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State estimation provides the best possible
approximation for the state of the system by processing
the available information. In the proposed work, the
state estimation technique is used for the state
estimation of wind turbine. Modern wind turbines
operate in a wide range of wind speeds. To enable wind
turbine operation in such a variety of operating
conditions, sophisticated control and estimation
algorithms are needed. The theoretical basis of
Extended Kalman Filter algorithm is explained in detail
and performance is tested with the simulation.
A nonlinear state estimator named Extended
Kalman Filter can be used for estimating the states of
wind turbine. The Extended Kalman Filter is a
recursive estimator that can be decomposed into two
phases such as prediction and correction performed at
every time instant. The states estimated by using
Extended Kalman Filter for wind turbine application
includes rotor speed of turbine, tower top displacement
and its velocity.

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Extended Kalman Filter based State Estimation

of Wind Turbine

Kavitha N*, Vijayachitra S#

*PG Scholar, M.E. Control and Instrumentation Engineering

#Professor, Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering,

Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052, India

Abstract -State estimation provides the best possible

approximation for the state of the system by processing

the available information. In the proposed work, the

state estimation technique is used for the state

estimation of wind turbine. Modern wind turbines

operate in a wide range of wind speeds. To enable wind

turbine operation in such a variety of operating

conditions, sophisticated control and estimation

algorithms are needed. The theoretical basis of

Extended Kalman Filter algorithm is explained in detail

and performance is tested with the simulation.

A nonlinear state estimator named Extended

Kalman Filter can be used for estimating the states of

wind turbine. The Extended Kalman Filter is a

recursive estimator that can be decomposed into two

phases such as prediction and correction performed at

every time instant. The states estimated by using

Extended Kalman Filter for wind turbine application

includes rotor speed of turbine, tower top displacement

and its velocity.

Keywords Extended Kalman Filter, Modelling, state

estimation, wind turbine.

I. INTRODUCTION

Wind energy is one of the most popular types of

renewable energy being explored. It has huge potential to

fulfil our future power requirements. Wind turbine is a

device that is used for converting kinetic energy fromthe

wind into mechanical energy. Wind turbine has high

nonlinearity and it is not possible to use a linear model for

control design and state estimation. To this extent we

introduce Extended Kalman Filter Algorithm. The

Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is based on the nonlinear

wind turbine model that includes the rotor speed, tower top

displacement and its velocity.

State estimation is the process of estimating the

values of parameters based on measured data having

randomcomponent. The parameters explain the underlying

physical setting in such a way that the distribution of the

measured data are affected by their values. An estimator is

used to approximate the unknown parameters by using the

values of measurement data. Many types of estimators are

available. The commonly used estimator is the Kalman

Filter and its types.

The Kalman Filter is also known as Linear Quadratic

Estimation (LQE). It is an algorithm which uses

measurements data taken over time, containing noise i.e.

random variations and other inaccuracies. It produces

estimates of unknown variables that are more precise than

the single measurement alone. It operates recursively on

streams of noisy input data to produce a statistically

optimal estimate of the underlying system state .The

Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is known as the nonlinear

version of the Kalman filter which linearizes about an

estimate of the current mean and covariance.

The format of paper presentations is as follows: In

Section II, the mathematical model of wind turbine is

given. In Section III, the nonlinear state estimation by

using EKF is introduced. In Section IV, simulation

implementations are evaluated for the performances of the

EKF. Finally, the concluding remarks are stated in Section

V.

II. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF

WIND TURBINE

Very common method used for wind turbine

modelling is blade element and momentumtheory which

yields reliable and detailed wind turbine model. However,

such models are implicit equations which are not suitable

for controller design. Therefore simple model uses quasi

steady state relations for controller design. Fig.1 shows a

general wind turbine.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 5 Number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 184

Fig.1 General wind turbine diagram

The motion of the rotor can be described with the equation

Mg Ma Jt =

(1)

where is rotor speed , is generator electromagnetic

torque, is aerodynamic torque and is turbine moment

of inertia.

The aerodynamic torque can be computed as

) , , (v C V R

2

M Q a a

2

2

b

=

(2)

where is effective wind speed on wind turbine rotor,

is blade length and is air density and Q C is torque

coefficient.

Important parts of wind turbine dynamics are tower

oscillations. The first harmonics in tower oscillations is the

most dominant , so tower dynamics can be approximated

by

t t t t F Cx x D x M = + +

(3)

where is the tower top deflection M,D and C are modal

mass, damping and stiffness respectively.

The aerodynamic thrust force is defined similarly as

) , , (v C v R

2

F T

2

3

b a t =

(4)

where thrust coefficient describes the steady state

dependence of aerodynamic thrust force on wind speed,

rotor speed and pitch angle.

In order to estimate states of wind turbine such as rotor

speed, tower top displacement and its velocity a state

space model is needed. nonlinear mathematical model can

now be written as space formas follows:

Bu Ax x + = (5)

with matrices A and B

where M,D,C, are modal mass, damping, Stiffness and

turbine moment of inertia.

, , are derivatives of aerodynamic

torque and thrust force.The state vector and input can be

given as

The output is given by y(k)

y(k) =Cx(k)

where C =

These equations are used by Extended Kalman Filter

to estimate the states of wind turbine.

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

=

0

M

F

M

F

0 0 0

J

M

0

J

M

B

M

D F

M

C

M

F

1 0 0

J

M

0

J

M

A

v

t

v

t

t

v

t

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

=

g

t

t

M

v

u

x

x

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 5 Number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 185

Table1.Paremeters of wind turbine

S.No Parameters Values

1.

0.08266 Nms/rad

2.

1.26908 Ns

3.

19.774 Ns/rad

4.

5.0641 Ns/m

5.

19.774 N/rad

6.

4 Nm

7. M

2.321 Ns/m

8. D

4.672 Ns/m

9. C

8.464 N/m

Finally a discrete model of the wind turbine is represented

as

u(k) (x) 1) x(k + = + (6)

which can be obtained fromcontinuous time model with

following approximation(Franklin.et al (1997).

AT I e

AT

+ ~ = u

(7)

.

0

BT d B e

T

AT

~ = I

}

(8)

where T is sampling time.

III. EKF ALGORITHM

Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is known as the

nonlinear version of the Kalman Filter which linearizes

about an estimate of the current mean and covariance. In

the Extended Kalman Filter, the state transition and

observation models need not be linear functions of the state

but may instead be differentiable functions.

x =f(x ,u )+w

k k-1 k-1 k-1

(9)

z =h(x )+v

k k k

(10)

where w

k

and v

k

are the process and observation noises

which are both assumed to be zero mean multivariate

Gaussian noises with covariance Q

k

and R

k

respectively.

The function f can be used to compute the predicted state

fromthe previous estimate and similarly the function h can

be used to compute the predicted measurement from the

predicted state. However, f and h cannot be applied to the

covariance directly. Instead a matrix of partial derivatives

is computed.

At each time step, the Jacobian is evaluated with current

predicted states. These matrices can be used in the Kalman

Filter equations. This process essentially linearizes the non-

linear function around the current estimate.

'

A =f (x ,u )

k k k

(11)

'

C =h(x )

k k

(12)

The derivatives are taken with respect to x

k

and then

evaluated at x =x

k k

.

The Kalman gain and the error covariance matrix are

computed by the execution of following steps.

T T -1

K =P C (C P C +R)

k k k k k k

(13)

x =f(x ,u )+K (y - h(x ))

k+1 k k k k k

(14)

T

P =A (I - K C )P A +Q

k+1 k k k k k

(15)

The above steps are repeated to estimate the states of a non

linear system. The state space representation of the system

is as follows

dX

=AX +BU

dt

(16)

Y =CX (17)

For digital implementation of the EKF, the discretized

equations are required. These can be obtained fromthe

state space representation of the system.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 5 Number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 186

d d

X(k+1) =A X(k) +B U(k) (18)

Y (k) =CX(k) (19)

A

d

=I +AT (20)

B

d

=BT (21)

The T represents the sampling time. To achieve adequate

accuracy, the sampling time should be smaller than the

characteristic time constants of the turbine. The final

choice for the sampling time should be based on obtaining

adequate execution time of the full EKF algorithmand also

satisfactory accuracy and stability. The systemnoise is

represented by v(k) ( v -noise vector of the states) which is

assumed to be zero-mean and white Gaussian noise. It is

independent of X (k) and its covariance matrix is Q and the

systemmodel becomes

d d

X(k+1) =A X(k) +B U(k) +v(k) (22)

The measurement noise is represented by w(k) which is

assumed to be zero-mean and white Gaussian noise. It is

independent of X (k) and V (k) and its covariance matrix is

P and the output equation becomes

Y (k) =CX(k) +w(k) (23)

The purpose of the Kalman filter is to obtain the un-

measurable states by using the measured states and also the

statistics of the noise and measurements. In general, the

computational inaccuracies, modelling errors and errors in

the measurements are considered by means of noise inputs.

A critical part of the design is to use correct initial values

for the covariance matrices. The elements of Q and R

depend on the number of state variables. The systemnoise

matrix Q is a three by three matrix and the measurement

noise matrix R is a three by three matrix.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

Extended Kalman Filter provides the estimates of

wind turbine such as rotor speed, tower top

displacement and its velocity. The estimated outputs for

wind turbine are shown in Fig 2,3,4

Fig 2.Plot of estimated and true value of rotor speed

Fig 3.Plot of estimated and true value of tower top

displacement

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 5 Number 4 - Nov 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 187

Fig 4.Plot of estimated and true value of tower top velocity

[2] Mate J elavic, Nedjeljko Peric, Ivan Petrovic, Damping of Wind

Turbine Tower Oscillations through Rotor Speed Control, Energy

Procedia, 2008.

[3] Petrovic.V, Peric.N, Identification of wind turbine mathematical

model suitable for controller design MIPRO, Proceedings of 35

th

International convention, 2011.

[4] Paul Frogerais,J ean-J acques Bellanger and Lofti Senhadji, Various

ways to compute the Continuos-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

IEEE Transactions Autom.Control.,Vol.57 No.4 pp 1000-

1008,2012

[5] Burton,T., Sharpe,D., J ankings,N., and Bossanyi,E, Wind Energy

Handbook. J ohn Wiley&Sons, 2001.

[6] J udd and Smith, Non linear State Estimation, Indistinguishable

States and Extended Kalman Filter ,physica D, Vol.183, pp. 273-

281, 2012.

From the above estimated plots it is observed that Extended

Kalman Filter provides best estimates of wind turbine,

highly non linear system.

V. CONCLUSIONS

The application of wind turbine is very essential

nowadays and the state estimation provides to have better

understanding of the behaviour of the system. Rotor speed,

tower top displacement and its velocity are estimated using

Extended Kalman Filter algorithmand it is shown that

EKF provides best accuracy for highly non linear systems.

It is possible to implement this estimation method for all

other wind turbine states such as position of each blade tip,

pitch velocity, velocity of each blade tip along blade

coordinate system and so on. During weak winds, the

control systemhas to optimize wind energy conversion by

using appropriate generator torque and during strong

winds, wind turbine has to be constrained. An efficient way

to constrain wind energy capture is obtained by pitch

control which is the future scope of this project.

REFERENCES

[1] A.W.Manyonge, R.M.Ochieng, F.N.Onyango and J .M.Shichika

Mathematical Modelling of Wind Turbine in a Wind Energy

Conversion System Applied Mathematical Sciences,Vol.6,

,No.91,4527-4536, 2012

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