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The electrical activity of the human brain i.e. the
EEG and its classification into various frequency
bands has been of interest to researches dealing
with neurology. So, here our aim is targeted to
classify EEG signals traces into different
fundamental frequency rhythms and determine
whether a relatively short EEG record taken in a
routine laboratory is normal or abnormal. The
primary aim of computerized EEG analysis is to
support electroencephalographer’s evaluation, by
representing the data in numerical and or
graphical form. EEG analysis however, can go
further, actually extending the
electroencephalographer’s capabilities giving
them new tools with which they can perform such
difficult and time consuming tasks as quantitative
duration EEG in epileptic patients and sleep and
psychopharmacological studies. This method is
having several advantages over the visual
screening by which it is very difficult to extract
EEG information. The choice of analytic method
should be determined mainly by the goal of the
application. The frequency domain tool is used for
EEG analysis. The system performs continuous
analysis in graphical form and tabular form of
recorded EEG signal. Algorithm is implemented
by using C language. It is helpful to classify the
depth of sleep and mental status from the
percentage power in each band i.e., delta, alpha,
beta and theta.

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Separation Of , , & Activities In EEG To

Measure The Depth Of Sleep And Mental Status

Shah Aqueel Ahmed

1

, Syed Abdul Sattar

2

,

D. Elizabath Rani

3

1. Royal Institute Of Technology And Science, R. R. Dist., A.P. , INDIA

2. GITAM UNIVERSITY, Vishakhapatnam, A.P. , INDIA

ABSTRACT

The electrical activity of the human brain i.e. the

EEG and its classification into various frequency

bands has been of interest to researches dealing

with neurology. So, here our aim is targeted to

classify EEG signals traces into different

fundamental frequency rhythms and determine

whether a relatively short EEG record taken in a

routine laboratory is normal or abnormal. The

primary aim of computerized EEG analysis is to

support electroencephalographers evaluation, by

representing the data in numerical and or

graphical form. EEG analysis however, can go

further, actually extending the

electroencephalographers capabilities giving

them new tools with which they can perform such

difficult and time consuming tasks as quantitative

duration EEG in epileptic patients and sleep and

psychopharmacological studies. This method is

having several advantages over the visual

screening by which it is very difficult to extract

EEG information. The choice of analytic method

should be determined mainly by the goal of the

application. The frequency domain tool is used for

EEG analysis. The system performs continuous

analysis in graphical form and tabular form of

recorded EEG signal. Algorithm is implemented

by using C language. It is helpful to classify the

depth of sleep and mental status from the

percentage power in each band i.e., delta, alpha,

beta and theta.

KEYWORDS

Power Spectrum, EEG, Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta.

1. INTRODUCTION

Present day computer systems can be used for

the time domain visualization of multi-channel

EEG data. In this sense, they can replace the

currently used (paper) polygraph systems.

However, computer-based systems are much

more flexible. The operator can modify the

data, and enhance some of its features through

digital signal processing. These characteristics

are the basis for a much more productive

interaction with the data. In computer based

systems the operator can examine in detail the

waveform features. The computer provides a

ready means for adding broad class of signal

processing algorithms (including linear phase

filters), and for visualizing the effects of the

filtering on the data. The classification of EEG

signal depends upon the frequency range of

each band. By using digital signal processing

algorithms such as Discrete Fourier Transform

(DFT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Inverse

Discrete Transform (IDFT), Power spectrum

and Correlation EEG is analyzed.

A. EEG Frequency Bands

1.1 Delta ()

Frequency: 0.5 to 4 Hz

Occurrence: This occur only once in every 2 or 3

seconds. These occur in deep sleep, in premature

babies and in very serious organic brain diseases.

These can occur strictly in the cortex

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 10 - Oct 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 4619

independently by the activities in the lower

regions of brain.

1.2 Theta ()

Frequency: 4 to 8 Hz

Occurrence: these are recorded from the parietal

and temporal regions of the scalp of children.

These also occur during emotional stress in some

adults particularly during disappointment and

frustration.

1.3 Alpha ()

Frequency: 8 to 13 Hz

Occurrence: they found in normal persons when

they are awake in quite, resting state. They occur

normally occipital region.

During sleep, these disappear .these have

amplitude of 20-200 V with mean of 50 V.

1.4 Beta ()

Frequency: 13 to 30 Hz

(At intense mental activity, the frequency

increases up to 50 Hz)

Occurrence: These are recorded fromthe parietal

and frontal regions of the scalp. These are divided

into two types as beta I which is inhibited by the

cerebral activity and beta II which is excited by

the mental activity, like tension.

Analysis of different frequency band is done in

numerical formand in graphical form.[11]

1.5 Different Stages Of Sleep Pattern

Analysis of EEG done to classify different

stages of sleep depends upon the percentage power

in each band. [9] Different stages sleeps are:

1. Alert, wide awake person displays the

unsynchronized high frequency EEG

2. Drowsy person, one whose eyes are

closed, it produces large amount regularly

activity in the range 8 to 13 Hz

3. The person begins to full sleep then the

amplitude and frequency of the wave form

decrease.

4. Light sleep, it is large amplitude and low

frequency of the wave formemerges.

5. Deep sleep, then its results is even slower and

higher amplitude waves [3]

At certain times a person still sound asleep, then

breaks into unsynchronized high frequency EEG

pattern for a time and then return to the frequency

sleep pattern. The period of high frequency EEG

more a wake the called paradoxical sleep because

alert is whose is asleep. Then another name is

rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, because high

frequency EEG is a long amount of rapid eye

movement beneath the closed eyelids. It is called

dreaming [3].

The various frequency of EEG most

human is to develop EEG pattern in the alpha

range when they are relaxed eye closed it

condition is to represent a for of synchronization.

The person become begins Thinking the

alpha regular disappears and it is replaced

desynchronized pattern it is said beta range.

2. METHODOLOGY

After applying the DFT or FFT to an EEG

signal, the magnitude values are stored for each

band. The lower cut of frequency and upper cut of

frequency is defined depends upon the frequency

range of each band only the signals between the

upper band and lower band of EEG remain as it is

and others magnitudes are zero padded., for

plotting graphical results for each band like Delta,

Alpha, Beta and Theta for calculation of

percentage power in each bands. The lower bands

and upper bands are defined depend upon the

frequency range of each band which are given

below.[2][11]

Lower Freq Upper freq

Delta 0Hz 4 Hz

Theta 4 Hz 8 Hz

Alpha 8 Hz 13 Hz

Beta 13 Hz 30 Hz

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 10 - Oct 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 4620

The Discrete Fourier transformis given by

1

0

/ 2

1 ... 2 , 1 , 0 ) ( ) (

N

n

N kn j

N k e n k X

The inverse discrete Fourier transformis given by

1

0

/ 2

1 ... 2 , 1 , 0 ) ( ) (

N

n

N kn j

N k e k x k X

When the sequence x(n) has a finite duration of

length L<N, then xp(n) is simply a periodic

repetition of x(n), where xp(n) over a single period

is given as

X (n) =x (n) 0 <n <L-1

Xp (n) = 0 L <n <N-1

Consequentially the frequency samples x

(2 k/n), k =0,1,......,N-1 uniquely

represents the finite duration sequence x(n) since

x(n)=Xp(n) over a single period (padded by N-L

zeros), the original finite duration sequence x(n)

can be obtained from the frequency samples x(2

k/n).

It is important to note that zero padding

does not providing any additional information

about the spectrum x(w) of the sequence x(n)

However padding the sequence x(n) with N-L zero

and computing an N Point DFT results in a better

display of the Fourier x(w) [7]

1

0

) ( ) (

N

n

kn

N

W n k X

Where W

N

=e

-j2/N

N=N Point DFT

L=Total number of samples

To reduce number of computations like

addition and multiplication over DFT, the most

powerful transform, FFT is used, for the

computation of FFT the Decimation in time

algorithmis used, in this X(k) is decomposed into

smaller value.

We can generalize the relations for the

first two decompositions of Decimation in time

FFT algorithm. It can be written as,

(k) X W (k) X (k) X

1.2p - r - m

N

2rk

1 - 1,2p - r - m r.p - m

(k) X W (k) X ) N/2 (k X

1.2p - r - m

N

2rk

1 - 1,2p - r - m

1 r

r.p - m

And at last the power spectrumis computed which

is given by the formula,

2

1

0

) (

1

N

n

n X

N

Px

Power in each band is calculated as given below,

upper Delta

lower Delta

k Mg Sum ) ( ) 1 (

upper Theta

lower Theta

k Mg Sum ) ( ) 2 (

upper Alfa

lower Alfa

k Mg Sum ) ( ) 3 (

upper Bata

lower Beta

k Mg Sum ) ( ) 4 (

1

) ( ) 5 (

N

upperr Beta

k Mg Sum

) 1 ( ... ) 0 ( ) 0 ( N Mg Mg Sum

Where

Delta lower = Delta lower* N/Fs

Delta Higher = Delta higher* N/Fs

Theta higher = Theta Higher* N/Fs

Theta Lower = Theta lower* N/Fs

Alpha lower = Alpha lower* N/Fs

Alpha higher = Alpha higher* N/Fs

Beta Lower = Beta lower* N/Fs

Beta higher = Beta higher* N/Fs.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 10 - Oct 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 4621

Where

Fs=sampling frequency=250Hz

N=N Point DFT

Percentage power in each band is calculated as:

Delta percentage power =sum(1)/sum(0)

Theta percentage power =Sum(2)/sum(0)

Alpha percentage power =sum(3_)/sum(0)

Beta percentage power =sum(4)/sum(0)

Other percentage =sum(5)/sum(0)

3. RESULTS

3.1 Analytical results:

The 33 patients data are stored in the disk

under different conditions eyes open, eyes closed,

epileptic patients, person awake, thinking, deep

sleep. For each data file the Discrete Fourier

Transform (DFT) is applied to calculate the

magnitude of 8 channels. For better accuracy

N=512 is used as a N point DFT, for example a

data file containing 5000 samples of 8 channels,

the sample numbers 5000 to 5120 are zero padded

and the data files for each channel contains the

total samples 5120, for the file containing 5120

samples, the total windows are 10. After applying

DFT to each patients file, the data is processed

through different filters of each band to calculate

the percentage power in each band.

The table No.1 shows the percentage

power for some patients file. Fromthe percentage

power the depth of sleep is classified like Alert,

drowsy sleep, light sleep and deep sleep.

3.2 Graphical Results:

For each of the EEG data files the DFT is

applied. After application of DFT the data file is

processed with different filters. The filters upper

band and lower band depends upon the frequency

range of each band.Only the signal between these

frequencies is passed and other signals are zero

padded. After zero padding, Inverse Discrete

Fourier Transformis applied to obtain the delta,

alpha, Beta and Theta activity. The graphical

result are obtained window wise and channel wise

or for total files. Figure No.3.1 through 3.5 shows

the output windows showing the Delta, Theta,

Alpha, Beta & remaining activity of Mr.Patil. The

fig. 3.6 shown below shows the bar graph for the

percentage power in different frequency bands

present in Mr. Patils EEG data. This makes the

analysis easy and one can get the clear-cut idea

about different frequency bands present in data.

Patients

Name

Delta

%

Theta

%

Alpha

%

Beta

%

Other

%

Mr. Patil 12.05 14.97 9.64 3.24 60.06

Mr. Raj 29.12 1.43 1.30 1.79 66.32

Mr.

Naveen

10.82 9.24 7.22 4.61 68.09

Miss Priya 15.01 10.11 4.80 2.35 67.63

Mr. Nizam 11.69 6.27 4.99 7.99 69.07

Mr. Raghu 27.72 4.72 4.98 6.79 55.79

Table No.1 : Percentage power in each band

for some patients data

Fig. 3.1 Filtered out Delta activity

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 10 - Oct 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 4622

Fig. 3.2 Filtered out Theta activity

Fig. 3.3 Filtered out Alpha activity

Fig. 3.4 Filtered out Beta activity

Fig. 3.5 Filtered out Remaining activities

Fig. 3.6 Bar graph for the % Power of all

frequency bands

4. CONCLUSION & FUTURE

SCOPE

The implemented algorithms are used to

study the relationship between the changes of

electrical potential in different areas of cerebral

cortex. The system classifies the EEG traces into

four rhymes (i.e. Alpha, Beta, Theta, and Delta)

analytically as well as graphically and EEG

reports are presented. Depending upon this

information the systemalso determines the depth

of sleep.

The system performs off line analysis

of EGG signal. The system can be designed to

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 10 - Oct 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 4623

perform on line analysis, which is very helpful

to doctor for immediate diagnosis of the

patients. The feature extraction stage is

developed here is only for monopolar

montages. If an expert system for other

montages also bipolar recording is developed

then such system can be used to routinely aid

an electroencephalographer, the knowledge

incorporated in the rules for system being

elicited from that person. Other

electroencephalographers may suggest

modifications to corporate aspects of their

expertise in interpreting EGGs. The feature

extraction stage approach is easy to modify by

adding rules, which incorporate new

information. EEG signals reflect the activities

in the underlying brain structure and

particularly in the cerebral cortex below the

scalp surface. All of us are aware of the many

different states of brain activity, including

sleep, wakefulness, extreme excitement, and

even different levels of mood such as

exhilaration, depression and fear. All these

states result from different activating or

inhibiting forces generated usually within the

brain itself the system can be developed to

study these different states of brain and the

relationship between the changes of electrical

potentials in the different areas of cortex and

sub cortex formation. The system performs off

line analysis of EEG signal. The system can

be designed to perform online analysis, which

is very helpful to doctor for immediate

diagnosis of the patients.

5. REFERENCES

[1] Fernando lopes da Silva, EEG analysis:

theory and practice

[2] R S Khandpur, biomedical instrumentation

and measurement

[3] Haroid J Kaplan, comprehensive textbook of

psychiatry- III

[4] J ohn r Glover, Periklis Y Kotonas and

Narasimhan Raghaavan a multichannel signal

processor for the detection of epileptogenic sharp

transients in the EEG, IEEE transactions on

biomedical engineering vol. BME, 33 no. 12,

December 1986

[5] Alison A dingle, Richard D J ones and others

A multistage system to detect

epileptiformactivity in the EEG, IEEE

transaction on biomedical engineering,

vol. 40, no., December 1993

[6] J ohnny R J ohnson introduction to digital

signal processing

[7] J ohn G Proakis digital signal processing

[8] The time domain analysis tool for EEG

analysis by S.Park, J. Smith, IEEE

transaction on BME, Vol. 37,august 1997

[9] Estimating alertness from the EEG power

spectrum by Magnus Stuismo, T.J.

Signowski, IEEE transaction on BME,

Vol. 44, No. 1 Jan. 1997

[10] Seughun park and J ose C principle, time

domain analysis tool for EEG analysis,

IEEE transactions on biomedical

engineering, vol. 22, no.8, august 1984

[11] Introduction to Biomedical Equipment

Technology by J oseph J . Carr & J ohn M.

Brown.

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