Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14
CompressedCompressed AirAir Engine:Engine: TheThe EOSEOS VirginiaVirginia PalmerPalmer StephenStephen SchwartzSchwartz
CompressedCompressed AirAir Engine:Engine:
TheThe EOSEOS
VirginiaVirginia PalmerPalmer
StephenStephen SchwartzSchwartz
MarcellaMarcella WagnerWagner
JenniferJennifer ZevallosZevallos
GoalsGoals DesignDesign aa sustainablesustainable automobileautomobile poweredpowered byby alternatealternate fuelfuel
GoalsGoals
DesignDesign aa sustainablesustainable automobileautomobile poweredpowered byby
alternatealternate fuelfuel thatthat doesdoes notnot detrimentallydetrimentally impactimpact
thethe environmentenvironment
ProposePropose anan infrastructureinfrastructure thatthat isis bothboth practicalpractical
andand reliablereliable andand wouldwould supportsupport aa fleetfleet ofof ourour
alternatealternate fuelfuel carscars
MaintainMaintain aa highhigh levellevel ofof marketabilitymarketability thatthat
extendsextends beyondbeyond anan environmentallyenvironmentally consciousconscious
groupgroup andand intointo mainstreammainstream societysociety
HowHow doesdoes itit work?work? InIn anan ICE,ICE, thethe combustioncombustion ofof thethe fuelfuel pushespushes thethe
HowHow doesdoes itit work?work?
InIn anan ICE,ICE, thethe combustioncombustion ofof thethe fuelfuel
pushespushes thethe pistonspistons downdown toto turnturn thethe
crankshaftcrankshaft
InIn aa compressedcompressed airair engine,engine, thethe expansionexpansion
ofof thethe compressedcompressed airair pushespushes downdown thethe
pistonspistons toto turnturn thethe crankshaftcrankshaft
http://www.bagelhole.org/?page=353http://www.bagelhole.org/?page=353
WhatWhat typetype ofof airair engine?engine? ThreeThree optionsoptions forfor airair technology:technology: AirAir
WhatWhat typetype ofof airair engine?engine?
ThreeThree optionsoptions forfor airair
technology:technology:
AirAir
AirAir andand electricelectric
AirAir andand gasolinegasoline
JustJust usingusing airair isis thethe bestbest
optionoption becausebecause itit
drasticallydrastically cutscuts thethe weightweight
ofof thethe vehicle,vehicle, andand thusthus
improvesimproves thethe efficiencyefficiency
andand powerpower
http://www.bagelhole.org/?page=353http://www.bagelhole.org/?page=353
TheThe CompressedCompressed AirAir EngineEngine NONO EMISSIONS!EMISSIONS! TheThe airair releasedreleased isis
TheThe CompressedCompressed AirAir EngineEngine
NONO EMISSIONS!EMISSIONS!
TheThe airair releasedreleased isis actuallyactually cleanercleaner thanthan thethe ambientambient airair becausbecausee
ofof thethe filtersfilters usedused
44--cylindercylinder
7070 lbs,lbs, comparedcompared toto 200200--600600 lbslbs forfor otherother enginesengines
UsesUses vegetablevegetable oiloil forfor oil,oil, andand onlyonly needsneeds toto bebe changedchanged
everyevery 31,00031,000 milesmiles
TheThe coldcold airair producedproduced cancan bebe usedused forfor thethe airair
conditioningconditioning systemsystem
http://www.bagelhole.org/?page=353
http://www.cyber-media.com/aircar/
http://www.241computers.com/ford/ContentExpress20-30-38.html
TheThe CarCar RangeRange ofof 120120 milesmiles MaxMax speedspeed atat leastleast 7070 mphmph 00--5050 mphmph inin
TheThe CarCar
RangeRange ofof 120120 milesmiles
MaxMax speedspeed atat leastleast 7070 mphmph
00--5050 mphmph inin 77 secondsseconds
SolarSolar panelspanels onon thethe roofroof cancan bebe usedused forfor thethe
heatingheating systemsystem
WillWill looklook likelike aa normalnormal carcar
MadeMade outout ofof recyclablerecyclable oror renewablerenewable materialsmaterials
http://www.bagelhole.org/?page=353http://www.bagelhole.org/?page=353
http://www.cyberhttp://www.cyber--media.com/aircar/media.com/aircar/
RefuelingRefueling FuelFuel atat aa serviceservice stationstation (3(3--44 min)min) PlugPlug thethe carcar intointo
RefuelingRefueling
FuelFuel atat aa serviceservice stationstation
(3(3--44 min)min)
PlugPlug thethe carcar intointo anan outletoutlet
(6(6--88 hrs;hrs; overnight)overnight)
UseUse thethe onboardonboard solarsolar
panelspanels forfor thethe electricityelectricity
toto compresscompress thethe airair
http://www.theaircar.com/station.htmlhttp://www.theaircar.com/station.html
RealReal WorldWorld ExamplesExamples ofof thethe CompressedCompressed--AirAir EngineEngine MDIMDI (Moteur(Moteur
RealReal WorldWorld ExamplesExamples ofof thethe
CompressedCompressed--AirAir EngineEngine
MDIMDI (Moteur(Moteur DDééveloppementveloppement
International)International)
FrenchFrench basedbased companycompany –– GuyGuy NNèègregre
SoldSold licenseslicenses toto Spain,Spain, Portugal,Portugal, GreatGreat Britain,Britain,
France,France, andand SouthSouth Africa,Africa, amongamong othersothers
ProductionProduction basedbased outout ofof ““micromicro--factoriesfactories””
HasHas yetyet toto beginbegin
MexicoMexico CityCity wantswants toto replacereplace 87,00087,000 taxistaxis
InterestsInterests amongamong thirdthird worldworld countriescountries
CheapCheap andand CleanClean
http://www.theaircar.com/faq.html
(http://www.timesonline.co.uk/printFriendly/0,,1-120-
957436-120,00.html)
EngineAirEngineAir AustralianAustralian basedbased companycompany CreatedCreated anan extremelyextremely
EngineAirEngineAir
AustralianAustralian basedbased companycompany
CreatedCreated anan extremelyextremely efficientefficient compressedcompressed--airair engineengine
NotNot yetyet inin carscars
StartStart offoff inin thethe miningmining marketmarket
PrototypesPrototypes involvinginvolving smallsmall vehiclesvehicles
MYTMYT ™™ oror ““Massive,Massive, YetYet TinyTiny””
CreatedCreated byby RaphialRaphial MorgadoMorgado
ReplacesReplaces aa 30003000--lblb engineengine withwith oneone weighingweighing 150150 lblb
EquivalentEquivalent ofof aa 3232--cylindercylinder fourfour--strokestroke engineengine
PowerPower toto weightweight ratioratio 40x40x greatergreater thanthan conventionalconventional motormotor
UsefulUseful inin largelarge tractortractor trailers,trailers, planes,planes, bigbig--rigrig trucks,trucks, ships,ships,
etc.etc.
MagnesiumMagnesium Benefits:Benefits: ExtremelyExtremely LightLight MaterialMaterial (1/4(1/4 asas densedense asas
MagnesiumMagnesium
Benefits:Benefits:
ExtremelyExtremely LightLight MaterialMaterial (1/4(1/4 asas densedense asas steel,steel, 2/32/3 asas densedense asas
aluminum),aluminum), andand stillstill maintamaintainsins highhigh impactimpact resistanceresistance
DonDon’’tt havehave toto useuse excessexcess amountsamounts withwith itsits highhigh strength:weightstrength:weight
ratioratio
AbundantAbundant materialmaterial supplysupply (sea(sea water,water, brines,brines, andand magnesiummagnesium--
bearingbearing minerals)minerals)
CloseClose toto 100%100% recyclablerecyclable
Disadvantages:Disadvantages:
CostCost isis aa littlelittle highhigh rightright now,now, butbut supplysupply isis growinggrowing soso thosethose
costscosts willwill decreasedecrease withwith timetime
WhyWhy NotNot OtherOther Materials?Materials? Aluminum?Aluminum? MgMg has:has: Plastic?Plastic? MgMg is:is:
WhyWhy NotNot OtherOther Materials?Materials?
Aluminum?Aluminum? MgMg has:has:
Plastic?Plastic? MgMg is:is:
BetterBetter machiningmachining
BetterBetter corrosioncorrosion
resistanceresistance
IncreasedIncreased diedie lifelife
CanCan bebe castcast inin largelarge
thinthin--walledwalled nearnear netnet
shapesshapes
Stronger/stifferStronger/stiffer
Safer:Safer: betterbetter
absorptionabsorption ofof energyenergy
Steel?Steel? NoNo…… Mg:Mg:
http://www.meridian-m ag.com/magnesium/
NoNo welding/welding/ lessless
assembly/assembly/ lowerlower
toolingtooling costscosts
SuperiorSuperior dimensionaldimensional
stability/repeatabilitystability/repeatability
MiscellaneousMiscellaneous IdeasIdeas MagnesiumMagnesium couldcould alsoalso bebe incorporatedincorporated intointo
MiscellaneousMiscellaneous IdeasIdeas
MagnesiumMagnesium couldcould alsoalso bebe incorporatedincorporated
intointo thethe windowswindows toto createcreate aa switchableswitchable
mirrormirror
““SmartSmart WindowsWindows”” keepkeep sunlightsunlight fromfrom
overheatingoverheating carcar inin summersummer timetime
EnergyEnergy efficientefficient toto maintainmaintain desireddesired
temperaturetemperature
Soy/HempSoy/Hemp Seating,Seating, etc.etc.
http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_e/research_units /research_section/mrisus/mrisus_main.html
PowerPower PlantsPlants PointPoint sourcessources ofof pollutionpollution CanCan bebe moremore easilyeasily
PowerPower PlantsPlants
PointPoint sourcessources ofof pollutionpollution
CanCan bebe moremore easilyeasily controlledcontrolled thanthan countlesscountless tailpipestailpipes
ZeroZero emissionsemissions cancan bebe achievedachieved throughthrough cleaningcleaning
technologiestechnologies andand renewablerenewable energiesenergies
MaximizeMaximize efficiencyefficiency withwith superconductorsuperconductor wiringwiring
LocalizedLocalized energyenergy sources,sources, reducereduce thethe needneed forfor
transporttransport
MinimizeMinimize transportationtransportation energyenergy useuse
DonDon’’tt relyrely onon foreignforeign oiloil
OnOn--SiteSite EnergyEnergy ProductionProduction SolarSolar oror WindWind EnergyEnergy TheThe AeolianAeolian
OnOn--SiteSite EnergyEnergy ProductionProduction
SolarSolar oror WindWind EnergyEnergy
TheThe AeolianAeolian SystemSystem
(developed(developed byby MDI)MDI)
UsesUses onlyonly turbineturbine
producedproduced energyenergy toto
compresscompress airair atat
refuelingrefueling stationsstations
SolarSolar couldcould havehave
similarsimilar usesuses
http://theaircar.com/station.html
WindWind--TurbineTurbine PowerPower http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhy dro/wind_potential.html
WindWind--TurbineTurbine PowerPower
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhy
dro/wind_potential.html
http://www.eere.energy.gov/windandhy
dro/windpoweringamerica/images/wind
maps/il_std800.jpg
EnergyEnergy ofof CompressedCompressed AirAir IfIf youyou compresscompress airair completelycompletely youyou
EnergyEnergy ofof CompressedCompressed AirAir
IfIf youyou compresscompress airair completelycompletely youyou actuallyactually getget liquid.liquid. SoSo wewe tatakeke
thethe energyenergy valuevalue ofof liquidliquid nitrogennitrogen (air(air consistsconsists ofof 70%70% nitrogenitrogenn byby
volume)volume)
AA wayway toto calculatecalculate thethe energyenergy valuevalue ofof 11 literliter ofof compressedcompressed airair::
EnergyEnergy Density/SpecificDensity/Specific EnergyEnergy ofof liquidliquid nitrogennitrogen == 320320 KJ/LKJ/L
oror 320,000320,000 joules/literjoules/liter
EnergyEnergy valuevalue ofof gasoline:gasoline: 33,33333,333 KJ/LKJ/L oror 33,000,00033,000,000
joules/literjoules/liter
AboutAbout 100100 timestimes moremore energyenergy availableavailable inin gasolinegasoline thanthan inin fullyfully
compressedcompressed airair
TheThe transfertransfer toto mechanicalmechanical powerpower ofof compressedcompressed airair isis betterbetter thathann
forfor gasolinegasoline
EnergyEnergy LossesLosses onon thethe CompressedCompressed AirAir FuelFuel PathPath http://www.efcf.com/reports/E18.pdf
EnergyEnergy LossesLosses onon thethe CompressedCompressed
AirAir FuelFuel PathPath
http://www.efcf.com/reports/E18.pdf
RecoveringRecovering HeatHeat LossLoss MuchMuch ofof thethe heatheat lostlost duringduring thethe compressioncompression
RecoveringRecovering HeatHeat LossLoss
MuchMuch ofof thethe heatheat lostlost duringduring thethe compressioncompression ofof
thethe airair cancan bebe regainedregained fromfrom thethe operationsoperations ofof
thethe carcar
TheThe airair inin thethe compressioncompression--stagestage isis extremelyextremely
coldcold
TheThe coldcold airair cancan bebe reheatedreheated fromfrom thethe ambientambient
atmosphereatmosphere betweenbetween eacheach stepstep toto extractextract
energyenergy fromfrom itit beforebefore beingbeing expandedexpanded throughthrough
thethe nextnext turbineturbine
H2H2 vs.vs. AirAir BecauseBecause ofof thethe differentdifferent densities,densities, hydrogenhydrogen
H2H2 vs.vs. AirAir
BecauseBecause ofof thethe differentdifferent densities,densities, hydrogenhydrogen
compressioncompression requiresrequires 1515 timestimes moremore energyenergy
thanthan airair compressioncompression forfor identicalidentical initialinitial volumesvolumes
andand identicalidentical pressurepressure limitslimits
ForFor hydrogen,hydrogen, thethe mainmain losseslosses areare associatedassociated
withwith electrolysiselectrolysis andand fuelfuel cellcell useuse
TheThe heatheat generatedgenerated inin thethe processprocess ofof
compactingcompacting airair isis consideredconsidered aa lossloss
HydrogenHydrogen fuelfuel technologytechnology isis muchmuch moremore
expensiveexpensive
EmissionsEmissions
EmissionsEmissions
PublicPublic Opinion,Opinion, ConsumerConsumer Values,Values, andand thethe PreferencesPreferences ofof thethe
PublicPublic Opinion,Opinion, ConsumerConsumer Values,Values,
andand thethe PreferencesPreferences ofof thethe MarketMarket
AnalyzingAnalyzing currentcurrent consumptionconsumption
habitshabits andand publicpublic opinionopinion datadata cancan
helphelp usus understandunderstand thethe preferencespreferences
andand valuesvalues ofof consumers.consumers.
2004 EV World Online Poll (n=1,057)
PreferencesPreferences ofof thethe Market:Market:
NicheNiche Market:Market: aa focused,focused,
targetabletargetable portionportion ofof aa marketmarket
sectorsector thatthat addressesaddresses aa needneed
forfor aa productproduct oror serviceservice notnot
offeredoffered byby mainstreammainstream
providers.providers.
"If it were available in your
community, would you be
interested in owning or leasing
the MDI Air Car, which is
powered by compressed air"?
71
15
13
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niche_marketinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niche_marketing
EOSEOS MarketMarket Niche:Niche: Upper,Upper,
middlemiddle classclass environmentalenvironmental
consciousconscious consumers.consumers.
PublicPublic opinionopinion datadata showsshows
thatthat majoritymajority ofof AmericansAmericans
wouldwould buybuy anan airair compressedcompressed
car.car.
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100
%
http://www.emediawire.com/printer.php?prid=18http://www.emediawire.com/printer.php?prid=18
62426242
Yes
No
Don't Know
Percentage
CONSUMERCONSUMER VALUESVALUES Cost:Cost: consumerconsumer costscosts suchsuch asas costcost ofof car,car, usageusage
CONSUMERCONSUMER VALUESVALUES
Cost:Cost: consumerconsumer costscosts suchsuch asas costcost ofof car,car,
usageusage (fuel),(fuel), maintenancemaintenance
EnvironmentallyEnvironmentally friendly,friendly, sustainable:sustainable: carcar
production,production, carcar emissions,emissions, recyclabilityrecyclability
StyleStyle // DesignDesign
PowerPower
RangeRange // MileageMileage
ConvenienceConvenience (accessible(accessible infrastructure)infrastructure)
ProductionProduction CostsCosts ProductionProduction costcost ofof currentcurrent marketablemarketable
ProductionProduction CostsCosts
ProductionProduction costcost ofof currentcurrent marketablemarketable compressedcompressed--airair carcar
betweenbetween $10,000$10,000--$15,000$15,000
ProductionProduction costcost ofof ourour compressedcompressed airair carcar (with(with solarsolar panelspanels andand
magnesiummagnesium carcar frame)frame)
betweenbetween $15,000$15,000--$25,000$25,000
ButBut remember,remember, airair compressedcompressed carscars willwill benefitbenefit fromfrom gainsgains inin proproductionduction
suchsuch as:as:
ImprovedImproved technology.technology. InvestmentInvestment inin researchresearch andand developmentdevelopment ofof
compressedcompressed airair carscars willwill prproduoducece moremore eefficient,fficient, costcost--savingsaving
technologiestechnologies suchsuch asas discoverydiscovery ofof cheapercheaper materialsmaterials (to(to replacereplace limitedlimited
quantitiesquantities ofof currentcurrent materialsmaterials lilikeke magnesium),magnesium), improvedimproved storagstoragee ofof
compressedcompressed air,air, etc.etc.
MassMass productionproduction EconomiesEconomies ofof ScaleScale
AsAs thethe totaltotal numbernumber ofof vehiclesvehicles producedproduced increases,increases, thethe fixedfixed cocostssts willwill
remainremain thethe samesame whilewhile thethe variedvaried costscosts willwill increase.increase. ThisThis leadleadss toto aa
decreasingdecreasing totaltotal averageaverage cost.cost.
MDIMDI isis creatingcreating micromicro--factoriesfactories toto produceproduce tenstens ofof thousandsthousands ofof airair
compressedcompressed cars.cars. AutoAuto IndustryIndustry benefitsbenefits fromfrom economieseconomies ofof scalescale atat tenstens ofof
thousandsthousands andand hundredshundreds ofof thousandsthousands ofof vehiclesvehicles produced.produced.
ConsumerConsumer Values:Values: CostCost ofof Car,Car, Usage,Usage, andand MaintenanceMaintenance CarCar costcost forfor
ConsumerConsumer Values:Values: CostCost ofof Car,Car,
Usage,Usage, andand MaintenanceMaintenance
CarCar costcost forfor consumerconsumer
In order to help reduce energy use and this country's
BetweenBetween $10,000$10,000 -- $25,000$25,000
dependence on oil, would you be willing to
(Gallup/USA
UsageUsage
Today2004)
FuelFuel CompressedCompressed AirAir atat ServiceService
StationStation
CurrentCurrent costcost ofof gasoline:gasoline: $2.33$2.33
perper gallongallon (Chicago(Chicago 12/06),12/06),
averageaverage mpgmpg isis 2828 mpgmpg forfor fivefive
passengerpassenger car,car, 99 centscents perper milemile
CostCost ofof fuel:fuel: $1.33$1.33 perper 100100 km/62km/62
miles,miles, 22 centscents perper milemile
MajorityMajority ofof publicpublic willingwilling toto paypay
higherhigher pricesprices forfor vehiclevehicle itself,itself, butbut
notnot forfor fuel.fuel. CompressedCompressed airair carcar isis
samesame priceprice asas averageaverage vehicle,vehicle,
butbut cheapercheaper fuel.fuel.
Pay another 50 cents in taxes per gallon of gas,
whichwouldfundmoreresearchand
development of alternative energy sources and
encouragepeopletouse less gas?
24
73
3
Buyavehiclewithhigher fueleconomywhenyou
need a new car, even if means paying an extra
200 dollars or not being able to buy today's largest
SUVs(Sport UtilityVehicles)?
73
23 4
Maintenance:Maintenance:
0% 10
20
30 40
50 60
70 100
80
90
%
%
%
%
%
% %
%
%
OilOil ChangesChanges everyevery 31,00031,000 milesmiles
ratherrather thanthan everyevery 3,0003,000 milesmiles
% Percentage
Yes or Favor
No or Oppose
Don't know
http://http://www.ethanol.org/documents/ACEFuelEconomyStudy.pdfwww.ethanol.org/documents/ACEFuelEconomyStudy.pdf
CONSUMERCONSUMER VALUES:VALUES: CostCost andand GovernmentGovernment IncentivesIncentives GovernmentGovernment
CONSUMERCONSUMER VALUES:VALUES:
CostCost andand GovernmentGovernment IncentivesIncentives
GovernmentGovernment incentivesincentives foforr thethe purchasepurchase ofof goodsgoods cancan
alteralter andand distortdistort consumerconsumer behaviorbehavior towardstowards buyingbuying thatthat
good.good.
Today,Today, mostmost federalfederal andand statestate taxtax incentivesincentives areare forfor thethe
purchasepurchase ofof hybridhybrid vehicles.vehicles. TaxTax rebatesrebates areare upup toto
$4,000$4,000 (2005).(2005).
CurrentlyCurrently therethere areare nono federalfederal oror statestate taxtax incentivesincentives forfor
compressedcompressed airair cars.cars. ButBut thisthis maymay change!change!
Why?Why? HybridHybrid carscars areare alreadyalready inin marketmarket andand
infrastructureinfrastructure forfor themthem isis inin existence.existence. CompressedCompressed airair
carscars areare notnot yetyet onon marketmarket andand infrastructureinfrastructure notnot
constructed.constructed.
http://ezinearticles.com/?Rebateshttp://ezinearticles.com/?Rebates--andand--GovernmentGovernment--IncentivesIncentives--forfor--FuelFuel--EfficientEfficient--CarCar--Owners&idOwners&id=256783=256783
CONSUMERCONSUMER VALUES:VALUES: Convenience,Convenience, Power,Power, Range,Range, StyleStyle ConvenienceConvenience
CONSUMERCONSUMER VALUES:VALUES:
Convenience,Convenience, Power,Power, Range,Range, StyleStyle
ConvenienceConvenience
SinceSince carcar producesproduces zerozero emissiemissions,ons, therethere isis nono pollutionpollution smell.smell.
CompressedCompressed airair engineengine producesproduces samesame soundsound asas anan electricelectric carcar
virtuallyvirtually silent.silent.
InfrastructureInfrastructure cancan easilyeasily bebe built.built.
Power:Power:
MaximumMaximum speedspeed ofof atat leastleast 7070 mphmph
00--5050 mphmph inin 77 secondsseconds
RangeRange // MileageMileage
atat leastleast 120120 miles,miles, 200200 kmkm
StyleStyle
FamilyFamily sizedsized SedanSedan (seats(seats fivefive people)people) appealsappeals toto consumersconsumers’’
desiredesire forfor spaciousspacious transportationtransportation
JudgingJudging SuccessSuccess HaveHave wewe metmet thethe criteriacriteria setset outout forfor us?us?
JudgingJudging SuccessSuccess
HaveHave wewe metmet thethe criteriacriteria setset outout forfor us?us?
DevelopingDeveloping designdesign,, infrastructureinfrastructure,, andand
marketabilitymarketability potentialpotential thatthat satisfiessatisfies sustainabilitysustainability
criteriacriteria andand appealsappeals toto consumerconsumer preferencespreferences
andand values?values?
YES!YES!
ExpectExpect thethe EOSEOS toto enterenter marketmarket forfor salesale withinwithin
thethe nextnext fewfew years.years.