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CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11

Lecture March 11
1
No HW and Quiz due this week
Chap. 4 - Part II
Acid-Base Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
All regrades must be submitted
by THIS Friday, March 14
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Acid and Bases
2
Arrhenius denition of an acid and base
Acid - produces H
+
in aqueous solution
Base - produces OH
-
in aqueous solution
Common STRONG acids and Bases listed in
Table 4.2: Completely dissociate in water
Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO
3
Naming acids: pp 94-97
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Acid-Base Reactions
3
Ionic compound
in water
Ions in solution
are surrounded by
water molecules
HCl
Note the H
+
has
attached to the water to
give H
3
O
+
the
hydronium ion
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Strong Acids and Bases
4
The HCl dissociates into H
+
and Cl
-
ions
H
+
then attaches to H
2
O to produce H
3
O
+
ion
Strong base is NaOH
NaOH(aq) ! Na
+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq)
Produce OH
-
ions in solution
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Acid-Base Reactions
5
Acid + Base ! water + salt
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ! H
2
O(l) + NaCl(aq)
Net ionic equation for strong
acid + strong base
H
+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq) ! H
2
O(l)
H
+
(aq) +
Cl
-
(aq)
Na
+
(aq) +
OH
-
(aq)
Na
+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)
Neutralization Reaction
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Strong Bases
6
Soluble Hydroxides - give OH
-
in
aqueous solution
LiOH, NaOH, KOH very soluble
Ba(OH)
2
and Ca(OH)
2
slightly soluble
but will still react with strong acid even
as a solid.
2 HCl (aq) + Ca(OH)
2
(s) ! CaCl
2
(aq) + 2 H
2
O(l)
OR Ca(OH)
2
(aq)
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Solubility and Molarity
7
Solubility of Ca(OH)
2
is 0.173 g/100mL.
What is the concentration of a saturated
solution of Ca(OH)
2
?
Molar Mass = 57.10 g/mol
M = n/V
n = (0.173 g) (1 mol/57.10 g) = 0.003030 mol
M = .003030 mol/.100 L = 0.0303 M
Note: concentration of OH
-

= 2 x (0.0303) = 0.0606 M
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Calculations - Titrations
8
Example of M
1
V
1
= M
2
V
2
Moles of Acid = Moles of base
If it takes 23.7 mL of a 0.105 M solution of
NaOH to neutralize (equivalence point) 50.0
mL of an unknown strong acid, what was
the initial concentration of that acid?
Ans: 0.0498 M
See 4.19 and 4.20 for a titration example
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
More Acid-Base Reaction
Using Concentrations
9
What volume of 0.135 M HNO
3
is
required to fully neutralize 100.0 mL of a
0.030 M Ca(OH)
2
solution?
n base = (0.030)(.100)(2) = .0060 mol base
n
base
= n
acid
= MV
n
acid
= .0060 = (0.135) V
acid
V
acid
= 44 mL of HNO
3
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Another Example
10
What volume of a 0.75 M HCl solution is
required to neutralize 100.0 mL of a 0.23
M strong base
Ans: 31 mL
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Oxidation-Reduction
Reactions
11
Determine the OXIDATION state
(number) of an element in a reaction
Will use the rules on p. 164 to determine
oxidation number - when possible
2PbS(s) + 3O
2
(g) 2PbO(s) + 2SO
2
(g)
assign the
S -2, then
Pb is +2
O = 0
O = -2
Pb = +2
O = -2
S = +4
S goes from -2 to +4
O goes from 0 to -2
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Determining the Oxidizing
and Reducing Agents
12
2 Mg(s) + O
2
(g) 2MgO(s)
oxidation - increase in ox #, loss of electrons
reduction - decrease in ox #, gain of electrons
One compound is oxidized and one is reduced
O
2
is reduced (0!-2)
Mg is oxidized (0!+2)
0 0 Mg=+2 O=-2
OIL RIG
oxidizing agent
reducing agent
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
More on Ox-Red
13
2N
2
H
4
(g) + N
2
O
4
(g) ! 3N
2
(g) + 4H
2
O(g)
Note: H and O are unchanged so will
concentrate on the N in each compound
N
2
H
4
:
H=(+1)4=+4
N = -4/2 = -2
N
2
O
4
:
O=(-2)4=-8
N = +8/2 = +4
N
2
:
N=0
N -2!0
oxidation
N
2
H
4

reducing agent
N +4!0
reduction
N
2
O
4
oxidizing agent
Note: checking
the ox # change
-2 x 4 = -8
+4 x 2 = +8
CHEM131 - Spring 14 -March 11
Quiz of the Day
14
If the solubility of Ba(OH)
2
is 3.89 g/100 mL,
what would be the concentration of OH
-
(in
molarity) in a saturated solution of Ba(OH)
2
?
Molar mass of Ba(OH)
2
= 171.35 g/mol
Ans: 0.454 M