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Monteroso, Paul Ian O.

MISIGEL

Topic: Boost DC-DC Converter

Introduction:

Whenever we want to transform DC electrical power efficiently from one voltage
level to another, DC-DC converters are electronic devices are used. They are required
because unlike AC power, we cannot simply step up or step down DC using a
transformer. In most cases, a DC-DC converter can be considered as the DC equivalent
of a transformer.

DC to DC converters are very important in electronic devices which are powered
by batteries, such as cellphones, laptops and mp3 players. These types of electronic
devices are usually comprised of numerous subcircuits, all of which require a certain
voltage level other than that supplied by the battery. Moreover, the voltage of a battery
decreases as its stored energy is nearly depleted, keeping it from outputting a constant
voltage level. Generating multiple controlled voltages from a single battery voltage is
being done, which is a method, offered by DC to DC converters, allowing the user to
save space instead of using multiple batteries to power different components of the
equipment.

A boost converter is simply is a particular type of power converter with an output
DC voltage greater than the input DC voltage. This type of circuit is utilized to step-up a
source voltage to a higher, regulated voltage, enabling one power supply to provide
varying driving voltages for different parts of a device demanding different voltages.

A boost converter is being used as means to amplify voltage. This particular
circuit topology is used with low power battery applications, and is utilized for the
purpose of extracting the remaining energy in a nearly depleted battery. This energy
would otherwise be wasted since a normal load will not be able to utilize the low voltage
of a nearly depleted battery. This energy would otherwise remain untapped because
many applications do not allow enough current to flow through a load when voltage
decreases. This voltage decrease occurs as batteries are almost run out of energy.
A boost converter is one of the types of DC-DC converters under the class of
switch-mode converters. The circuits belonging to this class, including buck, flyback,
buck-boost, and push-pull converters are generally analogous. They execute the
conversion by applying a DC voltage across an inductor or transformer for a certain
period of time which causes current to flow through it and store energy in a magnetic
field. Switching the applied voltage on and off will cause the stored energy to be
transferred to the voltage output in a controlled manner. The output voltage is regulated
by adjusting the ratio of on/off time better known as the duty cycle. As this circuit does
not use resistive components to dissipate extra power, one can expect that the
efficiency of this circuit topology is exceptionally high. This is clearly desirable, as it
increases the running time of battery-operated devices.
Review of Related Literature:

DC to DC Conversion: Boost Converter Design by Reemmer, B. R.

In this paper, the basics of a boost DC to DC converter was discussed. A boost
converter (step-up converter) is a DC-to-DC power converter with an output voltage
greater than its input voltage. It is a class of switched-mode power supply (SMPS)
containing at least two semiconductor switches (a diode and a transistor) and at least
one energy storage element, a capacitor, inductor, or the two in combination. Filters
made of capacitors (sometimes in combination with inductors) are normally added to the
output of the converter to reduce output voltage ripple.

Battery powered systems usually stack cells in series to reach higher voltage.
However, sufficient stacking of cells is not possible in many high voltage applications
due to lack of space. Boost converters have the ability to increase the voltage and
reduce the number of cells. The key principle that drives the boost converter is the
tendency of an inductor to resist changes in current. In a boost converter, the output
voltage is always higher than the input voltage. When the switch is turned on, the
current flows through the inductor and energy is stored in it. When the switch is turned
off, the stored energy in the inductor tends to collapse and its polarity changes such that
it adds to the input voltage. Thus, the voltage across the inductor and the input voltage
are in series and together charge the output capacitor to a voltage higher than the input
voltage.

DC-DC Switching Boost Converter by Soni, A.

In this paper, it was discussed that the switching power supply market is
blooming quickly in the current generations high-tech world. Design engineers arent
usually supplied with the desired amount of voltage they should have in order to make
their design become functional. Moreover, adding an additional voltage supply to a
design is not always cost efficient.

Efficiency, size, and cost are the primary advantages of switching power
converters when compared to linear converters. Switching power converter efficiencies
can run between 70-80%, whereas linear converters are usually 30% efficient. The DC-
DC Switching Boost Converter is designed to provide an efficient method of taking a
given DC voltage supply and boosting it to a desired value.

Design Specifications:

V
in
= 6 V V
o(ripple)
= 2% of output voltage

V
out
= 12 V V
ref
= 1.25 V

Efficiency: 70% I
max(load)
= 150 mA

Schematic Diagram:






Simulator: MULTISIM 11




References:

Reemmer, B. (2007). DC to DC Conversion: Boost Converter Design. 1-7.
Soni, A. (1999). DC-DC Switching Boost Converter.

http://www.jaycar.com.au/images_uploaded/dcdcconv.pdf
http://www.ladyada.net/library/diyboostcalc.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boost_converter

http://www.remuen.ch/ledstuff/led05_converters.htm

http://www.electronicdesign.com/files/29/10949/10949_01.pdf