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DELTA Module 3: Extended Essay


EAP: An EGAP Course
Mustafa Akincioglu
Centre Number: .....
Candidate Number: .....
Date: June-2012
Word Count: 4474




Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course ""
Table of Contents
Part 1 ........................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1
Part 2 ........................................................................................................................... 5
The Learners ............................................................................................................ 5
Needs Analysis ........................................................................................................ 5
Findings ................................................................................................................... 6
General Information .............................................................................................. 6
Learning Styles ..................................................................................................... 6
Motivation ............................................................................................................. 6
Self-Diagnosis ...................................................................................................... 7
Language Level .................................................................................................... 7
Part 3 ........................................................................................................................... 8
Aims and Objectives ................................................................................................ 8
Course Constraints ................................................................................................ 10
Syllabus Design ..................................................................................................... 11
Part 4 ......................................................................................................................... 13
Assessment and Course Evaluation ...................................................................... 13
Assessment ........................................................................................................ 13
Course Evaluation .............................................................................................. 16
Part 5 ......................................................................................................................... 16
Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 16
Bibliography ............................................................................................................... 19
Appendices ................................................................................................................ 23
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course """
Appendix 1: Course Plan ....................................................................................... 23
Appendix 2: Needs Analysis and Test Results ...................................................... 33
Appendix 3: Completed Samples of the Needs Analysis Instruments ................... 36
Appendix 4: Completed Diagnostic Test ................................................................ 36
Appendix 5: Samples of Assessment and Evaluation Tools .................................. 36
Appendix 6: Samples of Course Materials ............................................................. 36











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Part 1
Introduction
I have chosen English for Academic Purposes (EAP) for my DELTA Module 3
Extended Assignment. The reason for this choice is that as a non-native speaker
who has recently gone through the intensive DELTA and an Applied Linguistics
Masters program, I have become more aware that academic skills are of seminal
importance if one is to be successful within an academic community. Hence, I have
decided to further expand my understanding of this subject area both to help myself
become a more successful academic and also to help the students whom I tutor.
The concept of EAP first manifested itself at an institutional level when the
British organization, Special English Language Materials for Overseas University
Students was formed in 1972 (Hamp-Lyons, 2001). As a sub-branch of English for
Specific Purposes (ESP) (Jordan, 1997), EAP can be described as programs
designed to prepare non-native users of English for English-medium academic
settings and as being a branch of applied linguistics (Hamp-Lyons, 2001:126).
Further to this, it has two main branches; English for General Academic Purposes
(EGAP) and English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) (Jordan, 1997).
Before looking specifically at issues within EAP, we must briefly discuss how
EAP differs from General English Teaching (GET). In doing so, we will refer to
Alexander, Argent and Spencer (2008).
1. EAP is goal driven whereas GET is level driven;
2. In EAP contexts, time for courses is usually limited and study is often a one-
off endeavour whereas in GET contexts, time parameters are more flexible;
3. EAP courses are high stakes as the outcome of the course dictates whether
students will gain entry onto their chosen courses/whether they will be
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $
successful within their academic field. GET is lower-stakes as students are
often studying for personal/general reasons.
4. EAP students are often instrumentally motivated whereas for GET students
motivation can vary;
5. In EAP contexts, teachers and students are more equal whereas GET
teachers are seen as language experts;
6. In EAP, content is limited to academic discourse whereas GET includes a
wide range of communicative situations;
7. In EAP, the main emphasis is on reading and writing whereas in GET
speaking and listening are usually prioritised;
8. In EAP, materials are chosen from academic disciplines and written texts
must conform to academic standards. In GET, materials often focus on self-
expression and creativity;
9. In EAP, study-skills and strategy training are prioritised whereas in GET there
is little emphasis on these skills.
As mentioned above, EAP can be broken into two main categories; EGAP and
ESAP. This divide has been contentious as those in favour of EGAP claim that EAP
should be concerned with a common core of universal skills or language forms (e.g.
Spack, 1988) whilst those in favour of ESAP argue that as there is clear evidence
that academic discourses represent a variety of specific literacies (e.g. Hyland and
Hamp-Lyons, 2002:5) we must focus on discipline specific genres, languages, and
skills (ibid.). These opposing viewpoints challenge course planners to take a stance
on how they view language and learning and examine their courses in the light of
this stance (Hyland, 2008:9). A course designers stance has obvious implications
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %
for the way teaching is organised (Hyland and Hamp-Lyons, 2002) and the training
EAP teachers need in order to perform their roles effectively.
In order to determine which approach is more suitable, we must look more
closely at ESAP and EGAP advantages and disadvantages. Hyland (2006:10-13)
states that an advantage of EGAP courses is that they help students with limited
English proficiency develop a set of language forms/skills that are transferrable
across disciplines which acts as a good base for them to begin tackling more subject
specific language/skills. Another important advantage is that EGAP courses may be
considered more practical as they tend to be less complicated in terms of course
design as they focus on and teach pre-determined core academic forms/skills.
Furthermore, it is easier to train EAP teachers to teach such courses as they do not
need a high degree of subject-specialist knowledge. However, this holistic approach
can also turn in to a disadvantage, especially when learners aim to go into
disciplines such as medicine, history, engineering etc. that do not share much in
common in terms of commonly shared language skills and academic conventions
(ibid.).
Despite the practicality of EGAP courses, today ESAP tends to be preferred
due to the notion that EAP teachers cannot rely on subject specialists to teach
discipline-specific literacy skills, as they are not trained to do so (ibid.). One
important advantage of this approach is that ESAP courses aim to equip learners
with subject-specific language skills and academic literacies that will be of great use
when they start their studies. Whilst this is a great advantage, in practical terms, it
may not be possible to organise EAP courses for specific disciplines due to the
constraints of the course centres (Lynch, 2001). Another disadvantage is that ESAP
approaches require EAP teachers to have subject-specific knowledge. Training EAP
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course &
teachers to conform to these qualities poses a great challenge for the teacher
training programs as they need to train teachers who either have specialist-
knowledge in a variety of disciplines, which is a formidable target to achieve, or have
specialist-knowledge in a specific discipline, which requires the course centres to
employ a greater number of ESAP teachers than they normally do. Having looked at
both approaches, it still remains problematic to determine which approach is more
comprehensive as EAP contexts vary vastly and each course brings about unique
needs and challenges; thus, the specific needs of the EAP course to be designed
and delivered will dictate which approach to be taken.
Finally, there are two other important ethical issues within EAP that must be
considered. The first is the dramatic growth of the field due to the hegemony that
English enjoys within the global academic community (Canagarajah, 1999), which
has negatively impacted scholarly writing in other national cultures (Hyland, 2006:8).
The second is EAPs aim to socialise learners into particular academic discourse
communities (Alexander, Argent, & Spencer, 2008), which is felt, by some, to be a
form of linguistic imperialism and therefore damaging to other cultures it maintains
unequal power relationships within the international community (Phillipson, 1992).
Whilst the above is undoubtedly unjust, all EAP teachers can do is to develop critical
awareness and the ability to de-naturalize the discourses that they are a part of in
order to become more critically aware of the environments they find themselves in
(Fairclough, 1989).
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course '
Part 2
The Learners
A..... and B..... are planning to come to the UK for their undergraduate degrees in
Economics and Medicine respectively. I chose them for this assignment because I
know them well as I was their English teacher.
Needs Analysis
Before devising the course for my learners, I carried out a needs analysis survey,
which as Jordan (1997) states, should be the starting point for any EAP
course/syllabus designer as it allows one to make decisions on materials and
teaching approach, which are apposite to the students needs.
I used the following needs analysis tools:
Firstly, I requested advanced documentation (suggested by Alexander,
Argent, & Spencer, 2008) from the students school in order to gain their perspective
on the learners linguistic needs and reviewed the results of a proficiency exam the
students had sat (IELTS) in order to gain an understanding of their general
characteristic level (Harmer, 2001). After this, I conducted a series of diagnostic
assessments in order to build up an analytic profile of the learners reading, writing,
speaking and listening skills. These tests came in the form of the Academic IELTS
reading, writing, speaking and listening papers that were marked using the IELTS
published analytic marking scales.
Subsequently, I asked the learners to complete three questionnaires;
Perceived Needs, as EAP learners tend to be very proficient judges of their own
needs Lynch (2001); Learning Styles; (online test based on Honey and Mumford,
2000); VAK test based upon Dun, Dun and Prices (1975) learning inventory in order
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course (
to determine my learners preferred way of receiving and processing information. I
also had an informal chat with them to find out their motivation type to study English.
Finally, to prepare the learners for the target language use situations where
they would need to perform/function, I referred to Jordans (1997:7-8) study
situation/activity and study skills analysis to I plan my course.
Findings
General Information
Both students are Turkish, 18, and attend a selective Turkish private school. They
are learning within a CLIL environment and both are planning to study for their
Undergraduate degrees abroad. Although they both had the required IELTS band
scores to start their courses, they decided to attend a 4-week pre-sessional course
to better adapt to their new learning environments.
Learning Styles
The learning styles questionnaires revealed that A..... is a pragmatist. In terms of
strengths, this means that she approaches her study with logic and objectivity and
likes to think things through carefully. In terms of weaknesses, she may have the
tendency to be too much of a perfectionist. The VAK questionnaire revealed that
she, like B....., likes to receive information in visual formats. The questionnaires
showed that B..... is a reflector and is therefore a thoughtful and analytical student
whilst also being a good listener. One drawback of this learning style is that he may
be likely to procrastinate and to keep a low profile.
Motivation
In light of the informal chat that I had with both learners prior to the course, I believe
that A..... has strong instrumental, integrative and intrinsic motivation as she stated
that she liked learning English, enjoyed learning about British culture, and was
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course )
looking forward to studying aboard. I believe B....., contrastingly, was not as highly
motivated to learn English and was instrumentally motivated as he stated that he
found English hard and was learning because without it is impossible to study
abroad.
Self-Diagnosis
A..... states that she has difficulties with each of the four skills sometimes and B.....
states that he has difficulties with listening, reading, and writing sometimes but has
difficulties often with speaking. Within each skills area both students have also
identified more specific areas that they would like to focus on. For example, in
writing, both students would like to improve their ability to edit their own work and in
reading, B..... states that he has difficulty guessing the meaning of unknown words in
a text, and A..... states that she has difficulty locating specific information in a text. In
addition to this, both learners state that they would particularly like to improve their
lecture note-taking skills and B..... states that he would particularly like to improve his
speaking in small groups.
Language Level
Reviewing the IELTS results reveal that both learners are at a band 7. The
diagnostic tests reveal that writing is weaker than other skills for both learners, as
both learners obtained a band 6 in writing. For A....., her speaking, band 7.5, is her
strongest skill as she was very fluent and easily managed to get the meaning across
using circumlocution where necessary. B..... on the other hand was strongest in
reading, band 7.0, and listening, band 7.5. Indeed, in the listening paper he was
able to pick out key pieces of information in long and complex spoken texts well.
Some of the main difficulties the learners have, reveal in this test, are:
Lack of general vocabulary impedes expression in writing and speaking
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course *
Speaking lacks accuracy
Lack of awareness of academic style and register
Lack of organisation of ideas, especially at paragraph level
Misuse of cohesive devises
Poor editing and revising skills
Reading is slow and laboured
Inability to pick out key points within complex texts
Inability to select information from a text discerningly to support a point they
want to make

Part 3
The course was an intensive two-week, 40 hours course, taught by myself. (This
assignment will look at the first 20 of these hours). The course took place in
(country) in a private language school during 2012. During each week 20 hours of
tuition was timetabled. Lessons ran from 14.00pm - 18.30pm with a 10-minute break
between each hour.
Aims and Objectives
As Richards (2001) states, course aims broadly define the purpose of the course.
This course aimed to:
Develop the English language skills learners need to study for a degree at a
British university.
Raise learners awareness of what will be expected of them in their university-
learning environment.
Develop necessary study skills and learner autonomy.
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course +
Course objectives provide a basis for the organisation of teaching activity (ibid.).
This course aimed to help learners:
Writing
Write in different genres appropriate to their future target language use
situation.
Write in an appropriate academic style and register.
Successfully use lexical, rhetorical, and grammatical cohesive devises and
techniques.
Understand how grammar and vocabulary are used in academic texts.
Correctly refer to sources and avoid plagiarism.
Plan, structure, revise and re-draft work.
Reading
Deduce meaning of unfamiliar lexical items.
Identify the main point in discourse.
Distinguish the main idea from supporting details.
Extract salient details to summarise.
Extract relevant points from a text selectively.
Skim to gain an overall understanding of the text.
Scan to locate specifically required information.
Speaking
Successfully use markers in spoken discourse to introduce an idea, develop
an idea, transition to another idea, conclude an idea, to indicate important
information, and to anticipate a contrary view.
Express relationships between parts of a spoken utterance through cohesive
devices.
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #,
Mark the main points or important information in spoken text through vocal
underlining and through verbal cues.
Planning and organising information in formal expository discourse.
Listening
Deduce meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items.
Understand attitudinal meaning in spoken text and utterances.
Distinguish main ideas from supporting detail.
Listen to obtain the gist of spoken text.
Listening for specific details in spoken text.
Note-take from spoken text.
Extract salient points to summarise specific idea or topic in text.
Selectively extracting relevant key points from text.
General
Develop active knowledge of a wide range of academic lexical items.
Develop a range of study skills that will lead to learner independence.
Course Constraints
As Alexander, Argent and Spencer (2008) state, possible constraints on the course
may include availability of time, class composition, access to resources, teachers
experience/expertise, learners experience, and institutional practices. As this
course took place during the learners semester break there was a two-week time
constraint. Although there were only two learners, the needs analysis revealed that
despite both learners being of roughly the same English language level, their
motivation, learning styles, strengths and weaknesses, and target language use
situations varied considerably in some areas. I planned to overcome these
difficulties through differentiation where appropriate. As I had previous EAP teaching
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course ##
experience both in Turkey and the UK I understood the differences between the
Turkish education system and the British education system and would be able to
guide these students appropriately. Further to this, I am a part-owner of a private
language school, therefore access to resources such as teaching materials, a space
to carry out the course etc. was not an issue. Finally, as I did not have access to
their prospective university tutors I could not analyse the target language use
situations to determine these learners subject-specific language needs. Therefore, I
decided to design an EGAP course.
Syllabus Design
The course syllabus was based upon the following important principles outlined by
Alexander, Argent and Spencer (2008):
Identify and describe the students needs;
Identify the needs to be met through discrete course components;
Prioritise and sequence these needs in a comprehensive hierarchical
framework;
Include recycling in order to allow students to consolidate learning.
In terms of building a hierarchical framework for the course, as Alexander, Argent
and Spencer (2008: 88) state, because EAP syllabi are closely related to student
needs in academic disciplines, they are necessarily eclectic. With this in mind, I
chose a multidimensional syllabus as described by Hedge (2000), which combines
different organising principles. As the needs analysis revealed that the learners
needed to develop in a range of different ways, for example, their understanding of
sentence level grammar, academic vocabulary, rhetorical functions, genres, and text
level grammar, as well as their academic skills and autonomy, this syllabus type
allowed me to include aspects that addressed all of these needs. Further to this, it
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #$
allowed me to centre learning, where appropriate, around the task types that the
learners may be required to perform at university (Alexander, Argent & Spencer,
2008) which made learning more authentic and meaningful for the students.
I took a learning-centred approach (described by Hutchinson and Waters,
1987) to ensure the course took into account the learners, their situations, and their
linguistic lacks. Furthermore, I sought to construct a negotiated syllabus (Lynch,
2001) with the learners based on their input during the needs analysis procedure, as
this would make the course more learner focused. For example, B..... stated that he
needed to work on communicating in small groups. Due to this, I included a focus on
this area.
As in university learning contexts in the UK autonomy is expected from
student members of the academic community (Lynch, 2001), the course not only
sought to strike a balance between all four skills, but also aimed to help the learners
develop greater autonomy. As the goal of autonomous learning is the negation of
the teaching-learning distinction (Benson, 1996, cited in Lynch, 2001:394), one way
this will be achieved is through methodology, specifically, by the teacher acting as a
facilitator, resource, and counsellor (Voller, 1997, cited in Lynch, 2001:394) rather
than as a transmitter of information. Another way in which this will be achieved is to
integrate strategy training into the course learning activities in order that learners
develop their own ways of working independently of their teacher.
In terms of materials, we used EAP Now! (Cox and Hill, 2004) as a basis for
the course as it takes an integrated skills approach, seeks to engage learners in
tasks and activities similar to those that they will encounter in their target language
use situations, and integrates strategy training into these tasks and activities. This
approach suits my multidimensional syllabus type well and will also help me to
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #%
facilitate the development of learner autonomy. The course will also be
supplemented with Focus on Vocabulary (Schmitt & Schmitt, 2005) to help the
learners increase their academic vocabulary, Academic Writing (Bailey, 2003) to
help the learners focus on particular writing skills such as paragraph level
organisation and cohesion, and reading and note taking, Instant IELTS (Brook-Hart,
2004), Check Your English Vocabulary (Wyatt, 2007), my own materials, and
authentic reading sources, again in order to make learning similar to what will be
expected of them in their future academic contexts.

Part 4
Assessment and Course Evaluation
Assessment
Assessment, incidental or intended, is an integral aspect of teaching and learning
(Brown, 2003) and refers to the ways we evaluate information about learners
language achievement or ability (Hyland, 2006).
Brown (2003) proposes the below main assessment categories:
1. Informal: mostly incidental and embedded in classroom tasks.
Formal: systematic and aims to appraise both teacher and students.
2. Formative: supporting learners progress; looks forward.
Summative: evaluates learners achievement; looks back.
3. Norm-referenced: aims to place test-takers along a mathematical continuum
in rank order.
4. Criterion-referenced: aims to give test-takers feedback usually in form of
grades.

Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #&
Furthermore, as Hyland (2006:99) states, assessment enables teachers to:
1. Identify students strengths and weaknesses for needs assessment or to
indicate where remedial action is needed (diagnostic).
2. Enable learners to demonstrate the progress they have made in a course
(achievement).
3. Indicate students ability to perform target academic tasks (performance).
4. Assess general competence (proficiency).
5. Provide funding authorities with evidence that intended outcomes have been
met and expenses justified (accountability).
Finally, Bachman and Palmer (1996) also argue that assessment tasks, in terms of
their usefulness, need to have six qualities, namely reliability, construct validity,
authenticity, interactivity, impact and practicality. In line with this, Hyland (2006)
states that test reliability, which requires an assessment task to measure consistently
both in terms of the same student on different occasions and the same task across
different raters, and construct validity, which requires an assessment task to assess
what it claims to assess, are the two most important qualities that an assessment
task should have.
In terms of assessment on this course, as my objectives were skills focused, I
did not include any formal, summative, discrete item tests and the learners
development in the areas of grammar and vocabulary were considered within the
context of their spoken or written output. Having said this, during the course as a
learning experience the students did engage in some discrete item activities, and the
learners performance during these activities informed my teaching decisions.
Overall, given the skills based objectives, assessment came in the form of
performance testing and was formative apart from a final IELTS test at the end of the
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #'
40-hour course, the results of which were compared with the baseline assessment
IELTS test scores from the beginning of the course.
In terms of the formative assessment, in order to assess the learners
progress in speaking I conducted a performance test, asking them to deliver an oral
presentation which I graded using a self-constructed rubric which included elements
of the published IELTS speaking marking scale. As there was a cross over between
my rubric and the IELTS one, I was able to compare the learners performance in the
presentation to their performance in the baseline assessment mentioned above.
In terms of writing, again I conducted performance tests. For example, I
asked the learners to write a 1000 word explanatory essay describing and explaining
the Turkish education system. In order to grade this assessment, again, I used the
published IELTS assessment scale and was able to compare the results of this
essay task with the learners scores on the IELTS baseline assessment. This data
helped me to evaluate the usefulness of the course later.
In terms of reading and listening, the assessment was mostly based on the
learners performance in classroom activities and sought to emulate the type of tasks
the learners would have to carry out in their future target language use situations in
order that the assessments were more meaningful to them (Bachman & Palmer,
1996). For example, the learners completed section four of an IELTS listening
paper. Section four is an example of a lecture situation. After answering the
questions on the paper, I asked the learners to take notes on the lecture and judged
their listening in terms of their ability to select key points from the spoken text as this
is what they would have to do in a lecture situation.
Further to the above, as one of the objectives of the course was to develop
learner autonomy, I also sought to develop the learners ability to self and peer-
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #(
assess. Due to this, I supplied the learners with checklists so that they could check
their own written and spoken work. For example, I video recorded the learners oral
presentations, after which I got the students to watch themselves, supplied them with
a marking criteria, and got them to grade their own performance.
Course Evaluation
As suggested by Hutchinson and Waters (1987), the course evaluation was planned
to be carried out during, at the end of, and after the course. In order to evaluate the
usefulness of the course, the degree to which the course met the learners needs
and its targets (ibid.), I held informal interviews with the learners throughout the
course to gain an understanding of their perception of its usefulness. Further to this,
halfway through the course and at the end I asked the learners to complete a
feedback form about the usefulness and delivery of the course and about their own
progress. Further to this, my students and I also agreed to meet to have an informal
discussion about the success of this course after they started their pre-sessional
courses at their future university in the UK, as at this point they would be better able
to judge the usefulness of the course (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).

Part 5
Conclusion
In summary, to successfully address the learning needs, firstly, I gathered and
analysed the data, i.e. the diagnostic assessment results. Secondly, I determined
their learning needs, motivation to attend this course, and learning
styles/preferences. Finally, I analysed the target language situations, in light of
which, I designed a multidimensional syllabus EGAP course and delivered it.
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #)
Both learners improved their writing by one IELTS band which I believe was
mainly due to the intensive support they received and the content of the course
specifically addressing their learning needs. However, as in this 40 hours course
there was not enough time to study the varying genres and length of the papers they
will need to write when they get to their universities the students will need further
support in their writing when they start their pre-sessional courses in order to
broaden their understanding of the genres they will have to write in. Having said
this, the learners gained a solid understanding of how to reference, which is a very
good starting point for developing their academic writing as plagiarism is a serious
consideration within UK university contexts.
During informal interviews after the course, designed to evaluate the courses
usefulness to the students, B..... expressed great positivity with the level of
improvement in his speaking and stated that he started feeling more confident to
converse with people in small groups. In his school he did not get enough
opportunities to talk in classes of 25 and felt intimidated. As this course was a small
group and, unlike his classes at school, was fully delivered in English, he was
exposed to intensive use of English.
As is evidenced in the assessment data, the students reading also showed
progress. The intensity of the reading they did in this course was lower than their
future university, however, and although I used lot of authentic texts to support the
learners to become familiar with the academic style that they will encounter in their
future target language use situations, I believe they will need more support in
reading, which will hopefully be provided by the pre-sessional course they will attend.
Two main limitations of the course were its limited time (40-hour) and its
intensive nature. As there was so much to take in a short period of time, the learners
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #*
may not have internalised everything covered in the course. Further to this, we did
not have enough time for the learners to practice and therefore develop all of the
skills they will need when they go to university. However, any remaining issues I
believe will be addressed during the four-week pre-sessional programme the
learners are going to attend.


Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course #+
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University Press.
Cox, K. K., & Hill, D. (2004). EAP Now!: English for Academic Purposes Student's
Book. Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia.
Forman, D., Donoghue, F., Abbey, S., Cruden, B., & Kidd, I. (1990). Campus
English: A Problem-solving Approach to Study Skill Student's Book. London:
Macmillan Publishers.
Schmitt, D., & Schmitt, N. (2005). Focus On Vocabulary: Mastering the Academic
Word List. White Plains, USA: Longman.
Wyatt, R. (2007). Check you English Vocabulary TOEFL. London. A & C Black
Publishers.
Website Based Materials
No Author. (n.d.). Public version of IELTS Writing Task1-2 band descriptors.
Retrieved 19 March, 2012, from
https://www.teachers.cambridgeesol.org/ts/digitalAssets/113300_public_writin
g_band_descriptors.pdf
No Author. (n.d.). Public version of IELTS Speaking task band descriptors.
Retrieved 19 Match, 2012, from
http://www.ielts.org/pdf/UOBDs_SpeakingFinal.pdf
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $$
No Author. (n.d.). Learning styles questionnaire based on Honey and Mumford
(2001). Retrieved 02 April, 2012, from
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/learnstyle.htm
No Author. (n.d.). VAK learning styles questionnaire. Retrieved 02 April, 2012, from
http://www.businessballs.com/vaklearningstylestest.htm
No Author. (n.d.). International students perspectives. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTI_5hYOSQQ
No Author. (n.d.). Academic Word List. Retrieved from
http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/academic/sublist01/
No Author. (n.d.). Harvard System of Referencing Guide. Retrieved from
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
No Author. (n.d.). APA Style Referencing Guide. Retrieved from
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
No Author. (n.d.). Funny Presentation. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXILI9Q1jIw
No Author. (n.d.). Live Presentation. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtraR3gezQw
No Author. (n.d.). International Student Support. Retrieved from
http://www.exeter.ac.uk/internationalstudents/studyskills/


Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $%
Appendices

Appendix 1: Course Plan

Course Objectives


Reading Writing Speaking Listening

Deduce meaning of
unfamiliar lexical
items.
Identify the main
point in discourse.
Distinguish the main
idea from supporting
details.
Extract salient details
to summarise.
Extract relevant
points from a text
selectively.
Skim to gain an
overall understanding
of the text.
Scan to locate
specifically required
information.


Write in a range of
different genres
appropriate to their
future target language
use situation.
Write in an
appropriate academic
style and register.
Successfully use
lexical, rhetorical, and
grammatical cohesive
devises and
techniques.
Understand how
grammar and
vocabulary are used in
academic texts.
Correctly refer to
sources and avoid
plagiarism.
Plan, structure, revise
and re-draft work.


Successfully use
markers in spoken
discourse to introduce
an idea, develop an
idea, transition to
another idea, conclude
an idea, to indicate
important information,
and to anticipate a
contrary view.
Express relationships
between parts of a
spoken utterance
through cohesive
devices.
Mark the main points
or important
information in spoken
text through vocal
underlining and
through verbal cues.
Planning and
organising information
in formal expository
discourse.

Deduce meaning and
use of unfamiliar
lexical items.
Understand
attitudinal meaning in
spoken text and
utterances.
Distinguish main
ideas from
supporting detail.
Listen to obtain the
gist of spoken text.
Listening for specific
details in spoken
text.
Note-take from
spoken text.
Extract salient points
to summarise
specific idea or topic
in text.
Selectively extracting
relevant key points
from text.

General


Develop active knowledge of a wide range of academic lexical items.
Develop a range of study skills that will lead to learner independence.


Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $&
Day Objectives Hour Suggested Activity Suggested
Materials
1 To raise the
learners
awareness of
the skills and
language the
learners will
need to
succeed in an
English medium
university and
to discuss the
organisation
and goals of the
course.
To provide an
opportunity for
learners to
develop reading
skills including
prediction,
skimming,
scanning, and
selecting
relevant points
from a text
selectively.
To develop the
learners
understanding
of the structure
and features of
explanation
texts.
To develop
awareness and
understanding
of cohesion and
coherence.
To develop
understanding
of the rhetorical
function, cause
and effect.

Subsidiary
Objectives:
Provide
1 1. Discuss the reasons the students have for
wanting to study abroad in the UK. The
teacher will explain the course objectives and
how the course activities will be designed to
help prepare the students for their new
academic environments as well as improve
their English discuss study skills,
independence, autonomy these are
important aspects of being a successful
student in the UK.
2. Task A & B - Discuss questions in pairs.
Feedback.
3. Teacher input explain different essay
questions require different responses from
students essays will be organised differently
etc. The teacher explains that some common
essay types or explanation, discussion, etc.
4. Students work in pairs tasks C E.
Feedback.
5. Teacher will explain that to begin with, the
students will focus on learning to write
explanation essays. Students do task A &
feedback.
1. N.A.
2. EAP Now! (p.
11)
3. N.A.
4. EAP Now! (p.
12 14).
5. EAP Now! (p.
14, Task A)

2 1. Students work in pairs. Feedback &
discussion after each task.
2. Watch YouTube clip about one students
experiences. Teacher to set comprehension
questions to develop listening for gist and for
specific information. Discuss ideas in the clip
lead onto:
3. Discussion about what may be different about
studying in the UK compared to the students
home countries. Feedback and teacher input.
4. Do Task A then read the text on Western
Education Systems. The students read to see
if their predictions were true.
5. The teacher will set some additional
comprehension questions. Students read to
find answers. Check answers in pairs and
feedback & discuss the ideas/vocabulary in the
text with the teacher.
1. EAP Now! (p.
15 18)
2. www.youtube
.com/watch?
v=lTI_5hYOS
QQ
3. EAP Now!
(p.2, Task A)
4. EAP Now!
(p. 21 24)
5. Smartboard
slide
3 1. Next, students work in pairs to analyse the text
for structure (task b) and discuss the purpose
of the text explanation.
2. Students identify the main idea of each
paragraph and then write an outline for the
essay not an outline for an essay about their
own country as suggested in task C. Teacher
1 3. EAP
Now!
(p. 21 24 +
page 13)
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $'
opportunities for
learners to
develop oral
fluency through
discussion with
other learners
and the
teacher.
Develop
listening for gist
and for specific
information
and students discuss which essay outline on
page 13 would suit this situation best.
3. Next, the learners take the key points of each
paragraph and compare what is said about
Western education with education within their
own country write notes on similarities and
differences.
4 1. Write an essay outline for an essay about their
own countrys education system.
2. Focus on cohesion do activities in pairs.
Feedback. Discussion.
3. On Smartboard teacher displays paragraphs
from the text read in hour 1. The teacher
highlights referents and asks students to
identify what they relate to.
4. Correct paragraphs cohesion mistakes
5. Review of the day feedback from students
regarding course content/level.
1. N.A.
2. EAP Now!
(p. 25 & 26)
& Academic
Writing
(Bailey,
2003:73-74)
3. Smartboard
Slide
4. Own
Materials
5. Smartboard
Slide.
Day Objectives Hour Suggested Activities Suggested
Materials
2 To extend
learners
academic
vocabulary
range.

To raise
awareness of
vocabulary
study strategies
and vocabulary
recording
methods.

To develop
understanding
of academic
referencing and
of what
plagiarism.

To develop
positive writing
processes
including note-
taking, planning
5 1. Recap what was covered the day before in
class quick quiz. Remind students/elicit the
type of essay they read the day before
(explanation).
2. Focus on cause and effect do activities in
pairs. Feedback. Discussion.
3. Teacher takes half sentences from the text
and students have to complete them using
because/as a result of/owing to/due
to/consequently etc. and the correct
information.

1. Smartboard
slides
2. Academic
Writing
(Bailey, p. 70
71)
3. EAP Now! (p.
21 24)

6 1. Focus on academic vocabulary: Using words
on the academic word list/education specific
from the text (EAP Now! p. 21 24) students
do worksheet in pairs. (Worksheet asks the
learners to build the word families of 15 words
within the text), asks them to define the words,
state their word class, and write a sentence of
their own containing the words.
2. Next, students read the text and are asked to
pick out between 5 and 10 words they
personally would like to develop their
understanding of, using a dictionary and the
teacher as a resource the students research
these words individually and record their
findings onto the vocabulary record sheet
1. Own
materials
based on the
text from
EAP Now! (p.
21 24).
2. Check your
English
vocabulary
for TOEFL
(p. 110).
3. N.A.
4. Own
materials &
Smartboard
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $(
and drafting
skills.

To develop the
ability to extract
relevant points
from a text
selectively.

Subsidiary
Objectives:
Provide
opportunities for
learners to
develop oral
fluency through
discussion with
other learners
and the
teacher.

provided by the teacher.
3. Students share their understandings of their
personal words and explain their meaning to
each other.
4. Teacher shows students a range of different
vocabulary record sheets and asks the
students how they currently study vocabulary.
The teacher makes some suggestions and
students and teacher discuss the pros and
cons of the different record sheets and
vocabulary study strategies. The teacher
discusses with the students what it means to
really know a word and tells the learners that
there is an academic word list, explaining its
relevance to them.
slide
containing
link to the
academic
word list:
http://oald8.oxf
ordlearnersdic
tionaries.com/
academic/subl
ist01/
7 1. Next, the teacher draws the learners attention
to the referencing in the text.
2. Gives them a short oral quiz (which they do
together) based upon Academic Writing (p. 99)
to find out what they know about the rules of
referencing and about plagiarism.
3. Look at and discuss the examples of
summaries and quotations provided in
Academic Writing and also discuss the
different ways in which the learners can record
their notes. The teacher will also show them
some examples of his notes and other
students from his Masters course. The
students discuss which one might work best
for them
4. The students do the exercises in the book
together. Feedback.
5. The teacher explains now about Bibliographies
and that there are different referencing styles.
The teacher shows the learners the two
websites one for the Harvard referencing
system the other for APA. He allows the
students to read through the website. He
brings some books along and gets one of the
learners to practice writing a reference list
using these books as props in APA and the
other to practice writing in Harvard style.
Finally the students compare their reference
lists and find the similarities and differences.
1. EAP Now! (p.
21 24)
2. Own
Materials
3. Academic
Writing (p. 99
100)
4. Academic
Writing (p.
100 101)
5. Academic
writing (p.
201)
http://libweb.a
nglia.ac.uk/ref
erencing/harv
ard.htm &
http://owl.engli
sh.purdue.edu
/owl/resource/
560/01/
8 1. The teacher now asks the learners to get out
their essay plans (about education within their
own country) from the day before. He explains
that in the rest of the lesson they are going to
do some research, take notes on what they
have read, and subsequently fill out their plans
1. N.A.
2. http://www.me
b.gov.tr/stats/a
pk2002ing/apa
ge29_48.htm
&
http://en.wikip
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $)
with relevant information so that each section
is more comprehensive. This will help them
when they come to write their draft essays (for
homework).
2. Students work individually to take notes. The
teacher will be on hand to answer any
questions and to support the learners.
3. The students swap notes to see what
quotations and/or pieces of information they
each found to be important.
4. The students work together to fill out their
plans with the new information, discussing
what pieces of information are most relevant to
each section etc
(Homework write draft essay)
edia.org/wiki/E
ducation_in_T
urkey &
http://www.fulb
right.org.tr/en/
about-
turkey/turkish-
educational-
system

Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $*
Day Objectives Hour Suggested Activities Suggested Materials
3 To develop
proof-reading
skills and
develop learner
autonomy.

To develop
note-taking,
planning and
drafting skills.

To develop
skim reading
skills

To develop the
ability to extract
relevant points
from a text
selectively.

To develop the
ability to plan
and organise
information in
formal spoken
discourse.

To develop the
learners ability
to express
relationships
between parts
of a spoken
utterance
through
cohesive
devices.


9 1. Recap from day before quick referencing
quiz again to see how much the students
remember.
2. The teacher asks the students to swap
drafts, and using the writing check list
provided the students pretend that they are
the teachers and give feedback to each
other on their essays.
3. The students read their feedback and make
changes where required.
4. The teacher then takes in the essay to give
feedback on them himself (they will be
returned the next day).
5. The teacher explains that for the rest of the
day the learners are going to research and
plan a short presentation about studying at
a UK university. In two days time, the
teacher has arranged for a group of
students attending the language school at
which these learners are studying to be the
audience.
6. Start off by watching a couple of examples
of bad presentations. The students watch
and make notes on what the presenters are
doing wrong. Afterwards they share their
notes with each other and discuss what they
think a good presentation looks like. The
teacher writes down the students ideas on
the board.
7. The teacher now gives the learners a
checklist stating the elements of a good
presentation. The students check their
thoughts on the matter (written on the
board) with what the checklist states. The
teacher says they can add anything they
feel might be missing from the checklist.

1. Quiz from day
before
2. Writing checklist
& writing
marking key
from EAP Now!
(p. 248)
3. N.A.
4. N.A.
5. N.A.
6. http://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=
wXILI9Q1jIw &
http://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=
KgObza4ek1U &
http://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=
TtraR3gezQw
7. Own Materials
10 1. The teacher gives the learners some more
details about the presentation requirements
(length/that there should be a PowerPoint
presentation to accompany it).
2. The teacher now asks the learners what
they think they should include in a
presentation about moving to the UK to
study at a British university. He encourages
the learners to think of their audience
(students like themselves who have never
studied abroad, and some who havent
visited the UK before, but who are going to
1. N.A.
2. N.A.
3. N.A.
4. N.A.
5. http://www.exeter
.ac.uk/internation
alstudents/studys
kills/
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course $+
study at UK universities next academic
year). What would they like to know? What
are the most important points to cover about
study/culture etc.?
3. Together the teachers and students make a
rough presentation outline on the board,
however, the teacher tells the students that
this may change as they begin to do some
research and read what other people have
to say on the matter. He makes the point
that planning should always be flexible.
4. The teacher gives the learners a link to
begin their research; however, he also
encourages the learners to look wider than
this one source. Students now together
read and take notes (in the style they were
shown the day before).
11
&
12
1. The students start to create their
PowerPoint and plan what they are going to
say during the presentation. The teacher
acts as a resource and facilitator and gives
input where applicable.
2. The teacher helps the learners edit their
PowerPoint and draws attention to, but
doesnt correct, their mistakes. The teacher
makes sure that the students reference any
sources theyve drawn on.
Homework students edit and correct their
Presentation.
1. Language
Scaffold own
material
(sentence
stems, cohesive
devises that
may be useful,
useful discourse
markers, key
vocabulary).
2. Marking key
from EAP Now!
(p. 248)
Day Objectives Hour Suggested Activities Suggested Materials
4 Develop the
learners ability
to mark the
main points or
important
information in
spoken text
through vocal
underlining and
through verbal
cues.

To develop the
learners ability
to express
relationships
between parts
of a spoken
13 1. The students rehearse their presentations.
The teacher records their rehearsals and
then models presenting himself and records
that too.
2. The teacher asks the students to listen to
the two recordings. He asks them to note
the differences between his version and
theirs in terms of speed, intonation, and
stress. He gives some examples first and
also points out some examples of linking
and elision.
3. After analysing the recordings the students
practice again, this time adjusting their
speed, intonation and stress patterns in
order to underline certain important pieces
of information.
4. The students practice once more and record
themselves. The teacher asks them to
listen to their recording and write down
1. Laptop with
recording facility
2. Worksheet for
self-reflection
own material
3. N.A.
4. N.A.
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %,
utterance
through
cohesive
devices.

To develop
awareness of
aspects of
connected
speech
including
stress,
intonation,
strong and
weak forms,
linking and
elision.

Provide an
opportunity for
learners to
develop the
ability to note-
take from
spoken text.

Develop ability
to extract
salient points to
summarise
specific ideas in
a spoken text
and to
selectively
extract relevant
key points.

Develop ability
to
independently
edit and redraft
the students
own written
work.

Develop the
ability to
organise
information at
between 3 5 things they think they still
need to work on for homework. (For
homework they will practice their
presentations the next day they will
perform them for a small audience of
students who will be studying in the UK next
academic year).
14 1. After this the focus will shift back to the
students draft essays. The teacher returns
the learners draft essays and gives them
individual feedback. Whilst one of the
learners is receiving feedback, the other will
be given a listening task to perform this
will be part 4 of the Academic IELTS
listening exam they will be asked to do
this questions and then check their own
answers after which they will be asked to
take notes on the lecture they are listening
to.
2. After giving individual feedback, the teacher
will go through the listening exercise with
the learner, using it as a learning tool why
did they answer as they have? Where is the
correct answer to be found if the students
didnt answer correctly the first time? Etc.
The teacher will also get the learners to
swap notes and discuss why they have
selected the pieces of information they have
teacher input if necessary about which
parts of the lecture are most important.
Discussion about how to take notes short
hand or directly typed onto a laptop? Which
is best?
1. Instant IELTS
(p. 26 27, but
not question 3 +
answer key),
note-taking
scaffold,
individual
headphones
and two laptops
so that the
learners can
play the track.
15 1. After going through the listening and
receiving their individual feedback there will
be a focus session on writing introductions.
In pairs students do the exercises in
Academic Writing. Feedback. Teacher
input.
2. After this, students work together to make a
checklist outlining the features and purpose
of a good introduction.
3. Students use these criteria to check their
own introductions to their essays about the
Turkish Education System. Correct/re-write
as necessary.
1. Academic
Writing (p. 52
55)
2. N.A.
3. N.A.
16 1. Focus session on writing conclusions - in
pairs students do the exercises in Academic
Writing. Feedback. Teacher input.
2. After this, students work together to make a
1. Academic
Writing (p. 56
59).
2. N.A.
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %#
paragraph level
logically and
coherently.

checklist outlining the features and purpose
of a good conclusion.
3. Students use these criteria to check their
own conclusions to their essays about the
Turkish Education System - Correct/re-write
as necessary.
3. N.A.
Day Objectives Hour Suggested Activities Suggested Materials
5 Develop self-
reflective
practices in
order to
facilitate further
learner
autonomy.
Develop oral
presentation
skills.

Develop active
knowledge of a
wide range of
academic
lexical items.

To develop the
ability to deduce
meaning of
unfamiliar
lexical items
from context.

To develop the
ability to identify
the main point
in discourse.


To develop the
ability to
distinguish the
main idea from
supporting
details.

To develop the
ability to extract
salient details to
summarise.
17 1. Students come and run through their
presentation once. The audience then
comes to the classroom and the students
deliver their presentation.
2. The teacher will video record their
presentation whilst also marking them using
a checklist.
3. After the presentation the teacher will
congratulate the students. He will show the
students the checklist he used to mark their
presentation performance but will not at this
stage share his marks with them. Instead
he will explain the checklist carefully so that
the students fully understand each section
of it. Next, together the students will watch
the recording of their performance/delivery
on the SMART Board using the same
checklist as the teacher to mark
themselves.
4. Students together will discuss/compare the
marks they have given themselves and
argue their point if there are any
discrepancies.
5. Finally, the students and the teacher will
compare their gradings and the teacher will
give feedback on the students
performance.
1. SMART
Board/Data
projector
2. As above & a
video camera &
checklist
3. Checklist
4. N.A.
5. N.A.
18 Change of focus vocabulary
1. The teacher will explain that during the next
week they will focus on a new topic ways
of living. This will include ideas about how
inventions have changed the way we live
and interact, about society etc. The teacher
explains that they are going to read a text
about how society has changed over the
last 300 years. The teacher shows some
pictures that depict how society in Turkey
has changed over the last 300 years. The
students discuss the getting started
questions in Focus on Vocabulary.
2. The teacher sets a pre-reading task how
do you think the text will say society has
changed over the last 300 years. Read to
1. Focus on
Vocabulary (p.
2 10), SMART
Board/Data
projector
2. Own materials
3. Own materials
4. Focus on
Vocabulary
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %$
find out. Feedback.
3. The teacher now sets comprehension
questions. Read. Feedback answers.
Teacher uses the opportunity as a learning
experience shows learners where they
may have gone wrong and where the
correct answers are in the text.
4. Next students do the taret word and work
meaning sections from Focus on
Vocabulary. Share answers. Feedback.
19
20
1. Students now work in pairs to complete the
exercises from pages 6 10, and the teacher
supports.
2. Learners record any vocabulary they feel is
important to their own development onto
vocabulary record sheets and staple them into
their books.
3. Students fill in an evaluation sheet for the first
week of the course.
4. The teacher asks the students also to write down
three things they feel that they have achieved
during the week, and three things they feel still
needs more work.
1. Focus on
Vocabular
y (p. 6
10)
2. Vocabular
y record
sheets
3. Evaluation
form
4. Notebooks
.


Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %%

Appendix 2: Needs Analysis and Test Results

Learner Profiles


A.....s Learner Profile
Name: A.....
Gender/Age: Female / 18
Nationality/L1 Turkish/Turkish
Country of
residence
Turkey
Educational
History:
A..... started her education at a private school in Ankara. This private school,
which has a good reputation for delivering high quality education at all levels
namely primary, secondary and high school, provided A..... with ample of
opportunities to develop intellectually. She has achieved high grades particularly
in social sciences and language studies at school.
Language
Learning
Background:
A..... has been studying English since first grade at primary school. Although
she has been studying English in a target language removed context, the
school, especially the English department, has created an English intensive
learning environment as part of the schools CLIL approach. In addition to
English lessons, 8 hours a week, and core subjects delivered in English,
Science, Maths, ITC, she had the opportunities to attend the school trips to
abroad, where she used her English language skills for real communication in
authentic contexts. Her family trips to various countries with her advanced level
of English speaker parent also have been a valuable part of her English learning
background.
English level From the IELTS exam she took in December: band 7.0
Writing: 6.5 / Reading: 7.0 / Listening: 7.0 / Speaking: 7.5

From the diagnostic assessment IELTS exam: band 7.0
Writing: 6.0 / Reading: 6.5 / Listening: 7.0 / Speaking: 7.5

According to publishes IELTS band descriptors, she is a good user who has
operational command of the language, though with occasional inaccuracies,
inappropriacies and misunderstandings in some situations. She generally
handles complex language well and understands detailed reasoning.
(http://www.ielts.org/institutions/test_format_and_results/ielts_band_scores.aspx
)
Learning style Pragmatist, who approaches studying
with logic and objectivity and likes to
think things through carefully. One
possible disadvantage of this learning
style that she may have the tendency to
be too much of a perfectionist.
Visual learner, who prefer receiving
information in visual formats.
Self directed
English study
In addition to her school studies, she takes part at the school theatre. They are
preparing a play in English. She spends 5 hours a week studying for her part
and 4 hours a week for rehearsal. She also watches TV shows in English and
reads fiction books in English, which overall take 20 hours a week.
Motivation She has both intrinsic and integrative, instrumental motivation for studying
English. Her intrinsic motivation results from the fact that she wants to study in
the UK and learn more about the culture and life there. On the other hand, her
instrumental motivation results from her parents who encourage her to study
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %&
abroad, and from the scholarship she has been awarded, which requires her to
meet the university acceptance criteria including her language level.
Self perceived
needs
A..... believes that she needs language support as she sometimes has
difficulties with her language skills. She believes that especially reading and
writing skills are of high importance at her studies. She thinks that she needs
support in her writing particularly in revising and editing her own writing, and in
reading particularly in terms of locating specific information given in texts.
Advanced
documentatio
n
According to her school records, A..... is in top-10 of her grade. She has
excellent English language skills. According to her English subject teacher this
year, she has excellent speaking and listening skills. Her teacher states that
A..... will need to adapt to reading and writing academic texts as at school this
particular area is not addressed enough.
Strengths and
weaknesses
according to
diagnostic test
results and
need analysis
results
Strengths:
She is a fluent speaker with small inaccuracies, and she can easily
manage to get the meaning across using circumlocution where
necessary
She can listen to and understand accurately long and complex speeches.
Weaknesses:
Lack of awareness of academic style and register
Lack of organisation of ideas, especially at paragraph level
Misuse of cohesive devises
Poor editing and revising skills
Reading is slow and laboured
Inability to select information from a text discerningly to support a point
they want to make




B.....s Learner Profile

Name: B.....
Gender/Age: Male / 18
Nationality/L1: Turkish/Turkish
Country of
residence
Turkey
Educational
History:
B..... started his education in a small city, Kars, and graduated from government
primary and secondary schools in the same city. When his parents moved to
Ankara, he was offered a place by his current private high school as he had
exceptionally high marks from Grade 8 National exams. He is particularly
successful at science and maths.
Language
Learning
Background:
B..... started studying English in secondary school where they had 2 hours
weekly English classes only. English only became an important subject to study
when his started his new school in Ankara, which has a special focus on English
as they follow a CLIL approach. He is particularly successful at Science and
Maths, which are delivered in English. He has been studying English in a
language-removed context and he hardly needed to use English out of school
environment.
English level From the IELTS exam she took in December: band 7.0
Writing: 6.5 / Reading: 7.0 / Listening: 7.5 / Speaking: 6.5

From the diagnostic assessment IELTS exam: band 7.0
Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %'
Writing: 6.0 / Reading: 7.0 / Listening: 7.5 / Speaking: 6.5

According to publishes IELTS band descriptors, he is a good user who has
operational command of the language, though with occasional inaccuracies,
inappropriacies and misunderstandings in some situations. She generally
handles complex language well and understands detailed reasoning.
(http://www.ielts.org/institutions/test_format_and_results/ielts_band_scores.aspx
)
Learning style Reflector, who is thoughtful and
analytical student whilst also being a
good listener. They enjoy observing
others and will listen to their views
before offering their own. One drawback
of this learning style is that he may be
likely to procrastinate and to keep a low
profile.
Visual learner, who prefer receiving
information in visual formats.
Self directed
English study
Video games are the only activity that requires him to use his English skills,
mainly reading and listening. He does not have any other extra curricular
activity that can help him improve his English further.
Motivation B..... clearly states that the only reason that he needs English is to pass his
classes, and more recently the scholarship that requires him to meet the
language level in order to study in the UK. Therefore he has strong instrumental
motivation for studying English.
Self perceived
needs
B..... believes that he needs language support as he states that he sometimes
has difficulties with writing, reading and listening, and has often difficulty with
speaking. Further to this, he wants to improve his skills to edit his own work,
and wants to be better able to guess the meaning of unknown words in written
texts. Finally, he especially like to improve his speaking in small groups.
Advanced
documentatio
n
According to his school records, he is an excellent learner and he has
exceptional talent in science and maths. However, according to remarks of his
maths and science teachers, he prefers explanations in Turkish when new topics
are introduced, and according to his English teacher, although he gets high
marks from the exams, he is not really interested in English lessons, and he
mostly avoids participating in speaking activities.
Strengths and
weaknesses
according to
diagnostic test
results and
need analysis
results
Strengths:
He is able to pick out key pieces of information in long and complex
spoken texts well.
He is an efficient reader who can deal with long and complicated texts
well in terms of comprehension and locating specific information.
Weaknesses:
Lack of awareness of academic style and register
Lack of organisation of ideas, especially at paragraph level
Misuse of cohesive devises
Poor editing and revising skills
Speaking lacks accuracy, and fluency


Akincioglu / EAP: An EGAP Course %(
Appendix 3: Completed Samples of the Needs Analysis Instruments
Appendix 4: Completed Diagnostic Test
Appendix 5: Samples of Assessment and Evaluation Tools
Appendix 6: Samples of Course Materials