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# 12.

## 1 Introduction to column buckling

Buckling: Buckling can be defined as the
sudden large deformation of structure due to a
slight increase of an existing load under which
the structure had exhibited little, if any,
deformation before the load was increased.No
failure implied!!!
Reinforced concrete steel
Stability of equilibrium condition
Easy to visualize for a ball on a surface
Note that we use curvature to decide
stability, but the surface can curve up with
zero curvature
Euler formula
For simply supported column
( )
2 2
2
2 2
or using ,
/
/ : Slenderness ratio
cr cr
EI EA
P I Ar P
L
L r
L r

= = =
Large displacements
Slenderness ratio and yield stress govern type of
post-buckling response
Dashed lines represent behavior without yielding
Governing equation for beam column

=
=
+ =
+ =
= +
= =
x
EI
P
B x
EI
P
A x y
EI
P
ODE
x B x A
dx
y d
x B x A x y Try
y
EI
P
dx
y d
y
EI
P
EI
M
dx
y d
sin cos ) (
: into Substitute
)) sin( ) cos( (
) sin( ) cos( ) ( :
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Apply boundary conditions
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
) / (
: load buckling critical at stress (normal) e Compressiv
ratio s Slendernes : /
) / (
, using or
load buckling critical the defines 1 n pinned, ends both h column wit a For
mode. buckling the defining integer the is
,.. 3 , 2 , 1 0 sin
0 ) ( 0 ) 0 (
r L
E
A
P

r L
r L
EI
P Ar I
L
EI
P
A
I
r where Ar I
n
L
EI n
P
n n L
EI
P
L
EI
P
B
L y and y
cr
cr
cr cr

= =
= = =
=
= =
=
= = =

= =
Example 1
A 3m column with the cross section shown is constructed from two
pieces of timber, that act as a unit. If the modulus of elasticity of timber
is E=13 GPa, determine a) The slenderness ratio b) Critical buckling
load c) Axial stress in the column when the critical load is applied
mm r r
mm
A
I
mm
A
I
mm I
mm I
mm y
mm A
y
x
y
x
c
3 . 32
3 . 32 r and 51 . 59 r
10 x 625 . 15
12
) 50 ( 150
12
) 150 ( 50
10 x 13 . 53 ) 50 )( 50 ( 150
12
) 150 ( 50
) 50 )( 50 ( 150
12
) 50 ( 150
section cross the of centroid about the inertia of Moments
bottom from 75
000 , 15
) 150 )( 50 )( 75 50 ( ) 150 )( 50 ( 25
000 , 15 ) 50 )( 150 ( 2
section cross the of Properties
min
y x
4 6
3 3
4 6 2
3
2
3
2
= =
= = = =

= + =
= + + + =

=
+ +
=
= =

MPa
r L
E
A
P
c
kN
r L
EA
P b
a
cr
cr
cr
85 . 14
) / (
Stress Buckling Critical )
75 . 222
) / (
93
3 . 32
3000
r
L
ratio s Slendernes )
2
2
2
2
= = =
= =
= =

Example 2
C229 x 30 structural steel channels with E=200 GPa are used for a 12
m column. Determine the total compressive load required to buckle
the column if a) One channel is used b) Two channels are laced 150
mm back to back as shown
4 6 4 6
2
10 x 01 . 1 10 x 3 . 25
8 . 14 3795
channel one for properties Section
mm I mm I
mm x mm A
yc xc
c
= =
= =
Solution for single channel
.
kN
r L
EA
P
r
L
mm r r
mm
A
I
r mm
A
I
r
cr
y
y
x
x
82 . 13
) / (
2 . 736
3 . 16
12000
: ratio s Slendernes
3 . 16
3 . 16 and 1 . 81
channel single a of inertia of Radii
2
2
min
= =
= =
= =
= = = =

## Two laced channels.

[ ]
kN
r L
EA
P
r
L
mm r r mm
A
I
r mm
A
I
r
mm A I I
mm I I
mm A
cr
y
y
x
x
yc y
c x x
3 . 694
) / (
9 . 146
7 . 81
12000
: ratio s Slendernes
7 . 81 3 . 91 and 7 . 81
10 x 23 . 63 ) 8 . 14 75 ( 2
10 x 6 . 50 2
: section cross the of centroid about the inertia of Moments
7590 ) 3975 ( 2
2
2
min
4 6 2
4 6
3
= =
= =
= = = = = =
= + + =
= =
= =

## Higher buckling modes

With appropriate boundary
conditions can get higher
modes
2
2
) 2 (
2
2
) / (
4
4 4
r L
E
A
P

P
L
EI
P
cr
cr

= =
= =
Buckling modes : n = 1,2,3.
Imperfection approach
Put in imperfection in the form of eccentricity
Moment equation
L
x
Pe Py x M = ) (
Differential equation of equilibrium
General solution
With boundary conditions
L x for y
EI
P
k
L
x e k
y k
dx
y d
, 0 0
,
2
2
2
2
2
= =
= = +
L
ex
x k B x k A y + = cos sin

=
L
x
L k
x k
e y
sin
sin