Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

ABSTRACT

Analysis of Vibration and Failure


Reciprocating Triplex Pumps for
J. C. WACHEL, President
Member ASME
Engineering Dynamics Inc.
Problems in
Oil Pipelines
F. R. SZENASI, Senior Project Engineer
Member ASME
Engineering Dynamics Inc.
San Antonio, Texas
S. C. DENISON, Production Engineer Consultant
Member AIME/SPE
Tenneco Oil Exploration & Production, Inc.
Houston, Texas
An a na l ys i s was made t o i d e n t i f y t he causes of
vi br a t i on and f a i l u r e problems wi t h t he pi pi ng and
r e c i pr oc a t i ng pump i n t e r n a l s on an o i l pi pe l i ne pump
s t a t i o n . A f i e l d i nve s t i ga t i on was made t o obt a i n
vi br a t i ons and pul s a t i ons over t he e n t i r e range of
pl a nt oper at i ng condi t i ons . The da t a showed t h a t
c a v i t a t i o n was pr es ent a t ne a r l y a l l oper at i ng
condi t i ons due t o t he hi gh pul s a t i ons i n t he s uc t i on
system. The di s char ge system exper i enced hi gh
vi br a t i ons and pi pi ng f a i l u r e s due t o t he
i ne f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he accumul at or. An a c o u s t i c a l
a na l ys i s of t he s uc t i on and di s char ge system was
made t o des i gn t he optimum a c o u s t i c a l f i l t e r syst ems
t o a l l e v i a t e t he problems. The a c o u s t i c a l anal ys es
were performed wi t h a d i g i t a l computer program which
pr e di c t s t he a c o u s t i c a l r esonant f r equenci es and t he
pul s a t i on ampl i t udes over t he speed r ange. Thi s
paper di s c us s e s t he i nve s t i ga t i ons and gi ves
recommendations f o r pr event i on of t hes e t ypes of
problems i n t he f ut ur e .
INTRODUCTION
Problems were exper i enced wi t h f our t r i p l e x
r e c i pr oc a t i ng crude o i l pumps oper at i ng i n p a r a l l e l
a t t he Dina Pumping St a t i o n l ocat ed i n Colombia
( Fi gur e 1 ) . The pumps had a r a t e d speed of 275 rpm
wi t h a c a pa c i t y of 388 ga l l ons per mi nut e. The
nominal s uc t i on pr es s ur e was 60 ps i g (414 kPa) and
t he di s char ge pr es s ur e was 1800 ps i g (12400 kPa) .
The De l r i n pump va l ve s had r epeat ed f a t i g u e f a i l u r e s
begi nni ng t h r e e months a f t e r s t a r t u p . The di s char ge
val ve di s ks were r epl aced wi t h s t e e l and t he Del r i n
di s ks used on t he s uc t i on val ves were r epl aced ever y
90 days t o avoi d f a t i gue f a i l u r e s . Valve f a i l u r e s
were c ont r ol l e d a f t e r t he f i r s t 9 months of s t a t i o n
oper at i on. For t he f i r s t f our months t he r e were no
p u l l rod f a i l u r e s ; however, t he r e have been 18
f a i l u r e s i n t he f ol l owi ng year and a h a l f . Many of
t hes e f a i l u r e s r equi r ed repl acement of t he
cr osshead, t he guideways, and on two occasi ons a
broken o r bent connect i ng r od. The s uc t i on and
di s char ge pi pi ng syst ems vi br a t e d exces s i vel y,
r e s u l t i n g I n s e ve r a l pi pi ng f a t i g u e f a i l u r e s .
At t empt s t o c ont r ol t he pi pi ng v i b r a t i o n s wi t h pi pe
clamps and a d d i t i o n a l suppor t s were unsuccessf ul .
The f our pumps had a common s uc t i on header suppl i ed
by a char ge pump which was capabl e of suppl yi ng
pr es s ur es up t o 90 p s i (621 kPa) . The di s char ge of
t he f our pumps f ed i n t o a common header which
connect ed t o t he main pi pel i ne. The o r i g i n a l pi pi ng
des i gn i ncl uded bl adder- type accumul at ors on bot h
t he s uc t i on and di s char ge.
It was d i f f i c u l t t o keep t he pumps runni ng smoothly
s i nc e cons t ant maintenance was needed t o keep t he
accumul at or bl adder pr es s ur es charged t o
appr oxi mat el y 60 t o 70 per cent of l i n e pr es s ur e.
The s t a t i c di s char ge pr es s ur e coul d change from 700
ps i g (4826 kPa) t o more t han 1600 ps i g (11032 kPa)
I n a few mi nut es i f t he down-line boos t er s t a t i o n
went down. When t h i s happened, t he accumul at or was
i n e f f e c t i v e .
The c os t of t he p a r t s and l abor t h a t could be
a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s problem was i n excess of
$500,000. Tenneco, t he pi pi ng des i gner and t he pump
manufact urer began a s t udy t o det ermi ne t he cause o r
causes of t he vi br a t i ons and f a i l u r e s . However, t he
complex r e l a t i o n s h i p of t he system v a r i a b l e s made i t
d i f f i c u l t t o devel op d e f i n i t e concl usi ons.
There were s e ve r a l changes made i n t he pi pi ng system
dur i ng t h i s phase i n an at t empt t o improve t he
vi br a t i ons and reduce t he f a i l u r e s . These i ncl uded
changi ng t he pi pi ng ( a t t he recommendation of t he
accumul at or vendor) s o t h a t t he fl ow would be
di r e c t e d a t t he bl adder . Thi s pi pi ng modi f i cat i on
di d not improve t he pul s a t i on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he
sy s tem.
Presented at the Energy-Sources and Technology Conference and Exhibition
Dallas, Texas - February 17-21, 1985
Another modi f i cat i on which was t r i e d on t he s uc t i on
s i d e of pumps 1 and 3 was t he repl acement of t he
bl adder-t ype accumul at ors wi t h ni t r ogen- char ged,
flow-through accumul at ors ( Fi gur e 1 ) . No not i c e a bl e
imurovements were observed a f t e r t he s e changes were
implemented.
BLADDER
PDF\ ACCUMULATOR I I
I PUMP CASE I 101 I (
GAS- CHAROEDJ BOTTLE 1 I
FIGURE 1. Pump Pi pi ng Layout Showing Pr es s ur e
Measurement Locat i ons
The s e ve r i t y of t he problems brought t he ba s i c
des i gn of t he syst em i n t o que s t i on s i nc e t he s uc t i on
and di s char ge l ead l i n e s from t he header s t o t he
pump mani fol d were s hor t e r t han normal f o r most
pi pe l i ne s t a t i o n s . The pumps were l ocat ed on 16
f oot (4.88 m) c e nt e r s wi t h t he s uc t i on and di s char ge
header s l ocat ed 10 t o 12 f e e t (3.05 t o 3.66 m) away
from t he pump f l anges .
The s t a t i o n capaci t y was 39900 b a r r e l s per day (264
m
3
/ h) when t he pumps were a t t h e i r r a t e d capaci t y of
388 ga l l ons per mi nut e (88 m3/h). Thi s r e s u l t s i n a
f l u i d ve l oc i t y of 3.3 f t / s ( 1 m/s) i n t he 12 i nch
schedul e 40 s uc t i on mani fol d and 6.9 f t / s (2. 1 m/s)
i n t he 10 i nch schedul e XS di s char ge mani f ol d. The
fl ow v e l o c i t i e s i n t he i ndi vi dua l pump pi pi ng were
1.1 f t / s (0.34 m/s) i n t he 12 i nch s t andar d wei ght
s uc t i on pi pe and 2.7 f t / s (0.82 m/s) i n t he 8 i nch
e x t r a heavy di s char ge pi pe.
Engi neeri ng Dynamics I ncor por at ed (EDI) was
r equest ed t o i n v e s t i g a t e and make recommendations t o
a l l e v i a t e t he problems. The f i r s t s t e p i n t he
a na l ys i s was t o model t he a c o u s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of t he pi pi ng syst ems on a d i g i t a l computer program
t o de f i ne t he expect ed pul s a t i on r esonances and t he
o v e r a l l ampl i t udes i n t he s uc t i on and di s char ge
pi pi ng. A d e t a i l e d f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t hen
made t o e va l ua t e t he pul s a t i on and vi br a t i on
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pumps. Sol ut i ons were t hen
developed t o e l i mi na t e t he problems.
FIELD INVESTIGATION
I ns t r ument at i on And Te s t Pr ocedur es
The i ns t r ument at i on and da t a a c q u i s i t i o n system used
t o det ermi ne t he pul s a t i on and v i b r a t i o n
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e shown i n Fi gur e 2.
Pi e z o e l e c t r i c pr es s ur e t r ans ducer s and
accel er omet er s were used t o measure t he pr es s ur e
pul s a t i ons and t he vi br a t i ons . A s ket ch of t he pump
s uc t i on and di s char ge pi pi ng i l l u s t r a t i n g some of
t he pr es s ur e t e s t poi nt s a r e shown i n Fi gur e 1. The
pul s a t i on and v i b r a t i o n s i g n a l s were anal yzed f or
frequency cont ent wi t h a two channel Hewlett-Packard
3582A FFT anal yzer and documented on a HP 74708
d i g i t a l p l o t t e r . The anal yzer and i nst r ument s were
c ont r ol l e d by an Apple 11+ microcomputer usi ng
sof t war e wr i t t e n s p e c i a l l y f or anal yzi ng vi br a t i on
and pul s a t i on d a t a . Tor s i onal vi br a t i ons were
measured wi t h a HBM t or s i ogr aph mounted on t he s t ub
end of t he pi ni on gear s h a f t on pump 1.
ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 Channel FFT Analyzer
~icro-Computer
Floppy Disk Drive
Di gi t al Pl ot t er
Tuneable Fi l t e r s
2 Channel Osci l l oscope
Transducer Signal Conditioner and Power Supply
8 Channel FH Tape Recorder
Function Generator
Strai n Gage Amplifier and Frequency Demodulator
FIGURE 2. Data Acqui s i t i on System
Vi br a t i on And Pu l s a t i o n Te s t i ng
The i n i t i a l v i b r a t i o n sur veys r eveal ed hi gh
v i b r a t i o n ampl i t udes on t he pi pi ng, i ndi c a t i ng l a r ge
e x c i t a t i o n f or ces pr es ent i n t he pi pi ng syst ems.
Anal ysi s of t he pr es s ur e pul s a t i on waveforms
r eveal ed s ever e c a v i t a t i o n i n t he s uc t i on pi pi ng
syst em. Thi s c a v i t a t i o n was t he sour ce of t he hi gh
energy causi ng t he hi gh pi pi ng v i b r a t i o n s , val ve
f a i l u r e s , and pump p a r t f a i l u r e s .
Cavi t at i on. For l i qui d r e c i pr oc a t i ng pumps,
t he s t a t i c pr es s ur e i n t he s uc t i on system must be
adequat e t o compensate f or f r i c t i o n a l pr es s ur e drop
l os s e s , t he r equi r ed a c c e l e r a t i on head, and t he
pul s a t i ons pr es ent i n t he system. Thi s ens ur es t h a t
t he pr es s ur e remains above t he vapor pr es s ur e. The
vapor pr es s ur e of t he o i l was l e s s t han 2 p s i a (13. 8
kPa). When pul s a t i ons e x i s t i n a syst em, t hey wi l l
c o n s i s t of a p o s i t i v e peak of pr es s ur e which w i l l be
added t o t he s t a t i c pr es s ur e and a negat i ve peak
which w i l l be s ubs t r a c t e d from t he s t a t i c pr es s ur e.
I f t he negat i ve peak of t he pul s a t i on, when
s ubt r a c t e d from t he s t a t i c pr es s ur e, r eaches t he
vapor pr es s ur e, t he f l u i d w i l l c a v i t a t e , r e s u l t i n g
i n hi gh pr es s ur e s pi ke s a s t he l i q u i d vapor i zes and
t hen c ol l a ps e s a s t he pr es s ur e i nc r e a s e s above t he
vapor pr es s ur e.
To i l l u s t r a t e t he e f f e c t s of c a v i t a t i o n , cons i der
t he pl unger pr essur e- t i me wave shown i n Fi gur e 3
which shows t h a t c a v i t a t i o n occur s on t he s uc t i on
s t r oke . Note t h a t when t he c a v i t a t i o n por t i on of
t he waveform i s expanded, t he pr e s s ur e s pi kes a r e
approxi mat el y 800 p s i (5516 kPa) wi t h a t i me per i od
of appr oxi mat el y 0.00025 seconds. The pr esence of
c a v i t a t i o n can us ua l l y be observed on t he complex
wave s i nc e pul s a t i ons , which a r e ge ne r a l l y
sine-shaped waves, w i l l "square-off" a t t he t r ough
of t he waves when t he vapor pr e s s ur e i s reached.
The t ype of d a t a t o s u b s t a n t i a t e c a v i t a t i o n ( Fi gur e
4 ) i l l u s t r a t e s t he squari ng-off of t he wave,
fol l owed by t he s har p s pi ki ng c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of
sever e c a v i t a t i o n . Thi s da t a , t aken on pump u n i t 1,
showed pr es s ur e s pi ke s of 600 p s i (4137 kPa) .
FIGURE 3. Pump Pl unger Pressure-Time Wave
Showing Cavi t at i on
EMINEERING DYNAMICS INCORPORATED
FIGURE 4 . Ca vi t a t i on Caused By High Pul s at i ons
The e f f e c t of t he s t a t i c pr es s ur e on t he c a v i t a t i o n
was i nve s t i ga t e d by r a i s i n g t he s uc t i on pr es s ur e t o
t he maximum pos s i bl e (90 psi g/ 621 kPa). The
i ncr eas e i n s uc t i on pr es s ur e al one was not
s u f f i c i e n t t o e l i mi na t e t he c a v i t a t i o n . Severe
pul s a t i ons were found wi t h l e v e l s i n excess of 200
p s i peak-to-peak (1379 kPa) . A t a s uc t i on pr es s ur e
of 76.5 p s i a (527 kPa) , pul s at i ons of approxi mat el y
75 p s i (517 kPa) zero-peak a r e r equi r ed t o cause
c a v i t a t i o n . Thi s val ue i s obt ai ned by s ubt r a c t i ng
t he negat i ve ~ u l s a t i o n peak from t he s t a t i c
pr es s ur e. Si nce pul s a t i ons g r e a t e r t han 75 p s i (517
kPa) were always pr es ent a t t he hi gher speeds,
c a v i t a t i o n always occur r ed.
I n t he pr esence of c a v i t a t i o n , i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y
i mpossi bl e t o e va l ua t e t he i nf l uence of va r i a bl e s ,
such a s t he e f f e c t of ot he r u n i t s , speeds and t he
accumul at or desi gn. Obviously, a r educt i on of t he
pr es s ur e pul s a t i ons was necessar y i n or der t o obt ai n
meani ngful t e s t d a t a on t he u n i t s .
Acous t i cal Resonances. The major s uc t i on
pul s a t i on components were a t f r equenci es near 110 t o
150 Hz wi t h pul s a t i on ampl i t udes of approxi mat el y
100 - 150 p s i (689 - 1034 kPa) peak-to-peak, which,
when combined wi t h t he pul s a t i on a t t he lower pump
harmoni cs, caused t he o v e r a l l s t a t i c pr es s ur e t o
dr op below t he vapor pr essur e. I t was det ermi ned
t h a t a c o u s t i c a l resonances were causi ng t he hi gh
ampl i t ude pul s a t i ons . Acous t i cal resonances amplify
t he pul s a t i ons whenever one of t he harmonics of t he
pump speed passes t hrough t he r es onant frequency.
The a c o u s t i c a l resonance a t 130 Hz was a
quarter-wave resonance of t he s uc t i on pi pe and was
a s s oc i a t e d wi t h t he 9 f oot (2.74 m) l engt h from t he
end of t he s uc t i on mani fol d t o t he accumul at or.
When an a c o u s t i c a l resonance i s encount ered i n a
syst em, t he pr es s ur e pul s at i ons can be reduced by
e l i mi na t i ng t he resonance or by a t t e nua t i ng t he
ampl i t udes t hrough t he a ddi t i on of a r e s i s t i v e
el ement , such a s an o r i f i c e . Ther ef or e, an o r i f i c e
p l a t e was i n s t a l l e d a t t he s uc t i on f l ange i n an
at t empt t o a t t e nua t e t he pul s a t i on ampl i t udes and
pos s i bl y move t he a c ous t i c a l n a t u r a l frequency. A
di amet er r a t i o ( o r i f i c e di amet er t o i ns i de di amet er
of pi pe) of approxi mat el y 0.4 was used t o ensur e a
s i g n i f i c a n t a c o u s t i c a l e f f e c t . When t he o r i f i c e
p l a t e was i n s t a l l e d , t he pul s a t i ons were reduced;
however, t he r educt i on was not s u f f i c i e n t t o
compl et el y e l i mi na t e t he c a v i t a t i o n .
I n t e r a c t i o n With Ot her Pumps. Al l t he
ot he r pumps were s hut down and pump 1 was r un t o
det ermi ne i f t he c a v i t a t i o n was caused by
i n t e r a c t i o n wi t h t he ot he r pumps o r was a f unct i on
of t he i ndi vi dua l pi pi ng desi gn. These t e s t s
i ndi cat ed t h a t t he pul s at i ons were caused by t he
i ndi vi dua l pumps and t h a t t he major f a c t o r was t he
a c o u s t i c a l resonances near 130 Hz. Thi s t e s t a l s o
gave evi dence t h a t t he l oc a t i on of t he pump i n t he
mani fol d system was not a major f a c t o r i n t he
c a v i t a t i o n . Thi s i s v e r i f i e d by t he f a c t t h a t
c a v i t a t i o n occur r ed on u n i t s 1 and 3 a t t he exact
same speed under t he same oper at i ng condi t i ons .
Uni t s 1 and 3 a r e s epar at ed by 32 f e e t (9.75 m) wi t h
u n i t 2 midway between them. I f t he l oc a t i on of t he
pump i n t he header was a prime f a c t o r , t he r e would
have been d i f f e r e n t pul s a t i on and c a v i t a t i o n
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . To f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t he
i n t e r a c t i o n of t he ot he r pumps, t e s t s were made wi t h
pump 1 on t he ver ge of c a v i t a t i o n and t he adj acent
u n i t 2 was swept t hrough t he e n t i r e speed range t o
det ermi ne i f it a f f e c t e d t he speed a t which
c a v i t a t i o n occur r ed. Thi s t e s t showed t h a t t he
adj acent u n i t di d not i nf l uence t he c a v i t a t i o n .
I n an at t empt t o det ermi ne whether t he a c o u s t i c a l
resonance was a s s oc i a t e d wi t h a pi pi ng l engt h from
t he ot he r u n i t s , t he s uc t i on bl ock val ve was pinched
momentarily t o s ee i f a pr es s ur e dr op t aken on t he
upstream s i d e of t he accumul at or would a f f e c t t he
resonances i n t he 130 Hz r ange. The pr e s s ur e drop
of approxi mat el y 10 p s i i n t he bl ock val ve d i d not
have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t .
Fi n a l Tes t i ng. Af t er t he o r i f i c e p l a t e was
i n s t a l l e d and t he ni t rogen-charged accumul at or
b o t t l e on t he s uc t i on system had t he maximum gas
char ge, t he c a v i t a t i o n was el i mi nat ed over much of
t he speed range making it ~ o s s i b l e t o s t udy t he
e f f e c t of var yi ng system par amet er s. The normal
procedure f or t he t e s t i n g was t o e s t a b l i s h a s e t of
s t eady- s t at e condi t i ons , ( such a s s uc t i on pr e s s ur e ,
gas volume i n t he b o t t l e , o r char ge pr e s s ur e i n t he
bl adder accumul at or, speeds on t he ot he r pumps,
e t c . ) and t hen change t he pump speed from 190 rpm t o
290 rpm. During t he speed r un, t he pul s a t i ons i n
t he s uc t i on and di s char ge pi pi ng were t ape recorded
f or l a t e r eval uat i on. The r e s u l t i n g d a t a
pr e s e nt a t i on f or t he speed v a r i a t i o n i s gi ven i n
Fi gur e 5, showing t he harmonics of pump speed
pul s a t i on pr es s ur es i n t he s uc t i on mani fol d of pump
3 over t he speed range. The d a t a shows t h a t t he
primary cause of t he c a v i t a t i o n was t he hi gh l e ve l
pul s a t i ons a t t he a c o u s t i c a l n a t u r a l f r equenci es i n
t he system near 130 and 140 Hz which were e xc i t e d by
t he 21s t t hrough t he 30t h harmonics of pump speed.
ENQlNEERlNO OVNUAlC.5 INCORPORATED
FIGURE 5. Speed Rast er Of Pump Suct i on Pul s a t i ons
Speed Ef f e c t s . The e f f e c t of speed on
-
c a v i t a t i o n can be seen i n Fi gur e 6 which gi ve s t he
complex pr es s ur e wave f or speeds from 220 t o 270 rpm
f or a s uc t i on pr es s ur e of 60 ps i g (414 kPa) .
Pul s a t i ons ge ne r a l l y i ncr eas e wi t h speed unl es s
t he r e a r e a c o u s t i c a l r esonances. As shown, when t he
speed i ncr eas ed above 250 rpm, t he pul s a t i ons
i ncr eas ed t o t he poi nt t h a t t he ne ga t i ve pr es s ur e
pul s a t i on ampl i t ude was near t he vapor pr es s ur e and
t he wave became f l a t t e n e d on t he t rough. As t he
speed was f u r t h e r i ncr eas ed, t he c a v i t a t i o n became
more s ever e.
FIGURE 6. Complex Wave Of Pr es s ur e Pul s at i on Versus
Speed For Suct i on Pr essur e Of 60 Ps i g
S t a t i c Pr e s s ur e Ef f e c t s . When t he s t a t i c
s uc t i on pr es s ur e was i ncr eased t o 90 ps i g, t he
pul s a t i on ampl i t udes were reduced and t he u n i t coul d
be r un a t 280 rpm wi t hout c a v i t a t i o n ( Fi gur e 7).
The hi gher s uc t i on pr es s ur e seemed t o i n h i b i t t he
ampl i t ude of t he pul s a t i ons . The r e s u l t s of t hes e
t e s t s i ndi cat ed t h a t t he c a v i t a t i o n coul d be
minimized by i nc r e a s i ng t he s uc t i on pr es s ur e t o t he
maximum pos s i bl e , i n s t a l l i n g an o r i f i c e p l a t e t o
reduce t he pul s a t i on ampl i t udes, and ens ur i ng t h a t
t he accumul at or was pr oper l y charged.
FIGURE 7. Complex Wave Of Pr es s ur e Pul s at i on Versus
Speed For Suct i on Pr es s ur e Of 90 Ps i g
The e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he gas-charged flow-through
accumulator was s t r ongl y i nf l uenced by t he volume of
t he ni t r oge n gas i n t he accumul at or b o t t l e , Fi gur e
8. The i ncr eas ed gas char ge volume el i mi nat ed
pul s a t i on components of 46 p s i a t 12 Hz and 22 p s i
a t 65 Hz.
FIGURE 8. Ef f e c t Of I ncr eased Gas Volume I n Suct i on
Accumulator
Di schar ge Pul s a t i ons . The measured f i e l d
da t a showed hi gh a m~ l i t u d e pul s a t i ons i n t he
-
di s char ge pi pi ng wi t h l e v e l s exceedi ng 1000 p s i
(6895 kPa) peak-to-peak i n some t e s t s ( Fi gur e 9).
An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made t o det er mi ne i f t he
di s char ge pul s a t i ons were a f f e c t e d by t h e c a v i t a t i o n
on t he s uc t i on s i d e . The complex pr es s ur e wave a t
t he s uc t i on and di s char ge val ves were capt ur ed
si mul t aneousl y dur i ng t he t i me t h a t s ever e
c a v i t a t i o n was pr e s e nt and showed t h a t t he di s char ge
s i d e was i s o l a t e d from t he s uc t i on s i d e . The
pul s a t i on ampl i t udes were ver y hi gh; however, t hey
were not caused by t he c a v i t a t i o n on t he s uct i on.
The pul s a t i ons were a f unct i on of t he ener gy out put
from t he pl unger s and were s t r ongl y i nf l uenced by
t he val ve r i ngi ng and t he a c o u s t i c a l r esonances a s
d i c t a t e d by t he a c o u s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of t he
bl adder-t ype accumul at or and t he pi pi ng system.
Whenever t he s t a t i o n di s char ge pr es s ur e dropped
below t he char ge pr es s ur e i n t he bl adder of t he
di s char ge accumul at or, a not i c e a bl e i nc r e a s e i n t he
pul s a t i ons occur r ed.
FIGURE 9. Complex Wave Of Di scharge ~ulsatione
ACOUSTIC SIMULATION
The r a pi d advances of d i g i t a l computers has made i t
more p r a c t i c a l t o anal yze t he a c ous t i c a l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( pul s a t i ons ) of pi pi ng s ys tems
d i g i t a l l y . A comprehensive computer program has
been wr i t t e n by ED1 t o pr e di c t t he a c ous t i c a l
a t t e nua t i on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , pass bands, and
pul s a t i on l e v e l s f o r pi pi ng syst ems wi t h l i qui d
pumps or gas compressors. The program can be used
t o des i gn pul s a t i on f i l t e r s o r t o e va l ua t e t he
e f f e c t i ve ne s s of syst ems wi t h l i qui df ga s
accumul at ors.
The program i s based on c l a s s i c a l f l u i d mechanics
t heor y ( Navier-Stokes equat i on, t he c ont i nui t y
equat i on, and t he thermodynamic equat i on of s t a t e ) .
The assumpt i on is made t h a t plane-wave pr opogat i on
w i l l adequat el y s i mul at e t he motion of pr es s ur e
di s t ur bances and t he a c ous t i c r esponse of t y p i c a l
pi pi ng syst ems found i n most i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s . The
c l a s s i c a l equat i ons of f l u i d mechanics a r e combined
wi t h t he pi pe el ement geometry t o de f i ne t he
response of t he pi pi ng system t o dynamic v a r i a t i o n s
i n t he pr es s ur e and flow. The e f f e c t s of mean fl ow
on damping ( pr e s s ur e drop, r e s i s t a n c e , e t c ) a r e
i ncl uded i n t he a na l ys i s . The program i s wr i t t e n i n
a ge ne r a l manner s o t h a t any pi pi ng system can be
si mul at ed by combi nat i ons of d i s t r i b u t e d o r lumped
el ement s .
I n l i q u i d pump syst ems, t he pr es s ur e pul s es
gener at ed by t he pl unger can be q u i t e complex.
Because of t he i ncompr essi bl e medium, t he f l ow r a t e
i s a f unct i on of pi s t on ve l oc i t y, which i s not
s i nus oi da l because of a f i n i t e cr ankl r od r a t i o .
Geomet ri cal l y-caused d i s t o r t i o n s produce hi gher
harmonics which must be i ncl uded i n t he f or ced
pul s a t i on a na l ys i s . The computer program gener at es
t he pl unger pr essur e- t i me wave and us es i t t o e x c i t e
t he pi pi ng system.
The f i e l d t e s t s i d e n t i f i e d an a c ous t i c resonance a s
t he cause of t he problem. Ther ef or e, t he s ol ut i on
was t o move t he a c o u s t i c a l resonances away from t he
s t r ong pump harmonics. The ED1 d i g i t a l a c o u s t i c a l
program was used t o s i mul at e t he pi pi ng system and
t o devel op t he s ol ut i on. The pi pi ng geometry and
t he l i q u i d t hermophysi cal p r o p e r t i e s de f i ne t he
a c ous t i c n a t u r a l f r equenci es of t he s uc t i on and
di s char ge pi pi ng systems. The r e s u l t s of t he
computer a na l ys i s of t he o r i g i n a l s uc t i on pi pi ng
system wi t h t he gas-charged f i l t e r a r e gi ven i n
Fi gur e 10. The d a t a pr e s e nt s t he pr edi ct ed
pul s a t i ons a t each harmonic of pump speed from
minimum t o maximum speed. The harmonic numbers a r e
i ndi cat ed adj acent t o t he appr opr i at e curve. The
i n t e r a c t i o n of t he i ndi vi dua l harmonics wi t h t he
a c ous t i c r esonant f r equenci es a t 130 and 140 Hz can
be seen. Thi s da t a can be compared t o t he measured
pul s a t i ons gi ven i n Fi gur e 5. Gener al l y, t he r e was
good agreement wi t h t he a c ous t i c a l r esonances a t 130
and 140 Hz; however, t he c a l c ul a t e d ampl i t udes were
lower. It must be remembered i n t he assessment of
t he f i e l d d a t a t h a t c a v i t a t i o n was s t i l l occur r i ng
and t he ampl i t udes measured would be expect ed t o be
hi gher t han c a l c ul a t e d f o r t h e s t eady s t a t e
oper at i ng condi t i ons . Note t h a t t he lower or der
harmonics, 3X, 6X, 9X, 12X, e t c . a r e c l o s e t o t he
c a l c ul a t e d val ues .
FIGURE 10. Pul s a t i ons Pr edi ct ed I n Exi s t i ng Suct i on
Pi pi ng System
Whlle i n t he f i e l d , an o r i f i c e p l a t e was i n s t a l l e d
i n t he s uc t i on f l ange and was s uc c e s s f ul i n r educi ng
t he pul s a t i ons and c a v i t a t i o n ( Fi gur e 11) . The
f i e l d d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t he pul s a t i ons were
reduced and a s l i g h t s h i f t down i n t he f r equency of
t he major r esponses i s not ed. Thi s was anal yzed on
t he computer and t he r e s u l t s a r e gi ven i n Fi gur e 12.
The major r esponse was lowered t o 120 Hz and some
r educt i on i n t he o v e r a l l peak-peak ampl i t udes was
pr edi ct ed.
FIGURE 11. Speed Rast er Of Pump Suct i on Pul s a t i ons
With Or i f i c e Pl a t e And Maximum Gas
Volume I n Suct i on Accumulator
FIGURE 12. Pul s a t i ons Pr edi ct ed In Suct i on Pi pi ng
With Or i f i c e Pl a t e I n s t a l l e d
I n t he development of t he s ol ut i on, t he anal yses
showed t h a t a gas-charged, flow-through l i q u i d
accumul at or l ocat ed a t t he pump f l ange i ns t e a d of
two f e e t away, would have r e s ul t e d i n lower
pul s a t i ons a s p l o t t e d i n Fi gur e 13. The ampl i t udes
a t t he r esonant f r equenci es were reduced a s we l l a s
t he lower pump harmonics.
FIGURE 13. Pul s a t i ons Pr edi ct ed In Suct i on Pi pi ng
With Gas-Charged, Flow-Through Accumulator
A t Suct i on Fl ange
The pul s a t i on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he di s char ge
pi pi ng system were anal yzed and i ndi c a t e d t h a t t he
bl adder-t ype accumul at or was not e f f e c t i v e dur i ng
some of t he s t a t i o n oper at i ng condi t i ons . For
example, t he di s char ge pr es s ur e would sometimes f a l l
t o 700 p s i (4826 kPa) from t he normal 1600 ps i g
(11032 kPa). When t h i s happens, t he bl adder becomes
f u l l y expanded, bl ocki ng of f t he ent r ance of t he
accumul at or and voi di ng t he b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of
t he gas volume. Al so, t he hi gh l e v e l pul s a t i ons
caused bl adder f a i l u r e s which t hen el i mi nat ed t he
gas cushi on on t he back s i d e of t he bl adder . The
e f f e c t i v e volume of t he accumul at or was reduced
s i g n i f i c a n t l y . These e f f e c t s were anal yzed wi t h t he
d i g i t a l computer program. Fi gur e 14 compares t he
pr edi ct ed pul s a t i on f o r t he normal condi t i ons and
t he cas e wi t h low di s char ge pr es s ur e. It can be
seen t h a t t he pul s a t i on ampl i t udes a t t he lower
harmonics s i g n i f i c a n t l y i ncr eas ed when t he gas
cushi on was el i mi nat ed.
FIGURE 14. Pr edi ct ed Di scharge Pul s at i ons For Normal
Oper at i on (------ ) And Low Di scharge Pr es s ur e
( - 1 With Bl adder Type Accumulator And
For Proposed Al l -Li qui d F i l t e r ( . . . . . .)
An a l l - l i q u i d a c ous t i c f i l t e r des i gn was anal yzed
f or t he di s char ge system which shoul d s i g n i f i c a n t l y
lower t he pul s a t i on energy a s i ndi cat ed i n Fi gur e
14. An a l l - l i q u i d pul s a t i on f i l t e r syst em c o n s i s t s
of a volume-choke-volume or a volume-choke pi pi ng
arrangement which i s s p e c i a l l y desi gned t o a t t e nua t e
t he pul s a t i ons above s pe c i f i e d f r equenci es . The
a l l - l i q u i d f i l t e r desi gn f or di s char ge and s uc t i on
syst ems is based on t he al l owabl e pr es s ur e drop i n
t he choke t ube and t he Helmholtz frequency.
CONCLUSIONS
The r e s u l t s of t he f i e l d t e s t s and t he a c ous t i c a l
anal yses l ed t o t hes e concl us i ons :
Suct i on System
1. Whenever pul s a t i on l e v e l s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y hi gh
t o cause t he abs ol ut e s t a t i c pr es s ur e t o drop below
t he vapor pr es s ur e, c a v i t a t i o n can occur . Thi s
c r e a t e s l a r g e f or ces which can cause such problems
a s f a t i gue of t he val ves , cr ossheads, r ods, and
ot he r r o t a t i n g or r e c i pr oc a t i ng p a r t s of pumps.
2. Ca vi t a t i on causes shock t ype pul s es t o be
t r ans mi t t ed t hrough t he s uc t i on pi pi ng. These can
e x c i t e a c o u s t i c a l resonances and cause hi gh pi pi ng
vi br a t i on a t t he mechani cal n a t u r a l f r equenci es of
t he pi pi ng spans, pi pi ng wa l l ( s h e l l r esonances) ,
and pi pi ng appendages, such a s vent s , d r a i n s , gage
l i n e s , e t c . The f or c e s can be s o hi gh t h a t normal
pi pe clamps and s uppor t s may be i n e f f e c t i v e i n
c o n t r o l l i n g t he vi br a t i ons .
3. The gener at ed pul s at i ons i n t he s uc t i on pi pi ng
a r e a s t r ong f unct i on of t he t ype and l oc a t i on of
t he pul s a t i on f i l t e r . For t h i s pi pi ng system, t he
gas-charged, flow-through accumul at or was more
e f f e c t i v e t han t he bl adder-t ype accumul at or i n
a t t e nua t i ng t he pul s a t i ons .
Di schar ge System
4. The pul s a t i ons i n t he di s char ge pi pi ng were
exces s i ve, p a r t l y due t o t he changi ng s t e a dy s t a t e
condi t i ons which made t he bl adder-t ype accumul at or
i n e f f e c t i v e f or many of t he oper at i ng condi t i ons .
An a l l - l i q u i d a c ous t i c f i l t e r was desi gned f o r a l l
oper at i ng condi t i ons t o minimize t he pul s a t i ons and
pi pi ng vi br a t i ons i n t he di s char ge pi pi ng.
Li qui d Pumps
5. Many v i b r a t i o n and f a i l u r e problems i n
r e c i pr oc a t i ng pumps i n o i l pi pe l i ne a ppl i c a t i on a r e
caused by system r e l a t e d a c o u s t i c a l r esonances which
cause hi gh l e v e l pul s a t i ons i n t he s uc t i on and
di s char ge pi pi ng.
5. The a c o u s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a pump
i n s t a l l a t i o n a r e a f unct i on of t he speed of sound i n
t he f l u i d and t he a c o u s t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he
pi pe s i z e s ( di amet er s and l engt hs ) of a l l t he pi pi ng
el ement s i n t he l i n e from t he pl unger val ves t o t he
suppl y header and beyond.
7. The a c ous t i c a l n a t u r a l f r equenci es and t he
pul s a t i on ampl i t udes t ha t w i l l occur i n any gi ven
pi pi ng system can be pr edi ct ed by modeling t he
e n t i r e syst em us i ng a computer program which
i ncl udes a l l t he i mport ant va r i a bl e s .
8. When t he pi pi ng syst ems di s cus s ed i n t h i s paper
were si mul at ed us i ng t he d i g i t a l program, t he
a c o u s t i c a l resonances and t he pr edi ct ed pul s a t i on
ampl i t udes were i n agreement.
9. Commercially a va i l a bl e accumul at ors and
pul s a t i on f i l t e r s can be q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n
c o n t r o l l i n g pul s a t i ons ; however, t hey shoul d
normal l y be i n s t a l l e d as c l os e a s pos s i bl e t o t he
pump pl unger s. Spe c i f i c accumul at ors can be modeled
usi ng t he d i g i t a l computer program and t h e i r
performance s t udi e d under proposed oper at i ng
condi t i ons .
10. Al l - l i qui d a c ous t i c f i l t e r syst ems can be
desi gned f or p r a c t i c a l l y any s uc t i on and di s char ge
system t o minimize pul s a t i ons . Al l - l i qui d f i l t e r
sy s tems a r e advantageous f or some i n s t a l l a t i ons
s i nce t hey r e qui r e p r a c t i c a l l y no maintenance once
t hey a r e i n s t a l l e d .
11. The f i n a l recommended s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s o i l
pumping s t a t i o n was t o move t he gas-charged,
flow-through accumul at or t o t he s uc t i on f l ange and
t o i n s t a l l an a l l - l i q u i d f i l t e r i n t he di s char ge
system a t t he pump f l ange. These recommendations
a r e bei ng implemented and t he u n i t s w i l l be t e s t e d
a f t e r t he i n s t a l l a t i o n .
Fi e l d Te s t i n g
12. The t e s t i n g showed t h a t , f o r t h i s syst em, t he
pul s at i ons gener at ed were pr i mar i l y a f unc t i on of
t he i ndi vi dua l s uc t i on and di s char ge pi pi ng and t he
ba s i c pump des i gn and not s t r ongl y i nf l uenced by t he
i nt er connect i ng pi pi ng wi t h t he ot he r u n i t s . Other
syst ems t e s t e d have shown t h a t t he pul s a t i ons can be
i nf l uenced by t he pi pi ng from o t h e r pumps and t he
l oc a t i on of t he pumps i n t he syst em. The e f f e c t s of
t he i nt er connect i ng pi pi ng can be s t udi e d i n t he
desi gn phase by t he d i g i t a l a c o u s t i c a l s i mul at i on.
13. Tes t i ng r eveal ed t h a t an i ncr eas ed s t a t i c
pr es s ur e l e v e l lowered t he l e v e l of t he pul s a t i ons
i n t he pump mani fol d and i nhi bi t e d t he c a v i t a t i o n .
The t e s t i n g a l s o showed t h a t t he pul s a t i on l e v e l s
i ncr eas ed wi t h speed.
14. When pul s a t i on and v i b r a t i o n problems occur i n
a r e c i pr oc a t i ng pump i n s t a l l a t i o n , f i e l d d a t a can be
obt ai ned t o de f i ne t he ba s i c cause us i ng f i e l d
measurement t echni ques a s des cr i bed i n t h i s paper.
REFERENCES
1. Hi cks, E. J . and Gr ant , T. R., "Acoust i c F i l t e r
Cont r ol s Recip Pump Pul s at i on, ' ' The O i l and
Gas J our na l , Januar y 15, 1979, pp 67-73.
2. Ludwig, M., "Design of Pul s a t i on Dampeners f or
High Speed Reci pr ocat i ng Pumps," Di vi s i on of
Tr ans por t at i on, American Pet rol eum I n s t i t u t e
Vol 36 [V] 1956, pp 47-54.
3. Spar ks, C. R. and Wachel, J. C., "Pul s at i ons i n
Ce nt r i f uga l Pumps and Pi pi ng Systems,"
Hydrocarbon Pr oces s i ng J u l y 1977,
pp 183-189.
4. Wachel, J. C. and Szenasi , F. R., "Vi br at i on and
Noise i n Pumps," Pump Handbook, 1 s t Edi t i on,
McGraw-Hill, 1976, pp 9-87 t o 9-97.
5. Mi l l e r , J . E., "Liquid Dynamics of Reci pr ocat i ng
Pumps - Pa r t s 1 and 2, " The O i l and Gas
J our na l , Apr i l 18, 1983.
Thi s paper recei ved t he Eugene W . Jacobson Award on February 26, 1986,
f o r t he most or i gi na l , t i mel y and out st andi ng t echni cal paper present ed
a t t he Energy-Sources Technology Conference & Exhi bi t i on, Dal l as, Texas,
February, 1985.