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Experiment No.

1
AIM: To study about CAD, CAM and CAE software and its advantages.
CAD
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to assist in the
creation, modification, analysis or optimization of a design. CAD software is
used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of
design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a
database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic
files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations.
Computer-aided design is used in many fields. Its use in electronic design is
known as Electronic Design Automation (EDA). In mechanical design, it is also
known as computer-aided drafting (CAD) or computer-aided design and
drafting (CADD), which describes the process of creating a technical with the
use of computer software.
CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space;
or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space.
CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications,
including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and
architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD is also widely used to
produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and
technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that
even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques
unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic
importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational
geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete
differential geometry.


Advantages of CAD
One of the most obvious advantages of CAD software is the use of
digital models instead of paper blueprints. Here measurements are
automatic, and lines, shapes and objects can be created with simple
mouse clicks as opposed to slide rulers and calculators. Models can
also be viewed in three dimensions.
Another advantage of CAD software is data centralization. All digital
blueprints are saved on the same server, not in disparate file cabinets,
and can be accessed by anyone who uses the software. (Some CAD
software also gives users the chance to view files on mobile devices.)
This lets designers in different locations work on the same project,
sharing edits and modifications, which reduces communication
bottlenecks and improves efficiency, accountability and project
execution.
Finally, many CAD software tools integrate with cost estimating
software or, at the very least, let users export information such as lists
of building components (windows, doors, pieces of furniture, etc.)
This, too, saves time and reduces the likelihood of transcription
errors, since part lists need not be recreated.
CAM
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer software to
control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of work
pieces. This is not the only definition for CAM, but it is the most common. CAM
may also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a
manufacturing plant, including planning, management, transportation and
storage. Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and
components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material
consistency, which in some cases, uses only the required amount of raw
material (thus minimizing waste), while simultaneously reducing energy
consumption. CAM is now a system used in schools and lower educational
purposes CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided
design (CAD) and sometimes computer-aided engineering (CAE), as the model
generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into CAM software, which
then controls the machine tool.

CAD model (above) and CNC machined part (below)
Companies providing CAM software are
Dassault Systems
Siemens PLM Software
Delcam
Planit Holdings
PTC
Tebis
Cimatron
Open Mind Technologies
C&G System

Advantages of CAM
In large-scale production, the results are consistent (always the same).
Enables very high accuracy levels in large-scale production.
Usually speeds up production of low-volume products

CAE
CAE tools are being used, for example, to analyze the robustness and
performance of components and assemblies. The term encompasses
simulation, validation, and optimization of products and manufacturing tools.
In regard to information networks, CAE systems are individually considered a
single node on a total information network and each node may interact with
other nodes on the network.
CAE systems can provide support to businesses. This is achieved by the use of
reference architectures and their ability to place information views on the
business process. Reference architecture is the basis from which information
model, especially product and manufacturing models.
Fields and Phases in CAE
CAE areas covered include:
Stress analysis on components and assemblies using FEA (Finite Element
Analysis);
Thermal and fluid flow analysis Computational fluid dynamics (CFD);
Multi-body dynamics(MBD) & Kinematics;
Analysis tools for process simulation for operations such
as casting, molding, and die press forming.
Optimization of the product or process.
Safety analysis of postulate loss-of-coolant accident in nuclear
reactor using realistic thermal-hydraulics code.

In general, there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task:
Pre-processing defining the model and environmental factors to be
applied to it. (typically a finite element model, but facet, voxel and thin
sheet methods are also used)
Analysis solver (usually performed on high powered computers)
Post-processing of results (using visualization tools).





















Experiment No. 2
AIM: To study various commands in pro E used in 3-D modeling.

1. Extrude :this command is used to make 3-D model.
2. Rotate :this command is used to make models symmetrical about an
axis.
3. Hole :this command is used to cut different type of holes through
model.
Example:
: Uses predefined rectangle as the drill hole profile.
: Uses standard hole profile as the drill hole profile.
: Lets us add countersink to the hole that we create.
: Lets us add counter bore to the hole that we create.
4. Round :this command is used to round the sharp edges of desired
radius.
5. Edge Chamfer : this command is used to chamfer the sharp edge at
desired angle.
6. Shell : this command is used to shell give thickness to a solid model
instead of complete solid model.
7. Pattern : this command is used to make a part at many points
creating patterns such as dimension, direction, axis, table etc.



Experiment No. 3
AIM: Modeling of simple machine parts and its component.
Command used :- extrude, revolve, mirror, shell, round, chamfer,pattern,
datum plane, datum axis.