Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

PEC140 Introduction to Chemistry

STUDY BLOCK Tutori!" #ns$ers


1. Any three of colour change, gas evolved, precipitate formed, heat is absorbed/evolved.
2. Unbalanced equation: B
2
O

! "g B ! "gO
. NB In PEC140, state symbols are optional
a# $
%
&
12
'g# ! (O
2
'g# %$O
2
'g# ! )&
2
O'g#
b# $O
2
'g# ! 2*&

'g# $O'*&
2
#
2
'aq# ! &
2
O'l#
c# +e,'s# ! 2&$l'aq# +e$l
2
'aq# ! &
2
,'g#
d# 2*a&$O

's# *a
2
$O

's# ! $O
2
'g# ! &
2
O'g#
e# As
2
O

's# ! )-.'aq# ! )&$l'aq# 2As.

's# ! )-$l'aq# ! &


2
O'l#
f# *a
2
$O

'aq# ! ,'s# ! ,O
2
'g# $O
2
'g# ! *a
2
,
2
O

'aq#
/. a# A 0net ionic1 equation is a stoicheometrically2correct chemical equation that
indicates only the species that are participating in 'are chemically changed by# the
reaction.
b# 3he quote mar4s '0 1# are used to remind us that the species involved in a 0net ionic1
chemical equation are not necessarily ions.
%. a# *aO&'aq# ! &*O

'aq# *a*O

'aq# ! &
2
O'l#
O&

'aq# ! &
!
'aq# &
2
O'l#
5eaction type: acid2base
b# -
2
$O

'aq# ! Ba'*O

#
2
'aq# 2-*O

'aq# ! Ba$O

's#
Ba
2!
'aq# ! $O

2
'aq# Ba$O

's#
5eaction type: precipitation
c# +e$l

'aq# ! *aO&'aq# +e'O&#

's# ! *a$l'aq#
+e
!
'aq# ! O&

'aq# +e'O&#

's#
5eaction type: precipitation
d# /+eO's# ! O
2
'g# 2+e
2
O

's#
5eaction type: combustion or o6idation
e# see above.
). a# 1.77 mol of iodine !toms 8 1.77 mole of ..
+rom periodic table molar mass of . is 12).9 g mol
1
.
3herefore the mass of 1.77 mole of . atoms is 12: g 'to significant figures#.
b# 1.77 mol of iodine mo"ecu"es 8 1.77 mole of .
2
as iodine 'li4e all halogens# e6ists
naturally as a diatomic molecule.
3herefore the mass of 1.77 mol of .
2
8 no. of mole molar mass 8 1.77 mol '2
12).9 g mol
1
# 8 2%.( g.
3he mass of 1 mol of .
2
is 2%/ g 'to significant figures#.
1
c# "ass of 2 iodine mo"ecu"es.
3here are ).72 17
2
particles in 1 mol of any substance. .n this case the particles are
molecules. 3hus using simple proportion:
).72 17
2
molecules of .
2
are contained in 1 mol of .
2
;et: 2 molecules of .
2
be contained in x mol of .
2
3herefore: x 8 '1 2#/ ).72 17
2
8 .22 17
2/
mol
*o< that <e have moles, <e can <or4 out the mass of the .
2
molecules:
m'.
2
# 8 n'.
2
# M'.
2
# 8 .22 17
2/
mol 2%.( g mol
1
8 (./19 17
22
g
3he mass of 2 iodine molecules is (./ 17
22
g 'to significant figures= note that 1
and 2 are pure numbers in this case#.
:. 3o determine the number of atoms must first determine the number of moles.
n'O
2
# 8 m'O
2
# / M'O
2
# 8 12 g/'2 1) g mol
1
# 8 7.:% mol.
&o<ever there are t<o !toms of O in each mo"ecu"e of O
2
:
n'O# 8 2 n'O
2
# 8 7.:% mol
,imilarly n',O
2
# 8 m',O
2
# / M',O
2
# 8 12 g/'2 ! >2 1) g mol
1
?# 8 7.1(:% mol.
&o<ever there are t<o !toms of O and 1 atom of , in each mo"ecu"e of ,O
2
:
n'atom# 8 n',O
2
# 8 7.%)2% mol 7.%) mol
,ince the number of particles 'atoms in this case# is directly proportional to the number of
moles 'of atoms# and since n'atoms in 12 g O
2
# @ n'atoms in 12 g ,O
2
#, 12 g of O
2
has the
greatest number of atoms.
(. A by mass of $ in $
2
&
)
As 8 B, given M'$
2
&
)
As# 8 17%.7 g mol
C1
1 mol $
2
&
)
As : 2 mol $
17%.7 g $
2
&
)
As : 2 12.71 g $ 8 2/.72 g $
;et: 177 g $
2
&
)
As : x g $
x 8 '2/.72 g 177 g# / '17%.7 g# 8 22.(:) g
3here is 22.(:) g $ in 177 g $
2
&
)
As so there is 22.(( A by mass of $ in $
2
&
)
As 'Ans<er
to / significant figures#.
9. $alculation of the empirical formula of cadaverine.
$arbon &ydrogen *itrogen
A 'i.e. mass in 177 g cadaverine# %(.:: g 1.(1 g 2:./7 g
*umber of mole 8 mass / molar mass %(.:: g /
12.71 g mol
1

8 /.(9 mol
1.(1 g /
1.77( g mol
1
8 1.:77 mol
2:./7 /
1/.71 g mol
1
8 1.9%) mol
5elative number of moles
' the smallest number#
/.(9 mol /
1.9%) mol
8 2.%
1.:77 mol /
1.9%) mol
8 :
1.9%) mol /
1.9%) mol
8 1
2 'to obtain simplest whole numbers# 2.% 2 8 % : 2 8 1/ 1 2 8 2
Dmpirical formula of cadaverine is $
%
&
1/
*
2
.
17. +rom the description, the reactants are En's# and &$l'aq#, the products are &
2
'g# and
En$l
2
'aq#.
2
3hus the balanced chemical equation is:
En's# ! 2 &$l'aq# &
2
'g# ! En$l
2
'aq#
A both &$l'aq# and En$l
2
'aq# are strong electrolytes 'i.e. are fully dissociated# this equation
can be <ritten as
En's# ! 2&
!
'aq# ! 2$l

'aq# &
2
'g# ! En
2!
'aq# ! 2$l

'aq#
,ince the $l

ions are present on both sides of the equation they are spectator ions. 3hus the
net ionic equation is:
En's# ! 2&
!
'aq# &
2
'g# ! En
2!
'aq#
11. a# 2+e
!
'aq# ! $O

2
'aq# +e
2
'$O

's#
b# &g
2
2!
'aq# ! 2$l

'aq# &g
2
$l
2
's#
c# no reaction
d# $u
2!
'aq# ! ,
2
'aq# $u,'s#
e# Fb
2!
'aq# ! 2FO
/

'aq# Fb

'FO
/
#
2
's#
f# $a
2!
'aq# ! $O

2
'aq# $a$O

's#
12. D. 3here is no reaction
"g$l
2
'aq# ! 2&*O

'aq# G "g'*O

#
2
'aq# ! 2&$l'aq#
"g
2!
'aq# ! 2$l

'aq# ! 2&
!
'aq# ! 2*O

'aq# G "g
2!
'aq# ! 2*O

'aq# ! 2&
!
'aq# ! 2$l

'aq#
All ions are present, in the same forms, on both sides of the equation, so there is no reaction
1. H. 'ii#, 'iii# and 'iv# only.
'i# Ba'*O

#
2
'aq# ! &$l'aq# G Ba$l
2
'aq# ! 2 &*O

'aq# 'no reaction#


'ii# $a'*O

#
2
'aq# ! *a
2
,O
/
'aq# G $a,O
/
's# ! 2 *a*O

'aq#
'iii# $u'*O

#
2
'aq# ! 2 $sO&'aq# G $u'O&#
2
's# ! 2 $s*O

'aq#
'iv# Fb'*O

#
2
'aq# ! &
2
,O
/
'aq# G Fb,O
/
's# ! 2 &*O

'aq#