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TEJ2O Unit 3 ePortfolio Electronic Circuits

Electronics Theory (from notes)


Digital circuit- a group of electronic components that uses binary signals to perform
some task.
Integrated circuit (IC)- a chip that contains many components in microscopic
circuits, usually etched into semiconductor material.
Analog signal- one whose output varies continuously in step with the input.
Digital signal- one whose output varies at discrete voltage levels commonly called
!" or #$% (& or').
Why digital?
(ata can be stored(memory characteristics of digital)
(ata can be used in calculations
)rogrammability and storage
Why Analog?
*ost real+world events are analog in nature
,nalog processing is usually faster and easier
Traditional electronic systems were mostly analog in nature
-inary numbers
, binary number systems are unlike the decimals or he.adecimals number systems,
as it only consists of the characters & and '. ,n e.ample of a binary number could
include &&&' '&&'. This system of numbers is very easy to use, and the numbers
/,0,1,2,3 etc. can all be e.pressed through these two numbers. ere is the process of
finding out what a binary numbers means in decimal form. 4irst set up a scale of
place values from right to left, the number on the first place value is &, the ne.t place
value is &5s double 6 /, the ne.t place value is /5s double 6 1. The ne.t is 7, and you
get the idea. 8ow put the put the binary numbers in their rightful place value. The
e.ample we will be using is &&&' '&&'. !t would look something like this9
&/7 31 0/ &3 7 1 / &
& & & ' ' & & '
8ow that the place values are set up, whichever place values have a binary number &
under it, are the ones which are going to be added to get the final decimal number. !n
this e.ample the place values which have the binary number & under them are /, 1,
0/, 31, and &/7, meaning that these numbers will have to be added up to get the
decimal number of the binary number given above. :o /;1;0/;31;&/76 /0'.
Therefore the converted decimal form of the binary number &&&' '&&' is /0'. !n
order to differentiate between number systems there is a subscript that is added to the
end of the numbers or set of characters. The subscript for binary number systems is /,
since the system is made up of only / numbers, & and '. The subscript for decimal
numbers is &', since there are &' characters. '+<.
#ogic "ates
#ogic gates are the building blocks of digital circuits. *any logic gates consist of /
inputs and & output. ,ll the pins on a logic gate are either low or high, or ' or & in
binary numbers. %hen the pin is low it is '=, whereas when it5s high it is usually 2=.
The basic logic gates include >9 ,8(, $?, @$?, 8,8(, 8$?, @8$?, and 8$T.