manner.
Changes have occurred in photography and
(21)
G{]n 2012
cinematography too. The use of electronic and digital
photography, optoelectronics, photophonics and
digital transmission of images started in India in the
early 1990s, the beginning of the era of globalization.
There are now centres of digital imaging technology.
Students of mass communication have to visit these
centres and observe their working. Press club institutes
and press academies have to expose their wards to all
the new technologies before they fnish their training.
Schools of Communication have to equip their wards
with theoretical knowledge and practical training in
the art and science of COMPUNICATION that is,
computerized communication, digital camera operations,
scanning, analogue vs digital systems, Desk Top
Publishing (DTP), etc. The lingo itself has changed as
you can see from the Glossary of many new books on
communication.
A signifcant drawback of many training programmes
in the country is that theoretical aspects are sometimes
totally missing in them. Of course, some good souls
emphasize that communication and journalism are
mainly craf-oriented and theory is of no practical value.
This is absurd. Communication is a vital aspect of human
life and monopolization of it by a few who deliberately
shut their trainees eyes to the essential theories that see
through the machination of many proft-oriented trainers
is not in the ultimate interests of society as a whole.
You can train crafs-persons but such training ends up
as crafy and deleterious to society since it shuts the
trainees eyes to the hard social realities in the country.
Therefore there should be a judicious bending of theory
and practice in all communication/journalism training.
The freedom of speech and information envisaged in our
Constitution is not only the freedom of the publisher or
the working journalist/media technician but the freedom
of the entire people to express their views even views
unpalatable to the ruling fraternity! It is peoples freedom
that is more important for the nations future than the
freedom of the proprietor/publisher/media owner.
This truth and the historical evolution of the concept
have to become part of the training programmes in all
institutes.
One last point: The biggest change that occurred in
the media world during the past two decades is that
the media users have been empowered since they are
no longer passive receivers of mediated messages but
active creators of messages. Mass communication has
always functioned as an immensely large, heterogeneous,
anonymous activity organized by huge conglomerates
that considered communication as one of their industries.
They have considered that the consumers of their
media products had litle say in the organization and
spread of messages. But today, the new technologies of
interneting, blogging, u-tubing, mobile phoning, SMS-
sending, twitering, etc., have made users and consumers,
active producers of messages. Trainees can become
citizen journalists.
John Milton, the famous English poet had argued in
his famous Areopagytica for the freedom of the citizen
to give expression to his or her thoughts without fear of
persecution. He even said that people could hold their
own personal faith and practise it without harming
others. A true church can consist of one person!,
he said. This is the basic idea of democracy and the
media have to protect and defend this human right. No
media education and training will be complete without
stressing this fundamental right. Are we stressing it in
our institutes and academies of communication and
journalism training? Are our trained journalists votaries
of this freedom or just mercenaries out there to fght
for any cause that brings them huge monetary rewards,
foreign junkets and various other personal benefts?
Courage of conviction is more important for a journalist/
communicator than the sheen and jingle of coins or the
gliter and glamour of positions or status.
Prof. Dr. J. V.Vilanilam is former Vice-Chancellor and & Head,
Department of Communication & Journalism,
University of Kerala, TPuram.
*For details see the writers books: Aa Lokam Mutal e-Lokam Varei
(Malayalam), Bhaasha Institute, 2003; and his Public Relations in
India, SAGE, 2011)
** Kerala Kaumudi was the frst newspaper in Kerala to introduce
this cold process in the early 1970s, followed by Manorama,
Matrubhumi and other newspapers.
Training and education in communication had
to change according to the new requirements
identifed in the Western world. Changes did
occur in the West but in the East did not see
changes for a long time especially in South Asia.
Even the nomenclature of the training institutes
in India did not have the word Communication.
(22)
G{]n 2012
N
avodayam is the merging of two words nava,
meaning new and udayam, meaning dawn. It
is the name of a community magazine that has realised
the dreams of hundreds of women of Chitoor District
in Andhra Pradesh, run, edited, published, marketed
and distributed by women, for women and of women.
It realises the democratic spirit laid down in the Indian
Constitution. Over time, Navodayam has become a
strong link between village women and the government
by spreading awareness about ofcial schemes and
programmes targeted at women who can beneft from the
programmes. At the other end, it informs the government
and its agencies about the needs and concerns of the
women. The women do not come from sophisticated,
afuent and urban backgrounds backed by university
degrees. None of them have ever been to a journalism
school. Most of them cannot even speak English, leave
alone read or write it. But all that has not caused hurdles
for their growth. They have taken running the magazine
on, as a learning experience, as a commitment and as
a career. The Navodayam Project began as part of the
World Banks Poverty Alleviation Programme. The frst
issue of the newsleter, aimed at empowering women
through communication, called Navodayam, was
published on August 15, 2001. The main aim: to take the
newspaper to the village. Six poor and semi-educated
women living in Chitoor District in Tirupati gathered
strength from within themselves to write, edit, lay out,
print, publish and distributethe newsleter in Telugu
all by themselves. Picking and laying out photographs,
and running a cartoon strip done by one member of the
staf who happens to be a good artist are all within a
days work for the grity young women whose lives have
changed since they began the project.
Navodayam was born in the form of a newsleter
with the purpose of puting into actionInformation for
Empowerment. The four major aims are to (a) give
voice to the rural and poor women, (b) place rural
women in charge of news coverage, (c) reach information
out to touch, infuence and inspire the rural poor, and (d)
adapt journalism so that it becomes a tool to empower
rural, poor, oppressed and uneducated girls and women.
In the process, the six women who began the newsleter
have been able to redefne their own lives and look at
their involvement with it as a great learning process.
Initially launched as a quarterly newsleter in
Telugu with eight pages of printedmater (the inaugural
issue printed only 750 copies), Navodayam today is a
Rural Women Take to
Journalism, Redefne Lives
Shoma A. Chatterji
Its been ten years since a new dawn arose in a district in Andhra Pradesh, when six poor women
in Chitoor decided to bring out a newsleter flled with womens voices and then take it to the
villages. They believed that informing rural women who knew nothing, and giving them a voice,
was empowerment. From 750 copies, Navodayam is today a monthly magazine with a circulation
of 30000, and a readership well past two lakh. From reporting and writing to editing and laying
out the pages, its all the handiwork of women. Stories drive home pertinent messages, special
issues focus on specifc subjects, and semi-literate women have been trained to gather news, fle
copy, even shoot a video. Its been quite a remarkable initiative that has benefted the marginalised
and oppressed communities of Andhra Pradesh.
(23)
G{]n 2012
powerful, 24-page monthly paper that has grown to
30,000 copies, all of which are sold out. Eighty reporters,
all of them from poor families setled in rural areas, have
learnt reporting, writing, editing and layout since the
newsleter frst came out. Navodayam has a readership
of 200,000 that can easily beat the readership fgures
of some of the leading dailies in Andhra Pradesh. It
began with six core women. Today, it has around ten
staf reporters and 20 contributors. They have initiated
a system of annual subscription. The community
coordinators and sanghamitras (village-level activists
of the Indira Kranthi Patham programme) motivated
self-help groups to pay the subscription. The reporters
were instrumental in facilitating annul subscription to
the magazine by the line departments and NGOs. The
reporters personally approached the line departments
in the district and managed to get advertising support
for the magazine and the amount contributed to the
corpus fund. The advertisement rates were worked out
beforehand by the team.
Our reporters are semi-literate and poor women
from the villages. They have undergone training in
newsgathering and fling copy. We have also picked out
the artists among them. We have put them through basic
training in journalism that has improved their language,
writing and editing skills. They have been so efective
that they have acquired the courage and integrity needed
to deal with the consequences of conscientious reporting
and critical writing, informs Manjula, who began her
career as editor of Navodayam.
Mallika, one of the frst six and a member of the core
group, says that they would receive death threats for
covering issues directly dealing with local women, from
vested interests who do not want Navodayam to deal
with the problems of the women. We bring out a special
issue on the basis of a survey we conduct ourselves.
We publish our fndings in the form of a report in an
issue. We also approach the local collector, ask him for
his views and publish his side of the story as well. In
this way, we move one step ahead of news per se. For
example, we went to cover four cases of rape, of four
girls. We discovered that in one case, a 14-year-old girl
had been raped by a 50-year-old man and she had lef
school because of the social stigma. We not only brought
pressure on the perpetrator but also persuaded the girl to
get back to school, recounts Mallika.
The technical logistics and fnancial issues of
publishing the magazine is taken care of by a core
Rural women video journalists, a Scene from Andhrapradesh; Courtesy: outlook
(24)
G{]n 2012
commitee formed from within the reporters pool, which
manages the total budget. The Zilla Samakhya (district-
level federation of self-help groups) was requested to
provide its services to help the ongoing publication,
distribution and sales of the magazine. Nine members
formed the Navodayam Planning Commission six were
reporters and three representatives of the Zilla Samakhya.
The president is the editor of Navodayam. The reporters
began networking with regional newspapers to gain
training and experience as professional journalists.
Reporters are encouraged to contribute issue-specifc
features, reports and articles linked to a particular area of
the district. For example, if alcoholism is rampant in one
area, there is a detailed piece on the impact of alcoholism
on the family and ways to resolve the problem.
There was one touching case of a woman who
commited suicide and we brought this to public view
by writing about it. It happened because the woman
had taken a loan from an NGO that ofered micro loans
to rural women. But the woman did not know anything
about the interest payable. So, when she saw the interest
that had accumulated afer some time, she was shocked
and this drove her to suicide. Our aim was to drive home
the point that since village women were illiterate, all
details needed to be spelt out for them in the future so
that such tragic cases did not happen again, Manjula
elaborates.
In January 2010, Navodayam brought out a special
issue against child marriage to coincide with the
Shivaratri Festival. The idea was to spread awareness
among people about the evils of child marriage. The
special issue carried comparative interviews of women
married of as children and interviews with women
whose marriages were stopped when they were kids
and now were happier for the stoppage, says Manjula.
Why Shivaratri? Villagers of Srikalahasti in Chitoor
District believe that the night is auspicious for giving
away the girl-child in marriage because they last longer
than normal marriages and it is the night of Devudu
Pelli (Gods Marriage). It is an age-old custom associated
with the festivities surrounding Shivaratri. Around 2000
marriages are performed in February of which, many
are child brides and grooms puting a stop to the girls
schooling.
Navodayam has trained seven women over a ten-
month long span in video journalism. The trained video
journalists have made over 100 documentary flms
and are even providing video clips to major television
networks, a source of revenue for them. A video flm on
child marriage was shown across villages where child
marriage was rampant. The women of Navodayam have
persuaded women of self-help groups to put the children
they had taken out of schools to join the growing mass
of child labour, back to school. In addition, each woman
who subscribes to the magazine sees to it that every
member of her family also reads it.
The Navodayam women are convinced that their poor,
marginalised and oppressed readers, have gathered the
courage and faith to talk freely about personal problems,
about health, domestic violence, the pressure to get their
small girls out of school and married of, family peace
being threatened by chronic alcoholism among the men
and so on. The Navodayam women ofen intervene
personally to setle such disputes and resolve some of the
problems. They then narrate their success stories through
the magazine, to inspire and encourage other women to
come forward and discuss their problems, too.
Navodayam has also spread its journalistic wings
towards a revival of cultural roots that are geting lost to
time and modernistic interventions such as the cinema,
television and so on. Journalists visit senior people in
the villages to collect oral cultural forms of performance
such as traditional songs, proverbs, grandmother s
tales, and so on and publish them in the magazine to
inform, educate and entertain the readers of the younger
generation. The Navodayam Community Magazine
(Telugu) won the UNFPA-Laadli Media Special Jury
Award for 2009. It has been a source of inspiration for
similar media initiatives like radio and flms.
The writer is a freelance journalist, author and flm scholar
based in Kolkata. She has authored 17 books and contributed to
many edited compilations on cinema, family and gender.
Courtesy: Vidura
A cover page of Navodayam
Eighty reporters, all of them from poor families setled in rural areas,
have learnt reporting, writing, editing and layout since the newsleter
frst came out. Navodayam has a readership of 200,000 that can
easily beat the readership fgures of some of the leading dailies in
Andhra Pradesh. It began with six core women. Today, it has around
ten staf reporters and 20 contributors. Our reporters are semi-literate
and poor women from the villages. They have undergone training
in newsgathering and fling copy. We have also picked out the artists
among them. We have put them through basic training in journalism
that has improved their language, writing and editing skills. They have
been so efective that they have acquired the courage and integrity
needed to deal with the consequences of conscientious reporting and
critical writing, informs Manjula, who began her career as editor of
Navodayam.
(25)
G{]n 2012
"\
`mj BUw_ca; P\tfmSp [mnI
_m[yXbmWv' am[ya`mjsb kw_nv temI
nse Ghpw henb hmm Nm\emb _n._n.kn. bpsS
\ne]mSv C{]ImcamWv Ah hyampXv. temIw apgp
h {inp _n._n.kn. \ Cwojnsd {]Imiw sNmcn
bp Zo]kvXw`amIWw FmWhcpsS B{Klw.
"t{imXmfpw t{]Icpw _n._n.kn.bn \npw DX
\nehmcamWv {]XonpXv. AXv henb DchmZnXz
amWv. hnIeamb `mj D]tbmKnpXp hgn a\pgtam
AklyXtbm Amfntm Dmm Xp\nbpXv Bpw
\X. am{Xa \mbn FgpXnb `mjsbm a\n
emm hnjaamWv tamiw `mj'.
\psS am[ya`mj, sSenhnj hmmkwt{]jW
coXn Fnhsb sNmn Cs\ A`nam\nm Ahkcapm
tIXs? \psS t{]Icn \npw Ipdsmcfhnse
nepw `mjm{]tbmKnepw DSnepw hcp icnIfpw
sXpIfpw {]XnIcWfpmppv.
hmkvXhn CXns\mcp adphiw Dv. _n._n.kn.bnse
Akndv FUndpw FgppImc\pambncp tSmw t^mv
Cs\ A`n{]mbsSpp. "henb Hcp hn`mKw t{imXmfpw
t{]Icpw tamiamb `mj {inpItbm, tIv Akz
cmIpItbm sNpn. Fm \psS \ t{]I tamiw
`mjtbmSv AkzX {]ISnnphcpw \ `mj tIm
hfsc ktmjnpIbpw B Nm\epambn B_w
]pepIbpw sNphcpambncnpw. hmmNm\ensd
\ne\nv AhcnemWv'. CXdnbmhc \. Fm
A\h[m\X, Aamw, {ipdhv Fnh Hgn t\can.
aebmfn\p tImw XmsX, AtX kabw `mjsb IqSpX
IcppXpw kwthZ\aampXpamb ]pXnb {]hWX
I hmmNm\en km[yamhWw. amXrI \Im\msX
kqamb cq]w \IpI hnjaIcw.
sSenhnj
1983se tdm] HmKss\tkj dntmv A\pkcnv
`qcn`mKw P\pw \smcp iXam\w hm e`np
Xpw sSenhnj hgnbmWv. Hmw m\w sSenhnj\v,
cmw m\w ]{Xv, aqmw m\w tdUntbm.
Cu dntmv Xs ]dbp asmcp Imcyw hnizk\obX
sSenhnj hmbvmWv FXs{X. Cu IWv amdn
adnbpw; hkvXpXbpw. tIcfn ]{X Xs apn.
Fm ]{Xfpw sSenhnj\pw \Ip hmmam\Z
fn henb Acapv. kw`hw \Sv F{Xtbm kabw
Ignv ]{Xw ASnpIbpw ]pdphcnIbpw sNptm
kw`hw \SpXns\mw B \nanjw adphiv
AXnsd hniZmwimbn sSenhnj Imncnpp
FtmWw, Bscsms ]cnlknmepw Hmtcm
sNdpkw`hw t]mepw B \nanjw t{_nwKv kz`mhaptXm
^vfmjv kz`mhaptXm BWv. kabw ISpt]mhpw
tXmdpw Hcp kw`hnsd hmmKmVX ]{Xv
Fs\ Ipdbppthm AXp t]mse Xs sSenhnj\pw
hmbpsS {]mapJyn CSnhv Xntmfpw. ]s Innb
\nanjw AXv AtX KmVXtbmsS Fbdn t]mtb
Xocq. hnNmcWsbv hnainsmepw XpSp
hniIe\w \St Xocq. "Z ssSwkn'sd {]K FUndmbn
cp tPm Unte hmbpsS DchmZns ]n
]dbppv, "{]nsd {]mYanI DchmZnw s]mXp
{]iv\sf Hpw sshImsX kaqlnsd ap \ncbntev
DbnsmphcnIbpw hniZambn ]cntim[npIbpw `mhn
Xeapdpw IqSn {]iv\]cnlmcn\mbn hniIe\w sNbvXv
tcJsSpnshpIbpamWv'. sSenhnj Nm\epI B
\nanjw AXp Xs \nlnpp. icnbmbn Xs BtWm
\nlnpXv F tNmZyw Dbcmw. cm{obkmaqly
{]hIcpw, A`n`mjIcpw, \oXn]oThpw Fmw tN
{]{InbbneqsS CXp icnbmb Znibn sImpt]mIpIbmWv
]mmXy cmPyfn sNbvXpt]mcpXv.
\psS hmmNm\epIfpsS \yqkv sUkvIpI DNnX
amb Xocpam\saSppXn\v {]m]vXambn hcptXbpq.
\qdv hj ]qnbmnb ]{Xsf Ipdnp _eamb
]cmXnI Ctmgpw _mn \ns ]p hjw t]mepw
{]mbamIm apgph kab hmmNm\epIfpsS Imcy
hm: {]XnOmbbpw \ngepw
F. kltZh
"ssehv' Bbpw "t{_nv \yqkv' Bbpsams \mSns\ ]nSnpIpepp \nch[n hmI Zn\w{]
Xn ]pdphnSp ImgvNbmWv temIsmSpw Zriyam[ya ]phbvpXv. NqSp]nSn NIv
Zriyam[ya Ftmgpw hgnsbmcppp. Zriyam[yatemIs ASnm\Xzfpw kmyXIfpw
kaImeo\ hnImkfpw ]cnNbsSppIbmWv ChnsS.
(26)
G{]n 2012
n ]qXbntesm kaba\phZnp sImSpt
Xpv; {]tXyInp kmtXnIX amdnsmncnp kml
Ncyn. Cu kmlNcyw aebmfnse sSenhnj
hmm teJIpw hmm FUnampw hmm
AhXmcIpw sNdnb DchmZna Gnp \Ip
Xv. aebmfn hmm sSenhnj Nm\en\v GXp coXn
bn {]hnmw?
`mj hnIknpp
`mj Hcnepw XSen CcnptXbn. Fm
A\nb{nXambn {]hnpXpan. ]pXnb hmpI
kzoIcnpw ]pXnb {]tbmK \Snbpw `mj hnIknp
sImt Ccnpp. AtXkabw `mjm ]nXm
BhnjvIcnsSp LS\bn tI{oIrXambn \nba
Gsdpsd ]menpIbpw sNpp.
`mjbvp Poh \IpXv P\fmWv. AhcpsS
BmZhpw tIm]hpw cmKhpw tZzjhpw av hnImcfpw
hnNmcfpw {]Xn^enp `mjbn AYhpw Nn
\obhpw ckIchpw Bb IqntepI kw`hnp
tXmsSmw sXpIfpw ISp hcpXv kzm`mhnIamWv. sXp
I thXncndnp \ow sNm Nne BhiyamWv.
BibmhnjvImcnsd A\cLambn \St
kwthZ\w kpKaamhm `mj D]tbmKnph s]mXp\nba
]mentnhcpnSmWp hymIcW]pkvXI
DmhpXv. hyXykvXtaJebn {]hnp khntij
tPmenI sNphmbn ss _ppIfpw cq]sSpp.
`mjmhmmNm\epIv \nbambpw bn ssKUv
BhiyamWv.
apJyambpw FgppIm, {]`mjI, A[ym]I, am[ya
{]hI, kn\na, \mSIw XpSnb ZriyIemcq]fn
{]hnph FnhcmWp `mj sXv IqSmsX, `wKn
tNmp t]mImsX D]tbmKnpIbpw `mhnXeapdp ssI
amdpIbpw sNt Ihyw \nhlntXv. Chcn
am[ya{]hIv, XfpsS {]hrn \nhlnm
hfsc Ipd kabn\pn \ `mj D]tbmKntn
hcpXp shphnfnbmbn amdpp. Chcn Xs ASn
am[yanse FgppImcpw sSenhnj\nse FgppImcpw
cp Xcw am kzoIcntnbncnpp.
Snhn D]t`mmhn\v GXp \nanjhpw kzw tdm amm
Ignbpw. Ahp t{]Icmtbm shdpw t{imXmhmtbm IqSp
amdmw. Atm asmcp {]hrn IqSn IqntsSpp.
ZriyfpsS bmYmys Dsmm D NpaXe
t{]I\p hnpsImv AXn\pdap ImWm\mhm
hm Snhn teJI\pw hmmhmb\mc\pw IqSn \Im
_m[y\mhpp. aebmfw sSenhnj hmmkwt{]jW
nsd hgnbn C\nbpw Zqcw t]mtIXpv. Snhn`mjbpsS
LS\sb kzm[o\np \nch[n LSI DsXmWv
B am[yan {]hnph t\cnSp shphnfn.
ImWp hm; tIpXpw
Zriy`mjsb kw_nv _n_nknbptSbpw Atacn
Nm\epIfptSbpw kao]\n \np hfsc hn`namWv
\ptSXv. Cpw aebmfnepw av Cy `mjIfnepw
hmbn t{]I ImWpXpw tIpXpw Hp
XsbmWv. AXmbXp \S(p)Xnsd t\apJh\.
Zriyw kzbw kwkmcnpXn\m sSenhnj hmbn
t{]Is\ hmbpsS ASpLntep \bnm
D hnhcamWv \tIsXp am[ya{]h\n
aqp {][m\ hyXymk
ASn, sSenhnj hmIp Xn Dv.
BZytXv, sSenhnj teJIv hmm
aqeyw AXnsd kabs B{ibnncnpp
FXmWv. kabw sSenhnj\v henb
hmmaqeyamWv. cmas
hyXymkw, Npcpn ]dbp {]mYanI
hnhc Xs. hnkvXcnp
hnhcWtm hnhcw (C^taj)
BWv sSenhnj hmbn BZyambpw
Ahkm\ambpw DmbncntXv. ]{X
hm hniZoIcnpp. aqmatXv hm
ImWptmgpw tIptmgpw D ImgvbpsS
in AYhm BLmXw.
(27)
G{]n 2012
sshhn[yam taJeIfn {]hnp ]cnNbap {io
_n.B.]n. `mkvI A`n{]mbsSpp. \ `mjbnsegpXp
Xpw AXp hmbnpXpw sSenhnj am[ya {]hIsc
kw_nnStmfw hfsc {][m\amWv. IrXyX, ham\w
AdnbnpXnep \njv]X, \ymbw FnhtbmsSmw
Xs \ `mjbpw \ t{]I\v hmKvZm\w sNppv
FXv adcpXv. hmkvXhn sSenhnj Nm\epI
t{]Icpambn Acsamcp [mcWbn GsSpp Fp
]dbpXmWv icn.
sSenhnj ImWm am{Xa tIm IqSnbpXm
sWv hm Xmdmptm HmbpmhWsamWp
{io _n.B.]n.`mkvI ]dbpXv. aebmfw sSenhnj
hmm cwKv `mjm]camb Fp amfmWv thsX
Xns\pdnv Atln\p hyamb [mcWbpv. "SnhnbpsS
ap]n Cm, Fm kao]p asmcnSp \np
hmtbm atm tIp t{imXmhns\ IqSn \
HmntXpv'.
KpcpXcamb A_w hp IqSnb Acsamcp k`w
{io `mkvI C{]Imcw Hmnpp, "hmmhXmcI()
Hcp {]apJhynbpsS Ncahm hmbnpI Bbncpp.
thsd apdnbn \nv B hm tIpIbmbncp hyn
]tcXsd t]cv BZy XhW tIn. ]tcXsd t]cv
BhnpIbpapmbn. acnXv Bscdnbm\p
Pnmk sImv sSenhnjsd apnsenb Atlw
kv{Io\n IXv kzw Nn{Xambncpp. Atlw tIcf
nepw ]pdpw AdnbsSp hynbmbncpp'. \nbam
bpw ]menncnt \nbaw adp. kw`hnp IqSmt\ ]mSn
m A_hpw hp. Nne hnhc hmbn ]ebnS
fn BhnncnWsaXv Ctmgpw Nm\epI
{inpXmbn ImWpn.
Bh\ kqN\I
]{Xhmb\mp hmb\nSbn kwib\nhn
mbn hmbneqsS aptmpw ]ntmpw t]mImw. Snhnbn
AXp km[yamXn\m AhnsS shp sSenhnj hm
bnse `mj hgnXncnbpp. Fns\ IpdnmtWm ]dp
sImncnpXv AXp kw_nv HmsSpp
hmm kqN\I CSnsS sSenhnj\n Bhnt
Xmbn hcpw. {][m\ambpw Ah hmbn hcp etcp
I, hynIfpsS t]cpI FnhbmWv. Nca hmbn
acn hynbpsS t]cv Hntesd XhW Bhntn
hcpw. Bh\w hfsc DNnXamb CSfn BbncnWw.
24 aWnq Xkab hmm kwt{]Whpw pUn
tbmbnse hmmhXmcIcpw kw`hes dntm
amcpw Xn \Sp tNmtZymchpw Ahsc, `mjm]c
amb `wKnbpw HuNnXyhpw kqnpsImp hm AhXcn
npXn kw sNepppv. Ipnmew apXte
\ `mjtbmsSmw kcnnnmhv CXp hnjaw
XsbmWv.
\ `mj
\ `mj FXp sImv DtinpXv, Acw, Dm
cWw, kmcw, Aw, {]tbmKw Fnhbn ipnbpXv
FmWv. EPp AYhm BhapXv, t\cnpXv, in
bpXv Fns\ BhWw \psS `mj. {]tbmKn
HuNnXyw DXmhWw. \ DtinsXtm AXv ]pdp
hcm th hmpItf D]tbmKntXpq. anXhmv,
kmcamb hmv, BIjIamb hmv Fns\bmWv
hmpI sXcsSpptm a\nepmthXv.
kmcw, AYw
\ FmWp ]dbm DtinpXv, Amcyn
hyX DmhpIbmWp {][m\w. Hp a\nempIbpw
asmp FgpXpIbpw sNpXv anhcnepw Dmhp ]ni
ImWv. \o hmIyfn koWX Dmhpw; sNdnb
hmIy Aw hyamncpw. Hcp hmNIn cn
e[nIw Bib Dsmnm {ianm A_w
hcmw. Dtinm AYw hptNcpXpw Ipdh. Cwojn
epw Ccw sXv kw`hnpp FXn\p sXfnhmbn
_n._n.kn. DZmlcnp Hcp hmNIw FSppImmw:
"t^m Zn skdv ssSw C knIvkv a\vXvkv, F {]nkW
Av Ulmw Pbn lmkv ssUUv B^v lmnwKv
lnwsk^v C lnkv sk', (Bdp amkn\nSbn cmw
XhW Hcp XShpImc Xsd XShdbn Xqnacnp).
Hcmv cp XhW BlXy sNm IgnbpsamWv Cu
hmNIw \s t_m[ysSppXv! hmkvXhn \psS
`mjbnepw C{]Imcw Hcm cp XhW hnPbIcambn
BlXy sNbvXpIqSmbvIbn. CXp Fs\ amn
FgpXmw? XqnacWn\v {]m[m\yapv. Fm AXp
]pXphmb. "Ulmw Pbnen XShpImc Xqn
acnp' F XpSw t]mcm. XShpIm XpSsc BlXy
sNpXn\p ImcWapmhmw. AXn\m Bh\n\p
{]m[m\yw sImSpWw. "Ulmw Pbnen Hcp XShpImc
IqSn BlXy sNbvXp. Bdp amkn\nSbn Cu Pbnen
\Sp cmas BlXybmWnXv.'
efnXamb Bib efnXamb `mjbn ]dbpXmWv
DNnXamIpI. ]{Xpw sSenhnj\pw FgpXp tImn
bn henb hyXymkapv. DZmlcWw: "tamkv tPmk^v
tIcfnsd ]pXnb s]mXpacmav a{nbmhpw. tIcf
tIm{Kv (sP) ISppcpn Fw.F.F. Bb Atl
nsd t]cv ]mn sNbam ]n.sP. tPmk^v BWp
{]Jym]nXv...' CXnse cmw hmNIw cmpI. "tamkv
tPmk^nsd t]cp ]mn sNbam ]n.sP.tPmk^v
BWp {]Jym]nXv. tIcf tIm{Kv (sP) ISppcpn
Fw.F.F. BWp tamkv tPmk^v'. tamkv tPmk^nsd
t]cp BZyLn BhnpXmWp t{]Is\
kw_nnStmfw DNnXw.
`mjv tNXv Icn {]tbmKamWv. `wKnbpw HuNn
Xyhpw AXmWv. "_n emZ h[nsXv' \ \ymboI
cnmXncnpI. "Hkma _n emZs\ Atacn h[np' F
XmWv icn. hm hmbnsSpXnt\m, hmbnp
XmWv, \Xv.
]{Xhm FgpXpXn \np hfsc hyXykvXamWv
sSenhnj hmm Fgppw AhXcWhpw. hm
FgptXsXs\? CXp kw_n BZy ]mT \In
bhcn {]apJcmb antkmdn {Kqv hniZoIcnpXs AXv
hyamnbnpv. Hcp kw`hs ]{X hmbmp
Xn s]mXpsh kzoIcnp aqeyfn Fmw Xs
sSenhnj hmpw {][m\ am\ZamIpp. AtX
kabw aqp {][m\ hyXymk ASn, sSenhnj
hmIp Xn Dv. BZytXv, sSenhnj teJI
v hmm aqeyw AXnsd kabs B{ibnncnpp
FXmWv. kabw sSenhnj\v henb hmmaqeyamWv.
cmas hyXymkw, Npcpn ]dbp {]mYanI hnhc
Xs. hnkvXcnp hnhcWtm hnhcw (C^
taj) BWv sSenhnj hmbn BZyambpw Ahkm\
ambpw DmbncntXv. ]{X hm hniZoIcnpp.
aqmatXv hm ImWptmgpw tIptmgpw D
ImgvbpsS in AYhm BLmXw. sSenhnj\p thn
hm sXcsSpsSptm kabw {][m\ LSI
(28)
G{]n 2012
amIpp. t{_nwKv \yqkv tmdnp henb {]m[m\yamWv
e`npI. ]Xnhp ]cn]mSn \ow sNsSpp. A{Xp
AXymhiyamWv B hm ]pdmtIXv Fp kmcw.
Cu kab{]m[m\yw Fm LSItfbpw kzm[o\npp.
{]m[m\yw Gdnbm AXphsc {]m[m\ysap tXmnb
hmI t]mepw ]nsSpp. Nne hmI aWn
qdpI sSenhnj\n m\w ]nSntmw.
ham\ Imen kw`hnpXv.
FmWv hm FXnt\ Fs\ AhXcnn
Ww Fp IqSn \nbnm B hm kw
sNeppw. Fp am{Xa ham\ ImesbmWv AXv
Dw shpXv. B \nanjw Fp \Spp FXn
Du \IpIbpw sNpp. CXn\\pkrXamb `mjbpw
Hw tNcpp. AXn\m `qXImen (]mvsSkv) sSen
hnj hm FgpXsSmdn. Ignbp{X hm h
am\Imen FgpXWw Fp hcpp. Npcpn FgpXW
sap hcpp. kw`mjW`mjbntep amdWsap hcpp.
DZmlcWw. "\app Inp shw Hpw ipasp
]cnnXnkwLS\bmb {Ko ]dbpp. ("]dp' FXp
amn). hfsc ]gb Imcy am{Xta ]mv sSkn FgpXq.
ImenI {]m[m\yw IqSpX FSppImWnm "FXm\pw
\nanjw ap]p', "A]kabn\pn', "Cp cmhnse',
Fsmw {]tbmKnpp. Ign Znhkw \S Hns\n
Cp ]dtbnhcptm, "10 Znhkambn XpScp temdn
ss{UhamcpsS ]WnapSv Ahkm\np' FmsWgpXmdv
(Cse Hgnhmn). ]Icw B hmbn Cv Fp ]pXn
bXp kw`hnp Fp Isn tNpp. hm Ct
Xmm AXmWv hgn.
sSenhnj hm ssehv BWv. Fgpnepw hmb\
bnepw AXs\ tXmpIbpw thWw. BZy hnhc
A]qamWv FXpw BZy hkvXpXm ]niIpI
Xncpn, icnbntev sImpt]mIpXpw sSenhnj\n
kzoIcns hmmk{ZmbamWv. sSenhnj pUntbm
bnse hmsb ]nbp kmtXnI ]dn "Hcp Znhkw
]e XhW hm {]ntep t]mIpp'' FpIqSnbmWv.
hm hmpIfpsSbpw
ZriyfptSbpw hnhmlw
\yqkv Z amtcyPv Hm^v thUkv BUv ]nIvtv :
ASnam[yan hm hmpIfpsSbpw Nn{XfptSbpw
hnhmlamsWmWv hnhcnsSpXv. sSenhnj\nse
hm hmpIfpsSbpw ZriyfptSbpw hnhmlsapw.
tIpsImpw, Zriyw IpsImpw t{]I temIhnhcw
Adnv kzbw Adnhnsd inbpw A[nImchpw kzmb
amp {]{Inbbn dntmamcpw doUamcpw hfsc {][m
\amb ]v hlnpp. henb DchmZnXzamWnXv. t{]I
\pambn ASpp Cu {]{Inbbn iw, t\mw, icoc
Ne\w, icnbmb Adnhv, B[nImcnIX, Bhnizmkw, Fn
hv {]m[m\yapv. B hm Fnt hn[w FmWv?
BcmsWnpXv? Bscmw `mK`mmIpp? AhcpsS
NpaXeIfpw DchmZnXzfpw FmWv? Ahscsmw
HmWw?
dntm / B / s{]kd / doU.
]dbpI P\sf Adnbnm\m{Klnp Imcyw
\n AhtcmSv t{]ItcmSv ]dbpI. t{]Isd
kabw \ _pn]qw hn\ntbmKnt aXnbmIq. CXn\v
hrnbmbn FgpXnmdmnb kv{In]vv BhiyamWv.
kw`mjWw t]mse Xs thWw kv{In]vv FgpXm Fv
Amcm{Xen kzoIcn coXnbmWv. AXv {]kwKw
t]mse \opt]mIcpXv, ]dbm\pXv Npcpn, A[nIm
sWv tXmmsX, IrXyXtbmsS, ]qXtbmsS, hnepw
XSbepw CmsX ]pdpsImphcWw. Hmtcm hmpw Hmtcm
hmNIhpw Hcp ]pXnb hnhcw ]pdpsImphcpXmIWw.
Xkabw kw`hw dntmv sNm {][m\ Awi
A[mcamn a\n AsXpdnp ASppw Nnbpw Dmn
thWw ]dbm.
kw`mjW coXn
"kwkmcnp t]mse FgpXpI' FmWv sSenhnj
hmbn kzoIcnp t]m coXn. "FgpXnbXv Dn
hmbnpI' CXns\ ]npScpp. AXmWv thXpw.
hmmhXmcI t{]ItcmSv kwkmcnpIbmWv. Hw
AXp efnXamIWw. Cwojn \nv ]pXnb hmpI hcp
tm aebmfnemm ]ptam Fv NnnpI, A\y
`mjm hmpI AtX]Sn kzoIcntXn. Ir{Xna
hmpIfpw {]tbmKfpw HgnhmWw.
"Fp Rm tIp', "Fp Rm Adnp' FmWv
dntmdpsS klmbtmsS hmmhmb\mc t{]I
t\mSv ]dbpXv. Rm\ntm FmWv tIXv Asn
IXv Fp HukpIytmsS Hcp kplrnt\mSv ]dbp
Xmbn knpI. As\ XsbmWv t{]ItcmSv
]dtbXv. hnhn[ {]mbmp a\nemIp `mjbpw
(29)
G{]n 2012
DmcWhpw BIWw. sSenhnj hmm {]hIv
henb kzmX{yw A\phZnpXpamWv Cu kw`mjW
ssien. Fm AXn hymIcWw sXmXncnWw. t{]
I\p a\nemIm Xcnep {]mtZinI {]tbmK
ISp hccpXv. Zriyw ImWnpXpt]mse kw`hw ]dbp
hn[hpw {][m\amWv. BemcnI `mj, Acsamcp hnjbw
Asn, HgnhmWw. am[ya{]hI kwhZnpXv
Asb HmpsImmIWw Fsmcp AenJnX \nba
apv. AXmbXv \n ]dbpXv \nfpsS Av Xs
a\nemIp km[mcW `mjbnemtWm Fp kzbw ]cntim
[npI. A \sf kwkmcnm ]TnnXv kmlnXy
BemcnI `mjbne; km[mcW kw`mjW`mjbnemWv.
koamb `mjbnepw A \sf kwkmcnm ioenn
nn. AXn\w kwkvIrXhmpItfm A\y`mjmhmp
Itfm A\mhiyambn Ibdn hcm `mj FmWv.
shdpw hnhcw \Ie hm, adnv ssZ\wZn\ kwkmc
`mjbn kw`hw ]dbemWv. Iymadbntev t\mn Imcyw
AhXcnnp B AYhm s{]kd (AhXmcI),
t{_mUvImv \yqkv kmtXnI]Zmhen A\pkcnv hm
]dbp hynbmWv, AXmbXv doU. Cu hynv
hmmk`w sshImcnIambn kPohambn ]Ip sImSp
m tijn DmhWw. hmbpsS DSw \mbn
AdnncnWw. Adn kw`hw AsX A\p`htmsS
]IpsImSpm BhWw. B kmlNcynsd kPohX
t_m[ysSpm IgnbWw. Ipn \SpXv t]mse
]dbm {ianWw. Fm \mSIm`n\bambn amdcpXv.
]dbp hmsb Ipdnv hniZamb AdnhpmhpI, tIhn
m FmWv IqSpX Adnbm B{KlnpsXv
XncndnbpI, B hnhcw hnpt]mImXncnm AXp tNmZnv
Dcw tXSpI, Fnh {][m\amWv.
Ccnv/\nv
dntmam AXn{][m\amb hmI Gsdbpw
kw`hev \n \nnemWv AdnbnpXv. ASnbc
kz`mhanm hmItfm IuXpI hntijtfm \npw
Ccppw Adnbnmdpw Dv. Bam AYhm doUam
Ccppw \npw hm AhXcnnp coXn Dv. Ah
_pn\pIfpsS Kuchkz`mhhpw kabhpw A\pkcnn
cnpw. temIsmmsI hfsc Kuchap Imemhm
_pn anhmdpw \nmWv ]dbpI. CcnpXnt\m
\nv ]dbpXn\v \nch[n kuIcyfpv.
Ccpmbmepw \nmbmepw Ccnv, \nv, ssINe\w,
apJ`mhw Fnh doUdpsS {]kXbpw {]kcnpw {]Xn^en
npXmhWw. Ccnnepw Ne\fnepw aphsc A\p
IcnmXncnpI. kzw hynXzn\mWv NmcpX \Im
IgnbpI. Ah km[mcW Ne\pdsv t]mbn
t{]Isd {i sXnmXncnWw. Iymadp apn
\nptm "h`\v ]ppw Bbp[w' F \ymb{]Imcw
s]cpamdnqSm. IcpXnqnbp A{i, AekX, acymZ
tISv, AXr]vXn, oWmep imcocnINe Fnh
Fmbmepw DmbnqSm.
iw
Bpw doUpw iw {][m\ LSIamWv.
dntm/B Hcp Bqn \nv hm Adnbnp
tmgpw t{]I AhchcpsS hoSpIfpsS kzXbnencpv
ImWpIbpw tIpIbpw sNpp F Imcyw HmWw.
hon _p ASpncpv ham\w ]dbp Hcp
ASpw in tXmnWw. Hw Hcp ham\w Adn
bnpXnsd HupIyhpw {]kXbpw BkXbpw
inepmhWw. Hcp Xcnep khpw apJpw
hmpIfnepw ZriyambnqSm.
ImWm am{Xa tIm IqSnbmWv sSenhnj.
kzw ASnm\ in \nw Dbv thWw
kwkmcnm. dntmv sNptm Iymadsbm ssatm
AIsebmIcpXv. hmpI apdnpt]mImsX Ahkm\
Acw iw XmgmsX ]dbWw. Hmtcm Achpw hmpw
kv^pSambn DcnWw. IgnbpXnt\m Dnsem,
thKntem ]dbm {ianm izmkXSm InX\p
`hsSpw. \nhrnbnmtmgmsX (Bqn)
iw DbtXn.
Hcp hm BZyw t{_v sNptm \yqkv B
dntmtdm aps kIehnhchpw Adnp F an
eoUn Fm ham\hpw ]dbcpXv; Isv tiJcn
hnhc BZyw ]dbm\p dntmdpsS AhImiw \yqkv
B XnsbSppXv {IqcXbmWv..
A]ISw \Sptm acWw F{Xsb tNmZyw kzm`m
hnIw. ]s AXp Nmpfn FdnbpXv t]mse \X. A]
ISw F{Xtmfw KpcpXcamWv? F{X t]v ]cntp F
dnbmtam? Pohlm\nnSbmp A]ISamtWm? As\
sbn acWw {ibnsnptm? \nch[n t]s\
kw`hnnptm? Fv {ItaW tNmZnpXmhpw DNnXw.
\psS in Bi am{Xta {]Xn^enmhq. acWhn
hcw \Iptm \psS iw A\pXm]mlambncnWw.
Zriyw, \ndw, iw, `mj Fnhbn sSenhnj kv{Io,
\apv Fpw shphnfnbpw {]mYanI ]mTfpamWv \Ip
sSenhnj kv{Io, \apv Fpw
shphnfnbpw {]mYanI ]mTfpamWv \IpXv.
Pq\nb tPWenpI BZyw ]cnNbsSp
Cu Zriy{]Xew sXpIfn \nv Ftmgpw apambncnWw.
cq]LS\bn efnXhpw BIjIhpambncnWw,
AXnse sXpIv thn \mw \nccw ]cXnsb Xocq.
sXp Im DS Xncpm\pw aptmp hcWw.
kv{Io ]pXpnsmncnm\p BtemN\
Fpw \psS a\n DmhWw.
(30)
G{]n 2012
Xv. Pq\nb tPWenpI BZyw ]cnNbsSp Cu Zriy
{]Xew sXpIfn \nv Ftmgpw apambncnWw. cq]
LS\bn efnXhpw BIjIhpambncnWw, AXnse sXp
Iv thn \mw \nccw ]cXnsb Xocq. sXp Im
DS Xncpm\pw aptmp hcWw. kv{Io ]pXpnsmn
cnm\p BtemN\ Fpw \psS a\n DmhWw.
t{_nwKv \yqknepw kvt{Imfnepw hmNI sNdpXm
hWw. BZy`mKw kv{Io\n \np admepw hmNIw XpScp
Xv Aw hyamm\pXIn. t{]IcpsS hnes
kabamWv D]tbmKnpXv. AXv Ahv {]tbmP\{]Z
ambn Xs D]tbmKnWw. ]dbp Hmtcm hmpw hmIyhpw
Hmtcm ]pXphnhcw \Im {]m]vXambncnWw. ]dXv
BhnpsImncncpXv. kw`hep \nv dntm
]dXv, doU Npcpndbp coXn \X. Bham
WXv. BZy hnhc h tijw XpSp _pn\pI
fn am{Xta \yqkv Bv hm hniZoIcnm km[y
amIq, Atm dntmdn \nv ]pXnb hnhc tXSnsb
SppIbpw thWw. kmtXnI XStam asm hmemsX
Cu tPmen \yqkv B \nlnpXv icnb.
Fgpv
Hcp hmNIn cv Bibw DsmnpXv Hgnhm
Ww. anI t{_mUvImv tPWenmhm Fv thWw
F tNmZyn\v t{_mUvImv tPWenv tUhnUv {_nven
Cs\ ]dbpp, "{][m\ambpw aqp Imcyw HmnpI.
1. FgpXm ]TnpI 2. FgpXm ]TnpI 3. FgpXm ]Tn
pI.' dntmv FgpXns ]TnWw. {]apJ am[ya{]h
I Fmw Xs BZyhjfn sNbvX {][m\ ]Wn
CXmWv. {_nven sNbvXXpw asm. {_nven Cu cwKs
AXnImb\mWv. 50 hjs sSenhnj am[ya{]h\w
sImv kIe taJeIfpw ssIshbnset]mse
sXfn a[ya{]hI!. (Hcp Ln Atlw
Atacn {]knUdv sXcsSpv dntmnwKv \nn.
ImcWsassm? P\ {]knUdv m\mnsb
Xgv Ctln\v Nppw IqSm XpSn FXp Xs!)
FgpvZriywiw
dntmam tmdn shdpsX hmbnpIb thXv.
Zriyw Hcp hgnpw hmIyw asmcp hgnpw t]mImsX,
Fm Zriyw apgph hnmsX, XpSv Fp \Smw
FXn\p IqSn kqN\I \In hniZampIbmWv thXv.
Aw hyamIpw hn[w thnSv \nnbpw FSpp
]dtb `mKw Du sImSppw t]mIWw. Cu hmb\
]cnioent HmWv. dntmdpsS ihpw hmIyhn\ym
khpw t{]Is\ BIjnnsn hm {in
sSmsX t]mIpw.
tmdn ssZLyw
Zriyw Iv a\n Ddm\p 3 skUv kabamWv
Hcp tjmnsd ssZLyw. ]mtPv tmdnIv ssZLyw
Hcp an\nv ]Xn\v skUv Bbn temIsammsI hmm
Nm\epI \nPsSpnbncnpp. AXnIpd kabw
sImv ]mtPv sNm\mbm \v. \yqkv sUkvInsd
A\phmZtmsSbmsX GXp kmlNcynepw Cu kab
{Iaw sXncpXv.
sXv NqnmWnptm "BfpIv a\nembm
t]msc', Fv tNmZnphcpv. sXsgpXn "As\bpw
]dbmw' Fv ]dbphcpv. sXmsX Hcnepw icn
FgpXpItbm ]dbpItbm sNmhcpv. sXv Hpw Xncn
dnbmhcpv. IqSqXepw HSphn ]d hn`mKn
sSpp. Ahcmcpw \sf Xncpm hcnIbn. Cmcy
amWv _n._n.kn. ss _pv BZyw NqnmWnXv.
hnIeamb {]tbmK F{Xtbm ISpIqSnbnpv sSen
hnj hmm `mjbn. Hcp sNdnb DZmlcWw: H.hn.
hnPbsd {]kn t\mh "Jkmnsd CXnlmk'n\v 43
hbmbn Fp ]dbpXv BemcnIambn ]dbpIbmsWv
hmZnmepw A_amWv. A_s Bcpw BemcnIamn
\ymboIcnmdn. t\mhen hymIcWs ]cnlkn
sshw aplZv _jo Hcnsenepw `mjbpsS `wKnmbn
A_w FgpXnbnn. A_samp t]mepw FgpXmsX
`mjsb BemcnI `mjbn AhXcnnhcmWv \psS
{]Kcmb FgppImscmhcpw. AXn\m "Jkmnsd
CXnlmkw' Fgpnepw hmb\bnepw Dmb ]pXp`mhpIXz
nsd 43 hj ]nnp, FsgpXpXv
DNnXamhpw.
Cymhnj Atkmkntbv FUndmWv teJI

Zriy`mjsb kw_nv _n_nknbptSbpw
Atacn Nm\epIfptSbpw kao]\n \np
hfsc hn`namWv \ptSXv. Cpw aebmfnepw
av Cy `mjIfnepw hmbn t{]I
ImWpXpw tIpXpw Hp XsbmWv.
AXmbXp \S(p)Xnsd t\apJh\..
(31)
G{]n 2012
]
{Xhyhkmbn \apv ]cnNn
Xamb ]ccmKX k{Zmbn
s XpSw 1833 k]v Xw_ aqn\mbn
cpp. As {]`mXn \yqtbm
v \KchoYnIfn ]pXnsbmcp ]{Xw
{]Xysp "k'. htXmXn
hmb\msc BIjnm\ptinv
ss{Iw dntmpIfpw lypa Cdkv v
kv tmdnIfpw tN tNcph AXn
Hcpnbncpp. am{Xa, shdpw Hcp
s]\n (one penny) Bbncpp ]{Xn
s hne, \yqtbmn Av hnncp
av ]{Xsf At]nv Bdnsemv
am{Xw!
"F lndn Hm^v \yqkv' F {K
ns Imhv ans os^kv
]dbpXp {]Imcw, Av \yqtbmn
Ghpw henb ]{Xambncp "tImdn
bdn's {]Nmcw shdpw 4500 tImnbm
bncpp. ]pXnb "s]\n ]{Xw' AXphsc
]{Xw hmmhnSbnepsan.
cphjn\Iw k ]{Xns
kptej 15000 ISp. Bhnin
bn {]hnp ASnb{ap]
tbmKnv C{Xbpw tImnI Znhkhpw
A\mbmkw ASnndn.
k ]{Xw aptmpsh _nkn\
kv amXrIbmbncpp {][m\w. kp
tej h[npXv ]ckyZmXmsf
BIjnpw. ]ckyn\np
hcpam\wsImv Ipd hnebv v
]{Xw hnm\mIpw. ]ckyZmXmhns\
bpw ]{Xhmb\mcs\bpw Htct]mse
ktmjnnp kwKXn. ]ckyZmXm
hn\v IqSpX BfpIfntev ]ckyw
FpXns ktmjw, sNdnb hne
bv v ]{Xw InpXns BmZw hmb
\mc\v. ]{Xhn\bn \np
hcpam\s am{Xw B{ibnpIsb
nXn amdn. hcpam\n ]ckyn
\mbn apJy]v. kzm`mhnIambpw
s{]m^jW tPWenpIsf \ntbm
Knv sas hmmtiJcWn\v
hgnsbmcpn.
Htapm \qmmbn hmm
hyhkmbw ]npS coXn Gsdpsd
CXmWv. Fm, Cv IY amdnbncn
pp. av ]e cwKsfbpwt]mse
hmsbbpw hmmhyhkmbs
bpw UnPnhnhw ]pXnb cq]nte
v ]cnh\w sNpIbmWv. hm
tiJcnv ]mIsSpn AhXcnn
pI FXv tPWenpIfpsS am{Xw
IpIbmsW nXn amdnbncnp
p. \ham[ya hmbpsS
AwKoIrX coXnIsf ]p\\nhNnp
IbmWv.
hmbpsS cN\bpw hn\nabhpw
hnXcWhpw kzm[o\hpw ]pXpn \n
bnpIbmWv UnPn bpKw. Szndpw
s^bv kv _ppw t]mep tkmjy
s\v hv sskpI Ghpw henb
hmmhnXcW mv t^mapIfmbn ]cn
WanXns\mw, hmIfpsS hnNmc
Wbvpw Ah thZnsbmcppp.
tkWn kznv{^v AXnn
bn `qanSnbn m]nnp emPv
lmt{Um sImssfU (F.Fv.kn)
AhcpsS Ghpw ]pXnb Isep
I temIn\v apnsenpXv
Szn hgnbmWv. www.twitter.com/cern
ImWpI. tIcf\nbak`bnse kzImcy
_nv s]mXpP\fpsS A`n{]mbamcm
bm s^bv kv _pn {]XysSpp
(AXns t]cn Xrme Fw.F.F.
hn.Sn._edmw cpXhW kv ]odpsS
XmoXn\nchpIbpw, B t]mkv v
s^bv kv _pn\nv ]nhentn
bpw hp FXv thsdImcyw).
bpSyq_n {]XysSp Hcp Ata
Nz hoUntbm BImw Hcp Znhks
t{_nMv \yqkv! Atacn `cWIqS
s t]mepw shnemm t]m
clkytcJI hnneoIv kv t]mep
sskpIfn {]XysSpsav Bsc
nepw IcpXnbncptm.
shfnsSpepIpw t{_nMv
\yqkpIpap thZn ]ccmKX
am[ya (]{Xw, sSenhnj,
tdUntbm) am{Xsa nXn Iogv ta
adnncnpp. tmKpI, Szn,
s^bv kv _pv, bpSyq_v, hnneoIv kv
Fns\ tkmjy aoUnbbpsS
]cn[npn hcp UnPn thZn
Ifnepw Ctm temIs ]nSnpIp
epp kw`h BZyw "t{_v'
sNpp. DZmlcW F{X thW
sanepw ]dbmw.
a[ySpWojybn knUn _uknZv
]Wnse sXcphp IhSmc\m
bncp samlZv _uhmknkn kzbw
Xosmfpn Pohs\mSpm {ianXv
2010 Unkw_ 17\mWv. Xs ]gS
t]menkv ]nSnsSppIbpw A[nIrX
A]am\nm {ianpIbpw sNbv X
Xns\Xncmbncpp _uhmknknbpsS
{]Xntj[w. SpWnjybnse sXmgnenm
bv abpsS Bgw B kw`hw hcpImn.
B 26 Imcs PohXymKw shdpsamcp
{]mtZinIhm am{Xambn HXpt
Xmbncpp. Fm, \ham[ya
AXn\v asmcp am\amWv Nmnsm
SpXv.
_uhmknknbpsS DbpsS t\Xr
Xzn knUn _uknZn \S Hcp
{]Xntj[{]IS\ns AtaNz
m|n|memm|m
m:mae' m.sm|emo'
tPmk^v BWn
]ccmKX am[yatemItmtfsd Cv temIv hmI
{]XysSpXpw ]e Ne\fpw krnpXpw \yqaoUob
Fpw tkmjy aoUnb Fpsams AdnbsSp t^kv_pv,
Szn, bpyq_v t]mep sskpIfnse P\fpsS t\cnp
CSs]SepIfmWv. Cu cwKs ]pXnb kw`hhnImksf
]cnNbsSppIbmWv Cu ]wnbneqsS
\yq thhvkv
(32)
G{]n 2012
hoUntbm s^bv kv _pn t]mkv v
sNsp. J tI{ambn {]hn
p APkod sSenhnjs \h
am[ya hn`mKns {ibn B
hotUmtbm s]p. AhcXv sSenhnj
Nm\eneqsS Ad_v temImsI
kwt{]Ww sNbv Xp.
s]mte _uhmknkn 2011
P\hcn 4\v Ayizmkw hentXmsS,
SypWojybnemsI P\Iob{]tm`w
InSncpp. 23 hjs `cW
n\v tijw, P\tcmjn\v apn
]nSnp\nm\mImsX 2011 P\hcn 14
\v SpWojy {]knUv ssk\n F
A_nssZ s_ Aenv cmPnsh
bv tn hp. _uhmknkn acnnv
]pZnhkta Bbncppp Atm.
_uhmknkn Hcp Xosnsmn
bpcv kzw icocn ]I An
bmWv taJebnemsI ]Sv "Ad_v
hk'ambn ]cnWanXv. B {]Xn
tj[smSpmn SpWojy IqSmsX,
CuPn]vXv, en_nb, sba FnhnS
fnse `cWIqS ]pdmsp.
taJebnse Fv cmPyfn h
{]tm` Actdn. Ad_v temIw
apgph P\Iob{]tm`ns ]nSn
bnembn.
tkmjy aoUnbbpw D]{Kl sSen
hnj Nm\epIfpw kwbpambn Ad
_v hkn\v thZnsbmcppIbmWv
sNbv XsXv, tPmPv hmjnMv S k
hIemimebn ]ntajy am[yacw
Kspdnv ]Tnp amv enNv
hnebncppp (Zn CtWmankvv,
Pqembv 7, 2011).
Bwt_mw_v kv t^mS\nteXp
t]msebmWv \ham[ya hm
{]NcnnpXv. Bwt_mw_v kv t^m
S\ns XpSw Hcms \yqt{Sm
CSnv ]nfptXmsSbmWv. DuP
hpw GXm\pw \yqt{SmWpIfpw B ]nf
en kzX{amsSpp. B
\yqt{SmWpI IqSpX Bsf ]nf
pp. IqSpX DuPw IqSpX \yq
t{SmWpI... CsXmcp irwJem{]h
\ambn InSv DuPhnkv t^mS\
ambn amdpp.
Szndpw s^bv kv _ppw t]mep
thZnIfn GXmv CXn\v kam\amb
irwJem{]h\amWv hmIfpsS
Imcyn kw`hnpXv. Hcm ]n
Sp hm, AbmfpsS kplrpfn
Ipsdt ]p\]nSn \Spp.
B HmtcmcpcpsSbpw kplrv he
bfnse Cu {]{InbbneqsS ]cXw
t]cntev hm Htckabw Fs
Spp. AhnsSsbms hmsbpdn
p A`n{]mbfpw A[nIhnhc
fpw ]pshbv sSpp. Cu irwJem
{]h\amWv tkmjy aoUnbbpsS
inbpw kzm[o\hpw.
hm AhXcnnsSp thZn
I amdpXpt]mse, hmsbp
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ISmSv: The Future of News, Special Report,
The Economist, Jul 7, 2011; How a Single
Match Can Ignite a Revolution, by Robert
F.Worth, NewYork Times, Jan 21, 2011;
Googled-The End of the World As We Know
it (2009), by Ken Aulet)
_uhmknknbpsS D
aIs Nn{Xn\cnIn
(33)
G{]n 2012
I
n US and other western countries the digital platforms
are now dominating in such an appalling way that
by 2020, the experts predict that only fve American
newspapers are going to survive.
But in India, though the digital platforms are still
growing, the newspapers are over dominating the
society. Its a positive factor for the time being. But,
Gregor Waller, the main speaker of the conference says
that the digital platforms will grow in lightening pace
and will infuence the Indian society. It is mainly due
to the prevailing fact that mobile internet access rate is
higher among Indians.
Now the print revenue is 92 % and digital revenue is
only 8% on an average for major newspapers of India.
The conference discussed various strategies to increase
the digital revenue. But the most disappointing fact is
that advertisement industry has not yet started to react to
the possibilities of digital media. They are unaware about
its potentialities.
Waller says business on print is EARTH but business
on online is MARS. Print business is well-established
where as online business is need to be established.
First one is rational and second futuristic and so
irrational. And he says at the least 2 to 3 years will take
to understand the nature of marketing and advertising
trends. And marketing in print and marketing in online
content is entirely two diferent things.
So advertising and revenue generation from digital
platforms is no longer a question of yes or no but how
to do it and when we are ready is the big question.
In 1998, India had 1.4 million internet users; but by
2005 it increased to 50 million and in 2010 it doubled to
100 million and it will be 300 million by 2013. The reason
for this surge is the multidimensional platforms that an
internet provides like content, pictures, videos, audios
etc. It provides everything under the sun that you want.
Its varied choices like social media, chats, tablets etc are
also alluring the users. And with all reluctant approaches
from advertising groups, the digital ad revenue increased
by 55% from 2010 to 2012. And it is still growing by 30
percentages.
And by fve years down the line the Smartphone and
digital tablets will overtake the desktop internet users.
The advantageous circumstances are that their prices
are becoming cheaper and are provided with greater
bandwidths.
The Times group had a 32% up in ad revenue and
its regional daily Navbharat times had a 50% up in
digital ad revenue. This shows the vast scope for digital
platforms like mobile and tablets. The times mobile
versions have huge trafc for contents related to cricket,
politics and movies.
Live streaming now became more popular, and it
was proved by Al Jazeera TV, when they telecasted
Middle East uprisings against respective governments.
They made it big by appointing social media managers
assisted with editors and technical team with a 24/7 work
schedule.
Metros in India now have 73 million active users of
digital platforms (13 % increase in two years) and in
non-metros it is 24 million (67 % increase in two years!).
It means regional newspapers have a higher scope for
revenue generation from digital media.
The regional newspapers are still doing big
business across India, and at the same time, regional
digital versions of the same are also in their growing
phase. Majority of Indian population who are using
digital format in non-metros are more gum to regional
languages websites. But the most interesting fact is that
India has less regional websites when compare to other
nations like china, Japan, Indonesia etc. Globally, the
vernacular language based websites are dominating the
market.
The set-backs for regional websites in India are non-
search ability, font supporting problems and lack of
international standards in grouping and clustering news.
And, due to above reasons, none of the Indian regional
websites are considered globally. The wrong perception
Let us Adapt to Digital Platforms
Shyam Krishna and K.Sreejith
A note on the WAN IFRA digital media conference
held in Hyderabad in March 11th and 12th
(34)
G{]n 2012
of audiences quality and standardisation of ad revenues
are also main reasons for their setback. But experts say
that languages sites are going to play a key role in near
future.
For it to happen:
1. Implementation of Unicode 6.0
2. Right positioning
3. Quality content creation
4. Adapting to correct digital standards
5. Creating a sustainable model of ads
These are necessary for it to happen.
Its practicality and awareness are important. We need
to be more realistic while approaching a digital media
and fnding out its vast ad generating scopes. Even now,
big industrialists and big companies have already begun
to invest in digital media. It means the top guns have
already understood its futuristic growth.
Another interesting point noted is that the regional
language comments for news and other interactive
sections are outstanding and profound while compared
to that of English websites.
Most of the Indian newspapers are projecting
their websites as an extension of their print edition.
But it needs to be changed. The websites need to be
independent of their print version because people are
already wishing it as a diferent entity. Some news
papers are already into it.
For example, the Dainik Bhasker in the last year
equipped their all journalists with laptops with internet
connections, so that they could report their news
immediately in an online way. And two months before
the group got Smartphone to capture videos to upload
videos and news from the spot where it is occurring.
Also, they have a separate team of reports for the net
version. They are uploading more regional stories than
national and international stories and geting outstanding
response from the people.
By 2020, 80% of the Indians will have high resolution
display mobiles and high speed internet connections, the
panel predicted. By then tablets and Smartphone will
be the leading devices. And more than that these will
outplay the TV sets. With more functions and high speed
internet connections, these will become more entertaining
than PCs and TVs.
In US, 77% people are using tablets; a person is using
tablets 1 hour and 35 minutes per day. The people prefer
tablets for listening to news, reading news, mailing,
reading long articles and social media visits. 55% people
read only headlines; but more importantly 42% read long
articles, out of which 16% are sharing these articles.
The reasons for using tablets are:
1. It makes complimentary reading possible
2. Gets additional information than television
3. Allowing users to connect to real-time news
4. Creating deeper engagement with audiences
5. Highly interactive
6. More user friendly
7. Intimate and easy to carry
But tablet news-making is not just moving the news
content from website or print to tablet. It needs to be
more specifc, precise, dynamic and engaging.
How to increase revenue through online ads:
1. Analyze past performance through research
2. Securing brand presence
3. Simple deal structure
4. Free brand building
5. Use the right ad server
6. Quality positions and quality content
How to make money in digital media:
1. Personalise classifeds
2. Mash the content
3. Clicks to impressions
We need a digital mentor; digital research team and a
separate content enrich team for positioning the digital
platform from print platform.
Social media: In America, 48% of youngsters reach
news only through Facebook. Social media is a dominant
promotional vehicle for websites or a gloried platform.
So it needs to have two business goals: 1. Driving
trafc. 2. Engaging users and multiplying users.
In old days communication happened one to many.
But today it is happening many to many. So you can use
social media as a marketing tool also.
What will drive social media trafc?
1. Ticking the publish social box
2. Useful funny personal headlines
3. Character of the story
4. Integrating nonprofessional emotions like USG
video, mobile video pictures
India will be a country that will jump directly into the
mobile age with very rapid afects on print circulation.
Writers are Sub Editors, Mathrubhumi Online
Gregor Waller speaks at digital media conference
(35)
G{]n 2012
Kerala Press Academy, the pioneer institution in Communication studies in Kerala is re- launching its fagship publication
Media after a small gap.
The bi-lingual publication will be unique in character, because this is the only magazine published from Kerala covering
the media.
Kerala Press Academy, as you may be aware, is a joint venture of the Government of Kerala, Kerala Union of Working
Journalists (KUWJ) and Indian Newspaper Society (INS). It was established in 1979 and is located in Kochi, Kerala.
And, the architects of the magazine are the top most media personalities from Kerala and outside. The re launch of the
Media is eagerly awaited by the media fraternity in Kerala. Since there are several journalism and communications
institutes and colleges having graduate and post graduate courses in Kerala, a large number of media students will be
benefted by this publication. Besides this, the magazine will be circulated among the decision makers and peers of the
larger community.
This is not going to be run for proft. We need fnancial support from persons and institutions with a larger heart and a
concern for the well-being of the society.
We seek co operation of all persons and institutions in the form of advertisements.
The Publication is consisting of 48 pages,
published in English and Malayalam.
Size: Demy 1/4
The tarif is as follows
6 issues 12 issues
Back cover: Color: Rs 25,000 1,25,000 2,00000
Inside cover: Color: Rs 20,000 1,00000 1,75000
Inside full page: B&W: Rs 15,000 50000 1,00000
Your Advertisement order may please be send to
The Secretary, Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi 682 030.
An appeal to well-wishers of Media
Annual subscription : Rs. 100/- ; Price per Issue : Rs. 10/-
Media, Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi 682 030.
Subscribe
Threats to Media Freedom: The Real and The Imagined
Sashi Kumar
Rural women take to journalism, redene lives
Shoma A. Chatterji
Let us Adapt to Digital Platforms
A note on the WAN IFRA digital media conference
(36)
G{]n 2012
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Robin Jeferey
Media and Modernity : Communications
Women and the State in India (2010)
Permanent Black Rs. 695
(37)
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The Decline of Nair Dominance :
Society and politics in Travancore 1847 -
1908 (1976)
Politics, Women and wellbeing : How
Kerala became a model (1992),
Indias Newspaper Revolution :
Capitalism, Technology and the Indian
Language Press, 1977 - 1999 (2000),
Media and Modernity :
Communications Women and the State in
India (2010)
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Kerala Press Academy, the pioneer institution in Communication studies in Kerala is re- launching its fagship publication
Media after a small gap.
The bi-lingual publication will be unique in character, because this is the only magazine published from Kerala covering
the media.
Kerala Press Academy, as you may be aware, is a joint venture of the Government of Kerala, Kerala Union of Working
Journalists (KUWJ) and Indian Newspaper Society (INS). It was established in 1979 and is located in Kochi, Kerala.
And, the architects of the magazine are the top most media personalities from Kerala and outside. The re launch of the
Media is eagerly awaited by the media fraternity in Kerala. Since there are several journalism and communications
institutes and colleges having graduate and post graduate courses in Kerala, a large number of media students will be
benefted by this publication. Besides this, the magazine will be circulated among the decision makers and peers of the
larger community.
This is not going to be run for proft. We need fnancial support from persons and institutions with a larger heart and a
concern for the well-being of the society.
We seek co operation of all persons and institutions in the form of advertisements.
The Publication is consisting of 48 pages,
published in English and Malayalam.
Size: Demy 1/4
The tarif is as follows
6 issues 12 issues
Back cover: Color: Rs 25,000 1,25,000 2,00000
Inside cover: Color: Rs 20,000 1,00000 1,75000
Inside full page: B&W: Rs 15,000 50000 1,00000
Your Advertisement order may please be send to
The Secretary, Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi 682 030.
An appeal to well-wishers of Media
Annual subscription : Rs. 100/- ; Price per Issue : Rs. 10/-
Media, Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi 682 030.
Subscribe
Threats to M
edia Freedom
: The Real and The Im
agined
Sashi Kumar
Rural wom
en take to journalism
, redene lives
Shoma A. Chatterji
Let us Adapt to Digital Platform
s
A note on the WAN IFRA digital media conference
(39)
G{]n 2012
Audience Evolution:
New Technologies and
the Transformation of Media
Audiences
Philip M. Napoli
Columbia University Press
248 pages, Price: Rs. 1560
Todays consumers have
unprecedented choice in terms of
the technologies and platforms
that access, produce, and distribute
media content. The development and
overlap of television, the internet,
and other media technologies is
fragmenting and empowering
media audiences more than ever.
Building on his award-winning
book, Audience Economics, Philip
M. Napoli maps the landscape of
our current media environment and
describes its challenge to traditional
conceptions of the audience. He
examines the redefnition of the
industry-audience relationship
by technologies that have moved
the audience marketplace beyond
traditional metrics. Napoli explores
the interplay between political and
economic interests in the audience
marketplace and its efect on
audience evolution.
Why Voice Matters:
Culture and Politics
After Neoliberalism
Nick Couldry
SAGE Publications Ltd
184 pages, Price: Rs. 1641
In this book, Nick Couldry
passionately argues for voice, the
efective opportunity for people to
speak and be heard on what afects
their lives, as the only value that can
truly challenge neoliberal politics.
But having voice is not enough: we
need to know our voice maters.
Insisting that the answer goes much
deeper than simply calling for more
voices, whether on the streets or
in the media, Couldry presents a
dazzling range of analysis from the
real world of Blair and Obama to
the social theory of Judith Butler
and Amartya Sen. This book breaks
open the contradictions in neoliberal
thought and shows how the
mainstream media not only fails to
provide the means for people to give
an account of themselves, but also
reinforces neoliberal values.
The Language of New Media
Lev Manovich
MIT Press
354 pages, Price: Rs.1387
In this book Lev Manovich ofers
the frst systematic and rigorous
theory of new media. He places
new media within the histories of
visual and media cultures of the last
few centuries. He discusses new
medias reliance on conventions of
old media, such as the rectangular
frame and mobile camera, and
shows how new media works create
the illusion of reality, address the
viewer, and represent space. He
also analyzes categories and forms
unique to new media, such as
interface and database.Manovich
uses concepts from flm theory,
art history, literary theory, and
computer science and also develops
new theoretical constructs, such as
cultural interface, spatial montage,
and cinegratography. The theory and
history of cinema play a particularly
important role in the book.
Bookshelf
(40)
G{]n 2012
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(41)
G{]n 2012
T
wice in the past couple of months
I have experienced what I can
only describe as the thrill of seeing
social media open up live video
events to all-comers.
Last month, award-winning
Reuters photographer Finbarr
OReilly conducted a live video
question and answer session on his
recent trip to Congo scene of a
confict that is consuming more lives
than Gaza, Iraq and Afghanistan
combined.
Finbarr answered questions about
the nature of that confict, what its
like to be a photographer in war, and
how he managed the transition from
text journalist to photojournalist. All
from his home in Dakar, Senegal.
The setup
We used Finbarrs mobile
phone as a video camera, hooked
it up to the qik live video service
via Finbarrs wireless broadband,
embedded it in a post on our
Reuters Photographers blog, and
used qik, our blogs comments, an
email address and Twiter the
fast-growing micro-blogging service
to solicit questions from viewers/
readers.
Im not going to pretend that
this was unmitigated success.
One wag pointed out that our
production values were reminiscent
of an al Qaeda video. The more
observant will have noticed that the
Reuters logo is out of date. And, as
anticipated by Finbarr at the top of
the show, the live video feed failed
for a few minutes halfway through.
But the reaction, on Twiter and
elsewhere, was prety positive.
Before Christmas, we opened
up a Reuters NewsMaker event at
Canary Wharf with Conservative
leader David Cameron. Wed hosted
a similar event with Gordon Brown
back in October and been criticised
for not pushing to have the Prime
Minister take questions direct from
social media.
David okayed the social media-
casting of his session and agreed to
answer questions posed by bloggers
and other users of social media.
Siting in the front row of the
Thomson Reuters Canary Wharf
auditorium monitoring questions for
David coming in live via social media
and then puting them to him felt a
bit like moderating a TV phone-in.
Except instead of all the technical
infrastructure of a broadcaster all we
had was Christian Payne streaming
to qik via his mobile and me with a
laptop.
There were an overwhelming
number of questions that came in
via Twiter more than 150 and
there was only time for three to be
asked. But David went on to answer
more via his YouTube channel.
Our two atempts at socialising
live interviews have been reasonably
successful but I think theyve raised
some important questions weve yet
to answer: -
1. Is there an optimal audience
size?
Were new to this and still
working out how best to build
an audience via social media and
conventional PR routes. Yet there
were more questions than either
David or Finbarr could reasonably
answer. Both Finbarr and David
Cameron went on to answer some
of the questions they hadnt dealt
with during the live show but if
the audience gets bigger thats not
going to be possible the majority
of questions will be lef unanswered
and thats not going to be such an
engaging experience.
2. Is this really free?
The tools we used were free. But
handling anything live is labour-
intensive. Chris Parker and Ilicco
Elia from Reuters and social media
bloggers Christian Payne and Mike
Atherton did huge amounts of
moderation and publicising for the
Cameron event. We also had added
frepower in the form of reuters.com
editor Adam Pasick for Finbarrs
live video chat. Unless we can fnd
a radically simpler way of handling
questions then we will have to
reserve the approach for very big
events and/or limit the publicity.
3. What has happened to the
distinction between Journalism and
PR?
In social media there is litle
distinction between the creation of
content and the publicising of it.
Bloggers tag and link and network
their content as a natural part of the
production process. In traditional
media, however, there is more of
a separation of the roles. So when
traditional journalists start using
social media efectively there is
an inevitable blurring of the line
between journalism and PR.
4. What is the role of mainstream
media?
In the case of David Cameron, the
Conservative party could have done
everything we did. In fact it has.
Finbarr could have done a pared
down version of this all by himself,
using his own site and his own
networks to publicise, and limiting
channels for questions to, say, just
qik.
Finbarr would not have got as big
an audience, at least not on a frst
atempt. And monitoring questions
at the same time that you are
answering them is always going to
be a challenge. Davids social media
advisor told me that he saw the value
in collaborating over this kind of
event was a) the wider audience an
organisation like Reuters can deliver,
and b) the guarantee of even-handed
questioning and civil moderation.
TV interviews web 2.0 style
Mark Jones; http://blogs.reuters.com
media today
(42)
G{]n 2012
media today
Golden Pen of Freedom
Awarded to Mexican Journalist
Newspapers are losing $7 in
print revenue for every $1 in
digital gained
Andrew Beaujon;
www.poynter.org
Revenue is just one of the problems
facing American newspapers,
says a new Project for Excellence
in Journalism study. The culture
at newspapers, and not just on
the editorial side, is as much an
impediment to publications fnding
their way out of the mess theyre in.
The study, called The Search
for a New Business Model, looked
at highly granular data from 38
newspapers of various sizes. The
data was verifed through site visits
and interviews, then anonymized
and shared with executives at seven
more companies. The frankness of
the newspaper executives is striking.
On revenue: Digital revenue
continues to stymie executives. The
papers brought in about $1 in digital
advertising for every $11 in print. To
get to the mythical crossover point,
at which digital dollars would
overtake print, one executive said
was reducing the annual print losses
to somewhere between 6% and 8%
and growing the digital revenue at a
minimum of 30% annually. Another
said he thought the rate of digital
growth would need to be close to
50%. One executive freted about
how much time they spent on digital
versus what it brought in: We spend
90% of our time talking about 10%
of our revenue, he told PEJ. Daily
deal sites like Groupon accounted for
about 5 percent of digital revenue at
the papers studied. Mobile brought
in .9 percent. Thats POINT nine.Only
40 percent of all papers are pursuing
targeted advertising. Most efort
is going to display and classifed.
92 percent of papers said display
was a major focus of their sales
efort. Video advertising? Right
now, video seems to be more of a
goal than a reality. Less than half
(44%) of the papers said they were
currently selling video advertising.
Those tended to be the larger papers
(circulation of 50,000 and over).
On culture: Entrenched
atitudes arent just for editorial.
Executives predicted thinner papers:
One predicted a future of probably
one-third original content, one-third
blogger opinions and one-third
community journalism [generated
from] outside. But navigating a
transition to a news product like
that seems like a relative breeze
compared to fnding someone who
can sell it. One executive said the
biggest difculty facing his company
is execution, particularly by the
sales staf. This is where the game
will be won, he explained, in the
streets with small and mid-sized
businesses. Another executive said
his sales people frankly did not
know how to sell all the products
they were ofering. The majority
of executives indicated they had
experienced difculty recruiting
digitally fuent ad sales people.
One reason, they admited, is
the perception of newspapers
Anabel Hernndez, a Mexican
journalist and writer known for her
investigative reporting on corruption
and the abuse of power in Mexican
politics, has been awarded the 2012
Golden Pen of Freedom, the annual
press freedom prize of the World
Association of Newspapers and
News Publishers (WAN-IFRA).
Ms. Hernndez, who has worked
on national dailies including
Reforma, Milenio, El Universal and
its investigative supplement La
Revista (now emeequis), currently
contributes to the online news site
Reporte Indigo. Her most recent
book, Los Seores del Narco / The
Drug Trafckers (2010), details the
complicities between organised crime
and high-level authorities, from
government ofcials to the police, the
military and the business community.
She has received numerous death
threats afer the books publication.
In making the award, the Board of
WAN-IFRA, meeting in Dubai, said:
Mexico has become one of the most
dangerous countries in the world
for journalists, with violence and
impunity remaining major challenges
in terms of press freedom. In making
this award, WAN-IFRA recognises
the strong stance Ms. Hernndez
has taken, at great personal risk,
against drug cartels. Her actions help
ensure the development of good,
unrestricted investigative journalism
in the region.
as a deeply troubled business. A
number of other executives told us
they were still trying to fgure out
how to best integrate digital-only
sales people with their traditional
sales personnel.Despite training
programs for digital at nearly all
papers, most of these papers are still
largely print frst operations, or print
and digital together, when it comes
to the composition of their sales
stafs. Sales people concentrating
largely on digital are a distinct
minority.
(43)
G{]n 2012
Newspapers Are The Fastest
Shrinking Industry
Mat Rosof;
www.businessinsider.com
If you want to be a journalist, think
online.
Newspapers have shed a greater
percentage of jobs since 2007 than
any other industry in the United
States, according to data published
today by LinkedIn.
Thats not surprising, given
how ad revenue in the newspaper
industry has fallen of a clif since
2000.
LinkedIn has professional profles
from millions of users, and also is a
big tool for recruiters, so its got a ton
of accurate data about jobs. This year,
the Council of Economic Advisors,
which works for President Obama on
economic issues, turned to LinkedIn
for insight into which industries are
hurting.
On a percentage basis,
newspapers shed the most jobs,
down 28.4% between 2007 and 2011.
The good news: online publishing
had job growth of 20.4%. But it didnt
add as many jobs as newspapers lost.
The big winner? Renewables and
environmental jobs, which grew 49%.
Internet-related companies added
the most jobs, and had the second-
biggest percentage growth at 24.6%.
The full chart is available on the
LinkedIn blog.
The Times drops below 400,000
copies
Daniel Farey-Jones,
www.mediaweek.co.uk
The Times circulation has dropped
below 400,000 copies for the
frst time since Rupert Murdoch
triggered a price war in 1993, as the
daily newspaper market showed
continuing decline in February.
The Times daily average
circulation in February was 397,549
copies, down 1.9% on January and
down 10.9% on February 2011. The
last time it was lower than this was
in August 1993, the month before
million copies in February.
In the mid market, the Daily Mail
fell 6% year on year to 1,945,496
copies, while the Daily Express fell
7.4% year on year to 577,543 copies.
Among the tabloids, the Daily Star
is down 14% year on year to 617,082
copies and The Sun is down 8.4%
year on year to 2,582,301 copies. The
Suns new Sunday edition reported a
debut ABC of 3,213,613 copies, based
on its frst issue on 26 February.
UK newspaper circulation
down 20% in fve years
Jon Slatery;
www.themediabriefng.com
British newspaper circulations
are among the worst performers
in Europe, according to industry
analyst and consultant Jim Chisholm.
They have plunged by 20% over
the last fve years, compared with a
European average of 12%. During the
past fve years UK nationals declined
by 16% against a European norm of
13%, while regionals declined by 29%
against a norm of 12%.
Chisholm gives the gloomy
fgures in an article for the
fothcoming book What Do We Mean
By Local?, edited by John Mair , Neil
Fowler and Ian Reeves, which is to be
published by Arima on March 27th.
He writes that there are more than
one thousand regional non-daily
titles, against one hundred and four
dailies delivering 20m copies per
issue, against 3m per issue for the
dailies. Of all newspaper advertising
in the UK, 42% is in national press,
21% in regional dailies, and 37% in
regional weeklies.
Chisholm says that on the digital
front, international comparisons are
harder, given that we operate within
the English-speaking world, which
has advantages and disadvantages.
But here again, with notable
exceptions, the picture is not
encouraging. British newspapers
share a global challenge in that they
may atract high numbers of unique
visitors, but those visitors return
only occasionally, and view very few
Murdoch cut the cover price from
45p to 30p. The move boosted
circulation by nearly 90,000 copies
to more than 440,000, and triggered
a long period of growth that took it
past 800,000 copies later that decade.
In todays digital age, The
Times is priced 1, the same as
The Independent, and 20p cheaper
than The Daily Telegraph and The
Guardian.
All three of its rivals were also
hit by circulation falls in February,
with The Guardian down 16.3%
year on year to 215,988 copies. The
Independent fell 10.2% from January,
and 27% from February 2011, to
105,160 copies. This was partly due
to its publisher Independent Print
switching over approximately 10,000
bulk copies from the paper to its
cheaper sister title i, which rose 8.7%
on January to 264,432 copies.
The Times, which went behind a
paywall in summer 2010, can point to
its burgeoning digital edition fgures,
which are not audited by ABC.
In an update in February, News
International claimed it had 119,255
digital subscribers for The Times
and an average of 59,882 copies were
downloaded daily on the iPad, a 35%
increase since September 2011.
The push for digital subscriptions
comes against background of a 9.4%
year-on-year decline for the overall
daily newspaper market, to 9.08
(44)
G{]n 2012
pages. There is litle research as to
why this is, but without increased
intensity, it is hard to see how either
access or advertising revenues are
going to grow.
In the UK only 18% of the
total population read a local daily
newspaper compared with 53% in
Germany, 21% in France and nearly
70% in Norway and Switzerland.
Of course people are
increasingly turning to digital media,
and this together with newspapers
ability to target highly focused
pockets of communication through
leafeting, means that newspapers
remain a highly infuential medium
for society, advertisers and so many
other stakeholders, in reach if not in
frequency a continuing theme.
Our challenge is not readership,
but reading frequency and intensity,
and digital consumption is an
exaggerated version of what has
happened in print. As Ive writen
widely, and been widely ridiculed
for saying, newspapers are not losing
circulation because of the Internet;
sales were declining long before the
Internet came along.
On digital, Chisholm claims:
While the UK can boast the worlds
highest proportion of advertising
expenditure now spent in digital
media (31.2%), newspapers continue
to atract only around 6% to 8%
of total revenues from these new
sources.
He adds a note of optimism:
Digital media options are
improving, with the advent of
smartphones and tablets. Initial
feedback regarding newspaper
readership on tablets is that news
consumers on tablets are every bit
as intense and regular as those in
print. Chisholm claims: As digital
consumption shifs from fxed
Internet to mobile and tablet and
this rate is only going to accelerate,
so the opportunity for charging, and
importantly increasing consumption
intensity will increase. It will either
be owned by a new entrant or by a
partnership of all major UK regional
publishers.
media today
Daily Paper Going the Way of
the Milkman
Alan D. Muter;
www.editorandpublisher.com

Daily newspaper delivery will go
the way of the milkman in a growing
number of communities in 2012 and
beyond.
Barring a miraculous turnaround
in the economy, a sea change in the
thinking of media buyers, or a late-
breaking proclivity for print in the
sub-geezer population, publishers
in ever more communities are likely
to reduce the number of days they
provide home delivery or print a
newspaper altogether.
Nowhere else is the demise of
daily delivery more dramatic than
in Michigan, where more than two-
thirds of households will be unable
get seven-day service afer the end of
January.
The rationing began with a bang
in 2009, when the two Detroit dailies,
the Free Press and the News, stunned
the industry by cuting home
delivery to just Thursday, Friday,
and Sunday. Although the Motown
metros continue to print every day of
the week, anyone wanting a paper on
non-delivery days has to fetch one at
a retail location.
Unsurprisingly, the Monday-
through- Friday circulation of both
Detroit papers plunged between
March 2008 and March 2011,
according to the Audit Bureau of
Circulations. The daily circulation of
the Free Press in the period fell 54.7
percent to 168,985, and daily sales
(45)
G{]n 2012
of the News tumbled 51.7 percent
to 90,914. Even though Sunday
home delivery continued without
interruption, the circulation of the
Freep (the only title publishing on
that day) is down 21.6 percent at
475,543. The Freep, which is owned
by Gannet, and the News, which
is owned by MediaNews Group,
are partners in a joint operating
agreement.
The daily drought is scheduled
to widen to other Michigan
communities in February, when the
Grand Rapids Press, Kalamazoo
Gazete, Muskegon Chronicle, and
Jackson Citizen Patriot reduce home
delivery to Tuesday, Thursday, and
Sunday from their current seven-day
schedules. Just as in Detroit, single
copies of each newspaper all
of which are owned by Advance
Newspapers will be available to
consumers who take the trouble to
track them down. In cuting back
home delivery, Advance emphasized
the intention to atract more trafc to
its statewide digital portal, MLive.
com.
While determined readers for
the time being can still buy a daily
paper in Detroit and Grand Rapids,
there has been no such option since
mid-2009 in Ann Arbor. Thats where
Advance replaced its seven-day Ann
Arbor News with an online digital
media company called AnnArbor.
com, which puts out print editions
just Thursday and Sunday. Since the
change, daily circulation for the print
product has slid by 30.8 percent to
30,422, according to ABC.
There is no doubt, however, why
publishers are throtling their once-
prized print products:
A relentless decline in newspaper
advertising sales has halved industry
revenues since a record $49.4 billion
was collected in 2005. Although fnal
ad fgures remain to be calculated for
2011, projections based on year-to-
date performance suggest that sales
last year probably didnt top $24
billion. This has been catastrophic for
publishers historically accustomed to
hefy, double-digital botom lines.
In fve-plus years of ever more
vigorous retrenchment to salvage
some degree of proftability,
publishers have trimmed staf,
crimped newsholes, and outsourced
everything from call centers and
accounting to production and
delivery. With scant behind-the-
scenes economies lef, publishers
now are being forced to make the
most conspicuous cut of all: reducing
the number of days they publish or
deliver papers.
The good news, given the
increasing shif of consumers to
digital media consumption, is that
de-emphasizing print necessarily
forces publishers to focus on their
Web, mobile, and social eforts. The
bad news is that most of them to date
have not made impressive strides.
On average, the industry reaps
less than 14 percent of its ad revenues
from digital media, according to the
NAA. Thats not nearly enough to
keep publishing companies healthy
if print revenues continue shrinking,
as they seem likely to do in the
immediate future.
Publishers cuting daily delivery
realize the strategy works only if they
can build their digital divisions faster
than their print businesses shrink.
While publishers know this is risky
business, the smart ones know there
is no Plan B.
Adobe: Social media impact
undervalued by nearly 100
percent
Rachel King;
www.zdnet.com
Adobe fnds that most digital
marketers are quick to add social
media into the mix, but they dont
understand the value just yet.
Marketers are underestimating the
value and impact that social media can
have for a website by up to 94 percent,
according to Adobes latest Digital
Index report.
That fnding is based on the
hypothesis that most marketers rely
on using last-click atribution as the
primary model for measuring the
value of social media.
However, Adobe researchers
posited that frst-click atribution
models beter capture the benefts of
social media in engaging customers
earlier in the buying process.
The biggest problem with using a
last-click model, according to Adobe,
is that by ignoring the value of earlier
interactions, last-click atribution
gives disproportionate credit to the
marketing channels that customers
use late in the purchase process. That
would undervalue the role of other
channels in building awareness and
relationships between customers and
brands.
Aseem Chandra, vice president
of product and industry marketing
within Adobes Digital Marketing
Business unit, argued in the report that
as an industry, digital marketers have
been quick to add social media to the
marketing mix, but have perhaps not
considered new and beter ways to
measure this complex channel.
Instead, as pointed out in the study,
marketers tend to default to traditional
direct measurement models. Chandra
advised that a beter measurement
of social marketing will lead to beter
ROI.
For reference, Adobe analyzed
more than 1.7 billion visits to more
than 225 U.S. companies websites in
the retail, travel and media industries
for this study. The Digital Index report
examined how marketers measure the
impact of website trafc from major
social media sites, including Facebook,
Twiter, Pinterest, Tumblr, YouTube
and Yelp.
(46)
G{]n 2012
(47)
G{]n 2012
AmZan hmI
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bn ]Inb ]n.F.DnIrjvW
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Sn.hn. Iymad hn`mKn
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ns ]p\cmhnjvImcw tamln\nbm
ns emky`mhfneqsS BhnjvIcn
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n\v Alcmbn.
hoUntbm FUnnv hn`mKn
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jWw sNbvX "AXncm{Xw' F \yqkv
tmdnbpsS FUnnv \nhln jnPp
taml\mWv AhmUv. ]mmfnse
AXncm{Xw kw_n {]tXyI
dntmns FUnnn jnPp {]Zin
n anIhmWv Atls
]pckvImcn\v Al\mnbXv.
hoUntbm FUnnv hn`mKn
ssIcfn ]on Sn.hn. bn 2011
s^{_phcn 13\v kwt{]Ww sNbvX
]nkt F ]cn]mSn
FUnnneqsS anIXmn amnb
B.sI.Pb{]Imiv PqdnbpsS {]tXyI
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25000 cq]bpw {]ikvXn]{Xhpw
^eIhpw ASnbXmWv AhmUv.
Fkv. Pbi, A\nIpam
hShmXq, tUm. ]n._n. eIm (P\d
dntmnv); tP_v sI. Cu,
Sn. iintaml, Sn.]n. Ipn
(sUh. dntmnv); F.B.Fkv.
_m_p, sI.Fkv.tPmk^v, A_p ss^jn
(\yqkv t^mtm{K^n); ]n.hn.IrjvW,
sI.sI._ecma, sI.F._o\ (Imq);
tP_v tPmv, kn_n Immnn,
knpn F{_lmw (Sn.hn. hm,
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AhmUv \nbkanXn AwK.
kwm\ am[ya AhmUpI {]Jym]np
kwm\ am[ya AhmUn\lamb Imq
(48)
G{]n 2012
AmZan hmI
NmepSn: hmIfpsS kXykX
sImv P\hnImcs sXpWm
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p a{n. kmaqly {]Xn_Xbphcm
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{yw A\p`hnpXmbpw a{n ]dp.
tUm. aqq \mcmbW AhmUv
tZim`nam\n Xriq _yqtdmNo^v hn.Fw.
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n. NmepSn akv Pq_nen lmfn
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Xv P\m[n]Xys Zp_esSppw.
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fn apn \npXmWv Cu
\nbasapw a{n ]dp.
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tm DtZym `cW\nhlWn
DZmko\amIpXv KpcpXcamb sXmWv.
\ `cW\nhlWn\pff anI Bbp
[amWv Cu \nbaw. kpXmcyhpw Imcy
ahpamb `cWn\pw kmcn
s]mXpP\]mfnw Ddphcpp
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hnipamWv.
inimebn tIcf {]kv AmZan
sNbam F.]n cmtP{ A[y\m
bncpp. Imenv {]kv_v {]knUv
Fw. kp[o{Ipam, {]kv AmZan
FIvknIyqohv AwKw F.cmtPjv,
AmZan Aknv sk{Idn kn.A
Fnh kwkmcnp.
hnhn[ hnjbfn AUz. acnb,
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mskSpp. tImgntmSv hb\mSv
PnIfnse am[ya{]hIcpw am[ya
hnZymnIfpw ]sSpp.
(49)
G{]n 2012
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aqp t]v Pohs Zbhmbn' F
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hmbmWv cPn. B. \mbsc
AhmUn\v AlbmnbXv.
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Cnyqv Hm^v IyqWntj
Ubd Fw. cmaN{, sk{Idn
hn.Pn. tcWpI, eIvNd sI. tlaeX,
Akn. sk{Idn kn. A Fnh
{]kwKnp. anI hnPbw ssIhcn
hnZymnIp hnhn[ AhmUpI
Zn\ a[p, Fw._n. hoW, sFizcy
kpan{X, Sn.hn. {ioteJ, hn.sI. hn]n,
AZne knanZ sI. aqk Fnh
Gphmn.
(50)
G{]n 2012
B. sP. amvk
AtacnbpsS bpsmXnsb hnainp temI{]ikvX kaImeo\
ImqWpIfn Hmb Cu Imq cNnncnpXv B. sP. amvk
BWv. skv eqbnkv t]mv Unkv]mv, \yqtbmv H_vskh, tdm
Im Fo ]{XfpsS FUntmdnb ImqWnmWv Ctlw.
1963 NnmtKmbn P\n amvk {_kv, s_Pnbw, ans\
t]mfnkv, ans\tkm Fns\ hnhn[ cmPyfnembmWv hfXv.
1985 sImfw_nb bqWnthgvknnbn \npw _ncpZw t\Sn. Amev
sImfw_nb sUbven kvs]tdn Ctlw hc ImqWpIv
\mjW kvtImfnnIv {]kv Atkmkntbj AhmUv e`nnpv.
XpSv hmjnwKvSWnse tvkv \yqkv kokn dntmdmbn
tNp. tdm Imfnse m^v Ct{ Bbpw tamvtKmsadn Iun
skns\ens FUntmdnb ImqWnv Bbpw Zn hmjnvS
avenbpsS Bv Ubddmbpw Ctlw {]hnnpv.
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amvk cp XhW FUntmdnb ImqWn\p ankudn {]kv
Atkmskmtbj AhmUn\pw 2007 se ssSw s_v Imq
AhmUn\pw Al\mbnpv.
temIw I hc
Atiob amyacwKs {]ikvXamb ImqWpIsf
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amXr`qan ImqWnv Bb tKm]oIrjvW\mWv
Ch XncsSpv AhXcnnpXv.
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Media Monthly | April 2012 | Rs. 10/- | RNI Reg No. KERBIL/2000/1676
Printed and Published by V. G. Renuka, Secretary, On behalf of the Kerala Press Academy,
Published from Kerala Press Academy, Kakkanad, Kochi 682 030; Printed at K.B.P.S., Kakkanad, Kochi 30 Editor: N. P. Rajendran.