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Modernisation of Control and

Actuating Systems on Steam Turbines


Dipl.-Ing. Roland Schilling, Engineer Fritz Hofmann
Special Print from VGB PowerTech 3/2005
Kurzfassung
Modernisierungsalternativen fr Stell-
und Regeltechnik an Dampfturbinen
Leistungsfhige Stell- und Regelkomponenten
zum Regeln der Dampfmassenstrme bei
Dampfturbinen sind nicht nur bei Neuanlagen
vorteilhaft. Eine Modernisierung der mecha-
nisch hydraulischen Regelung bei bestehen-
den Anlagen lst Probleme bei der Ersatzteil-
beschaffung und bringt eine Verbesserung
des Regelverhaltens.
Je nach Zustand der bisherigen Stelltechnik
stehen verschiedene Alternativen zur Verf-
gung. Hufig werden Druckstellglieder in das
vorhandene Regellsystem eingebunden. Da-
mit werden Stromeingangssignale in einen
proportionalen Ausgangsdruck gewandelt.
Fr verfgbarkeitskritische Applikationen gibt
es auch redundante Ausfhrungen von Druck-
stellgliedern.
Muss die Ansteuerung von einfach oder dop-
pelt wirkenden Hydraulikzylindern ersetzt wer-
den, kann ein elektrisch steuerbares Wege-
schieberventil die richtige Lsung sein. Wege-
schieber wandeln ein Stromeingangssignal in
einen proportionalen Hub.
Wenn es sinnvoll ist, den Hydraulikzylinder
zu ersetzen, knnen Servomotoren eingesetzt
werden. Servomotoren sind kompakte elektro-
hydraulische Funktionseinheiten mit Positions-
regler, Mengensteller und einem Hydraulik-
zylinder. Diese Einheiten sind komplett geprft
und werkseitig eingestellt. Servomotoren sind
fr verschiedene Anwendungen verfgbar,
z. B. fr eine Pilotventilverstellung, Ventilgrup-
penverstellung oder Einzelventilantrieb.
An das Turbinenregelsystem werden je nach
vorhandenem bzw. gewnschtem Automati-
sierungsgrad unterschiedliche Anforderungen
gestellt. Neben den ursprnglichen Drehzahl-
und Druckregelungen an einer Dampfturbine
bernehmen Turbinenregelsysteme hufig eine
Reihe weiterer Funktionen.
Von einer modernen Turbinenleittechnik wird
hoher Bedienkomfort, benutzerorientierte Dar-
stellung und Archivierung von Daten sowie
eine mgliche Fehlerdiagnose erwartet.
Gemeinsam mit dem Betreiber kann die wirt-
schaftlich und technisch sinnvollste Lsung
gefunden werden.
Introduction
The control and actuating system is of great
importance for the complete functioning of a
turbine system. The customer expects high-
quality technology at a favourable price.
Exact actuating components are necessary to
adjust live and extraction steam valves.
Todays digital turbine control systems offer
high operating convenience, user-oriented
data presentation and filing as well as possi-
ble remote diagnosis.
Motives to modernise the control and actuat-
ing system:
simplified, more rational handling,
unavailability of spare parts,
additional monitoring functions for tur-
bine,
creation of interconnected operation with
other steam turbines of the plant,
integration of turbine control and actuat-
ing system in existing local process con-
trol system,
improvement of control behaviour.
extension of turbine service life by tem-
perature-dependent start-up programmes.
Electro-hydraulic Actuation
Depending on the condition of the former ac-
tuating system various alternatives are avail-
able.
I /H Converters
I/H converters quickly and accurately convert
an input signal 0/4 20 mA into a propor-
tional output pressure.
Application
Triggering of pilot drives of positioning
cylinders to control turbo machinery.
Design
I/H converters consist of a power-controlled
solenoid and a hydraulic unit (Fi gure 1).
Function
A 24V direct current activates a solenoid,
which, in turn, generates power on the arma-
ture via tappet. The power is specified via an
input signal of 0/4 20 mA.
Any modification of the 0/4 20 mA input
signal affects the power generated by the so-
lenoid onto the tappet.
This power is in balance with a hydraulic
force resulting from the output pressure in
front of the control piston (pressure balance).
The internal control system precisely controls
the solenoid output power by flux modifica-
tion.
As a result of this accurate control technolo-
gy, the output pipe of the I/H converter is al-
ways provided with the exactly required
pressure for positioning the steam valve.
Example of Application
Modernisation of a 3-house Siemens extrac-
tion/condensing turbine. Control station
TURCON

D-32, generator power limitation


VGB PowerTech 3/2005 3
Modern Control and Actuating Systems on Steam Turbines
Modernisation of Control and
Actuating Systems on Steam Turbines
Autoren Autoren
R. Schilling
Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG,
Electronic Drive Systems, Sales Manager
Control Systems, Crailsheim/Germany.
F. Hofmann
Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG,
Electronic Drive Systems, Project Manager,
Crailsheim/Germany.
Servomotor
Tank
Pump
P
r
o
c
e
s
s

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
+
-
Set
value
w
Magnetic
force control
Pressure
balance
X0
P
I
U
X1
Pressure range
adjustment
P
P
I/H converter - DSG
U
U
B
B
B
F
s
Valve
position
Steam
control valve
Live steam
Figure 1. Diagram I/H converter.
250 MW, start-up programme with detailed
monitoring of temperature difference (Fi g-
ure 2).
Converter Modul es
Redundant design of I/H converter.
Application
Positioning of steam control valves in appli-
cations with critical availability.
Design
Each I/H converter is provided with an elec-
tronic monitoring system ensuring that the
I/H converter reduces the pressure towards
minimum output pressure in the event of a
failure. The output pressure of the properly
working I/H converter is transferred. The
process continues smoothly. The defective
device can be replaced during operation.
Function
The two electric positioning signals
(4 20mA) of a redundant controller are in-
dependently converted into a proportional
hydraulic pressure by one I/H converter each.
Both pressures act on a hydraulic maximum
selection. The higher pressure is switched.
With integrated test functions in turbine con-
trol systems the hydraulic function is contin-
uously monitored via additional pressure sen-
sors by reducing the setpoint during normal
operation. These pressure variations avoid
sticking of moving parts due to impurities.
Example of Application
Modernisation of an AEG-Kanis V40 extrac-
tion steam turbine used for propulsion of a
crude gas compressor. Turbine power ap-
proximately 18 MW, built in 1975. Redun-
dant control station TURCON

R2 with com-
puter, cable and input/output redundancy, in-
corporation in the existing control system
through Modbus interface.
Way Val ve
Way valves convert an input signal
0/4 20 mA into proportional stroke on
single- or double-acting hydraulic cylinders.
The way valves (also referred to as flow con-
troller) are electro hydraulic inverters with
integrated positioner and cascade magnetic
force controller.
Application
Adjustment of positioning cylinders for the
control of turbo machinery.
Design
A way valve (flow controller) is an electri-
cally controllable way valve consisting of
a power-controlled solenoid and a 3/3-way
hydraulic unit for single-acting cylinders or
4/3-way hydraulic unit for double-acting
cylinders (Fi gure 3).
Function
Depending on the degree of deviation (set-
point w actual value x) and the set gain
KPU, a command variable U
MAG
is created
for the magnetic force controller. The mag-
netic force F
MAG
generated in the magnetic
system is indirectly recorded by measuring
the magnetic flux U
Hall
. F
MAG
affects the con-
trol piston of way valve via tappet that is
moved against the control spring until the
way-depending spring force F
F
is in balance
with force F
MAG
, resulting in a volume flow
variable in direction and size, which activates
an externally situated hydraulic cylinder.
When the actual position is recorded and
transmitted to the positioner integrated in the
way valve, the hydraulic cylinder is adjusted
to a controlled position.
Example of Application
Modernisation of a 3-house AEG-Kanis dou-
ble extraction turbine G32 17606+GE50K
17607, generator power approximately 8 MW.
Redundant control station Turcon

R2 with
computer, cable and input/output redundan-
cy, incorporation in the existing control sys-
tem through Modbus interface.
Servomotors
Electro-hydraulic servomotor for the adjust-
ment of valves or valve groups.
Application
Activation of control valves on turbo ma-
chinery.
4 VGB PowerTech 3/2005
Modern Control and Actuating Systems on Steam Turbines
Figure 2. Application example I/H converter.
FM Q SF KPU KPD
PI
T
P
s
U
s
X0 X1
+
P
+
-
+
+
+
I
Actual
value
x
Set
value
w
I
U
U
P
r
o
c
e
s
s

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
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i
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g
Position
control
Servomotor
Magnetic
force control
Scaling
actual
position
Actual
position
Valve
position
Way valve
Position
pick up
Flow control way valve - WSR
U
B
B
F B
U
-
U
Hall
U
MAG
F
MAG
F
F
Live steam
Steam
control valve
Figure 3. Diagram flow control way valve.
Design
A servomotor is the intelligent and compact
electro-hydraulic combination of a control
solenoid with integrated positioner, hydraulic
flow controller and a hydraulic cylinder.
The supplier is able to completely check and
adjust servomotors. The customer is provided
with an actuator with clearly defined inter-
faces (Fi gure 4).
Function
A position setpoint selects a magnetic force
setpoint. The magnetic force generated modi-
fies the position of the control piston against
the spring force and thus supplies the dosed
pressurised oil to the hydraulic cylinder. The
magnetic force is returned to the magnetic
force controller by measuring the magnetic
flux.
The force resulting from restoring spring
force along with the external force and the
hydraulic force moves the piston spindle so
that the actual position, measured by means
of a position sensor, follows the set position.
Examples of Application
Pilot Valve Adjustment
Modernisation of a Borsig steam turbine used
for propulsion of a boiler feed pump drive,
turbine power approximately 2.4 MW. The
servomotor takes over angular positioning
control of the valve cam shaft. Control sta-
tion Turcon

D, turbine protection 2 out of 3


votes including electronic overspeed protec-
tion system and axial shaft monitoring.
Valve Group Adjustment
Modernisation of a Creusot-Loire turbine
used for propulsion of a compressor, built in
1975, turbine power 13 MW. Conversion of
control valve drive with complete servomo-
tor. Redundant control station Turcon

R2
with computer, cable and input/output redun-
dancy (Fi gure 5).
Single Valve Adjustment
Modernisation of an AEG-condensation tur-
bine used for propulsion of a boiler feed
pump drive. Five live steam control valves
are positioned by five directly coupled servo-
motors. Control station Turcon

D, turbine
protection 2 out of 3 votes including elec-
tronic overspeed protection system and axial
shaft monitoring.
Control Engineering
Depending on the existing or required degree
of automatisation, differing requirements are
set upon the turbine control system. More
and more efficient hardware, following the
general trend in computer technology, offers
free capacity for additional functions.
VGB PowerTech 3/2005 5
Modern Control and Actuating Systems on Steam Turbines
B
F
U
B
FM
Q
SF
U
B
KPU KPD
PI
T
P
s
U
s
X0 X1
+
P
+
-
+
+
-
+
I
Actual
value
x
Set
value
w
I
U
U
P
r
o
c
e
s
s

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
Position
controller
Power cylinder
with spring
magnetic force controller
Standardisation
actual position
Actual
position
Live steam
Valve
position
Way valve
Steam
control valve
Servomotor
Position
pick up
Figure 4. Diagram servomotor.
Figure 5. Application example servomotor.
Standard Functi ons
Speed control:
Automatic run-up, from starting automat-
ic start-up to synchronous speed with
temperature-dependent ramps. Holding
points and rapid run-through resonance
areas can be configured.
Load settings:
Automatic start-up of the load ramp from
the pre-selected initial load to the pre-se-
lected final load after closing the genera-
tor switch.
Extraction pressure control:
Smooth extraction pressure control sys-
tems which can be connected and discon-
nected, optional temperature control.
Live steam and back pressure control:
Pressure control systems which can be
connected and disconnected smoothly
and which can be automated using exter-
nal input signals (e.g. generator switch,
island operation).
Limiting stages:
Priority controlled limiting stage to mon-
itor e.g. minimum live steam or maxi-
mum output (Fi gure 6).
Addi ti onal Functi ons
In addition to the original speed control and
pressure control functions on a steam turbine,
the turbine control systems take over a whole
series of additional functions:
integration of machine-related links,
control of drives for pumps and valves,
integration of limiting and monitoring
devices,
data acquisition for condition-oriented
maintenance,
control of feedwater quantity,
condenser pressure limitation,
rotary angle position control for valve
cam shafts,
additional logics to control a steam by-
pass,
integrated visualisation,
test functions for overspeed protection or
redundant actuation,
surge limitation control, surge protection
and discharge pressure control for com-
pressors (Fi gure 7).
System Features
Modular hardware and software allow con-
figuring turbine control systems for simple
and complex applications in accordance with
customer requirements.
Hardware:
Usage of wide-spread computer plat-
forms allows customers participation in
technical progress.
6 VGB PowerTech 3/2005
Modern Control and Actuating Systems on Steam Turbines
Live steam
HP-trip-
valve
HP-RV
LP-RV
I/H conv.
I/H conv.
Generator
w
x
p
L
1
w
<
Central limiting stage
>
Limiting
operation
Speed
controller
Extraction
controller
Back pressure
controller
Live steam
controller
M
i
x
i
n
g

s
t
a
g
e
HP LP
y
n
y
HP
y
Ex
y
LP
x
n
x
p
x
pEx
y
E
x
y
n
w
pEx
w
pBack
w
pLive
w
1
Steam pipe
Electr. signal line
Hydraulic pipe
x
pBack
Figure 6. Standard functions turbine control system.
1
1
Speed
controller
w
n
x
n
Live steam
HP-trip-
valve
HP-RV
Hydrogen
Process primar y control system
Suction
pressure
controller
Suction
pressure
setpoint
HP
MAX
Discharge
pressure
controller
Pump
limit
controller
Actual
value q
Setpoint
q
min
p
HP
x
p
suction
x
T
suction
x
p
dis
v
y
y
w
x w
x
p
suction
w
p
Steam pipe
Electr. signal line
Hydraulic line
Gas line
I/H conv .
Figure 7. Additional functions turbine control system.
Web
visualisation
Diagnostic
Programming
LAN-
Modem
Modem
Customer
Parametrisation Visualisation
Ethernet-LAN
TURCON

D-32
Voith
Crailsheim
Germany
Figure 8. Remote diagnostic turbine control system.
Many logs and interfaces are available
for data exchange with primary control
systems.
High availability is reached by use of
flash memories, low-power-CPUs with
passive cooling and special power packs
without fan. Thus, the computer hardware
works without moving/rotating parts.
Input/output modules:
Usage of standard field bus systems al-
lows flexibly configuring inputs/outputs
and a great variety of modules.
Decentralised signal acquisition allows
minimum cabling.
Software:
Real-time multitasking operating systems
offer fixed cycle times for processing of
control programs.
Efficient PLC operating systems allow
easy integration of customer-specific
functions.
Redundant control systems are appropriate
for customers with high demands as to relia-
bility. Features of redundant control systems:
Computer redundancy, cable redundancy,
input/output redundancy.
Smooth change-over of all control and
limiting functions in the event of failure
in the process managing system to the
parallel operating system.
Servi ce Fri endl i ness
High operating convenience, user-oriented
data presentation and filing as well as error
diagnosis, if necessary, is expected from up-
to-date turbine control systems:
Minimum service cost due to remote
maintenance and optimisation via mo-
dem.
Programme alteration possible with run-
ning machinery
(Fi gure 8).
Summary
High-capacity control and actuating compo-
nents for the control of steam mass flows on
steam turbines offer advantages not only for
new equipment. Modernisation of the me-
chanical hydraulic control solves problems in
spare parts purchasing and improves the con-
trol behaviour.
Depending on the condition of the former ac-
tuating system, various modernisation alter-
natives are available.
Apart from the original speed and pressure
control on steam turbines, advanced turbine
control systems are able to satisfy a number
of
additional functions.
In close co-operation with the operator the
most sophisticated solution in regard to both
economy and technology will be found.
VGB PowerTech 3/2005 7
Modern Control and Actuating Systems on Steam Turbines
Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG
Electronic Drive Systems
P.O. Box 1555
74555 Crailsheim
Phone: +49 7951 32-0
Fax: +49 7951 32-605
turcon@voith.com
www.voithturbo.com
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