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European ID Policy and

Border Crossing
Biometric Consortium Conference 2013
September 18, 2013
Dr. Andreas M. Wolf
Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany
1. Bundesdruckerei
2. eID cards in the European Union
3. Electronic Passports
4. Border Control
5. How does biometrics fit in?
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Bundesdruckerei Product Portfolio
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Company History back to 1789
Private Court
Printing House of
von Decker
Royal Prussian
State Printing
Printing House)
Buyback by
the Federal
of Germany
Privatisation of
Production of
directories, postage
and patent
of the
German ID card
New ID card format
German ePassport
German ePassport
with fingerprints
Electronic ID card
New European
European drivers license
1789 1852 1879 1945 1951 1988 2010 2007 2009 2005 1997 2000 1994 1987 1960 1923 1881 2011
New European
drivers license
Electronic residence
Company Overview
Shanghai Mite
Speciality & Precision
Printing Co. Ltd.
(25 % share)
ID documents for
Emirates German
Security Printing LLC
(49 % share)
ID and security
solutions for UAE and
Middle East/Africa
DERMALOG Identification
Systems GmbH
(22,43 % share)
Automated fingerprint
identification systems
CV Cryptovision
(25,1 % share)
Public Key
Infrastruktur (PKI)
ID docs & systems
Security printing
BIS Bundesdruckerei
International Services
International sales
and distribution
Project consultancy
and implementation
D-Trust GmbH
Certified trust center
Electr. signatures
PKI products and
eID service
Maurer Electronics
Secure ID development
ID systems
Laser personalisation

iNCO Splka z o.o.
Data capture and
production of
Business Results
Sales by segments:
Bundesdruckerei is one of the leading suppliers
of secure ID system solutions

Sales in 2012: approx. 454 million
Source: (Preliminary) financial statements for 2012
ID documents production 2012
10.2 million ID cards
7 million passports
2.7 million drivers license cards

1. Bundesdruckerei
2. eID cards in the European Union
3. Electronic Passports
4. Border Control
5. How does biometrics fit in?
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eID Status in the European Union
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Introduced Not planned (other eID-Token in Place)
No ID-Card
ID Cards in the European Union: Diversity of Solutions
Most EU Member States issue Citizen ID cards.
The European Citizen Card specification is CEN 15480.
These cards are compliant to ICAO Doc 9303.
Cards are issued according to national and European law
based on birth certificates or other evidence of identity.
Often the card system is combined with a central or local citizen
The travel function is valid for many countries even outside the EU.
The majority of the cards is electronic.
The form factor trend is ID-1, some are ID-2.
Additional functions are be based on contact or contactless cards.
Interoperability is to be reached by infrastructure: STORK, STORK II.
Strong emphasis is spent to privacy and data protection.

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Example: Electronic Functions of the German ID Card
Electronic functions:
ePassport - For official settings
eID - For the electronic ID
function on the net (optional)
eSign - For qualified electronic
signatures (optional)
ID-1 format with contactless chip
New functions for use on the net and
on IT equipment
Improved holder binding by a digital
photo and (optional) fingerprints
22.3 m eID cards issued since Nov. 2010


Source: Federal Ministry of the Interior
Example: Electronic Residence Permit
Electronic residence permits for third country nationals living in EU
Member States
2.4 m eRP cards issued since 2011
Not a travel document
Electronic contactless ID-1 card
Electronically similar to a passport, including
mandatory fingerprints
The Germany RP:
Includes additional functions
(electronic ID)
Replaced a paper document
Extremely successful (huge demand)
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Specimen of a German Residence Permit
ID Card Trends
Growing diversity of applications around a common set of functions
ID card (yes, of course)
Automated Border Control
Electronic ID function securing identities in
the Internet
Privacy protective functions
Qualified electronic signature (reloadable)
ATM and other banking functions
Health insurance card
Improved EU wide interoperability
Upcoming NFC support
Upcoming displays on card

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1. Bundesdruckerei
2. eID cards in the European Union
3. Electronic Passports
4. Border Control
5. How does biometrics fit in?
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European Union Passport Trends
All EU Member Sates issue electronic passports, the majority with EAC
protected fingerprints.
Until December 2014 all Member States migrate to SAC
Supplementary Access Control
Replacement for BAC (Basic Access Control)
Also known as PACE (Passport Authenticated Connection
Already implemented in the
German ID Card since 2010
Better protection for personal
data stored in the passport
Recommended by ICAO,
mandatory in the EU
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1. Bundesdruckerei
2. eID cards in the European Union
3. Electronic Passports
4. Border Control
5. How does biometrics fit in?
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The Schengen Area
26 members, 420 m inhabitants, 4.3 m km.
800 m border crossings per year via 665/871/246 air/sea/land BCPs.
50.000/10.000 km of sea/land borders.
No passport and immigration controls at internal borders.
Functions as a single country for international travel purposes.
Common visa policy.

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Berlin Wall until 1989
Border between
Germany and Austria
Current ABC Solutions
Existing Automated Border Control gates are mostly based on facial
Reference data come from the passport data group two.
Typically eligible for all EU and EEA (European Economic Area) citizens
over 18.
Operational in eight EU Member States:
Germany, Spain (also with own national e-ID)
France, Finland, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, UK .
Planned or pilots in nine additional EU Member States:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Hungary, Latvia, Romania.
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Deployment of 90 gates at major German airports in 2014:
Berlin, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich.
Up to 180 additional gates until 2018.
The German consortium consisting of Bundesdruckerei (lead) and
Secunet won the tender.
Best quality results in the tender assessment.
One of the largest ABC gate deployments globally.

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Full support of relevant CEN/ISO/ICAO standards.
Highly sophisticated optical and electronic inspection of all eligible
documents, including the German eID card.
Facial recognition based on passport DG2 images
Prepared for fingerprint comparison
Highly ergonomic design: No turns, perfect guidance.
Full police database connection, prepared for the EU RTP program.

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Source: BMI Source: BMI
EU Smart Border Package
EU plans to amend the Schengen Borders Code by rules for
an Entry Exit System (EES) and for
a Registered Travelers Program (RTP)
The deployment might start in 2015, the budget might reach 1 bn
(proposals from 28/02/2013)

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Suggested pictograms for ABC gates in the EU
Registered Travellers Program (RTP)
Most likely to be based on machine readable token containing a
unique identifier.
Mandatory passport (and visa) check including passport chip
authenticity check.
Based on ten fingerprints to be stored in a central RTP repository or
the VIS.
Replacement of the current document stamping by mandatory
electronic recording and verification of data in the Entry Exit
System (EES).
Check whether a person has been granted access to the RTP.
Inform the traveler on the remaining period of authorized stay.
Combination of ABC gates with self-service kiosks.
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Third Country Nationals (TCN) Traveling on Visas
According to conservative estimates 1.9 3.8 m irregular immigrants
come into the EU annually.
Currently there are no electronic means to check if, where and when a
TCN has entered or left the Schengen area.
There is no consistent EU-wide record of entries/exits of travelers
to/from the Schengen area.
Biometric data (ten fingerprints, face) of visa holders are stored in the
VIS, accessible by all authorities in the Member States.
The EES processes alphanumeric data and (later) ten fingerprints.
The EES should reuse elements and be implemented in parallel with
the RTS.
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1. Bundesdruckerei
2. eID cards in the European Union
3. Electronic Passports
4. Border Control
5. How does biometrics fit in?
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Biometrics Related ID Topics
Intention for verification systems:
Seamless travel experience for EU citizens and bona fide travelers.
Long queues are not seamless.
Ease of use for travelers as well as for officers is a design
requirement to reach low error rates and high throughput.
traveler centric systems design will be the dominating design
Data quality:
Need for certified devices at least for enrollment (certification data
in ISO 19794-X generation 2).
Need for presentation attack detection (PAD).
How to get the second generation of ISO 19794-4 and -5 into the
passports? ISO SC17 WG3 suggests ICAO NTWG to consider a
transition period for the migration to generation two.

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Biometric Standards
International standards are essential for a fully functional global ID
document ecosystem.
In the context here, this means first of all biometric data formats
and biometric application profiles.
Application profile ISO PDTR 29195 Technical Report on Traveler
Processes for Biometric Recognition in Automated Border Control
CEN TS 16428 Biometrics Interoperability profiles - Best practices
for slap ten-print captures
CEN TS 16634 Recommendations for using biometrics in European
Automated Border Control
FRONTEX Best Practice Operational/Technical Guidelines for
Automated Border Control (ABC) Systems
Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) Technical Guideline
TR-03121 Biometrics for Public Sector Applications
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FRONTEX: European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union
Verification Trends
Future border control will be based on e-passports, but also support
conventional travel documents.
Biometric technologies enable secure and convenient border crossing.
E-gates and kiosks will increase throughput as well as security.
Mobile technology will make ID verification ubiquitous.
Processes must be redesigned to meet new requirements.
Automation changes border control, but does not substitute human work.
Registered traveller programmes will support border processes, especially
for visa-free travellers without e-passports.
Document inspection technology will find its way into
commercial processes.
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Target: To save time and money.
Electronic ID cards, residence permits and electronic passports are
reality in the EU.
The critical mass of electronic documents in circulation seems to be
reached, now we see a (slowly) increasing number of applications,
including non-governmental ones. ABC is one of them.
eID cards get more and more additional governmental and commercial
functions: Your most important card.
The eID document universe (documents, application cases, applying
people) is growing, for ensuring interoperability (28+) strict
compliance to standards is essential.
Biometric technology enables a strong binding between document and
ist holder, but is less important for non-governmental applications.

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Thank you for your attention.
Dr. Andreas M. Wolf
Senior Director Component Definition

Bundesdruckerei GmbH
Oranienstrae 91
10969 Berlin

Phone: +49-172-3656222
Mail: Andreas.Wolf@BDR.DE