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SCOALA CENTRALA

LUCRARE DE ATESTAT LA
LIMBA SI LITERATURA
ENGLEZA

~ FAMOUS BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS ~


WINSTON CHURCHILL & MARGARET THATCHER

COORDONATOR
PROF.CATRINEL ALBERT

AUTOR
ELKHADER JAMILA

2012
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SCOALA CENTRALA

LUCRARE DE ATESTAT LA
LIMBA SI LITERATURA
ENGLEZA

~ FAMOUS BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS ~


WINSTON CHURCHILL & MARGARET THATCHER

COORDONATOR
PROF.CATRINEL ALBERT

AUTOR
ELKHADER JAMILA

2012
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I INTRODUCTION 4
II WINSTON CHURCHILL
A.BIOGRAPHY ..5
Childhood & Early Life
Young politician
Interwar years
B.PRIME MINISTER ...........................6
First term
Second term
C. CHURCHILL: LEADER AND STATESMAN7
D. FREEMASON ..7
E.BOOK.8
F.QUOTES....8
G. DEATH & FUNERAL.8
H. CONCLUSION .8
III . MARGARET THATCHER

A.BIOGRAPHY ..9
1925-1947: Grantham & Oxford
1950-1951: Candidate for Dartford
1951-1970: Family & Career
1975: Elected Conservative Leader
B. PRIME MINISTRE 11
First Term
Second Term
Third Term
C. MARGARET THATCHER'S RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK..12
D. BOOKS...12
E. QUOTES .12
F. MEDIA DEPICTIONS12
G. CONCLUSION ..12
IV. GENERAL CONCLUSION ..13
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..14

I. INTRODUCTION
People live in the present. They plan for and worry about the future. History, however,
is the study of the past. Historians do not perform heart transplants, improve highway design,
or arrest criminals. In a society that quite correctly expects education to serve useful purposes,
the functions of history can seem more difficult to define than those of engineering or
medicine. History is in fact very useful, actually indispensable, but the products of historical
study are less tangible, sometimes less immediate, than those that stem from some other
disciplines.
History has a close link with politics, the art of government. Political history is the
narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. Generally, political
history focuses on events relating to nation-states and the formal political process. According
to Hegel, Political History "is an idea of the state with a moral and spiritual force beyond the
material interests of its subjects: it followed that the state was the main agent of historical
change"
Ive chosen to write about two famous British Prime Ministers, Winston Churchill,
one of the greatest wartime leaders of the 20th century and Margaret Thatcher ,the only woman
ever to have held the post , because Im very interested in history and politics.
From my point of view, history is a part of all of our identities. No matter what
country or region someone is from, the history of that place becomes a part of who they are,
whether they like it or not.

II.WINSTON CHURCHILL

Winston Churchill enjoyed one of the longest and most interesting lives of any person who has ever
lived.From his birth at Blenheim Palace on November 30th 1874, to his death at Hyde Park Gate in
London on January 24 1965, his life was one of action, controversy, set back and achievement.It was
never dull.

A. BIOGRAPHY
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was one of the greatest politicians
the United Kingdom who went on to become the Prime Minister of the
country in 1940, serving till 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Winston
enjoyed an exceptional success in his political life from the very beginning
and
held many important positions such as President of the Board of Trade,
Home Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty in the Asquith Liberal
government. Before chosen to the premiership of the country, Winston was
appointed the Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924. He also served in the
British Army for a short period, where he witnessed the second Boer war and penned his experience as
British officer in books such as The Second World War and A History of the English Speaking Peoples.
Winston Churchill was a prolific writer, historian and artist.
of

Childhood & Early Life


Winston Churchill was born on 30 November 1874 in Oxfordshire in the
Kingdom. A descent of the Spencer family, Winston Leonard SpencerChurchill was born to a politician father Lord Randolph Churchill and
mother Lady Randolph Churchill who was the daughter of an American
millionaire. Winston Churchill had a brother John Strange Spencer.
His
military career began with admitting in to Harrow School in 1888, where
he
joined the Harrow Rifle Corps. Throughout his schooling life, he
performed average in academic but showed a particular interest in English
and History. He did not see much of his parents in his early life as he stayed with his grandmother and
this made him relatively independent and rebellious in nature. He was believed to have cold relation with
his father.
United

Young politician
In 1899 Churchill lost in his first attempt at election to the House of Commons, one of two
bodies controlling Parliament in England. This was to be the first of many defeats in elections, as
Churchill lost more elections than any other political figure in recent British history. But in 1900 he

entered the House of Commons, in which he served off and on until 1964. Churchill's early years in
politics were characterized by an interest in the radical reform (improvement) of social problems. The
major intellectual achievement of this period of Churchill's life was his Liberalism and the Social
Problem (1909). In this work he stated his belief in liberalism, or political views that stress civil rights
and the use of government to promote social progress.

Interwar years
Churchill's years between world wars were characterized by political isolation. During this period
he made many errors and misjudgments. Chief among these was his warlike approach to the general strike
of 1926. Thus, he cannot be viewed simply as a popular leader who was kept waiting in the wings through
no fault of his own.

B.PRIME MINISTER
The major period of Churchill's political career began when he became prime minister and head of
the Ministry of Defense early in World War II, when British and American Allies fought against the
Axis of Germany, Italy, and Japan.

FIRST TERM
I felt as if I was walking with destiny, and that all my past life had been
but a preparation for this hour," Churchill wrote in the first volume of his
account of the war.His finest hour and that of the British people came at the
same time. His leadership, which was expressed in noble speeches and
constant personal activity, stated precisely what Britain needed to survive
through the years before the United States entered the war. On 3 September
1939, Britain declared war against Germany; with this Churchill was again
elected the First Lord of the Admiralty and became a member of the war
cabinet. The Prime Minister Chamberlain resigned after the German invasion
of Norway and Churchill was invited to form an all party government. As Prime minister, Churchill
refused to any peace agreement with an evidently growing Germany and geared up the British for a
long war.
SECOND TERM
Though the World War II ended with a landslide victory of British and allied
countries, Winston lost the 1945 election and became a leader of the opposition.
His success came with the General Election of 1951, when he was again elected
Prime Minister for a second term. However, foreign policies and international
affairs dominated his first term; he put efforts to build the Britain an International
power in his second government. He adopted direct military actions against
rebellions and Kenya was the First to witness his road to world victory, following
by Malaya. Though the rebellions were repressed through harsh methods, it was
clearly visible that colonial rule from Britain has come to a downfall. There is little doubt that Winston
Churchill was a political figure of enormous influence and importance. His record, both before 1939 and
after 1945, was for the most part undistinguished. But as Anthony Storr writes: "In 1940 Churchill
became the hero that he had always dreamed of being. In that dark time, what England needed was not
a shrewd, equable, balanced leader. She needed a prophet, a heroic visionary, a man who could dream
dreams of victory when all seemed lost. Winston Churchill was such a man."

C.CHURCHILL: LEADER AND STATESMAN


He was the lion who roared when the British Empire needed him most. He held many positions during
his long career and was an accomplished civil servant. In his private life, Winston Churchill was an avid
reader and scholar, painter, author, journalist, and war correspondent. Historians widely attribute
Churchill with being the greatest statesman of the 20th century. Churchill was an effective leader and
statesman because of his tremendous ability to inspire people; his unique strategic insight; his relentless
passion; and his imperturbable personality.
One of Winston Churchills chief attributes as a leader was his capability of inspiring people,
regardless of seemingly ominous circumstances. The source of this inspiration was his own character.
Churchill perpetually demonstrated enthusiasm, determination, and optimismif not at all times in
private, then at least always in public.
Churchills ability to inspire may be seen in the opening days of World War II. He did not permit a
defeatist attitude, nor would he entertain talk of reasonable terms with Adolf Hitler.
Another example of Churchills powers of inspiration was his ability to channel his determination to the
British people, and generally strengthen their resolve through enthusiastic encouragement and praise to
others. During the opening days of the war he said that, The British people are like the sea. You can put
the bucket in anywhere, and pull it up, and always find it salt. Churchill inspired not only British leaders,
but British citizens as well, by projecting an attitude of optimism and stalwart fortitude. Winston
Churchill was also an effective statesman and leader because he possessed the attribute of strategic
foresight. While Churchills foresight was a critical component of his leadership, there was another factor
that elevated all of his talents to the forefront: his passion. Winston Churchill possessed a passion for
democratic freedom that drove him to work hard for its preservation, allowing him to be an effective
statesman and leader. Perhaps the best example of Churchills passion is found in some of the words that
he used to inspire people and battle defeatism: I am convinced that every man of you would rise up and
tear me down from my place if I were for one moment to contemplate parley or surrender. If this long
island story of ours is to last, let it end only when each one of us lies choking in his own blood on the
ground. The last component of Churchills remarkable formula for success was his imperturbable
personality. Coupled with a dogged determination was a personality that was capable of exuding charm
and wit, and that caused people to gravitate toward him. Churchill famously described himself in the
following way: We are all worms but I do believe I am a glow worm. In conclusion, of all the qualities
that Churchill displayed, perhaps the most interesting was his unexpected outbursts of humility. While
Churchills power to inspire, his strategic foresight, his driving passion, and his unstoppable personality
were the core qualities that made him an effective leader and statesman, the realization that he too was a
worm tempered his character and kept him focused. His lifetime spanned not only the two World Wars
of the 20th century but other conflicts, historic diplomatic meetings, and the onset of the Cold War.
Winston Churchill led the British nation on two separate occasions as prime minister, in peace and in war,
and on two separate occasions as First Lord of the Admiralty, both in the office and on the frontline. Yet,
he steadfastly refused to take the credit.

D. FREEMASON
Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was a Master Mason in the Studholme Lodge No. 1591 under the
United Grand Lodge of England. He was initiated into the Lodge in 1901 at the age of 27. However, he
felt that he could not keep up his committment to the Lodge due to his burgeoning political career and
responsibilities so he resigned from his Mother (first) Lodge in 1912. However, it is rarely reported that
he still remained active visiting as an "unattached" brother and was even involved in the Petition for the
formation of 2 new Lodges in 1917 again in 1918. This included writing two letters to the Grand

Secretary. His last recorded visit to a Lodge was in December 1928 to the Royal Naval Lodge No.29 as a
guest of a Bro. Bernau.
The rumour that he was a 33rd degree master mason is unfounded and totally untrue as he never joined
the Ancient & Accepted Rite of Freemasonry.

E.BOOKS
Winston Churchill was a prolific writer. Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for
his numerous published works, especially his six-volume work The Second World War. At the ceremony
he was awarded the prize "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for
brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".
His first published book was The Story of the Malakand Field Force. It details an 1897 military campaign
on the Northwest Frontier.
Savrola, written on the way to and after the Malakand campaign, is Churchill's only fiction book. It
concerns revolution in a fictional European state. Some of its characters are believed to be modelled upon
his family.
Churchill's second book, The River War, was an account of the British reconquest of the Sudan,
written in 1899 while he was still an officer in the British army. The book provides a history of the British
involvement in the Sudan and the conflict between the British forces led by Lord Kitchener and Islamic
Jihadists led by a self proclaimed second prophet of Islam Muhammad Ahmad who had embarked on a
campaign to conquer Egypt, to drive out the non-Muslim infidels and make way for the second coming of
the Islamic Mahdi. Churchill was himself present at the Battle of Omdurman which is described as part of
the history.
The Second World War is a six-volume history of the period from the end of the First World War to
July 1945. The most ambitious of any work published by Churchill, it was to take a great portion of his
life following his defeat in the 1945 post war election. The first volume was published in 1948 but the
work was not finished until 1954.
F.QUOTES
A man does what he must - in spite of personal consequences, in spite of obstacles and dangers and
pressures - and that is the basis of all human morality.
A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every
difficulty.
A prisoner of war is a man who tries to kill you and fails, and then asks you not to kill him.
All the great things are simple, and many can be expressed in a single word: freedom, justice, honor,
duty, mercy, hope.
Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference.

G. DEATH & FUNERAL


Winston Churchill died on 24 January 1965. By decree of the HM Queen Elizabeth, his body lay in
state for three days in the Palace of Westminster and a state funeral service was held at St Paul's
Cathedral. At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin's Church, Bladon, near
Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace.
H. CONCLUSION

Throughout his life, Churchill's quarrel was with tyranny. Almost certainly he saved Western
civilization by holding out against Hitler in 1940-41. But he despaired that his great postwar goal of
world peace was not achieved in his lifetime. Perhaps no better epitaph exists than the one by HungarianAmerican historian John Lukacs:

"He loved life very much; and he made life possible for many of us because he had a very old, and very
strong, belief in the possibilities of human decency and of human greatness....In the long and slow and
sad music of humanity he once sounded an English and noble note which some of us were blessed to
receive and to remember."

III. MARGARET THATCHER

Margaret Hilda Thatcher is a British politician and the logest-serving (1979 1990) British prime minister
of the 20th century, and the only woman ever to have held the post.A Soviet journalist nicknamed her the
Iron Lady , which later became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.As prime
minister, she implemented conservative policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.

A.BIOGRAPHY
Margaret Thatcher's political career has been one of the most remarkable of modern times. Born in
October 1925 at Grantham, a small market town in eastern England, she rose to become the first (and for two
decades the only) woman to lead a major Western democracy. She won three successive General Elections
and served as British Prime Minister for more than eleven years (1979-90), a record unmatched in the
twentieth century. During her term of office she reshaped almost every aspect of British politics, reviving the
economy, reforming outdated institutions, and reinvigorating the nation's foreign policy. She challenged and
did much to overturn the psychology of decline which had become rooted in Britain since the Second World
War, pursuing national recovery with striking energy and determination. In the process, Margaret Thatcher
became one of the founders, with Ronald Reagan, of a school of conservative conviction politics, which has
had a powerful and enduring impact on politics in Britain and the United States and earned her a higher
international profile than any British politician since Winston Churchill.
By successfully shifting British economic and foreign policy to the right, her governments helped to
encourage wider international trends which broadened and deepened during the 1980s and 1990s, as the end
of the Cold War, the spread of democracy, and the growth of free markets strengthened political and
economic freedom in every continent.
Margaret Thatcher became one of the world's most influential and respected political leaders, as
well as one of the most controversial, dynamic, and plain-spoken, a reference point for friends and enemies
alike.

1925-1947: Grantham & Oxford


Margaret Thatcher's home and early life in Grantham played a large part in forming her political
convictions. Her parents, Alfred and Beatrice Roberts, were
Methodists. The social life of the family was lived largely within the
close
community of the local congregation, bounded by strong traditions of
selfhelp, charitable work, and personal truthfulness. The Roberts family
ran a
grocery business, bringing up their two daughters in a flat over the
shop.
Margaret Roberts attended a local state school and from there won a
place
at Oxford, where she studied chemistry at Somerville College (194347).
Her tutor was Dorothy Hodgkin, a pioneer of X-ray crystallography
who
won a Nobel Prize in 1964. Her outlook was profoundly influenced by
her scientific training.
But chemistry took second place to politics in Margaret Thatcher's future plans. Conservative politics had
always been a feature of her home life: her father was a local councillor in Grantham and talked through with
her the issues of the day. She was elected president of the student Conservative Association at Oxford and
met many prominent politicians, making herself known to the leadership of her party at the time of its
devastating defeat by Labour at the General Election of 1945.

1950-1951: Candidate for Dartford


In
seat of
times,
a
war
getting

her mid-twenties she ran as the Conservative candidate for the strong Labour
Dartford at the General Elections of 1950 and 1951, winning national
publicity as the youngest woman candidate in the country. She lost both
but cut the Labour majority sharply and hugely enjoyed the experience of
campaigning. Aspects of her mature political style were formed in Dartford,
largely working class constituency which suffered as much as any from postrationing and shortages, as well as the rising level of taxation and state
regulation. Unlike many Conservatives at that time, she had little difficulty
a hearing from any audience and she spoke easily, with force and
confidence, on issues that mattered to the voters.

1951-1970: Family & Career


It was in Dartford too that she met her husband, Denis Thatcher, a local
businessman who ran his family's firm before becoming an executive in
the
oil industry. They married in 1951. Twins Mark and Carol were
born
to the couple in 1953.In the 1950s Margaret Thatcher trained as a
lawyer, specialising in taxation. She was elected to Parliament in 1959
as
Member of Parliament (MP) for Finchley, a north London constituency,
which she continued to represent until she was made a member of the
House of Lords (as Baroness Thatcher) in 1992. Within two years, she
was
given junior office in the administration of Harold Macmillan and
during 1964-70 (when the Conservatives were again in Opposition), established her place among the senior
figures of the party, serving continuously as a shadow minister. When the Conservatives returned to office in
1970, under the premiership of Edward Heath, she achieved cabinet rank as Education Secretary.

1975: Elected Conservative Leader


Many Conservatives were ready for a new approach after the Heath Government and when the Party lost a
second General Election in October 1974, Margaret Thatcher ran against Heath for the leadership. To general
surprise (her own included), in February 1975 she defeated him on the first ballot and won the contest
outright on the second, though challenged by half a dozen senior colleagues. She became the first woman ever
to lead a Western political party and to serve as Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons.

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B. PRIME MINISTRE
First Term
The new government pledged to check and reverse Britain's economic decline. In the short-term, painful
measures were required. Although direct taxes were cut, to restore incentives, the budget had to be balanced,
and so indirect taxes were increased. The economy was already entering a recession, but inflation was rising
and interest rates had to be raised to control it. By the end of Margaret Thatcher's first term, unemployment in
Britain was more than three million and it began to fall only in 1986. A large section of Britain's inefficient
manufacturing industry closed down. No one had predicted how severe the downturn would be.But vital longterm gains were made. Inflation was checked and the government created the expectation that it would do
whatever was necessary to keep it low. The budget of spring 1981, increasing taxes at the lowest point of the
recession, offended conventional Keynesian economic thinking, but it made possible a cut in interest rates and
demonstrated this newly found determination. Economic recovery started in the same quarter and eight years
of growth followed.
Political support flowed from this achievement, but the re-election of the government was only made
certain by an unpredicted event: the Falklands War. The Argentine Junta's invasion of the islands in April
1982 was met by Margaret Thatcher in the firmest way and with a sure touch. Although she worked with the
US administration in pursuing the possibility of a diplomatic solution, a British military Task Force was
despatched to retake the islands. When diplomacy failed, military action was quickly successful and the
Falklands were back under British control by June 1982.
The electorate was impressed. Few British or European leaders would have fought for the islands. By doing
so, Margaret Thatcher laid the foundation for a much more vigorous and independent British foreign policy
during the rest of the 1980s.When the General Election came in June 1983, the government was re-elected
with its Parliamentary majority more than trebled (144 seats).

Second Term
The second term opened with almost as many difficulties as the first. The government found itself
challenged by the miners' union, which fought a year-long strike in 1984-85 under militant leadership. The
labour movement as a whole put up bitter resistance to the government's trade union reforms, which began
with legislation in 1980 and 1982 and continued after the General Election.
The miners' strike was one of the most violent and long lasting in British history. The outcome was uncertain,
but after many turns in the road, the union was defeated. This proved a crucial development, because it
ensured that the Thatcher reforms would endure. In the years that followed, the Labour Opposition quietly
accepted the popularity and success of the trade union legislation and pledged not to reverse its key
components.
In October 1984, when the strike was still underway, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) attempted to murder
Margaret Thatcher and many of her cabinet by bombing her hotel in Brighton during the Conservative Party
annual conference. Although she survived unhurt, some of her closest colleagues were among the injured and
dead and the room next to hers was severely damaged. No twentieth-century British Prime Minister ever
came closer to assassination.

Third Term
The legislative platform of the third-term Thatcher Government was among the most ambitious ever put
forward by a British administration. There were measures to reform the education system (1988), introducing
a national curriculum for the first time. There was a new tax system for local government (1989), the
Community Charge, or 'poll tax' as it was dubbed by opponents. And there was legislation to separate

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purchasers and providers within the National Health Service (1990), opening up the service to a measure of
competition for the first time and increasing the scope for effective management.

C. MARGARET THATCHER'S RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK


Of all British Prime Ministers from Harold Macmillan to Tony Blair, Margaret Thatcher was by far the
most vocal about her faith whilst in office, and the only one to draw direct and explicit parallels between her
personal beliefs and her political ones. She felt no hesitation in addressing the General Assembly of the
Church of Scotland as a Christian, as well as a politician. Throughout her career she constantly referred to
the importance of religion, both in a social and personal context.

D. BOOKS
In 1993, Thatcher published The Downing Street Years, the first volume of her two-volume memoirs.
The Downing Street Years covers her life and political career from the moment she learned she had been
elected Britains first woman Prime Minister, until her downfall in 1990.
The Downing Street Years is quite a book. Its very well written meticulously detailed, highly intellectual,
and filled with colorful anecdotes about her family and the men and women who worked for her and helped
her shape British history for a decade. Its also a book that tends to be long-winded and very politically
partisan for long stretches. In The Path of Power, Thatcher writes about her personal life, the formation of her
character and values, and the training and experiences which led to her 1979 election victory.

E. QUOTES
Being powerful is like being a lady. If you have to tell people you are, you aren't.
Europe was created by history. America was created by philosophy.
I do not know anyone who has got to the top without hard work. That is the recipe. It will not always get you
to the top, but should get you pretty near.
In politics, if you want anything said, ask a man.If you want anything done, ask a woman
Look at a day when you are supremely satisfied at the end.Its not a day when you lounge around doing
nothing; its a day youve had everything to do and youve done it

F. MEDIA DEPICTIONS
Margaret Thatcher has been depicted in many television programmes, documentaries, films and plays. She
was played by Patricia Hodge in Ian Curteis's long unproduced The Falklands Play (2002) and by Andrea
Riseborough in the TV film The Long Walk to Finchley (2008). She is the titular character in two films,
portrayed by Lindsay Duncan in Margaret (2009) and by Meryl Streep in The Iron Lady (2011), in which she
is depicted as having Alzheimer's disease

G. CONCLUSION
Margaret Thatcher remains an intensely controversial figure in Britain. Critics claim that her economic
policies were divisive socially, that she was harsh or 'uncaring' in her politics, and hostile to the institutions of
the British welfare state. Defenders point to a transformation in Britain's economic performance over the
course of the Thatcher Governments and those of her successors as Prime Minister. Trade union reforms,
privatisation, deregulation, a strong anti-inflationary stance, and control of tax and spending have created
better economic prospects for Britain than seemed possible when she became Prime Minister in 1979. Critics
and supporters alike recognise the Thatcher premiership as a period of fundamental importance in British
history. Margaret Thatcher accumulated huge prestige over the course of the 1980s and often compelled the
respect even of her bitterest critics. Indeed, her effect on the terms of political debate has been profound.
Whether they were converted to 'Thatcherism', or merely forced by the electorate to pay it lip service, the

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Labour Party leadership was transformed by her period of office and the 'New Labour' politics of Tony Blair
and Gordon Brown would not have existed without her. Her legacy remains the core of modern British
politics: the world economic crisis since 2008 has revived many of the arguments of the 1980s, keeping her
name at the centre of political debate in Britain.

IV. GENERAL CONCLUSION


Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher were two important personalities in the history of
England.They led the country both in wartime and peacetime, taking important but bold measures for
developing the state.

The two of them were marked by courage, determination and were united by the desire to make
England an example for other nations, a country both economically and politically powerful.
Winston Churchill is held in history as one of the greatest wartime leaders of all time, with his
time in office lasting throughout the Second World War.
Margaret Thatcher was Britain's first female prime minister and served three consecutive
terms in office. She is one of the dominant political figures of 20th century Britain, and
Thatcherism continues to have a huge influence.
As a conclusion, a man and a woman, The Iron Lady and The British Bulldog , both wrote
an important, interesting and beautiful part of Englands history.

Bibliography

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http://www.winstonchurchill.org/

Kersaudy, Francois Winston Churchill


http://www.margaretthatcher.org/
Thatcher, Margaret - The Downing Street Years

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