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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro


PROVISIONAL REMEDIES 2
RULE 57 PRELIMINARY ATTACHMENT 2
RULE 58 PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION 8
RULE 59 RECEIVERSHIP 12
RULE 60 REPLEVIN 13
RULE 61 SUPPORT PENDENTE LITE 16
SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS 17
RULE 62 INTERPLEADER 17
RULE 63 DECLARATORY RELIEF AND SIMILAR REMEDIES 18
RULE 64 REVIEW OF JUDMENTS AND FINAL ORDERS OR RESOLUTIONS OF THE
COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS AND THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT 20
RULE 65 CERTIORARI! PROHI"ITION AND MANDAMUS 21
RULE 66 #UO WARRANTO 25
RULE 67 E$PROPRIATION 27
RULE 68 FORECLOSURE OF REAL ESTATE MORTAE 31
RULE 69 PARTITION 34
RULE 70 FORCI"LE ENTRY AND UNLAWFUL DETAINER 37
RULE 71 CONTEMPT 42
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 45
VENUE IN CRIMINAL CASES 45
SPECIAL ARARIAN COURT JURISDICTION 46
SANDIAN"AYAN JURISDICTION 47
OM"UDSMAN JURISDICTION 47
POWER OF THE SECRETARY OF JUSTICE OVER THE PROSECUTORS 48
ROLE OF THE OS IN CRIMINAL CASES 49
RULE 110 % PROSECUTION OF OFFENSES 49
RULE 111 & PROSECUTION OF CIVIL ACTION 55
RULE 112 & PRELIMINARY INVESTIATION 58
RULE 113 & ARREST 65
RULE 114 & "AIL 67
RULE 115 & RIHTS OF ACCUSED 74
RULE 116 & ARRAINMENT AND PLEA 78
RULE 117 % MOTION TO #UASH 81
RULE 118 PRE&TRIAL 86
RULE 119 & TRIAL 88
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
RULE 120 % JUDMENT 93
RULE 121 & NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION 96
RULE 122 & APPEAL 97
RULE 123 & PROCEDURE IN THE MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS 101
RULE 124 & PROCEDURE IN THE COURT OF APPEALS 101
RULE 125 & PROCEDURE IN THE SUPREME COURT 104
RULE 126 & SEARCH AND SEI'URE 104

This reviewer is based on Atty. Tranquil Salvadors lectures, SCA notes from Atty. Guevarras class, Glenn
Tuazons (AS !"##$ brilliant notes* %n&oy'
PROVISIONAL REMEDIES
Prov rems are ancillary to principal actions*
o So i' t+e principal action is dismissed, t+en yo%,re prov rem s+all -e di.mi..ed*
(R: /o principal action o' preliminary attac+ment, etc*
o 01C0P#:
Receivers+ip in Corporation or 2anking Law
In Ar-itration Law, w+ere yo% can 'ile any provisional remedy as a main action in
aid o' an ar-itration cla%se*
RULE 57 PRELIMINARY ATTACHMENT
#+ere are t+ree stages o' attac+ment &#orres v Satsatin, !!3):
o Co%rt iss%es order granting s%c+ application
o 4rit o' attac+ment iss%es p%rs%ant to t+e order
o Implementation o' t+e writ
5or t+e 'irst stages, 6d over t+e de'endant is not re$%ired* It,s only re$%ired
w+en yo% implement t+e writ*
7ow do yo% ac$%ire 6d d%ring t+e 8
rd
stage9
o 2y service o' s%mmons prior to or contemporaneo%s wit+ t+e order
'or implementation* &see Sec :)
Section 1. Groun! u"on #$ic$ %tt%c$&ent &%' i!!ue.
At t$e co&&ence&ent o( t$e %ction or %t %n' ti&e )e(ore entr' o( *u+&ent, % "-%inti(( or %n' "ro"er
"%rt' &%' $%.e t$e "ro"ert' o( t$e %.er!e "%rt' %tt%c$e %! !ecurit' (or t$e !%ti!(%ction o( %n'
*u+&ent t$%t &%' )e reco.ere in t$e (o--o#in+ c%!e!/
0%1 In %n %ction (or t$e reco.er' o( % !"eci(ie %&ount o( &one' or %&%+e!, ot$er t$%n &or%- %n
e2e&"-%r', on % c%u!e o( %ction %ri!in+ (ro& -%#, contr%ct, 3u%!i4contr%ct, e-ict or 3u%!i4e-ict %+%in!t
% "%rt' #$o i! %)out to e"%rt (ro& t$e P$i-i""ine! #$ic$ intent to e(r%u $i! creitor!5
0)1 In %n %ction (or &one' or "ro"ert' e&)e66-e or (r%uu-ent-' &i!%""-ie or con.erte to $i! o#n
u!e )' % "u)-ic o((icer, or %n o((icer o( % cor"or%tion, or %n %ttorne', (%ctor, )ro7er %+ent, or c-er7, in
t$e cour!e o( $i! e&"-o'&ent %! !uc$, or )' ot$er "er!on in % (iuci%r' c%"%cit', or (or % #i--(u-
.io-%tion o( ut'5
0c1 In %n %ction to reco.er t$e "o!!e!!ion o( "ro"ert' un*u!t-' or (r%uu-ent-' t%7en, et%ine or
con.erte, #$en t$e "ro"ert', or %n' "%rt t$ereo(, $%! )een conce%-e, re&o.e, or i!"o!e o( to
"re.ent it! )ein+ (oun or t%7en )' t$e %""-ic%nt or %n %ut$ori6e "er!on5
01 In %n %ction %+%in!t % "%rt' #$o $%! )een +ui-t' o( % (r%u in contr%ctin+ t$e e)t or incurrin+ t$e
o)-i+%tion u"on #$ic$ t$e %ction i! )rou+$t, or in t$e "er(or&%nce t$ereo(5
0e1 In %n %ction %+%in!t % "%rt' #$o $%! re&o.e or i!"o!e o( $i! "ro"ert', or i! %)out to o !o, #it$
intent to e(r%u $i! creitor!5 or
0(1 In %n %ction %+%in!t % "%rt' #$o oe! not re!ie %n i! not (oun in t$e P$i-i""ine!, or on #$o&
!u&&on! &%' )e !er.e )' "u)-ic%tion.
#+e magic word 'or attac+ment: ;sec%re<
4+ere9
o Co%rt in w+ic+ t+e action is pending* &0ven t+e M#C=)
4+en9
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o Any time -e'ore entry o' 6%dgment, as long as case is pending and t+ere is a gro%nd
availa-le
4+at do yo% need9
o (ro%nds m%st -e present
o An a''idavit &see Sec 8)
o 2ond to -e determined -y t+e co%rt &see Sec 8)
4+at are t+e gro%nds 'or attac+ment9
o Any claim 'or money or damages, e>cept moral and e>emplary, wit+ t+e claim arising 'rom
an o-ligation, A/? t+e de'endant is a-o%t to depart 'rom t+e P+ilippines 4I#7 intent to
de'ra%d
M%st s+ow 'acts s+owing intent to depart and de'ra%d &like selling property,
wit+drawing all money 'rom t+e 2PI, etc)
@o% can only %se t+is i' t+e de'endant is a-o%t to depart and t+ere is intent to
de'ra%d
o 0m-e..lementAa-%se o' tr%st -y one wit+ a 'id%ciary relations+ip
Bs%ally in esta'a cases
Also a prov rem in criminal cases
"
o Action to recover property and t+ere is will'%l 'ra%d%lent concealment o' t+e property
Compare t+is to replevin
In replevin, t+e property is a speci'ic one, t+e t+ing o-6ect o' t+e action* In
attac+ment, t+e property to -e attac+ed is any property, not necessarily
t+e o-6ect o' t+e action*
In replevin, yo% can only avail o' it -e'ore an answer is 'iled* In
attac+ment, any time*
In replevin, t+e property is personal property* In attac+ment, any
property*
o 5ra%d in contracting t+e o-ligation or 'ra%d in t+e per'ormance t+ereo'
In contracting t+e o-ligation: i' not 'or t+e 'ra%d, t+e ot+er party wo%ld not +ave
entered into t+e transaction
In t+e per'ormance: in t+e manner o' per'ormance, t+ere was 'ra%d
o Action against a person w+o removesAconceals property, or is a-o%t to do so, wit+ intent
to de'ra%d
?irected against t+e person
o ?e'endant is a nonCresident, or on w+om s%mmons -y p%-lication is made
Sec. 8. I!!u%nce %n content! o( orer.
An orer o( %tt%c$&ent &%' )e i!!ue eit$er e2 "%rte or u"on &otion #it$ notice %n $e%rin+ )' t$e
court in #$ic$ t$e %ction i! "enin+, or )' t$e Court o( A""e%-! or t$e Su"re&e Court, %n &u!t re3uire
t$e !$eri(( o( t$e court to %tt%c$ !o &uc$ o( t$e "ro"ert' in t$e P$i-i""ine! o( t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& it
i! i!!ue, not e2e&"t (ro& e2ecution, %! &%' )e !u((icient to !%ti!(' t$e %""-ic%nt9! e&%n, un-e!!
!uc$ "%rt' &%7e! e"o!it or +i.e! % )on %! $erein%(ter "ro.ie in %n %&ount e3u%- to t$%t (i2e in
t$e orer, #$ic$ &%' )e t$e %&ount !u((icient to !%ti!(' t$e %""-ic%nt9! e&%n or t$e .%-ue o( t$e
"ro"ert' to )e %tt%c$e %! !t%te )' t$e %""-ic%nt, e2c-u!i.e o( co!t!. Se.er%- #rit! &%' )e i!!ue %t
t$e !%&e ti&e to t$e !$eri((! o( t$e court! o( i((erent *uici%- re+ion!.
Sec. :. A((i%.it %n )on re3uire.
An orer o( %tt%c$&ent !$%-- )e +r%nte on-' #$en it %""e%r! )' t$e %((i%.it o( t$e %""-ic%nt, or o(
!o&e ot$er "er!on #$o "er!on%--' 7no#! t$e (%ct!, t$%t % !u((icient c%u!e o( %ction e2i!t!, t$%t t$e
c%!e i! one o( t$o!e &entione in !ection 1 $ereo(, t$%t t$ere i! no ot$er !u((icient !ecurit' (or t$e
c-%i& !ou+$t to )e en(orce )' t$e %ction, %n t$%t t$e %&ount ue to t$e %""-ic%nt, or t$e .%-ue o( t$e
"ro"ert' t$e "o!!e!!ion o( #$ic$ $e i! entit-e to reco.er, i! %! &uc$ %! t$e !u& (or #$ic$ t$e orer i!
+r%nte %)o.e %-- -e+%- counterc-%i&!. T$e %((i%.it, %n t$e )on re3uire )' t$e ne2t !ucceein+
1
Rule 127, Sec. 2. Attachment. When the civil action is properly instituted in the criminal action as provided in Rule 111, the offended party
may have the property of the accused attached as security for the satisfaction of any judgment that may be recovered from the accused in the
folloing cases!
"a# When the accused is about to abscond from the $hilippines%
"b# When the criminal action is based on a claim for money or property embe&&led or fraudulently misapplied or converted to the use of the
accused ho is a public officer, officer of a corporation, attorney, factor, bro'er, agent or cler', in the course of his employment as such, or by
any other person in a fiduciary capacity, or for a illful violation of duty%
"c# When the accused has concealed, removed, or disposed of his property, or is about to do so% and
"d# When the accused resides outside the $hilippines.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
!ection, &u!t )e u-' (i-e #it$ t$e court )e(ore t$e orer i!!ue!.
Sec. ;. Conition o( %""-ic%nt9! )on.
T$e "%rt' %""-'in+ (or t$e orer &u!t t$ere%(ter +i.e % )on e2ecute to t$e %.er!e "%rt' in t$e
%&ount (i2e )' t$e court in it! orer +r%ntin+ t$e i!!u%nce o( t$e #rit, conitione t$%t t$e -%tter #i--
"%' %-- t$e co!t! #$ic$ &%' )e %*u+e to t$e %.er!e "%rt' %n %-- %&%+e! #$ic$ $e &%' !u!t%in )'
re%!on o( t$e %tt%c$&ent, i( t$e court !$%-- (in%--' %*u+e t$%t t$e %""-ic%nt #%! not entit-e t$ere
to.
4+at are t+e contents o' t+e a''idavit9
o Ca%se o' action
o #+e gro%nds in Sec "
o /o ot+er s%''icient sec%rity 'or t+e claim so%g+t to -e en'orced -y t+e action
o Amo%nt d%e to t+e applicant
4+y post a -ond9
o #o answer 'or damages o' t+e adverse party
4+o m%st iss%e t+e -ond9
A -ond company certi'ied -y t+e SC to operate wit+in a 6%dicial area or region*
Sec. 5. M%nner o( %tt%c$in+ "ro"ert'.
T$e !$eri(( en(orcin+ t$e #rit !$%-- #it$out e-%' %n #it$ %-- re%!on%)-e i-i+ence %tt%c$, to %#%it
*u+&ent %n e2ecution in t$e %ction, on-' !o &uc$ o( t$e "ro"ert' in t$e P$i-i""ine! o( t$e "%rt'
%+%in!t #$o& t$e #rit i! i!!ue, not e2e&"t (ro& e2ecution, %! &%' )e !u((icient to !%ti!(' t$e
%""-ic%nt9! e&%n, un-e!! t$e (or&er &%7e! % e"o!it #it$ t$e court (ro& #$ic$ t$e #rit i! i!!ue, or
+i.e! % counter)on e2ecute to t$e %""-ic%nt, in %n %&ount e3u%- to t$e )on (i2e )' t$e court in t$e
orer o( %tt%c$&ent or to t$e .%-ue o( t$e "ro"ert' to )e %tt%c$e, e2c-u!i.e o( co!t!. No -e.' on
%tt%c$&ent "ur!u%nt to t$e #rit i!!ue uner !ection 8 $ereo( !$%-- )e en(orce un-e!! it i! "recee,
or conte&"or%neou!-' %cco&"%nie, )' !er.ice o( !u&&on!, to+et$er #it$ % co"' o( t$e co&"-%int, t$e
%""-ic%tion (or %tt%c$&ent, t$e %""-ic%nt9! %((i%.it %n )on, %n t$e orer %n #rit o( %tt%c$&ent, on
t$e e(en%nt #it$in t$e P$i-i""ine!. T$e re3uire&ent o( "rior or conte&"or%neou! !er.ice o(
!u&&on! !$%-- not %""-' #$ere t$e !u&&on! cou- not )e !er.e "er!on%--' or )' !u)!titute !er.ice
e!"ite i-i+ent e((ort!, or t$e e(en%nt i! % re!ient o( t$e P$i-i""ine! te&"or%ri-' %)!ent t$ere(ro&,
or t$e e(en%nt i! % non4re!ient o( t$e P$i-i""ine!, or t$e %ction i! one in re& or 3u%!i in re&.
Sec. <. S$eri((9! return.
A(ter en(orcin+ t$e #rit, t$e !$eri(( &u!t -i7e#i!e #it$out e-%' &%7e % return t$ereon to t$e court
(ro& #$ic$ t$e #rit i!!ue, #it$ % (u-- !t%te&ent o( $i! "roceein+! uner t$e #rit %n % co&"-ete
in.entor' o( t$e "ro"ert' %tt%c$e, to+et$er #it$ %n' counter4)on +i.en )' t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o&
%tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue, %n !er.e co"ie! t$ereo( on t$e %""-ic%nt.
Sec. 7. Att%c$&ent o( re%- %n "er!on%- "ro"ert'5 recorin+ t$ereo(.
Re%- %n "er!on%- "ro"ert' !$%-- )e %tt%c$e )' t$e !$eri(( e2ecutin+ t$e #rit in t$e (o--o#in+ &%nner/
0%1 Re%- "ro"ert', or +ro#in+ cro"! t$ereon, or %n' intere!t t$erein, !t%nin+ u"on t$e recor o( t$e
re+i!tr' o( ee o( t$e "ro.ince in t$e n%&e o( t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& %tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue, or not
%""e%rin+ %t %-- u"on !uc$ recor!, or )e-on+in+ to t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& %tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue %n
$e- )' %n' ot$er "er!on, or !t%nin+ on t$e recor! o( t$e re+i!tr' o( ee! in t$e n%&e o( %n' ot$er
"er!on, )' (i-in+ #it$ t$e re+i!tr' o( ee! % co"' o( t$e orer, to+et$er #it$ % e!cri"tion o( t$e
"ro"ert' %tt%c$e, %n % notice t$%t it i! %tt%c$e, or t$%t !uc$ re%- "ro"ert' %n %n' intere!t t$erein
$e- )' or !t%nin+ in t$e n%&e o( !uc$ ot$er "er!on %re %tt%c$e, %n )' -e%.in+ % co"' o( !uc$ orer,
e!cri"tion, %n notice #it$ t$e occu"%nt o( t$e "ro"ert', i( %n', or #it$ !uc$ ot$er "er!on or $i! %+ent
i( (oun #it$in t$e "ro.ince. =$ere t$e "ro"ert' $%! )een )rou+$t uner t$e o"er%tion o( eit$er t$e
L%n Re+i!tr%tion Act or t$e Pro"ert' Re+i!tr%tion Decree, t$e notice !$%-- cont%in % re(erence to t$e
nu&)er o( t$e certi(ic%te o( tit-e, t$e .o-u&e %n "%+e in t$e re+i!tr%tion )oo7 #$ere t$e certi(ic%te i!
re+i!tere, %n t$e re+i!tere o#ner or o#ner! t$ereo(. T$e re+i!tr%r o( ee &u!t ine2 %tt%c$&ent!
(i-e uner t$i! !ection in t$e n%&e! o( t$e %""-ic%nt, t$e %.er!e "%rt', or t$e "er!on )' #$o& t$e
"ro"ert' i! $e- or in #$o!e n%&e it !t%n! in t$e recor!. I( t$e %tt%c$&ent i! not c-%i&e on t$e
entire %re% o( t$e -%n co.ere )' t$e certi(ic%te o( tit-e, % e!cri"tion !u((icient-' %ccur%te (or t$e
ienti(ic%tion o( t$e -%n or intere!t to )e %((ecte !$%-- )e inc-ue in t$e re+i!tr%tion o( !uc$
%tt%c$&ent5
0)1 Per!on%- "ro"ert' c%"%)-e o( &%nu%- e-i.er', )' t%7in+ %n !%(e-' 7ee"in+ it in $i! cu!to', %(ter
i!!uin+ t$e corre!"onin+ recei"t t$ere(or5
0c1 Stoc7! or !$%re!, or %n intere!t in !toc7! or !$%re!, o( %n' cor"or%tion or co&"%n', )' -e%.in+ #it$
t$e "re!ient or &%n%+in+ %+ent t$ereo(, % co"' o( t$e #rit, %n % notice !t%tin+ t$%t t$e !toc7 or
intere!t o( t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& t$e %tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue i! %tt%c$e in "ur!u%nce o( !uc$ #rit5
01 De)t! %n creit!, inc-uin+ )%n7 e"o!it!, (in%nci%- intere!t, ro'%-tie!, co&&i!!ion!, %n ot$er
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
"er!on%- "ro"ert' not c%"%)-e o( &%nu%- e-i.er', )' -e%.in+ #it$ t$e "er!on o#in+ !uc$ e)t!, or
$%.in+ in $i! "o!!e!!ion or uner $i! contro-, !uc$ creit! or ot$er "er!on%- "ro"ert', or #it$ $i!
%+ent, % co"' o( t$e #rit, %n notice t$%t t$e e)t! o#in+ )' $i& to t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o&
%tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue, %n t$e creit! %n ot$er "er!on%- "ro"ert' in $i! "o!!e!!ion, or uner $i!
contro-, )e-on+in+ to !%i "%rt', %re %tt%c$e in "ur!u%nce o( !uc$ #rit5
0e1 T$e intere!t o( t$e "%rt' #$o& %tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue in "ro"ert' )e-on+in+ to t$e e!t%te o( t$e
eceent, #$et$er %! $eir, -e+%tee, or e.i!ee, )' !er.in+ t$e e2ecutor or %&ini!tr%tor or ot$er
"er!on%- re"re!ent%ti.e o( t$e eceent #it$ % co"' o( t$e #rit %n notice t$%t !%i intere!t i!
%tt%c$e. A co"' o( !%i #rit o( %tt%c$&ent %n o( !%i notice !$%-- %-!o )e (i-e in t$e o((ice o( t$e
c-er7 o( t$e court in #$ic$ !%i e!t%te i! )ein+ !ett-e %n !er.e u"on t$e $eir, -e+%tee or e.i!ee
concerne. I( t$e "ro"ert' !ou+$t to )e %tt%c$e i! in cu!toi% -e+i!, % co"' o( t$e #rit o( %tt%c$&ent
!$%-- )e (i-e #it$ t$e "ro"er court or 3u%!i4*uici%- %+enc', %n notice o( t$e %tt%c$&ent !er.e u"on
t$e cu!toi%n o( !uc$ "ro"ert'.
Sec. >. E((ect o( %tt%c$&ent o( e)t!, creit! %n %-- ot$er !i&i-%r "er!on%- "ro"ert'.
A-- "er!on! $%.in+ in t$eir "o!!e!!ion or uner t$eir contro- %n' creit! or ot$er !i&i-%r "er!on%-
"ro"ert' )e-on+in+ to t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& %tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue, or o#in+ %n' e)t! to $i&, %t t$e
ti&e o( !er.ice u"on t$e& o( t$e co"' o( t$e #rit o( %tt%c$&ent %n notice %! "ro.ie in t$e -%!t
"recein+ !ection, !$%-- )e -i%)-e to t$e %""-ic%nt (or t$e %&ount o( !uc$ creit!, e)t! or ot$er !i&i-%r
"er!on%- "ro"ert', unti- t$e %tt%c$&ent i! i!c$%r+e, or %n' *u+&ent reco.ere )' $i& i! !%ti!(ie,
un-e!! !uc$ "ro"ert' i! e-i.ere or tr%n!(erre, or !uc$ e)t! %re "%i, to t$e c-er7, !$eri((, or ot$er
"ro"er o((icer o( t$e court i!!uin+ t$e %tt%c$&ent.
Sec. ?. E((ect o( %tt%c$&ent o( intere!t in "ro"ert' )e-on+in+ to t$e e!t%te o( % eceent.
T$e %tt%c$&ent o( t$e intere!t o( %n $eir, -e+%tee, or e.i!ee in t$e "ro"ert' )e-on+in+ to t$e e!t%te o(
% eceent !$%-- not i&"%ir t$e "o#er o( t$e e2ecutor, %&ini!tr%tor, or ot$er "er!on%- re"re!ent%ti.e
o( t$e eceent o.er !uc$ "ro"ert' (or t$e "ur"o!e o( %&ini!tr%tion. Suc$ "er!on%- re"re!ent%ti.e,
$o#e.er, !$%-- re"ort t$e %tt%c$&ent to t$e court #$en %n' "etition (or i!tri)ution i! (i-e, %n in t$e
orer &%e u"on !uc$ "etition, i!tri)ution &%' )e %#%re to !uc$ $eir, -e+%tee, or e.i!ee, )ut t$e
"ro"ert' %tt%c$e !$%-- )e orere e-i.ere to t$e !$eri(( &%7in+ t$e -e.', !u)*ect to t$e c-%i& o( !uc$
$eir, -e+%tee, or e.i!ee, or %n' "er!on c-%i&in+ uner $i&.
Sec. 1@. E2%&in%tion o( "%rt' #$o!e "ro"ert' i! %tt%c$e %n "er!on! ine)te to $i& or contro--in+
$i! "ro"ert'5 e-i.er' o( "ro"ert' to !$eri((.
An' "er!on o#in+ e)t! to t$e "%rt' #$o!e "ro"ert' i! %tt%c$e or $%.in+ in $i! "o!!e!!ion or uner
$i! contro- %n' creit or ot$er "er!on%- "ro"ert' )e-on+in+ to !uc$ "%rt', &%' )e re3uire to %tten
)e(ore t$e court in #$ic$ t$e %ction i! "enin+, or )e(ore % co&&i!!ioner %""ointe )' t$e court, %n
)e e2%&ine on o%t$ re!"ectin+ t$e !%&e. T$e "%rt' #$o!e "ro"ert' i! %tt%c$e &%' %-!o )e re3uire to
%tten (or t$e "ur"o!e o( +i.in+ in(or&%tion re!"ectin+ $i! "ro"ert', %n &%' )e e2%&ine on o%t$.
T$e court &%', %(ter !uc$ e2%&in%tion, orer "er!on%- "ro"ert' c%"%)-e o( &%nu%- e-i.er' )e-on+in+
to $i&, in t$e "o!!e!!ion o( t$e "er!on !o re3uire to %tten )e(ore t$e court, to )e e-i.ere to t$e
c-er7 o( t$e court or !$eri(( on !uc$ ter&! %! &%' )e *u!t, $%.in+ re(erence to %n' -ien t$ereon or c-%i&
%+%in!t t$e !%&e, to %#%it t$e *u+&ent in t$e %ction.
Sec. 11. =$en %tt%c$e "ro"ert' &%' )e !o- %(ter -e.' on %tt%c$&ent %n )e(ore entr' o( *u+&ent.
=$ene.er it !$%-- )e &%e to %""e%r to t$e court in #$ic$ t$e %ction i! "enin+, u"on $e%rin+ #it$
notice to )ot$ "%rtie!, t$%t t$e "%rt' %tt%c$e i! "eri!$%)-e, or t$%t t$e intere!t! o( %-- t$e "%rtie! to
t$e %ction #i-- )e #i-- )e !u)!er.e )' t$e !%-e t$ereo(, t$e court &%' orer !uc$ "ro"ert' to )e !o- %t
"u)-ic %uction in !uc$ &%nner %! it &%' irect, %n t$e "rocee! o( !uc$ !%-e to )e e"o!ite in court
to %)ie t$e *u+&ent in t$e %ction.
Sec. 18. Di!c$%r+e o( %tt%c$&ent u"on +i.in+ counter)on.
A(ter % #rit o( %tt%c$&ent $%! )een en(orce, t$e "%rt' #$o!e "ro"ert' $%! )een %tt%c$e, or t$e
"er!on %""e%rin+ on $i! )e$%-(, &%' &o.e (or t$e i!c$%r+e o( t$e %tt%c$&ent #$o--' or in "%rt on t$e
!ecurit' +i.en. T$e court !$%--, %(ter ue notice %n $e%rin+, orer t$e i!c$%r+e o( t$e %tt%c$&ent i(
t$e &o.%nt &%7e! % c%!$ e"o!it, or (i-e! % counter4)on e2ecute to t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' #it$ t$e
c-er7 o( t$e court #$ere t$e %""-ic%tion i! &%e, in %n %&ount e3u%- to t$%t (i2e )' t$e court in t$e
orer o( %tt%c$&ent, e2c-u!i.e o( co!t!. Aut i( t$e %tt%c$&ent i! !ou+$t to )e i!c$%r+e #it$ re!"ect
to % "%rticu-%r "ro"ert', t$e counter4)on !$%-- )e e3u%- to t$e .%-ue o( t$%t "ro"ert' %! eter&ine )'
t$e court. In eit$er c%!e, t$e c%!$ e"o!it or t$e counter4)on !$%-- !ecure t$e "%'&ent o( %n'
*u+&ent t$%t t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' &%' reco.er in t$e %ction. A notice o( t$e e"o!it !$%-- (ort$ #it$ )e
!er.e on t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt'. U"on t$e i!c$%r+e o( %n %tt%c$&ent in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion!
o( t$i! !ection, t$e "ro"ert' %tt%c$e, or t$e "rocee! o( %n' !%-e t$ereo(, !$%-- )e e-i.ere to t$e
"%rt' &%7in+ t$e e"o!it or +i.in+ t$e counter4)on, or to t$e "er!on %""e%rin+ on $i! )e$%-(, t$e
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
e"o!it or counter4)on %(ore!%i !t%nin+ in "-%ce o( t$e "ro"ert' !o re-e%!e. S$ou- !uc$ counter4
)on (or %n' re%!on to )e (oun to )e or )eco&e in!u((icient, %n t$e "%rt' (urni!$in+ t$e !%&e (%i- to
(i-e %n %ition%- counter4)on, t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' &%' %""-' (or % ne# orer o( %tt%c$&ent.
Sec. 1:. Di!c$%r+e o( %tt%c$&ent on ot$er +roun!.
T$e "%rt' #$o!e "ro"ert' $%! )een orere %tt%c$e &%' (i-e % &otion #it$ t$e court in #$ic$ t$e
%ction i! "enin+, )e(ore or %(ter -e.' or e.en %(ter t$e re-e%!e o( t$e %tt%c$e "ro"ert', (or %n orer to
!et %!ie or i!c$%r+e t$e %tt%c$&ent on t$e +roun t$%t t$e !%&e #%! i&"ro"er-' or irre+u-%r-'
i!!ue or en(orce, or t$%t t$e )on i! in!u((icient. I( t$e %tt%c$&ent i! e2ce!!i.e, t$e i!c$%r+e !$%--
)e -i&ite to t$e e2ce!!. I( t$e &otion )e &%e on %((i%.it! on t$e "%rt o( t$e &o.%nt )ut not
ot$er#i!e, t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' &%' o""o!e t$e &otion )' counter4%((i%.it! or ot$er e.ience in
%ition to t$%t on #$ic$ t$e %tt%c$&ent #%! &%e. A(ter ue notice %n $e%rin+, t$e court !$%-- orer
t$e !ettin+ %!ie or t$e corre!"onin+ i!c$%r+e o( t$e %tt%c$&ent i( it %""e%r! t$%t it #%! i&"ro"er-'
or irre+u-%r-' i!!ue or en(orce, or t$%t t$e )on i! in!u((icient, or t$%t t$e %tt%c$&ent i! e2ce!!i.e,
%n t$e e(ect i! not cure (ort$#it$.
7ow do yo% disc+arge an attac+ment9
o Most common: post a co%nterC-ond
Availed o' w+en t+e attac+ment +as already -een en'orced
@o% can,t anticipate t+e en'orcement
Amo%nt is %s%ally t+e val%e o' t+e s%-6ect matter o' t+e action &Ins%lar Savings v
CA, !!D)
/ote: mere posting o' a co%nterC-ond will /E# a%tomatically disc+arge t+e
attac+ment, t+ere m%st -e a co%rt order to t+at e''ect &Sec%rity Paci'ic v Amelia,
!!:)
o Motion to set aside -ased on improper, irreg%lar, or e>cessive attac+mentF or w+en t+e
-ond is ins%''icient
Availed o' even before en'orcement &compare to posting a co%nterC-ond)
Improper: gro%nds are not present in t+e case
Irreg%lar: wrong process, like w+en writ is given wit+o%t a -ond, or t+e 6%risdiction
is not yet ac$%ired
Important: no e> parte disc+arge allowed
Can t+ere -e partial release on a co%nter-ond9
o @es*
Sec. 1;. Proceein+! #$ere "ro"ert' c-%i&e )' t$ir "er!on.
I( t$e "ro"ert' %tt%c$e i! c-%i&e )' %n' "er!on ot$er t$%n t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& %tt%c$&ent $%
)een i!!ue or $i! %+ent, %n !uc$ "er!on &%7e! %n %((i%.it o( $i! tit-e t$ereto, or ri+$t to t$e
"o!!e!!ion t$ereo(, !t%tin+ t$e +roun! o( !uc$ ri+$t or tit-e, %n !er.e! !uc$ %((i%.it u"on t$e !$eri((
#$i-e t$e -%tter $%! "o!!e!!ion o( t$e %tt%c$e "%rt', %n % co"' t$ereo( u"on t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt', t$e
!$eri(( !$%-- not )e )oun to 7ee" t$e "ro"ert' uner %tt%c$&ent, un-e!! t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' or $i!
%+ent, on e&%n o( t$e !$eri((, !$%-- (i-e % )on %""ro.e )' t$e court to ine&ni(' t$e t$ir4"%rt'
c-%i&%nt in % !u& not -e!! t$%n t$e .%-ue o( t$e "ro"ert' -e.ie u"on. In c%!e o( i!%+ree&ent %! to
!uc$ .%-ue, t$e !%&e !$%-- )e ecie )' t$e court i!!uin+ t$e #rit o( %tt%c$&ent. No c-%i& (or
%&%+e! (or t$e t%7in+ or 7ee"in+ o( t$e "ro"ert' &%' )e en(orce %+%in!t t$e )on un-e!! t$e %ction
t$ere(or i! (i-e #it$in one $unre t#ent' 018@1 %'! (ro& t$e %te o( t$e (i-in+ o( t$e )on.
T$e !$eri(( !$%-- not )e -i%)-e (or %&%+e! (or t$e t%7in+ or 7ee"in+ o( !uc$ "ro"ert', to %n' !uc$ t$ir4
"%rt' c-%i&%nt, i( !uc$ )on !$%-- )e (i-e. Not$in+ $erein cont%ine !uc$ "re.ent !uc$ c-%i&%nt or %n'
t$ir "er!on (ro& .inic%tin+ $i! c-%i& to t$e "ro"ert', or "re.ent t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' (ro& c-%i&in+
%&%+e! %+%in!t % t$ir4"%rt' c-%i&%nt #$o (i-e % (ri.o-ou! or "-%in-' !"uriou! c-%i&, in t$e !%&e or %
!e"%r%te %ction.
=$en t$e #rit o( %tt%c$&ent i! i!!ue in (%.or o( t$e Re"u)-ic o( t$e P$i-i""ine!, or %n' o((icer u-'
re"re!entin+ it, t$e (i-in+ o( !uc$ )on !$%-- not )e re3uire, %n in c%!e t$e !$eri(( i! !ue (or %&%+e!
%! % re!u-t o( t$e %tt%c$&ent, $e !$%-- )e re"re!ente )' t$e So-icitor Gener%-, %n i( $e- -i%)-e
t$ere(or, t$e %ctu%- %&%+e! %*u+e )' t$e court !$%-- )e "%i )' t$e N%tion%- Tre%!urer out o( t$e
(un! to )e %""ro"ri%te (or t$e "ur"o!e.
Same as w+en t+e property s%-6ect to e>ec%tion is claimed -y a 8
rd
party, e>cept 'or t+e provision
regarding vindicating a claim
o In attac+ment: t+e vindication can -e done in t+e same or separate action
o In e>ec%tion: t+e vindication can -e done only in a separate action
Since intervention can only -e done -e'ore 6%dgment in t+e trial co%rt &and
e>ec%tion pres%pposes e>ec%tion)
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Same r%le applies to replevin
Sec. 15. S%ti!(%ction o( *u+&ent out o( "ro"ert' %tt%c$e5 return o( !$eri((.
I( *u+&ent )e reco.ere )' t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' %n e2ecution i!!ue t$ereon, t$e !$eri(( &%' c%u!e t$e
*u+&ent to )e !%ti!(ie out o( t$e "ro"ert' %tt%c$e, i( it )e !u((icient (or t$%t "ur"o!e in t$e (o--o#in+
&%nner/
0%1 A' "%'in+ to t$e *u+&ent o)-i+ee t$e "rocee! o( %-- !%-e! o( "eri!$%)-e or ot$er "ro"ert' !o- in
"ur!u%nce o( t$e orer o( t$e court, or !o &uc$ %! !$%-- )e nece!!%r' to !%ti!(' t$e *u+&ent5
0)1 I( %n' )%-%nce re&%in! ue, )' !e--in+ !o &uc$ o( t$e "ro"ert', re%- or "er!on%-, %! &%' )e
nece!!%r' to !%ti!(' t$e )%-%nce, i( enou+$ (or t$%t "ur"o!e re&%in in t$e !$eri((9! $%n!, or in t$o!e o(
t$e c-er7 o( t$e court5
0c1 A' co--ectin+ (ro& %-- "er!on! $%.in+ in t$eir "o!!e!!ion creit! )e-on+in+ to t$e *u+&ent o)-i+or,
or o#in+ e)t! to t$e -%tter %t t$e ti&e o( t$e %tt%c$&ent o( !uc$ creit! or e)t!, t$e %&ount o( !uc$
creit! %n e)t! %! eter&ine )' t$e court in t$e %ction, %n !t%te in t$e *u+&ent, %n "%'in+ t$e
"rocee! o( !uc$ co--ection o.er to t$e *u+&ent o)-i+ee. T$e !$eri(( !$%-- (ort$#it$ &%7e % return in
#ritin+ to t$e court o( $i! "roceein+! uner t$i! !ection %n (urni!$ t$e "%rtie! #it$ co"ie! t$ereo(.

Sec. 1<. A%-%nce ue co--ecte u"on %n e2ecution5 e2ce!! e-i.ere to *u+&ent o)-i+or.
A(ter re%-i6in+ u"on %-- t$e "ro"ert' %tt%c$e, inc-uin+ t$e "rocee o( %n' e)t! or creit! co--ecte,
%n %""-'in+ t$e "rocee! to t$e !%ti!(%ction o( t$e *u+&ent, -e!! t$e e2"en!e! o( "roceein+! u"on
t$e *u+&ent, %n' )%-%nce !$%-- re&%in ue, t$e !$eri(( &u!t "rocee to co--ect !uc$ )%-%nce %! u"on
orin%r' e2ecution. =$ene.er t$e *u+&ent !$%-- $%.e )een "%i, t$e !$eri((, u"on re%!on%)-e
e&%n, &u!t return to t$e *u+&ent o)-i+or t$e %tt%c$e "ro"ert' re&%inin+ in $i! $%n!, %n %n'
"rocee! o( t$e !%-e o( t$e "ro"ert' %tt%c$e not %""-ie to t$e *u+&ent.
4+en t+e properties attac+ed are not s%''icient to satis'y t+e 6%dgment, t+e co%rt can proceed
wit+ ordinary e>ec%tion to cover t+e -alance*
Sec. 17. Reco.er' u"on t$e counter4)on.
=$en t$e *u+&ent $%! )eco&e e2ecutor', t$e !uret' or !uretie! on %n' counter4)on +i.en "ur!u%nt
to t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$i! Ru-e to !ecure t$e "%'&ent o( t$e *u+&ent !$%-- )eco&e c$%r+e on !uc$
counter4)on %n )oun to "%' t$e *u+&ent o)-i+ee u"on e&%n t$e %&ount ue uner t$e
*u+&ent, #$ic$ %&ount &%' )e reco.ere (ro& !uc$ !uret' or !uretie! %(ter notice %n !u&&%r'
$e%rin+ in t$e !%&e %ction.
Sec. 1>. Di!"o!ition o( &one' e"o!ite.
=$ere t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& %tt%c$&ent $% )een i!!ue $%! e"o!ite &one' in!te% o( +i.in+
counter4)on, it !$%-- )e %""-ie uner t$e irection o( t$e court to t$e !%ti!(%ction o( %n' *u+&ent
renere in (%.or o( t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt', %n %(ter !%ti!('in+ t$e *u+&ent t$e )%-%nce !$%-- )e
renere to t$e e"o!itor or $i! %!!i+nee. I( t$e *u+&ent i! in (%.or o( t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o&
%tt%c$&ent #%! i!!ue, t$e #$o-e !u& e"o!ite &u!t )e re(une to $i& or $i! %!!i+nee.
Sec. 1?. Di!"o!ition o( %tt%c$e "ro"ert' #$ere *u+&ent i! (or "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& %tt%c$&ent #%!
i!!ue.
I( *u+&ent )e renere %+%in!t t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt', %-- t$e "rocee! o( !%-e! %n &one' co--ecte or
recei.e )' t$e !$eri((, uner t$e orer o( %tt%c$&ent, %n %-- "ro"ert' %tt%c$e re&%inin+ in %n' !uc$
o((icer9! $%n!, !$%-- )e e-i.ere to t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& %tt%c$&ent #%! i!!ue, %n t$e orer o(
%tt%c$&ent i!c$%r+e.
Sec. 8@. C-%i& (or %&%+e! on %ccount o( i&"ro"er, irre+u-%r or e2ce!!i.e %tt%c$&ent.
An %""-ic%tion (or %&%+e! on %ccount o( i&"ro"er, irre+u-%r or e2ce!!i.e %tt%c$&ent &u!t )e (i-e
)e(ore t$e tri%- or )e(ore t$e tri%- or )e(ore %""e%- i! "er(ecte or )e(ore t$e *u+&ent )eco&e!
e2ecutor', #it$ ue notice to t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt' %n $i! !uret' or !uretie!, !ettin+ (ort$ t$e (%ct!
!$o#in+ $i! ri+$t to %&%+e! %n t$e %&ount t$ereo(. Suc$ %&%+e! &%' )e %#%re on-' %(ter
"ro"er $e%rin+ %n !$%-- )e inc-ue in t$e *u+&ent on t$e &%in c%!e.
I( t$e *u+&ent o( t$e %""e--%te court )e (%.or%)-e to t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& t$e %tt%c$&ent #%!
i!!ue, $e &u!t c-%i& %&%+e! !u!t%ine urin+ t$e "enenc' o( t$e %""e%- )' (i-in+ %n %""-ic%tion in
t$e %""e--%te court, #it$ notice to t$e "%rt' in #$o!e (%.or t$e %tt%c$&ent #%! i!!ue or $i! !uret' or
!uretie!, )e(ore t$e *u+&ent o( t$e %""e--%te court )eco&e! e2ecutor'. T$e %""e--%te court &%' %--o#
t$e %""-ic%tion to )e $e%r %n ecie )' t$e tri%- court.
Not$in+ $erein cont%ine !$%-- "re.ent t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& t$e %tt%c$&ent #%! i!!ue (ro&
reco.erin+ in t$e !%&e %ction t$e %&%+e! %#%re to $i& (ro& %n' "ro"ert' o( t$e %tt%c$in+ "%rt'
not e2e&"t (ro& e2ecution !$ou- t$e )on or e"o!it +i.en )' t$e -%tter )e in!u((icient or (%i- to (u--'
!%ti!(' t$e %#%r.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
I' t+ere is improper, irreg%lar or e>cessive damages, damages can -e recovered*
7ow9 2y drawing on t+e -ond*
(R: Section ! applies to all provisional remedies*
o 01C0P#: s%pport pendent lite*
4+ere can yo% apply 'or it9
o In t+e trial co%rt*
4+en9
o ?%ring or a'ter trial G even wit+in t+e reglementary period, or w+en appeal +as -een
per'ected, as LE/( as it is pending, and not yet 'inal and e>ec%tory*
4+at damages can -e recovered9
o As long as wrong'%l attac+ment: act%al damages
0vidence needed: 'act o' in6%ry or loss, and amo%nt t+ereo'
Bnreali.ed pro'its can -e recovered as long as t+ere is independent
evidence o' mean income o' t+e -%siness %ndertaken
o I' none, t+en temperate damages na lang &@% v* /go @et #e, !!H)
o I' t+ere is malicio%s attac+ment: act%al, moral and e>emplary
o 4+at a-o%t attorney,s 'ees9
(R: no atty,s 'ees w+en no moral or e>emplary
01C0P#IE/F w+en a party inc%rs e>penses to li't wrong'%lly iss%ed writ o'
attac+ment
RULE 5> PRELIMINARY INBUNCTION
Section 1. Pre-i&in%r' in*unction e(ine5 c-%!!e!.
A "re-i&in%r' in*unction i! %n orer +r%nte %t %n' !t%+e o( %n %ction or "roceein+ "rior to t$e
*u+&ent or (in%- orer, re3uirin+ % "%rt' or % court, %+enc' or % "er!on to re(r%in (ro& % "%rticu-%r %ct
or %ct!. It &%' %-!o re3uire t$e "er(or&%nce o( % "%rticu-%r %ct or %ct!, in #$ic$ c%!e it !$%-- )e 7no#n
%! % "re-i&in%r' &%n%tor' in*unction.
Sec. 8. =$o &%' +r%nt "re-i&in%r' in*unction.
A "re-i&in%r' in*unction &%' )e +r%nte )' t$e court #$ere t$e %ction or "roceein+ i! "enin+. I( t$e
%ction or "roceein+ i! "enin+ in t$e Court o( A""e%-! or in t$e Su"re&e Court, it &%' )e i!!ue )'
!%i court or %n' &e&)er t$ereo(.
Magic word: ;en6oin or stop<
4+en to apply: any time -e'ore 6%dgment or 'inal order
4+o may grant:
o Co%rt w+ere t+e action or proceeding
4+at are t+e types o' prelim in6%nction9
o Preliminary in6%nction to pro+i-it or stop: maintain t+e stat%s $%o
o Preliminary mandatory in6%nction: re$%ires somet+ing to -e per'ormed or done to
maintain t+e stat%s $%o
o And yo% also +ave t+e restraining order w+ic+ is iss%ed to preserve t+e stat%s $%o %ntil
t+e +earing on t+e application 'or preliminary in6%nction* &2acolod City 4ater v La-ayen)
Can t+ere -e a main action 'or in6%nction9
o @es, it,s an ordinary civil action w+ic+ seeks a 6%dgment 'or a 'inal in6%nction*
?i''erent 'rom a PI w+ose o-6ect is merely to preserve t+e stat%s $%o
Re$%isites 'or a PI:
o Clear and %nmistaka-le rig+t
o S%c+ rig+t +as -een violated and invasion +as -een material and s%-stantial
o Brgent and permanent necessity 'or t+e writ to prevent great and irrepara-le in6%ry
&never $%anti'y t+is or else it,s not great and irrepara-le)
Can an in6%nction +ave an e''ect i' en'orced o%tside t+e 6%dicial district9 &en'orced in Makati -y a
6%dge stationed in 2eng%et)
o /o, a writ can only -e iss%ed in t+e 6%dicial region*
4+at,s a stat%s $%o order9
o It,s not a PI, so t+e re$%irements 'or PIA#RE do /E# apply to it*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o It can -e applied in t+e #C or CA* it can -e iss%ed wit+o%t a -ond or wit+o%t a 'i>ed term*
2%t in !!H SC Circ%lar: t+e re$%irements 'or #RE &-ond and a''idavit) m%st apply
to stat%s $%o orders i' iss%ed 'or 6%dicial or e>tra6%dicial 'oreclos%re o' mortgage*
Additional re$%irements:
o S+ow act%al payment o' t+e loan
o Mere claim t+at t+e interest is %nconsciona-le or e>cessive does
not 6%sti'y t+e iss%ance o' t+e PI %nless t+e legal interest is paid*
Sec. :. Groun! (or i!!u%nce o( "re-i&in%r' in*unction.
A "re-i&in%r' in*unction &%' )e +r%nte #$en it i! e!t%)-i!$e/
0%1 T$%t t$e %""-ic%nt i! entit-e to t$e re-ie( e&%ne, %n t$e #$o-e or "%rt o( !uc$ re-ie( con!i!t! in
re!tr%inin+ t$e co&&i!!ion or continu%nce o( t$e %ct or %ct! co&"-%ine o(, or in re3uirin+ t$e
"er(or&%nce o( %n %ct or %ct!, eit$er (or % -i&ite "erio or "er"etu%--'5
0)1 T$%t t$e co&&i!!ion, continu%nce or non4"er(or&%nce o( t$e %ct or %ct! co&"-%ine o( urin+ t$e
-iti+%tion #ou- "ro)%)-' #or7 in*u!tice to t$e %""-ic%nt5 or
0c1 T$%t % "%rt', court, %+enc' or % "er!on i! oin+, t$re%tenin+, or i! %tte&"tin+ to o, or i! "rocurin+
or !u((erin+ to )e one, !o&e %ct or %ct! "ro)%)-' in .io-%tion o( t$e ri+$t! o( t$e %""-ic%nt re!"ectin+
t$e !u)*ect o( t$e %ction or "roceein+, %n tenin+ to rener t$e *u+&ent ine((ectu%-.
(ro%nds:
o Applicant entitled to t+e relie' demanded and t+e w+ole or part o' t+e relie' is restraining
or re$%iring t+e per'ormance o' an act or acts
o #+e commission, contin%ance or nonCper'ormance o' t+e acts will work in6%stice to t+e
applicant
o Someone is violating t+e rig+ts o' t+e applicant and it tends to render t+e 6%dgment o' t+e
main case ine''ect%al
4+at kind o' evidence do yo% need to prove yo%r case9
o Enly a sampling o' evidence is needed* &Land-ank v Continental, !!4)
o @o% need not present evidence o' t+e entire ca%se o' action
0>cept:
I' ca%se o' action is same -asis 'or t+e #RE &-%t -e care'%l o'
pre6%dgment)
Sec. ;. Veri(ie %""-ic%tion %n )on (or "re-i&in%r' in*unction or te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer.
A "re-i&in%r' in*unction or te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer &%' )e +r%nte on-' #$en/
0%1 T$e %""-ic%tion in t$e %ction or "roceein+ i! .eri(ie, %n !$o#! (%ct! entit-in+ t$e %""-ic%nt to t$e
re-ie( e&%ne5 %n
0)1 Un-e!! e2e&"te )' t$e court, t$e %""-ic%nt (i-e! #it$ t$e court #$ere t$e %ction or "roceein+ i!
"enin+, % )on e2ecute to t$e "%rt' or "er!on en*oine, in %n %&ount to )e (i2e )' t$e court, to t$e
e((ect t$%t t$e %""-ic%nt #i-- "%' to !uc$ "%rt' or "er!on %-- %&%+e! #$ic$ $e &%' !u!t%in )' re%!on
o( t$e in*unction or te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer i( t$e court !$ou- (in%--' ecie t$%t t$e %""-ic%nt #%!
not entit-e t$ereto. U"on %""ro.%- o( t$e re3ui!ite )on, % #rit o( "re-i&in%r' in*unction !$%-- )e
i!!ue.
0c1 =$en %n %""-ic%tion (or % #rit o( "re-i&in%r' in*unction or % te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer i! inc-ue
in % co&"-%int or %n' initi%tor' "-e%in+, t$e c%!e, i( (i-e in % &u-ti"-e4!%-% court, !$%-- )e r%((-e on-'
%(ter notice to %n in t$e "re!ence o( t$e %.er!e "%rt' or t$e "er!on to )e en*oine. In %n' e.ent,
!uc$ notice !$%-- )e "recee, or conte&"or%neou!-' %cco&"%nie, )' !er.ice o( !u&&on!, to+et$er
#it$ % co"' o( t$e co&"-%int or initi%tor' "-e%in+ %n t$e %""-ic%ntC! %((i%.it %n )on, u"on t$e
%.er!e "%rt' in t$e P$i-i""ine!. Ho#e.er, #$ere t$e !u&&on! cou- not )e !er.e "er!on%--' or )'
!u)!titute !er.ice e!"ite i-i+ent e((ort!, or t$e %.er!e "%rt' i! % re!ient o( t$e P$i-i""ine!
te&"or%ri-' %)!ent t$ere(ro& or i! % nonre!ient t$ereo(, t$e re3uire&ent o( "rior or conte&"or%neou!
!er.ice o( !u&&on! !$%-- not %""-'.
01 T$e %""-ic%tion (or % te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer !$%-- t$ere%(ter )e %cte u"on on-' %(ter %--
"%rtie! %re $e%r in % !u&&%r' $e%rin+ #$ic$ !$%-- )e conucte #it$in t#ent'4(our 08;1 $our! %(ter
t$e !$eri((C! return o( !er.ice %nDor t$e recor! %re recei.e )' t$e )r%nc$ !e-ecte )' r%((-e %n to
#$ic$ t$e recor! !$%-- )e tr%n!&itte i&&ei%te-'.
Sec. 5. Pre-i&in%r' in*unction not +r%nte #it$out notice5 e2ce"tion. No "re-i&in%r' in*unction !$%-- )e
+r%nte #it$out $e%rin+ %n "rior notice to t$e "%rt' or "er!on! !ou+$t to )e en*oine. I( it !$%--
%""e%r (ro& (%ct! !$o#n )' %((i%.it! or )' t$e .eri(ie %""-ic%tion t$%t +re%t or irre"%r%)-e in*ur'
#ou- re!u-t to t$e %""-ic%nt )e(ore t$e &%tter c%n )e $e%r on notice, t$e court to #$ic$ t$e
%""-ic%tion (or "re-i&in%r' in*unction #%! &%e, &%' i!!ue e2 "%rte % te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer to
)e e((ecti.e on-' (or % "erio o( t#ent' 08@1 %'! (ro& !er.ice on t$e "%rt' or "er!on !ou+$t to )e
en*oine, e2ce"t %! $erein "ro.ie. =it$in t$e t#ent'4%' "erio, t$e court &u!t orer !%i "%rt' or
"er!on to !$o# c%u!e %t % !"eci(ie ti&e %n "-%ce, #$' t$e in*unction !$ou- not )e +r%nte. T$e
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
court !$%-- %-!o eter&ine, #it$in t$e !%&e "erio, #$et$er or not t$e "re-i&in%r' in*unction !$%-- )e
+r%nte, %n %ccorin+-' i!!ue t$e corre!"onin+ orer.
Ho#e.er, !u)*ect to t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$e "recein+ !ection!, i( t$e &%tter i! o( e2tre&e ur+enc' %n
t$e %""-ic%nt #i-- !u((er +r%.e in*u!tice %n irre"%r%)-e in*ur', t$e e2ecuti.e *u+e o( % &u-ti"-e4!%-%
court or t$e "re!iin+ *u+e o( % !in+-e4!%-% court &%' i!!ue e2 "%rte % te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer
e((ecti.e (or on-' !e.ent'4t#o 0781 $our! (ro& i!!u%nce, )ut !$%-- i&&ei%te-' co&"-' #it$ t$e
"ro.i!ion! o( t$e ne2t "recein+ !ection %! to !er.ice o( !u&&on! %n t$e ocu&ent! to )e !er.e
t$ere#it$. T$ere%(ter, #it$in t$e %(ore!%i !e.ent'4t#o 0781 $our!, t$e *u+e )e(ore #$o& t$e c%!e i!
"enin+ !$%-- conuct % !u&&%r' $e%rin+ to eter&ine #$et$er t$e te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer !$%--
)e e2tene unti- t$e %""-ic%tion (or "re-i&in%r' in*unction c%n )e $e%r. In no c%!e !$%-- t$e tot%-
"erio o( e((ecti.it' o( t$e te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer e2cee t#ent' 08@1 %'!, inc-uin+ t$e ori+in%-
!e.ent'4t#o $our! "ro.ie $erein.
In t$e e.ent t$%t t$e %""-ic%tion (or "re-i&in%r' in*unction i! enie or not re!o-.e #it$in t$e !%i
"erio, t$e te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer i! ee&e %uto&%tic%--' .%c%te. T$e e((ecti.it' o( % te&"or%r'
re!tr%inin+ orer i! not e2teni)-e #it$out nee o( %n' *uici%- ec-%r%tion to t$%t e((ect, %n no court
!$%-- $%.e %ut$orit' to e2ten or rene# t$e !%&e on t$e !%&e +roun (or #$ic$ it #%! i!!ue.
Ho#e.er, i( i!!ue )' t$e Court o( A""e%-! or % &e&)er t$ereo(, t$e te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer !$%--
)e e((ecti.e (or !i2t' 0<@1 %'! (ro& !er.ice on t$e "%rt' or "er!on !ou+$t to )e en*oine. A re!tr%inin+
orer i!!ue )' t$e Su"re&e Court or % &e&)er t$ereo( !$%-- )e e((ecti.e unti- (urt$er orer!.
T$e tri%- court, t$e Court o( A""e%-!, t$e S%ni+%n)'%n or t$e Court o( T%2 A""e%-! t$%t i!!ue % #rit o(
"re-i&in%r' in*unction %+%in!t % -o#er court, )o%r, o((icer, or 3u%!i4*uici%- %+enc' !$%-- ecie t$e
&%in c%!e or "etition #it$in !i2 0<1 &ont$! (ro& t$e i!!u%nce o( t$e #rit.
/o preliminary in6%nction can -e iss%ed wit+o%t notice and +earing*
2%t 'or #REs, a co%rt can iss%e a #RE wit+o%t notice and +earing*
#REs are iss%ed to preserve t+e stat%s $%o %ntil t+e +earing o' t+e application 'or preliminary
in6%nction w+ic+ cannot -e iss%ed e> parte*
o #+ere are two kinds o' #RE:
#+e HC+o%r #RE
(ro%nd: matter o' e>treme %rgency and applicant will s%''er grave
in6%stice and irrepara-le in6%ry
Iss%ed -y t+e e>ec%tive 6%dge o' a m%ltiCsala co%rt, or presiding 6%dge o' a
single sala co%rt
AL4A@S wit+o%t a +earing
Enly lasts 'or H +o%rs*
o /ote: /E# 8 days, -%t H +o%rs* &So make s%re to 'ile it on a
Monday or #%esday* I' yo% 'ile it on a #+%rsday, it,ll e>pire on a
weekend and yo% won,t +ave a c+ance to e>tend it %ntil Monday
since no co%rt on weekends*)
It a%tomatically e>pires a'ter H +o%rs*
o 2%t t+is can -e e>tended to ! days, +ow9
#+e #RE, s%mmons, complaint and /E#IC0 o' RA55L0 will
-e given to t+e de'endant
#+e parties +ave to -e present d%ring ra''le
4it+in t+e H +o%rs, t+e 6%dge will cond%ct a s%mmary
+earing to determine w+et+er t+e #RE s+o%ld -e e>tended
to ! days &incl%ding t+e H +o%rs)
/ormal ! day #RE
(ro%nd: great or irrepara-le in6%ry
Iss%ed -y reg%lar co%rt 6%dge A5#0R ra''le
o #wo instances w+ere t+e normal ! day #RE will come a-o%t:
5ollowing t+e HC+o%r #RE &t+at,s w+y yo% need t+e notice
o' ra''le)
5ollowing service o' t+e complaint and s%mmons &normal
manner, w+en t+e case is not one o' e>treme %rgency)*
Also wit+o%t notice and +earing, -%t 6%dges rarely do t+is since people
mig+t t+ink -adly o' t+em
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
4it+in t+e !Cday period, t+e co%rt will determine i' t+e preliminary
in6%nction s+o%ld -e given &2acolod City 4ater v La-ayen, !!4)
Enly lasts 'or ! days, can /E# -e e>tended* It a%tomatically e>pires*
/E#0: 2ot+ #REs need a -ond*
Can #RE,s -e iss%ed -y t+e co%rt mot% propio9
o /E= #REs m%st -e applied 'or* &Bniversal Motors v Ro6as, !!:)
Can a reg%lar co%rt 6%dge iss%e a HC+o%r #RE and say t+at it will stay e''ective ;%ntil '%rt+er
orders<9
o /E= &(reenstar v Andiong, !!I)
5irst, a reg%lar co%rt 6%dge generally iss%e a HC+o%r #RE* #+e e>ec%tive 6%dge
does t+at*
Second, t+ere,s no s%c+ t+ing as a #RE ;%ntil '%rt+er orders< &e>cept in t+e SC)
Can t+e CA and SC iss%e #REs9
o @es*
CA: lasts D! days
SC: %ntil '%rt+er orders
Can yo% apply 'or a
nd
#RE a'ter yo%r 'irst one e>pired9
o @es, i' -ased on a di''erent and new gro%nd*
4+at is t+e d%ty o' t+e co%rt w+o iss%ed a PI9
o ?ecide t+e main case wit+in D monts* &See last paragrap+)
Sec. <. Groun! (or o)*ection to, or (or &otion o( i!!o-ution o(, in*unction or re!tr%inin+ orer.
T$e %""-ic%tion (or in*unction or re!tr%inin+ orer &%' )e enie, u"on % !$o#in+ o( it! in!u((icienc'.
T$e in*unction or re!tr%inin+ orer &%' %-!o )e enie, or, i( +r%nte, &%' )e i!!o-.e, on ot$er
+roun! u"on %((i%.it! o( t$e "%rt' or "er!on en*oine, #$ic$ &%' )e o""o!e )' t$e %""-ic%nt %-!o )'
%((i%.it!. It &%' (urt$er )e enie, or, i( +r%nte, &%' )e i!!o-.e, i( it %""e%r! %(ter $e%rin+ t$%t
%-t$ou+$ t$e %""-ic%nt i! entit-e to t$e in*unction or re!tr%inin+ orer, t$e i!!u%nce or continu%nce
t$ereo(, %! t$e c%!e &%' )e, #ou- c%u!e irre"%r%)-e %&%+e to t$e "%rt' or "er!on en*oine #$i-e t$e
%""-ic%nt c%n )e (u--' co&"en!%te (or !uc$ %&%+e! %! $e &%' !u((er, %n t$e (or&er (i-e! % )on in
%n %&ount (i2e )' t$e court conitione t$%t $e #i-- "%' %-- %&%+e! #$ic$ t$e %""-ic%nt &%' !u((er
)' t$e eni%- or t$e i!!o-ution o( t$e in*unction or re!tr%inin+ orer. I( it %""e%r! t$%t t$e e2tent o(
t$e "re-i&in%r' in*unction or re!tr%inin+ orer +r%nte i! too +re%t, it &%' )e &oi(ie.
(ro%nd to o-6ect:
o Ins%''iciency o' application &only a gro%nd to ?0/@, not to dissolve)
7ow to -ot+ o-6ect or dissolve:
o 5ile a''idavits s+owing t+ere was no reason 'or t+e PI
o 5ile co%nter-ond and a''idavit &and %ndergo a +earing) t+at t+e party will s%''er more
damage t+an t+e applicant will -eca%se o' t+e PI
Sec. 7. Ser.ice o( co"ie! o( )on!5 e((ect o( i!%""ro.%- o( !%&e.
T$e "%rt' (i-in+ % )on in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$i! Ru-e !$%-- (ort$#it$ !er.e % co"' o(
!uc$ )on on t$e ot$er "%rt', #$o &%' e2ce"t to t$e !u((icienc' o( t$e )on, or o( t$e !uret' or
!uretie! t$ereon. I( t$e %""-ic%ntC! )on i! (oun to )e in!u((icient in %&ount, or i( t$e !uret' or
!uretie! t$ereon (%i- to *u!ti(', %n % )on !u((icient in %&ount #it$ !u((icient !uretie! %""ro.e %(ter
*u!ti(ic%tion i! not (i-e (ort$#it$, t$e in*unction !$%-- )e i!!o-.e. I( t$e )on o( t$e %.er!e "%rt' i!
(oun to )e in!u((icient in %&ount, or t$e !uret' or !uretie! t$ereon (%i- to *u!ti(' % )on !u((icient in
%&ount #it$ !u((icient !uretie! %""ro.e %(ter *u!ti(ic%tion i! not (i-e (ort$#it$, t$e in*unction !$%-- )e
+r%nte or re!tore, %! t$e c%!e &%' )e.
I' t+e -onds or co%nter-onds are ins%''icient, t+e PI can eit+er -e dissolved or granted, as t+e
case may -e*
Sec. >. Bu+&ent to inc-ue %&%+e! %+%in!t "%rt' %n !uretie!.
At t$e tri%-, t$e %&ount o( %&%+e! to )e %#%re to eit$er "%rt', u"on t$e )on o( t$e %.er!e "%rt',
!$%-- )e c-%i&e, %!cert%ine, %n %#%re uner t$e !%&e "roceure "re!cri)e in !ection 8@ o( Ru-e
57.
Sec. ?. =$en (in%- in*unction +r%nte.
I( %(ter t$e tri%- o( t$e %ction it %""e%r! t$%t t$e %""-ic%nt i! entit-e to $%.e t$e %ct or %ct! co&"-%ine
o( "er&%nent-' en*oine, t$e court !$%-- +r%nt % (in%- in*unction "er"etu%--' re!tr%inin+ t$e "%rt' or
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
11
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
"er!on en*oine (ro& t$e co&&i!!ion or continu%nce o( t$e %ct or %ct! or con(ir&in+ t$e "re-i&in%r'
&%n%tor' in*unction.
RULE 5? RECEIVERSHIP

Section 1. A""oint&ent o( recei.er.
U"on % .eri(ie %""-ic%tion, one or &ore recei.er! o( t$e "ro"ert' !u)*ect o( t$e %ction or "roceein+
&%' )e %""ointe )' t$e court #$ere t$e %ction i! "enin+, or )' t$e Court o( A""e%-! or )' t$e
Su"re&e Court, or % &e&)er t$ereo(, in t$e (o--o#in+ c%!e!/
0%1 =$en it %""e%r! (ro& t$e .eri(ie %""-ic%tion, %n !uc$ ot$er "roo( %! t$e court &%' re3uire, t$%t
t$e "%rt' %""-'in+ (or t$e %""oint&ent o( % recei.er $%! %n intere!t in t$e "ro"ert' or (un #$ic$ i! t$e
!u)*ect o( t$e %ction or "roceein+, %n t$%t !uc$ "ro"ert' or (un i! in %n+er o( )ein+ -o!t, re&o.e,
or &%teri%--' in*ure un-e!! % recei.er )e %""ointe to %&ini!ter %n "re!er.e it5
0)1 =$en it %""e%r! in %n %ction )' t$e &ort+%+ee (or t$e (orec-o!ure o( % &ort+%+e t$%t t$e "ro"ert'
i! in %n+er o( )ein+ #%!te or i!!i"%te or &%teri%--' in*ure, %n t$%t it! .%-ue i! "ro)%)-'
in!u((icient to i!c$%r+e t$e &ort+%+e e)t, or t$%t t$e "%rtie! $%.e !o !ti"u-%te in t$e contr%ct o(
&ort+%+e5
0c1 A(ter *u+&ent, to "re!er.e t$e "ro"ert' urin+ t$e "enenc' o( %n %""e%-, or to i!"o!e o( it
%ccorin+ to t$e *u+&ent, or to %i e2ecution #$en t$e e2ecution $%! )een returne un!%ti!(ie or t$e
*u+&ent o)-i+or re(u!e! to %""-' $i! "ro"ert' in !%ti!(%ction o( t$e *u+&ent, or ot$er#i!e to c%rr'
t$e *u+&ent into e((ect5
01 =$ene.er in ot$er c%!e! it %""e%r! t$%t t$e %""oint&ent o( % recei.er i! t$e &o!t con.enient %n
(e%!i)-e &e%n! o( "re!er.in+, %&ini!terin+, or i!"o!in+ o( t$e "ro"ert' in -iti+%tion. Durin+ t$e
"enenc' o( %n %""e%-, t$e %""e--%te court &%' %--o# %n %""-ic%tion (or t$e %""oint&ent o( % recei.er
to )e (i-e in %n ecie )' t$e court o( ori+in %n t$e recei.er %""ointe to )e !u)*ect to t$e contro-
o( !%i court.
Magic word: ;preserve=<
Salient 'eat%res:
o Enly provisional remedy t+at can -e applied 'or postC6%dgment and even i' it is already
'inal and e>ec%tory*

o Re$%ires two -onds:


Applicant,s -ond &Sec )
Receiver,s -ond &Sec 4)
(ro%nds:
o Property is in danger o' -eing lost
o Property mortgaged is in danger o' -eing wastedAdissipated and t+e sec%rity in t+e
mortgage is not eno%g+ to cover t+e val%e o' t+e application
o Stip%lation in a mortgage contract
o Preserve t+e property d%ring appeal or to aid e>ec%tion o' 6%dgment
o Et+er reasons t+e co%rt 'inds t+at t+e appointment o' a receiver is t+e most convenient
and 'easi-le means o' administering t+e property
Se$%estration proceedings -y t+e PC(( are akin to receivers+ip and attac+ment* &Rep%-lic v
Sal%dares, !!!)
Sec. 8. Aon on %""oint&ent o( recei.er.
Ae(ore i!!uin+ t$e orer %""ointin+ % recei.er t$e court !$%-- re3uire t$e %""-ic%nt to (i-e % )on
e2ecute to t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& t$e %""-ic%tion i! "re!ente, in %n %&ount to )e (i2e )' t$e court,
to t$e e((ect t$%t t$e %""-ic%nt #i-- "%' !uc$ "%rt' %-- %&%+e! $e &%' !u!t%in )' re%!on o( t$e
%""oint&ent o( !uc$ recei.er in c%!e t$e %""-ic%nt !$%-- $%.e "rocure !uc$ %""oint&ent #it$out
!u((icient c%u!e5 %n t$e court &%', in it! i!cretion, %t %n' ti&e %(ter t$e %""oint&ent, re3uire %n
%ition%- )on %! (urt$er !ecurit' (or !uc$ %&%+e!.
Sec. :. Deni%- o( %""-ic%tion or i!c$%r+e o( recei.er.
T$e %""-ic%tion &%' )e enie, or t$e recei.er i!c$%r+e, #$en t$e %.er!e "%rt' (i-e! % )on
e2ecute to t$e %""-ic%nt, in %n %&ount to )e (i2e )' t$e court, to t$e e((ect t$%t !uc$ "%rt' #i-- "%'
t$e %""-ic%nt %-- %&%+e! $e &%' !u((er )' re%!on o( t$e %ct!, o&i!!ion!, or ot$er &%tter! !"eci(ie in
2
Sec. )1. /ppointment of receiver.
0he court may appoint a receiver of the property of the judgment obligor% and it may also forbid a transfer or other disposition of, or any
interference ith, the property of the judgment obligor not e1empt from e1ecution.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
12
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
t$e %""-ic%tion %! +roun (or !uc$ %""oint&ent. T$e recei.er &%' %-!o )e i!c$%r+e i( it i! !$o#n t$%t
$i! %""oint&ent #%! o)t%ine #it$out !u((icient c%u!e.
5iling o' a co%nter-ond:
o ?isc+arges a receiver, or
o ?enies an application
Receiver may also -e disc+arged i' it is s+own t+at +is appointment was wit+o%t s%''icient ca%se*
Sec. ;. O%t$ %n )on o( recei.er.
Ae(ore enterin+ u"on $i! utie!, t$e recei.er !$%-- )e !#orn to "er(or& t$e& (%it$(u--', %n !$%-- (i-e %
)on, e2ecute to !uc$ "er!on %n in !uc$ !u& %! t$e court &%' irect, to t$e e((ect t$%t $e #i--
(%it$(u--' i!c$%r+e $i! utie! in t$e %ction or "roceein+ %n o)e' t$e orer! o( t$e court.
Can an agreement stip%late t+at t+e receiver,s -ond can -e dispensed wit+9
o @es* &Citi-ank v CA, "333)
2%t in t+at same case, t+e SC +eld t+at t+e receivers+ip was de'ective -eca%se o'
t+e receiver,s 'ail%re to take t+e oat+*
Sec. 5. Ser.ice o( co"ie! o( )on!5 e((ect o( i!%""ro.%- o( !%&e.
T$e "er!on (i-in+ % )on in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$i! Ru-e !$%-- (ort$#it$ !er.e % co"'
t$ereo( on e%c$ intere!te "%rt', #$o &%' e2ce"t to it! !u((icienc' or o( t$e !uret' or !uretie! t$ereon.
I( eit$er t$e %""-ic%ntC! or t$e recei.erC! )on i! (oun to )e in!u((icient in %&ount, or i( t$e !uret' or
!uretie! t$ereon (%i- to *u!ti(', %n % )on !u((icient in %&ount #it$ !u((icient !uretie! %""ro.e %(ter
*u!ti(ic%tion i! not (i-e (ort$#it$, t$e %""-ic%tion !$%-- )e enie or t$e recei.er i!c$%r+e, %! t$e
c%!e &%' )e. I( t$e )on o( t$e %.er!e "%rt' i! (oun to )e in!u((icient in %&ount or t$e !uret' or
!uretie! t$ereon (%i- to *u!ti(', %n % )on !u((icient in %&ount #it$ !u((icient !uretie! %""ro.e %(ter
*u!ti(ic%tion i! not (i-e (ort$#it$, t$e recei.er !$%-- )e %""ointe or re4%""ointe, %! t$e c%!e &%' )e.
Sec. <. Gener%- "o#er! o( recei.er.
Su)*ect to t$e contro- o( t$e court in #$ic$ t$e %ction or "roceein+ i! "enin+, % recei.er !$%-- $%.e
t$e "o#er to )rin+ %n e(en, in !uc$ c%"%cit', %ction! in $i! o#n n%&e5 to t%7e %n 7ee" "o!!e!!ion
o( t$e "ro"ert' in contro.er!'5 to recei.e rent!5 to co--ect e)t! ue to $i&!e-( %! recei.er or to t$e
(un, "ro"ert', e!t%te, "er!on, or cor"or%tion o( #$ic$ $e i! t$e recei.er5 to co&"oun (or %n
co&"ro&i!e t$e !%&e5 to &%7e tr%n!(er!5 to "%' out!t%nin+ e)t!5 to i.ie t$e &one' %n ot$er
"ro"ert' t$%t !$%-- re&%in %&on+ t$e "er!on! -e+%--' entit-e to recei.e t$e !%&e5 %n +ener%--' to o
!uc$ %ct! re!"ectin+ t$e "ro"ert' %! t$e court &%' %ut$ori6e. Ho#e.er, (un! in t$e $%n! o( %
recei.er &%' )e in.e!te on-' )' orer o( t$e court u"on t$e #ritten con!ent o( %-- t$e "%rtie! to t$e
%ction. No %ction &%' )e (i-e )' or %+%in!t % recei.er #it$out -e%.e o( t$e court #$ic$ %""ointe $i&.
Receivers+ip only covers acts o' administration, receiver can,t do acts o' owners+ip
Sec. 7. Li%)i-it' (or re(u!%- or ne+-ect to e-i.er "ro"ert' to recei.er.
A "er!on #$o re(u!e! or ne+-ect!, u"on re%!on%)-e e&%n, to e-i.er to t$e recei.er %-- t$e "ro"ert',
&one', )oo7!, ee!, note!, )i--!, ocu&ent! %n "%"er! #it$in $i! "o#er or contro-, !u)*ect o( or
in.o-.e in t$e %ction or "roceein+, or in c%!e o( i!%+ree&ent, %! eter&ine %n orere )' t$e
court, &%' )e "uni!$e (or conte&"t %n !$%-- )e -i%)-e to t$e recei.er (or t$e &one' or t$e .%-ue o(
t$e "ro"ert' %n ot$er t$in+! !o re(u!e or ne+-ecte to )e !urrenere, to+et$er #it$ %-- %&%+e!
t$%t &%' $%.e )een !u!t%ine )' t$e "%rt' or "%rtie! entit-e t$ereto %! % con!e3uence o( !uc$ re(u!%-
or ne+-ect.
Sec. >. Ter&in%tion o( recei.er!$i"5 co&"en!%tion o( recei.er.
=$ene.er t$e court, &otu "ro"rio or on &otion o( eit$er "%rt', !$%-- eter&ine t$%t t$e nece!!it' (or %
recei.er no -on+er e2i!t!, it !$%--, %(ter ue notice to %-- intere!te "%rtie! %n $e%rin+, !ett-e t$e
%ccount! o( t$e recei.er, irect t$e e-i.er' o( t$e (un! %n ot$er "ro"ert' in $i! "o!!e!!ion to t$e
"er!on %*u+e to )e entit-e to recei.e t$e&, %n orer t$e i!c$%r+e o( t$e recei.er (ro& (urt$er
ut' %! !uc$. T$e court !$%-- %--o# t$e recei.er !uc$ re%!on%)-e co&"en!%tion %! t$e circu&!t%nce! o(
t$e c%!e #%rr%nt, to )e t%2e %! co!t! %+%in!t t$e e(e%te "%rt', or %""ortione, %! *u!tice re3uire!.
Sec. ?. Bu+&ent to inc-ue reco.er' %+%in!t !uretie!.
T$e %&ount, i( %n', to )e %#%re to %n' "%rt' u"on %n' )on (i-e in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion!
o( t$i! Ru-e, !$%-- )e c-%i&e, %!cert%ine, %n +r%nte uner t$e !%&e "roceure "re!cri)e in !ection
8@ o( Ru-e 57.
RULE <@ REPLEVIN
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro

Section 1. A""-ic%tion.
A "%rt' "r%'in+ (or t$e reco.er' o( "o!!e!!ion o( "er!on%- "ro"ert' &%', %t t$e co&&ence&ent o( t$e
%ction or %t %n' ti&e )e(ore %n!#er, %""-' (or %n orer (or t$e e-i.er' o( !uc$ "ro"ert' to $i&, in t$e
&%nner $erein%(ter "ro.ie.
Covers only personal property
o Act%ally covers speci'ic personal property
4+en: at t+e commencement o' t+e action or any time -e'ore answer
o Compare to ot+er prov rems, w+ere yo% can apply anytime w+ile t+e action is pending &or
in receivers+ip, even a'ter)
4+at i' answer already given9
J%st go 'or attac+ment, -%t yo% won,t get t+e speci'ic property, and t+e
gro%nds 'or iss%ance m%st -e present*
4+at i' personal property is peris+a-le9
(o 'or attac+ment since it allows 'or t+e sale o' t+e property* J%st make
s%re t+e gro%nds are present*
Replevin is a prov rem, remem-er t+at* #+e main action is recovery o' possession o' property*
Sec. 8. A((i%.it %n )on.
T$e %""-ic%nt &u!t !$o# )' $i! o#n %((i%.it or t$%t o( !o&e ot$er "er!on #$o "er!on%--' 7no#! t$e
(%ct!/

0%1 T$%t t$e %""-ic%nt i! t$e o#ner o( t$e "ro"ert' c-%i&e, "%rticu-%r-' e!cri)in+ it, or i! entit-e to
t$e "o!!e!!ion t$ereo(5
0)1 T$%t t$e "ro"ert' i! #ron+(u--' et%ine )' t$e %.er!e "%rt', %--e+in+ t$e c%u!e o( etention
t$ereo( %ccorin+ to t$e )e!t o( $i! 7no#-e+e, in(or&%tion, %n )e-ie(5
0c1 T$%t t$e "ro"ert' $%! not )een i!tr%ine or t%7en (or % t%2 %!!e!!&ent or % (ine "ur!u%nt to -%#,
or !ei6e uner % #rit o( e2ecution or "re-i&in%r' %tt%c$&ent, or ot$er#i!e "-%ce uner cu!toi%
-e+i!, or i( !o !ei6e, t$%t it i! e2e&"t (ro& !uc$ !ei6ure or cu!to'5 %n
01 T$e %ctu%- &%r7et .%-ue o( t$e "ro"ert'. T$e %""-ic%nt &u!t %-!o +i.e % )on, e2ecute to t$e
%.er!e "%rt' in ou)-e t$e .%-ue o( t$e "ro"ert' %! !t%te in t$e %((i%.it %(ore&entione, (or t$e
return o( t$e "ro"ert' to t$e %.er!e "%rt' i( !uc$ return )e %*u+e, %n (or t$e "%'&ent to t$e
%.er!e "%rt' o( !uc$ !u& %! $e &%' reco.er (ro& t$e %""-ic%nt in t$e %ction.
4+at s+o%ld t+e a''idavit contain9
o Applicant is t+e owner o' t+e t+ing, or is entitled to possession t+ereo'
o Property is wrong'%lly detained
I' t+e detention is act%ally allowed -y law, t+en no replevin &#win Ace 7olding v
R%'ina, !!D, w+erein gin -ottles were %sed and allowed -y law to -e %sed 'or
storing s%ka and patis*)
o Property is not law'%lly taken
Law'%lly taken: levy, e>ec%tion, c%stodia legis, ta> assessment, %nder preliminary
attac+ment
C%stodia legis: s%-6ected to t+e o''icial c%stody o' 6%dicialAe>ec%tive o''icer
in p%rs%ance o' +is e>ec%tion o' a legal writ
o A -%s impo%nded a'ter an accident is not %nder law'%l c%stody
since t+ere is no law a%t+ori.ing s%c+* It violates t+e Constit%tional
rig+t o' %nlaw'%l sei.%res* 7ence, it can -e s%-6ect to a replevin*
&S%perlines v P/CC, !!H)
o Logs %nder ?0/R c%stody -ased on a law'%l ?0/R order can /E#
-e released &?ag%dag v Paderanga, !!I)
o 0vidence sei.ed %nder searc+ warrants or valid warrantless
searc+es can /E# -e released*
o #+e 5MK o' t+e property
7ow m%c+ is t+e -ond9
o ?EB2L0 t+e val%e o' t+e property
Enly prov rem w+ere it,s do%-le t+e val%e
Sec. :. Orer.
U"on t$e (i-in+ o( !uc$ %((i%.it %n %""ro.%- o( t$e )on, t$e court !$%-- i!!ue %n orer %n t$e
corre!"onin+ #rit o( re"-e.in e!cri)in+ t$e "er!on%- "ro"ert' %--e+e to )e #ron+(u--' et%ine %n
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
re3uirin+ t$e !$eri(( (ort$#it$ to t%7e !uc$ "ro"ert' into $i! cu!to'.
Sec. ;. Dut' o( t$e !$eri((.
U"on recei.in+ !uc$ orer, t$e !$eri(( &u!t !er.e % co"' t$ereo( on t$e %.er!e "%rt', to+et$er #it$ %
co"' o( t$e %""-ic%tion, %((i%.it %n )on, %n &u!t (ort$#it$ t%7e t$e "ro"ert', i( it )e in t$e
"o!!e!!ion o( t$e %.er!e "%rt', or $i! %+ent, %n ret%in it in $i! cu!to'. I( t$e "ro"ert' or %n' "%rt
t$ereo( )e conce%-e in % )ui-in+ or enc-o!ure, t$e !$eri(( &u!t e&%n it! e-i.er', %n i( it )e not
e-i.ere, $e &u!t c%u!e t$e )ui-in+ or enc-o!ure to )e )ro7en o"en %n t%7e t$e "ro"ert' into $i!
"o!!e!!ion. A(ter t$e !$eri(( $%! t%7en "o!!e!!ion o( t$e "ro"ert' %! $erein "ro.ie, $e &u!t 7ee" it
in % !ecure "-%ce %n !$%-- )e re!"on!i)-e (or it! e-i.er' to t$e "%rt' entit-e t$ereto u"on recei.in+
$i! (ee! %n nece!!%r' e2"en!e! (or t%7in+ %n 7ee"in+ t$e !%&e.
Sec. 5. Return o( "ro"ert'.
I( t$e %.er!e "%rt' o)*ect! to t$e !u((icienc' o( t$e %""-ic%ntC! )on, or o( t$e !uret' or !uretie!
t$ereon, $e c%nnot i&&ei%te-' re3uire t$e return o( t$e "ro"ert', )ut i( $e oe! not !o o)*ect, $e &%',
%t %n' ti&e )e(ore t$e e-i.er' o( t$e "ro"ert' to t$e %""-ic%nt, re3uire t$e return t$ereo(, )' (i-in+
#it$ t$e court #$ere t$e %ction i! "enin+ % )on e2ecute to t$e %""-ic%nt, in ou)-e t$e .%-ue o( t$e
"ro"ert' %! !t%te in t$e %""-ic%ntC! %((i%.it (or t$e e-i.er' t$ereo( to t$e %""-ic%nt, i( !uc$ e-i.er'
)e %*u+e, %n (or t$e "%'&ent o( !uc$ !u& to $i& %! &%' )e reco.ere %+%in!t t$e %.er!e "%rt',
%n )' !er.in+ % co"' o( !uc$ )on on t$e %""-ic%nt.
Sec. <. Di!"o!ition o( "ro"ert' )' !$eri((.
I( #it$in (i.e 051 %'! %(ter t$e t%7in+ o( t$e "ro"ert' )' t$e !$eri((, t$e %.er!e "%rt' oe! not o)*ect
to t$e !u((icienc' o( t$e )on, or o( t$e !uret' or !uretie! t$ereon5 or i( t$e %.er!e "%rt' !o o)*ect!
%n t$e court %((ir&! it! %""ro.%- o( t$e %""-ic%ntC! )on or %""ro.e! % ne# )on, or i( t$e %.er!e
"%rt' re3uire! t$e return o( t$e "ro"ert' )ut $i! )on i! o)*ecte to %n (oun in!u((icient %n $e oe!
not (ort$#it$ (i-e %n %""ro.e )on, t$e "ro"ert' !$%-- )e e-i.ere to t$e %""-ic%nt. I( (or %n' re%!on
t$e "ro"ert' i! not e-i.ere to t$e %""-ic%nt, t$e !$eri(( &u!t return it to t$e %.er!e "%rt'.
#+e adverse party can 'ile a co%nter-ond &wort+ do%-le t+e val%e o' t+e property) to prevent t+e
delivery o' t+e property -y t+e s+eri'' to t+e applicant* &so, t+is can -e availed o' -e'ore t+e s+eri''
delivers t+e property to t+e applicant)
o 2%t i' wit+in : days:
/o o-6ection is made
E-6ection is made -%t is overr%led -y t+e co%rt
Co%nter-ond is ins%''icient
#+en t+e property will -e delivered to t+e applicant*
o 4+at,s yo%r remedy i' t+e property +as already -een delivered to t+e applicant9
Intervene, -%t possession can,t -e given to yo%* (a)deliver na eh.
Sec. 7. Proceein+! #$ere "ro"ert' c-%i&e )' t$ir "er!on.
I( t$e "ro"ert' t%7en i! c-%i&e )' %n' "er!on ot$er t$%n t$e "%rt' %+%in!t #$o& t$e #rit o( re"-e.in
$% )een i!!ue or $i! %+ent, %n !uc$ "er!on &%7e! %n %((i%.it o( $i! tit-e t$ereto, or ri+$t to t$e
"o!!e!!ion t$ereo(, !t%tin+ t$e +roun! t$ere(or, %n !er.e! !uc$ %((i%.it u"on t$e !$eri(( #$i-e t$e
-%tter $%! "o!!e!!ion o( t$e "ro"ert' %n % co"' t$ereo( u"on t$e %""-ic%nt, t$e !$eri(( !$%-- not )e
)oun to 7ee" t$e "ro"ert' uner re"-e.in or e-i.er it to t$e %""-ic%nt un-e!! t$e %""-ic%nt or $i!
%+ent, on e&%n o( !%i !$eri((, !$%-- (i-e % )on %""ro.e )' t$e court to ine&ni(' t$e t$ir4"%rt'
c-%i&%nt in % !u& not -e!! t$%n t$e .%-ue o( t$e "ro"ert' uner re"-e.in %! "ro.ie in !ection 8
$ereo(. In c%!e o( i!%+ree&ent %! to !uc$ .%-ue, t$e court !$%-- eter&ine t$e !%&e. No c-%i& (or
%&%+e! (or t$e t%7in+ or 7ee"in+ o( t$e "ro"ert' &%' )e en(orce %+%in!t t$e )on un-e!! t$e %ction
t$ere(or i! (i-e #it$in one $unre t#ent' 018@1 %'! (ro& t$e %te o( t$e (i-in+ o( t$e )on. T$e
!$eri(( !$%-- not )e -i%)-e (or %&%+e!, (or t$e t%7in+ or 7ee"in+ o( !uc$ "ro"ert', to %n' !uc$ t$ir4
"%rt' c-%i&%nt i( !uc$ )on !$%-- )e (i-e. Not$in+ $erein cont%ine !$%-- "re.ent !uc$ c-%i&%nt or %n'
t$ir "er!on (ro& .inic%tin+ $i! c-%i& to t$e "ro"ert', or "re.ent t$e %""-ic%nt (ro& c-%i&in+ %&%+e!
%+%in!t % t$ir4"%rt' c-%i&%nt #$o (i-e % (ri.o-ou! or "-%in-' !"uriou! c-%i&, in t$e !%&e or % !e"%r%te
%ction. =$en t$e #rit o( re"-e.in i! i!!ue in (%.or o( t$e Re"u)-ic o( t$e P$i-i""ine!, or %n' o((icer u-'
re"re!entin+ it, t$e (i-in+ o( !uc$ )on !$%-- not )e re3uire, %n in c%!e t$e !$eri(( i! !ue (or %&%+e!
%! % re!u-t o( t$e re"-e.in, $e !$%-- )e re"re!ente )' t$e So-icitor Gener%-, %n i( $e- -i%)-e t$ere(or,
t$e %ctu%- %&%+e! %*u+e )' t$e court !$%-- )e "%i )' t$e N%tion%- Tre%!urer out o( t$e (un! to )e
%""ro"ri%te (or t$e "ur"o!e.
Similar to t+e r%le in attac+ment &compare wit+ e>ec%tion)
Sec. >. Return o( "%"er!.
T$e !$eri(( &u!t (i-e t$e orer, #it$ $i! "roceein+! inor!e t$ereon, #it$ t$e court #it$in ten 01@1
%'! %(ter t%7in+ t$e "ro"ert' &entione t$erein.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. ?. Bu+&ent.
A(ter tri%- o( t$e i!!ue!, t$e court !$%-- eter&ine #$o $%! t$e ri+$t o( "o!!e!!ion to %n t$e .%-ue o(
t$e "ro"ert' %n !$%-- rener *u+&ent in t$e %-tern%ti.e (or t$e e-i.er' t$ereo( to t$e "%rt' entit-e
to t$e !%&e, or (or it! .%-ue in c%!e e-i.er' c%nnot )e &%e, %n %-!o (or !uc$ %&%+e! %! eit$er "%rt'
&%' "ro.e, #it$ co!t!.
Sec. 1@. Bu+&ent to inc-ue reco.er' %+%in!t !uretie!.
T$e %&ount, i( %n', to )e %#%re to %n' "%rt' u"on %n' )on (i-e in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion!
o( t$i! Ru-e, !$%-- )e c-%i&e, %!cert%ine, %n +r%nte uner t$e !%&e "roceure %! "re!cri)e in
!ection 8@ o( Ru-e 57.
RULE <1 SUPPORT PENDENTE LITE

Section 1. A""-ic%tion.
At t$e co&&ence&ent o( t$e "ro"er %ction or "roceein+, or %t %n' ti&e "rior to t$e *u+&ent or (in%-
orer, % .eri(ie %""-ic%tion (or !u""ort "enente -ite &%' )e (i-e )' %n' "%rt' !t%tin+ t$e +roun! (or
t$e c-%i& %n t$e (in%nci%- conition! o( )ot$ "%rtie!, %n %cco&"%nie )' %((i%.it!, e"o!ition! or
ot$er %ut$entic ocu&ent! in !u""ort t$ereo(.
Sec. 8. Co&&ent.
A co"' o( t$e %""-ic%tion %n %-- !u""ortin+ ocu&ent! !$%-- )e !er.e u"on t$e %.er!e "%rt', #$o
!$%-- $%.e (i.e 051 %'! to co&&ent t$ereon un-e!! % i((erent "erio i! (i2e )' t$e court u"on $i!
&otion. T$e co&&ent !$%-- )e .eri(ie %n !$%-- )e %cco&"%nie )' %((i%.it!, e"o!ition! or ot$er
%ut$entic ocu&ent! in !u""ort t$ereo(.
Sec. :. He%rin+.
A(ter t$e co&&ent i! (i-e, or %(ter t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio (or it! (i-in+, t$e %""-ic%tion !$%-- )e !et
(or $e%rin+ not &ore t$%n t$ree 0:1 %'! t$ere%(ter. T$e (%ct! in i!!ue !$%-- )e "ro.e in t$e !%&e
&%nner %! i! "ro.ie (or e.ience on &otion!.
Sec. ;. Orer.
T$e court !$%-- eter&ine "ro.i!ion%--' t$e "ertinent (%ct!, %n !$%-- rener !uc$ orer! %! *u!tice %n
e3uit' &%' re3uire, $%.in+ ue re+%r to t$e "ro)%)-e outco&e o( t$e c%!e %n !uc$ ot$er
circu&!t%nce! %! &%' %i in t$e "ro"er re!o-ution o( t$e 3ue!tion in.o-.e. I( t$e %""-ic%tion i!
+r%nte, t$e court !$%-- (i2 t$e %&ount o( &one' to )e "ro.i!ion%--' "%i or !uc$ ot$er (or&! o( !u""ort
%! !$ou- )e "ro.ie, t%7in+ into %ccount t$e nece!!itie! o( t$e %""-ic%nt %n t$e re!ource! or &e%n!
o( t$e %.er!e "%rt', %n t$e ter&! o( "%'&ent or &oe (or "ro.iin+ t$e !u""ort. I( t$e %""-ic%tion i!
enie, t$e "rinci"%- c%!e !$%-- )e trie %n ecie %! e%r-' %! "o!!i)-e.
4+en: any time prior to 6%dgment or 'inal order
7ow: veri'ied application stating t+e gro%nds o' t+e claim and t+e 'inancial conditions o' -ot+
parties
o 7EL? BP #70R0, SE/= ?on,t yo% need a -ond9=
/o, sir* @o% don,t* #+is is t+e E/L@ prov rem t+at does not re$%ire a -ond*
Ekay, -%t w+at i' yo% were wrong'%lly compelled to give s%pport
8
, w+at do
yo% do9
o Ask 'or reim-%rsement* &Sec H)
I' action is still pending, apply 'or reim-%rsement in t+e
same action*
I' t+ere is 6%dgment already, apply 'or it in a separate
case*
Can t+e co%rt dissolve s%pport pendente lite9
o @es* I' t+ere is no more reason to give s%c+*
Can t+e co%rt give s%pport in arrears9
o @0S= &Mangonon v CA, !!D, w+ere a grand'at+er was asked to s%pport +is
grandda%g+ters, ed%cation in t+e BS)
Sec. 5. En(orce&ent o( orer.
I( t$e %.er!e "%rt' (%i-! to co&"-' #it$ %n orer +r%ntin+ !u""ort "enente -ite, t$e court !$%--, &otu
"ro"rio or u"on &otion, i!!ue %n orer o( e2ecution %+%in!t $i&, #it$out "re*uice to $i! -i%)i-it' (or
(
2i'e hen you go to 3aury and tells you, 4you are 560 the father.7 /nd you start jumping up and don li'e a madman.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
conte&"t. =$en t$e "er!on orere to +i.e !u""ort "enente -ite re(u!e! or (%i-! to o !o, %n' t$ir
"er!on #$o (urni!$e t$%t !u""ort to t$e %""-ic%nt &%', %(ter ue notice %n $e%rin+ in t$e !%&e c%!e,
o)t%in % #rit o( e2ecution to en(orce $i! ri+$t o( rei&)ur!e&ent %+%in!t t$e "er!on orere to "ro.ie
!uc$ !u""ort.
I' t+ere is re'%sal to comply wit+ t+e co%rt order to give s%pport, w+at in t+e world +appens9
o #+e co%rt can order e>ec%tion &wit+o%t pre6%dice to contempt)*
Interestingly: t+ere are only #4E instances w+ere t+ere can -e writ o' e>ec%tion
even w+en t+ere is no 'inal 6%dgment* 4+en9
Secret*
4
Sec. <. Su""ort in cri&in%- c%!e!.
In cri&in%- %ction! #$ere t$e ci.i- -i%)i-it' inc-ue! !u""ort (or t$e o((!"rin+ %! % con!e3uence o( t$e
cri&e %n t$e ci.i- %!"ect t$ereo( $%! not )een #%i.e, re!er.e or in!titute "rior to it! (i-in+, t$e
%ccu!e &%' )e orere to "ro.ie !u""ort "enente -ite to t$e c$i- )orn to t$e o((ene "%rt'
%--e+e-' )ec%u!e o( t$e cri&e. T$e %""-ic%tion t$ere(or &%' )e (i-e !ucce!!i.e-' )' t$e o((ene
"%rt', $er "%rent!, +r%n"%rent! or +u%ri%n %n t$e St%te in t$e corre!"onin+ cri&in%- c%!e urin+
it! "enenc', in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "roceure e!t%)-i!$e uner t$i! Ru-e.
Applied in rape cases*
Application s+o%ld -e 'iled s%ccessively -y t+e o''ended, +er parents, grandparents or g%ardian
and t+e State*
Sec. 7. Re!titution.
=$en t$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer o( t$e court (in! t$%t t$e "er!on #$o $%! )een "ro.iin+ !u""ort
"enente -ite i! not -i%)-e t$ere(or, it !$%-- orer t$e reci"ient t$ereo( to return to t$e (or&er t$e
%&ount! %-re%' "%i #it$ -e+%- intere!t (ro& t$e %te! o( %ctu%- "%'&ent, #it$out "re*uice to t$e
ri+$t o( t$e reci"ient to o)t%in rei&)ur!e&ent in % !e"%r%te %ction (ro& t$e "er!on -e+%--' o)-i+e to
+i.e t$e !u""ort. S$ou- t$e reci"ient (%i- to rei&)ur!e !%i %&ount!, t$e "er!on #$o "ro.ie t$rou+$
!%&e &%' -i7e#i!e !ee7 rei&)ur!e&ent t$ereo( in % !e"%r%te %ction (ro& t$e "er!on -e+%--' o)-i+e to
+i.e !uc$ !u""ort.
2R0AL MB/A=

SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS
RULE <8 INTERPLEADER

Section 1. =$en inter"-e%er "ro"er.
=$ene.er con(-ictin+ c-%i&! u"on t$e !%&e !u)*ect &%tter %re or &%' )e &%e %+%in!t % "er!on #$o
c-%i&! no intere!t #$%te.er in t$e !u)*ect &%tter, or %n intere!t #$ic$ in #$o-e or in "%rt i! not
i!"ute )' t$e c-%i&%nt!, $e &%' )rin+ %n %ction %+%in!t t$e con(-ictin+ c-%i&%nt! to co&"e- t$e& to
inter"-e% %n -iti+%te t$eir !e.er%- c-%i&! %&on+ t$e&!e-.e!.
Sec. 8. Orer.
U"on t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int, t$e court !$%-- i!!ue %n orer re3uirin+ t$e con(-ictin+ c-%i&%nt! to
inter"-e% #it$ one %not$er. I( t$e intere!t! o( *u!tice !o re3uire, t$e court &%' irect in !uc$ orer
t$%t t$e !u)*ect &%tter )e "%i or e-i.ere to t$e court.
4+y wo%ld one 'ile an interpleader9
o #+ere are or may -e con'licting claims %pon t+e same s%-6ect matter
o Against a person w+o eit+er
Claims /E interest,
Er +is interest is /E# disp%ted
o #+e con'licting claimants are called to interplead and litigate amongst t+emselves
Interpleader is proper not to protect a person against do%-le lia-ility -%t to protect +im against
do%-le ve>ation in respect o' one lia-ility*
o Proper w+en lessee does not know t+e person to w+om rentals will -e paid* &Ecampo v
#irona, !!:, w+ere %nlaw'%l detainer was 'iled against a lessee w+o did not pay rent to
t+e proper person* SC said t+e lessee s+o%ld +ave 'iled 'or interpleader i' s+e wasn,t s%re
w+o to pay)
)
1# Support pendente lite and 2# hen the court finds out that the purported indigent party is not in fact an indigent party for purposes of filing
fees
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
17
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
?i''erentiate 'rom intervention*
o In intervention, t+ere is already a pending case*
o 7ere, t+e applicant still +as to initiate t+e action*
Sec. :. Su&&on!.
Su&&on! !$%-- )e !er.e u"on t$e con(-ictin+ c-%i&%nt!, to+et$er #it$ % co"' o( t$e co&"-%int %n
orer.
Sec. ;. Motion to i!&i!!.
=it$in t$e ti&e (or (i-in+ %n %n!#er, e%c$ c-%i&%nt &%' (i-e % &otion to i!&i!! on t$e +roun o(
i&"ro"riet' o( t$e inter"-e%er %ction or on ot$er %""ro"ri%te +roun! !"eci(ie in Ru-e 1<. T$e "erio
to (i-e t$e %n!#er !$%-- )e to--e %n i( t$e &otion i! enie, t$e &o.%nt &%' (i-e $i! %n!#er #it$in t$e
re&%inin+ "erio, )ut #$ic$ !$%-- not )e -e!! t$%n (i.e 051 %'! in %n' e.ent, rec7one (ro& notice o(
eni%-.
Sec. 5. An!#er %n ot$er "-e%in+!.
E%c$ c-%i&%nt !$%-- (i-e $i! %n!#er !ettin+ (ort$ $i! c-%i& #it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! (ro& !er.ice o( t$e
!u&&on! u"on $i&, !er.in+ % co"' t$ereo( u"on e%c$ o( t$e ot$er con(-ictin+ c-%i&%nt! #$o &%' (i-e
t$eir re"-' t$ereto %! "ro.ie )' t$e!e Ru-e!. I( %n' c-%i&%nt (%i-! to "-e% #it$in t$e ti&e $erein
(i2e, t$e court &%', on &otion, ec-%re $i& in e(%u-t %n t$ere%(ter rener *u+&ent )%rrin+ $i&
(ro& %n' c-%i& in re!"ect to t$e !u)*ect &%tter.
T$e "%rtie! in %n inter"-e%er %ction &%' (i-e counterc-%i&!, cro!!4c-%i&!, t$ir4"%rt' co&"-%int! %n
re!"on!i.e "-e%in+! t$ereto, %! "ro.ie )' t$e!e Ru-e!.
/ote t+at yo% can 'ile co%nterclaims in yo%r answer to an interpleader*
o 5ail%re to set %p a comp%lsory co%nterclaim is a 4AIK0R to s%c+ claim* &Arre.a v ?ia.,
!!", w+ere t+e losing party in an interpleader 'ailed to raise a claim o' reim-%rsement*
A'ter s+e lost, s+e 'iled a claim 'or reim-%rsement, -%t t+is was deemed waived)
Sec. <. Deter&in%tion.
A(ter t$e "-e%in+! o( t$e con(-ictin+ c-%i&%nt! $%.e )een (i-e, %n "re4tri%- $%! )een conucte in
%ccor%nce #it$ t$e Ru-e!, t$e court !$%-- "rocee to eter&ine t$eir re!"ecti.e ri+$t! %n %*uic%te
t$eir !e.er%- c-%i&!.
?oes a writ o' possession necessarily 'ollow an ad6%dication on an interpleader9
o /o, not necessarily* ?epends on t+e 'acts o' t+e case*
o In Maglente v Padilla &!!H), t+e iss%e was w+o -etween parties +ad t+e rig+t o' 'irst
re'%sal to p%rc+ase property* A'ter t+e co%rt r%led on t+e interpleader 'or one party, t+e
winning party moved 'or a writ o' possession* #+e SC r%led t+at t+e interpleader merely
resolved t+e $%estion o' w+o co%ld p%rc+ase t+e property, not+ing more* Ewners+ip +ad
not yet trans'erred to t+e winning party, t+ey only +ad t+e rig+t to p%rc+ase t+e property*
Sec. 7. Doc7et %n ot$er -%#(u- (ee!, co!t! %n -iti+%tion e2"en!e! %! -ien!.
T$e oc7et %n ot$er -%#(u- (ee! "%i )' t$e "%rt' #$o (i-e % co&"-%int uner t$i! Ru-e, %! #e-- %! t$e
co!t! %n -iti+%tion e2"en!e!, !$%-- con!titute % -ien or c$%r+e u"on t$e !u)*ect &%tter o( t$e %ction,
un-e!! t$e court !$%-- orer ot$er#i!e.
#+e 'iling 'ees is paid -y t+e party w+o 'iled t+e complaint*
o 2%t +e is entitled to a lien on t+e 6%dgment award to reim-%rse +im 'or t+e 'iling 'ees since
+e is not a real party in interest anyway*
RULE <: DECLARATORY RELIEE AND SIMILAR REMEDIES

Section 1. =$o &%' (i-e "etition.
An' "er!on intere!te uner % ee, #i--, contr%ct or ot$er #ritten in!tru&ent, #$o!e ri+$t! %re
%((ecte )' % !t%tute, e2ecuti.e orer or re+u-%tion, orin%nce, or %n' ot$er +o.ern&ent%- re+u-%tion
&%', )e(ore )re%c$ or .io-%tion t$ereo(, )rin+ %n %ction in t$e %""ro"ri%te Re+ion%- Tri%- Court to
eter&ine %n' 3ue!tion o( con!truction or .%-iit' %ri!in+, %n (or % ec-%r%tion o( $i! ri+$t! or utie!,
t$ereuner.
An %ction (or t$e re(or&%tion o( %n in!tru&ent, to 3uiet tit-e to re%- "ro"ert' or re&o.e c-ou!
t$ere(ro&, or to con!o-i%te o#ner!$i" uner Artic-e 1<@7 o( t$e Ci.i- Coe, &%' )e )rou+$t uner t$i!
Ru-e.
R%le D8, Sec " covers scenarios:
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1,
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o ?eclaratory relie'
o ;Et+er similar remedies< w+ic+ can -e -ro%g+t %nder an action 'or declaratory relie'
re'ormation &remem-er Civil Code provisions on t+is one)
$%ieting title
removal o' clo%ds
:
consolidate owners+ip &%s%ally in pacto de retro sales)
Re$%isites 'or declaratory relie' &Almeda v 2at+ala, !!I, w+ere a lease contract was %nder
iss%e):
o S%-6ect matter o' t+e controversy m%st -e a deed, will, contract or ot+er written
instr%ment, stat%te, 0E, reg%lation or ordinance
o #erms and t+e validity t+ereo' are do%-t'%l and re$%ire 6%dicial constr%ction
o /E -reac+ o' t+e doc%ments in $%estion
o Act%al 6%sticia-le controversy or t+e ripening o' one -etween adverse parties
o Ripe 'or 6%dicial determination
o Ade$%ate relie' is not availa-le elsew+ere
So i' administrative remedies are still availa-le, t+en declaratory relie' improper*
&Me6ia v (a-ayan, !!:)
P%rpose:
o declaration o' rig+tsAd%ties
o interpretationAconstr%ction
o determination o' validity
Important t+at /E -reac+ +as +appened yet*
o In Malana v #apa, !!3, an action 'or $%ieting title was -ro%g+t %nder R%le D8, -%t t+e SC
said it was improper -eca%se t+ere was already a -reac+ &re'%sal to vacate), so an action
p%-liciana was t+e proper action*
o So i' t+ere is a pending %nlaw'%l detainer case, declaratory relie' will -e improper as well*
4+at i' t+ere was a -reac+9
2e'ore action 'iled: improper
I' it +appened d%ring t+e pendency o' t+e case: t+e action will -e
converted to an ordinary civil action* &Sec D)
o In t+is case, yo% need to pay 'iling 'ees %pon conversion*
o Sir says t+e case is %s%ally reCra''led %pon conversion*
4+ere do yo% 'ile it9
o It depends*
I' -ased on t+e 'irst paragrap+: R#C
I' -ased on t+e second paragrap+: #+e r%les on determining w+ic+ co%rt +as
6%risdiction m%st still -e 'ollowed*
I' $%ieting o' title o' property only wort+ P4"!: M#C &Malana v #appa)
I' re'ormation: R#C &since incapa-le o' pec%niary estimation)
Can yo% 'ile a co%nterclaim to declaratory relie'9
o @es* &P?IC v CA)
Can t+ere -e e>ec%tion in a declaratory relie'9
o @es* &?2M v Manila,s 5inest, !!H, w+ere police retirees moved 'or e>ec%tion o' ad6%sted
retirement -ene'its -ased on a 'avora-le 6%dgment in a case o' declaratory relie')
Can yo% 'ile a M#? -ased on 'ail%re to state a ca%se o' action9
o /o, since no -reac+ yet*
Sec. 8. P%rtie!.
A-- "er!on! #$o $%.e or c-%i& %n' intere!t #$ic$ #ou- )e %((ecte )' t$e ec-%r%tion !$%-- )e &%e
"%rtie!5 %n no ec-%r%tion !$%--, e2ce"t %! ot$er#i!e "ro.ie in t$e!e Ru-e!, "re*uice t$e ri+$t! o(
"er!on! not "%rtie! to t$e %ction.
5ail%re to 6oin parties w+o +ave any interest in t+e matter will /E# pre6%dice t+em* &/onC6oinder is
a gro%nd 'or dismissal)
o 0>cept i' action is $%asiCinCrem &Atty* (%evara)
o
*
4hat is a cloud no87
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
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a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. :. Notice on So-icitor Gener%-.
In %n' %ction #$ic$ in.o-.e! t$e .%-iit' o( % !t%tute, e2ecuti.e orer or re+u-%tion, or %n' ot$er
+o.ern&ent%- re+u-%tion, t$e So-icitor Gener%- !$%-- )e noti(ie )' t$e "%rt' %!!%i-in+ t$e !%&e %n
!$%-- )e entit-e to )e $e%r u"on !uc$ 3ue!tion.
Sec. ;. Loc%- +o.ern&ent orin%nce!.
In %n' %ction in.o-.in+ t$e .%-iit' o( % -oc%- +o.ern&ent orin%nce, t$e corre!"onin+ "ro!ecutor or
%ttorne' o( t$e -oc%- +o.ern&ent%- unit in.o-.e !$%-- )e !i&i-%r-' noti(ie %n entit-e to )e $e%r. I(
!uc$ orin%nce i! %--e+e to )e uncon!titution%-, t$e So-icitor Gener%- !$%-- %-!o )e noti(ie %n entit-e
to )e $e%r.
Stat%te, 0E or reg%lation: noti'y t+e ES(
Local ordinance:
o Kalidity: noti'y t+e respective prosec%tor
o Constit%tionality: noti'y t+e ES(

Sec. 5. Court %ction i!cretion%r'.
E2ce"t in %ction! (%--in+ uner t$e !econ "%r%+r%"$ o( !ection 1 o( t$i! Ru-e, t$e court, &otu "ro"rio
or u"on &otion, &%' re(u!e to e2erci!e t$e "o#er to ec-%re ri+$t! %n to con!true in!tru&ent! in %n'
c%!e #$ere % eci!ion #ou- not ter&in%te t$e uncert%int' or contro.er!' #$ic$ +%.e ri!e to t$e
%ction, or in %n' c%!e #$ere t$e ec-%r%tion or con!truction i! not nece!!%r' %n "ro"er uner t$e
circu&!t%nce!.
5or Par " o' Sec ": Co%rt can mot% propio or %pon motion re'%se to e>ercise its power i'
o 4o%ld not terminate t+e %ncertainty
o ?eclaration not necessary and proper
2%t 'or Par o' Sec " &re'ormation, $%ieting title, etc): Co%rt action is mandatory
Sec. <. Con.er!ion into orin%r' %ction.
I( )e(ore t$e (in%- ter&in%tion o( t$e c%!e, % )re%c$ or .io-%tion o( %n in!tru&ent or % !t%tute, e2ecuti.e
orer or re+u-%tion, orin%nce, or %n' ot$er +o.ern&ent%- re+u-%tion !$ou- t%7e "-%ce, t$e %ction &%'
t$ereu"on )e con.erte into %n orin%r' %ction, %n t$e "%rtie! !$%-- )e %--o#e to (i-e !uc$ "-e%in+!
%! &%' )e nece!!%r' or "ro"er.
RULE <; REVIE= OE BUDGMENTS AND EINAL ORDERS OR RESOLUTIONS OE THE COMMISSION ON
ELECTIONS AND THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT

Section 1. Sco"e.
T$i! Ru-e !$%-- +o.ern t$e re.ie# o( *u+&ent! %n (in%- orer! or re!o-ution! o( t$e Co&&i!!ion on
E-ection! %n t$e Co&&i!!ion on Auit.
Sec. 8. Moe o( re.ie#.
A *u+&ent or (in%- orer or re!o-ution o( t$e Co&&i!!ion on E-ection! %n t$e Co&&i!!ion on Auit
&%' )e )rou+$t )' t$e %++rie.e "%rt' to t$e Su"re&e Court on certior%ri uner Ru-e <5, e2ce"t %!
$erein%(ter "ro.ie.
Sec. :. Ti&e to (i-e "etition.
T$e "etition !$%-- )e (i-e #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& notice o( t$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer or
re!o-ution !ou+$t to )e re.ie#e. T$e (i-in+ o( % &otion (or ne# tri%- or recon!ier%tion o( !%i
*u+&ent or (in%- orer or re!o-ution, i( %--o#e uner t$e "roceur%- ru-e! o( t$e Co&&i!!ion
concerne, !$%-- interru"t t$e "erio $erein (i2e. I( t$e &otion i! enie, t$e %++rie.e "%rt' &%' (i-e
t$e "etition #it$in t$e re&%inin+ "erio, )ut #$ic$ !$%-- not )e -e!! t$%n (i.e 051 %'! in %n' e.ent,
rec7one (ro& notice o( eni%-.
Sec. ;. Doc7et %n ot$er -%#(u- (ee!.
U"on t$e (i-in+ o( t$e "etition, t$e "etitioner !$%-- "%' to t$e c-er7 o( court t$e oc7et %n ot$er -%#(u-
(ee! %n e"o!it t$e %&ount o( P5@@.@@ (or co!t!.
Sec. 5. Eor& %n content! o( "etition.
T$e "etition !$%-- )e .eri(ie %n (i-e in ei+$teen 01>1 -e+i)-e co"ie!. T$e "etition !$%-- n%&e t$e
%++rie.e "%rt' %! "etitioner %n !$%-- *oin %! re!"onent! t$e Co&&i!!ion concerne %n t$e "er!on
or "er!on! intere!te in !u!t%inin+ t$e *u+&ent, (in%- orer or re!o-ution % 3uo. T$e "etition !$%--
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2.
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
!t%te t$e (%ct! #it$ cert%int', "re!ent c-e%r-' t$e i!!ue! in.o-.e, !et (ort$ t$e +roun! %n )rie(
%r+u&ent! re-ie u"on (or re.ie#, %n "r%' (or *u+&ent %nnu--in+ or &oi('in+ t$e 3ue!tione
*u+&ent, (in%- orer or re!o-ution. Einin+! o( (%ct o( t$e Co&&i!!ion !u""orte )' !u)!t%nti%-
e.ience !$%-- )e (in%- %n non4re.ie#%)-e.
T$e "etition !$%-- )e %cco&"%nie )' % c-e%r-' -e+i)-e u"-ic%te ori+in%- or certi(ie true co"' o( t$e
*u+&ent, (in%- orer or re!o-ution !u)*ect t$ereo(, to+et$er #it$ certi(ie true co"ie! o( !uc$ &%teri%-
"ortion! o( t$e recor %! %re re(erre to t$erein %n ot$er ocu&ent! re-e.%nt %n "ertinent t$ereto.
T$e re3ui!ite nu&)er o( co"ie! o( t$e "etition !$%-- cont%in "-%in co"ie! o( %-- ocu&ent! %tt%c$e to
t$e ori+in%- co"' o( !%i "etition.
T$e "etition !$%-- !t%te t$e !"eci(ic &%teri%- %te! !$o#in+ t$%t it #%! (i-e #it$in t$e "erio (i2e
$erein, %n !$%-- cont%in % !#orn certi(ic%tion %+%in!t (oru& !$o""in+ %! "ro.ie in t$e t$ir
"%r%+r%"$ o( !ection :, Ru-e ;<.
T$e "etition !$%-- (urt$er )e %cco&"%nie )' "roo( o( !er.ice o( % co"' t$ereo( on t$e Co&&i!!ion
concerne %n on t$e %.er!e "%rt', %n o( t$e ti&e-' "%'&ent o( oc7et %n ot$er -%#(u- (ee!.
T$e (%i-ure o( "etitioner to co&"-' #it$ %n' o( t$e (ore+oin+ re3uire&ent! !$%-- )e !u((icient +roun (or
t$e i!&i!!%- o( t$e "etition.
Sec. <. Orer to co&&ent.
I( t$e Su"re&e Court (in! t$e "etition !u((icient in (or& %n !u)!t%nce, it !$%-- orer t$e re!"onent!
to (i-e t$eir co&&ent! on t$e "etition #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& notice t$ereo(5 ot$er#i!e, t$e Court
&%' i!&i!! t$e "etition outri+$t. T$e Court &%' %-!o i!&i!! t$e "etition i( it #%! (i-e &%ni(e!t-' (or
e-%', or t$e 3ue!tion! r%i!e %re too un!u)!t%nti%- to #%rr%nt (urt$er "roceein+!.
Sec. 7. Co&&ent! o( re!"onent!.
T$e co&&ent! o( t$e re!"onent! !$%-- )e (i-e in ei+$teen 01>1 -e+i)-e co"ie!. T$e ori+in%- !$%-- )e
%cco&"%nie )' certi(ie true co"ie! o( !uc$ &%teri%- "ortion! o( t$e recor %! %re re(erre to t$erein
to+et$er #it$ ot$er !u""ortin+ "%"er!. T$e re3ui!ite nu&)er o( co"ie! o( t$e co&&ent! !$%-- cont%in
"-%in co"ie! o( %-- ocu&ent! %tt%c$e to t$e ori+in%- %n % co"' t$ereo( !$%-- )e !er.e on t$e
"etitioner.
No ot$er "-e%in+ &%' )e (i-e )' %n' "%rt' un-e!! re3uire or %--o#e )' t$e Court.
Sec. >. E((ect o( (i-in+.
T$e (i-in+ o( % "etition (or certior%ri !$%-- not !t%' t$e e2ecution o( t$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer or
re!o-ution !ou+$t to )e re.ie#e, un-e!! t$e Su"re&e Court !$%-- irect ot$er#i!e u"on !uc$ ter&! %!
it &%' ee& *u!t.
Sec. ?. Su)&i!!ion (or eci!ion.
Un-e!! t$e Court !et! t$e c%!e (or or%- %r+u&ent, or re3uire! t$e "%rtie! to !u)&it &e&or%n%, t$e
c%!e !$%-- )e ee&e !u)&itte (or eci!ion u"on t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&&ent! on t$e "etition, or o( !uc$
ot$er "-e%in+! or "%"er! %! &%' )e re3uire or %--o#e, or t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio to o !o.
#+is is act%ally a ;petition 'or certiorari< w+ic+ will get yo% straig+t to t+e SC*
It +as t+e same re$%isites as R%le D:*
#ake note: 8! day /E/Ce>tendi-le period
o #+e period will -e interr%pted i' yo% 'ile an MR*
2B# t+e /eypes r%ling will /E# apply, so i' yo%,re MR is denied, yo% only get t+e
remaining period &w+ic+ s+o%ldn,t -e less t+an : days)*
Enly covers decisions -y t+e:
o CEM0L0C
o CEA
Like in R%le 48, ALL attac+ments m%st -e certi'ied tr%e copies*
o Since yo%,re coming 'rom a $%asi 6%dicial agency and t+e co%rt +as no way o' getting
t+ese doc%ments internally*
RULE <5 CERTIORARI, PROHIAITION AND MANDAMUS
#+is is /E# an appeal*
Erdinarily 'iled wit+ t+e CA 'irst, and t+en t+e SC*
R%le D: is a t+reeC+eaded monster:
o Certiorari
o Pro+i-ition
o Mandam%s
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
5or all t+ree, it is important to re'er to R%le 4D, Sec 8 since R%le D: is an original action
D
o @o% need to serve t+e petition to t+e ot+er party*
I' not, dismissed*
o ?%plicate originals o' t+e decisions assailed o', instead o' certi'ied tr%e copies, are also
allowed* &Rep v Carmel ?evelopment, !!)
Section 1. Petition (or certior%ri.
=$en %n' tri)un%-, )o%r or o((icer e2erci!in+ *uici%- or 3u%!i4*uici%- (unction! $%! %cte #it$out or
in e2ce!! o( it! or $i! *uri!iction, or #it$ +r%.e %)u!e o( i!cretion %&ountin+ to -%c7 or e2ce!! o(
*uri!iction, %n t$ere i! no %""e%-, or %n' "-%in, !"ee', %n %e3u%te re&e' in t$e orin%r' cour!e
o( -%#, % "er!on %++rie.e t$ere)' &%' (i-e % .eri(ie "etition in t$e "ro"er court, %--e+in+ t$e (%ct!
#it$ cert%int' %n "r%'in+ t$%t *u+&ent )e renere %nnu--in+ or &oi('in+ t$e "roceein+! o( !uc$
tri)un%-, )o%r or o((icer, %n +r%ntin+ !uc$ incient%- re-ie(! %! -%# %n *u!tice &%' re3uire.
T$e "etition !$%-- )e %cco&"%nie )' % certi(ie true co"' o( t$e *u+&ent, orer or re!o-ution !u)*ect
t$ereo(, co"ie! o( %-- "-e%in+! %n ocu&ent! re-e.%nt %n "ertinent t$ereto, %n % !#orn certi(ic%tion
o( non4(oru& !$o""in+ %! "ro.ie in t$e t$ir "%r%+r%"$ o( !ection :, Ru-e ;<.
Certiorari:
o Against w+o: tri-%nal, -oard, o''icer
o M%estioning w+at: 6%dicial or $%asiC6%dicial
o Relie' so%g+t 'or: n%lli'y, set aside or modi'y t+e proceedings
(R: no damages
o Re$%isites:
(A?AL0J present
/o plain, availa-le, speedy ordinary remedy availa-le
Sec. 8. Petition (or "ro$i)ition.
=$en t$e "roceein+! o( %n' tri)un%-, cor"or%tion, )o%r, o((icer or "er!on, #$et$er e2erci!in+
*uici%-, 3u%!i4*uici%- or &ini!teri%- (unction!, %re #it$out or in e2ce!! o( it! or $i! *uri!iction, or #it$
+r%.e %)u!e o( i!cretion %&ountin+ to -%c7 or e2ce!! o( *uri!iction, %n t$ere i! no %""e%- or %n'
ot$er "-%in, !"ee', %n %e3u%te re&e' in t$e orin%r' cour!e o( -%#, % "er!on %++rie.e t$ere)'
&%' (i-e % .eri(ie "etition in t$e "ro"er court, %--e+in+ t$e (%ct! #it$ cert%int' %n "r%'in+ t$%t
*u+&ent )e renere co&&%nin+ t$e re!"onent to e!i!t (ro& (urt$er "roceein+! in t$e %ction or
&%tter !"eci(ie t$erein, or ot$er#i!e +r%ntin+ !uc$ incient%- re-ie(! %! -%# %n *u!tice &%' re3uire.
T$e "etition !$%-- -i7e#i!e )e %cco&"%nie )' % certi(ie true co"' o( t$e *u+&ent, orer or re!o-ution
!u)*ect t$ereo(, co"ie! o( %-- "-e%in+! %n ocu&ent! re-e.%nt %n "ertinent t$ereto, %n % !#orn
certi(ic%tion o( non4(oru& !$o""in+ %! "ro.ie in t$e t$ir "%r%+r%"$ o( !ection :, Ru-e ;<.
Pro+i-ition:
o Against w+o: tri-%nal, -oard, o''icer, corporation, person
o M%estioning w+at: 6%dicial, $%asiC6%dicial, or ministerial
Ministerial: like registration or cancellation o' title -y t+e R?
o Relie' so%g+t 'or: desist 'rom '%rt+er proceedings
(R: /o damages
o Re$%isites:
(A?AL0J present
/o plain, availa-le, speedy ordinary remedy availa-le
+
Sec. (. 9ontents and filing of petition% effect of non:compliance ith re;uirements.
0he petition shall contain the full names and actual addresses of all the petitioners and respondents, a concise statement of the matters involved,
the factual bac'ground of the case, and the grounds relied upon for the relief prayed for. <t shall be filed in seven "7# clearly legible copies
together ith proof of service thereof on the respondent ith the original copy intended for the court indicated as such by the petitioner, and shall
be accompanied by a clearly legible duplicate original or certified true copy of the judgment, order, resolution, or ruling subject thereof, such
material portions of the record as are referred to therein, and other documents relevant or pertinent thereto. 0he certification shall be
accomplished by the proper cler' of court or by his duly authori&ed representative, or by the proper officer of the court, tribunal, agency or office
involved or by his duly authori&ed representative. 0he other re;uisite number of copies of the petition shall be accompanied by clearly legible
plain copies of all documents attached to the original. 0he petitioner shall also submit together ith the petition a sorn certification that he has
not theretofore commenced any other action involving the same issues in the Supreme 9ourt, the 9ourt of /ppeals or different divisions thereof,
or any other tribunal or agency% if there is such other action or proceeding, he must state the status of the same% and if he should thereafter learn
that a similar action or proceeding has been filed or is pending before the Supreme 9ourt, the 9ourt of /ppeals, or different divisions thereof, or
any other tribunal or agency, he underta'es to promptly inform the aforesaid courts and other tribunal or agency thereof ithin five "*# days
therefrom. 0he petitioner shall pay the corresponding doc'et and other laful fees to the cler' of court and deposit the amount of $*..... for
costs at the time of the filing of the petition. 0he failure of the petitioner to comply ith any of the foregoing re;uirements shall be sufficient
ground for the dismissal of the petition.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
22
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
7ence, w+en t+e properties +ad already -een levied, pro+i-ition will -e
allowed* /o ot+er speedy ordinary remedy* &M%e.on City v 2ayantel,
!!D, w+ic+ was a ta> case w+erein 2ayantel,s properties were already
levied -eca%se o' nonpayment o' real property ta>es* /o need to e>+a%st
admin remedies as well since $%estion was p%rely on law)
Sec. :. Petition (or &%n%&u!.
=$en %n' tri)un%-, cor"or%tion, )o%r, o((icer or "er!on un-%#(u--' ne+-ect! t$e "er(or&%nce o( %n %ct
#$ic$ t$e -%# !"eci(ic%--' en*oin! %! % ut' re!u-tin+ (ro& %n o((ice, tru!t, or !t%tion, or un-%#(u--'
e2c-ue! %not$er (ro& t$e u!e %n en*o'&ent o( % ri+$t or o((ice to #$ic$ !uc$ ot$er i! entit-e, %n
t$ere i! no ot$er "-%in, !"ee' %n %e3u%te re&e' in t$e orin%r' cour!e o( -%#, t$e "er!on
%++rie.e t$ere)' &%' (i-e % .eri(ie "etition in t$e "ro"er court, %--e+in+ t$e (%ct! #it$ cert%int' %n
"r%'in+ t$%t *u+&ent )e renere co&&%nin+ t$e re!"onent, i&&ei%te-' or %t !o&e ot$er ti&e to
)e !"eci(ie )' t$e court, to o t$e %ct re3uire to )e one to "rotect t$e ri+$t! o( t$e "etitioner, %n
to "%' t$e %&%+e! !u!t%ine )' t$e "etitioner )' re%!on o( t$e #ron+(u- %ct! o( t$e re!"onent.
T$e "etition !$%-- %-!o cont%in % !#orn certi(ic%tion o( non4(oru& !$o""in+ %! "ro.ie in t$e t$ir
"%r%+r%"$ o( !ection :, Ru-e ;<.
Mandam%s:
o Against w+o: tri-%nal, -oard, o''icer, corporation, person
o M%estioning w+at:
Ministerial '%nction, or
0>cl%sion o' anot+er 'rom t+e %se and en6oyment o' a rig+t or o''ice to w+ic+ t+e
ot+er is entitled
Compare t+is wit+ M%o 4arranto &w+ere t+e one doing t+e e>cl%ding is
act%ally keeping o''ice* 7ere, it can -e a t+ird person doing t+e e>cl%ding)
o Relie' so%g+t 'or: command to do t+e act re$%ired wit+ damages
o Re$%isites:
/o plain, availa-le, speedy ordinary remedy availa-le
/o need 'or (A?AL0J
Ministerial '%nctions: law speci'ically en6oins as a d%ty res%lting 'rom an o''ice, tr%st, or station
o Ministerial w+en t+e disc+arge o' t+e d%ty re$%ires neit+er t+e e>ercise o' o''icial
discretion nor 6%dgment* &0s$%ivel v EM2, !!)
o #+e conditions o' law m%st -e complied wit+ -e'ore mandam%s can lie* &Lam-ino v
Comelec, !!D, w+erein t+e conditions 'or a proper initiative and re'erend%m was not
complied wit+, so mandam%s will not lie*)
Mandam%s can lie to compel one to e*ercise discretion &as opposed to deciding in a certain
manner)*
o So mandam%s will lie against t+e EM2 to act on a case*
2%t mandam%s will /E# lie against t+e /LRC to cond%ct a +earing, -eca%se t+ere,s
no law compelling it to do so*
Mandam%s will /E# lie against a prosec%tor to 'ile an in'ormation -eca%se t+e
'iling is /E# a ministerial '%nction* It is discretionary* &0s$%ivel v EM2)
Manadm%s will /E# lie to compel a party to a contract to a-ide -y t+e contract*
#+at,s not ministerial, it,s a contract%al o-ligation* Remedy is speci'ic per'ormance*
Sec. ;. =$en %n #$ere to (i-e t$e "etition. T$e "etition !$%-- )e (i-e not -%ter t$%n !i2t' 0<@1 %'!
(ro& notice o( t$e *u+&ent, orer or re!o-ution. In c%!e % &otion (or recon!ier%tion or ne# tri%- i!
ti&e-' (i-e, #$et$er !uc$ &otion i! re3uire or not, t$e "etition !$%-- )e (i-e not -%ter t$%n !i2t' 0<@1
%'! counte (ro& t$e notice o( t$e eni%- o( t$e &otion.
I( t$e "etition re-%te! to %n %ct or %n o&i!!ion o( % &unici"%- tri%- court or o( % cor"or%tion, % )o%r, %n
o((icer or % "er!on, it !$%-- )e (i-e #it$ t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court e2erci!in+ *uri!iction o.er t$e
territori%- %re% %! e(ine )' t$e Su"re&e Court. It &%' %-!o )e (i-e #it$ t$e Court o( A""e%-! or #it$
t$e S%ni+%n)%'%n, #$et$er or not t$e !%&e i! in %i o( t$e court! %""e--%te *uri!iction. I( t$e "etition
in.o-.e! %n %ct or %n o&i!!ion o( % 3u%!i4*uici%- %+enc', un-e!! ot$er#i!e "ro.ie )' -%# or t$e!e
ru-e!, t$e "etition !$%-- )e (i-e #it$ %n )e co+ni6%)-e on-' )' t$e Court o( A""e%-!.
In e-ection c%!e! in.o-.in+ %n %ct or %n o&i!!ion o( % &unici"%- or % re+ion%- tri%- court, t$e "etition
!$%-- )e (i-e e2c-u!i.e-' #it$ t$e Co&&i!!ion on E-ection!, in %i o( it! %""e--%te *uri!iction.
Period to 'ile: D! days
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2(
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Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o I' MR or M/# is 'iled and t+en denied, new period o' D! days*
Sec. 5. Re!"onent! %n co!t! in cert%in c%!e!.
=$en t$e "etition (i-e re-%te! to t$e %ct! or o&i!!ion! o( % *u+e, court, 3u%!i4*uici%- %+enc',
tri)un%-, cor"or%tion, )o%r, o((icer or "er!on, t$e "etitioner !$%-- *oin, %! "ri.%te re!"onent or
re!"onent! #it$ !uc$ "u)-ic re!"onent or re!"onent!, t$e "er!on or "er!on! intere!te in
!u!t%inin+ t$e "roceein+! in t$e court5 %n it !$%-- )e t$e ut' o( !uc$ "ri.%te re!"onent! to %""e%r
%n e(en, )ot$ in $i! or t$eir o#n )e$%-( %n in )e$%-( o( t$e "u)-ic re!"onent or re!"onent!
%((ecte )' t$e "roceein+!, %n t$e co!t! %#%re in !uc$ "roceein+! in (%.or o( t$e "etitioner !$%--
)e %+%in!t t$e "ri.%te re!"onent! on-', %n not %+%in!t t$e *u+e, court, 3u%!i4*uici%- %+enc',
tri)un%-, cor"or%tion, )o%r, o((icer or "er!on i&"-e%e %! "u)-ic re!"onent or re!"onent!.
Un-e!! ot$er#i!e !"eci(ic%--' irecte )' t$e court #$ere t$e "etition i! "enin+, t$e "u)-ic
re!"onent! !$%-- not %""e%r in or (i-e %n %n!#er or co&&ent to t$e "etition or %n' "-e%in+ t$erein. I(
t$e c%!e i! e-e.%te to % $i+$er court )' eit$er "%rt', t$e "u)-ic re!"onent! !$%-- )e inc-ue t$erein
%! no&in%- "%rtie!. Ho#e.er, un-e!! ot$er#i!e !"eci(ic%--' irecte )' t$e court, t$e' !$%-- not %""e%r
or "%rtici"%te in t$e "roceein+! t$erein.
Sec. <. Orer to co&&ent.
I( t$e "etition i! !u((icient in (or& %n !u)!t%nce to *u!ti(' !uc$ "roce!!, t$e court !$%-- i!!ue %n orer
re3uirin+ t$e re!"onent or re!"onent! to co&&ent on t$e "etition #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& recei"t
o( % co"' t$ereo(. Suc$ orer !$%-- )e !er.e on t$e re!"onent! in !uc$ &%nner %! t$e court &%'
irect, to+et$er #it$ % co"' o( t$e "etition %n %n' %nne2e! t$ereto.
In "etition! (or certior%ri )e(ore t$e Su"re&e Court %n t$e Court o( A""e%-!, t$e "ro.i!ion! o( !ection
8, Ru-e 5<, !$%-- )e o)!er.e. Ae(ore +i.in+ ue cour!e t$ereto, t$e court &%' re3uire t$e re!"onent!
to (i-e t$eir co&&ent to, %n not % &otion to i!&i!!, t$e "etition. T$ere%(ter, t$e court &%' re3uire
t$e (i-in+ o( % re"-' %n !uc$ ot$er re!"on!i.e or ot$er "-e%in+! %! it &%' ee& nece!!%r' %n "ro"er.
Sec. 7. E2"eitin+ "roceein+!5 in*uncti.e re-ie(. T$e court in #$ic$ t$e "etition i! (i-e &%' i!!ue
orer! e2"eitin+ t$e "roceein+!, %n it &%' %-!o +r%nt % te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer or % #rit o(
"re-i&in%r' in*unction (or t$e "re!er.%tion o( t$e ri+$t! o( t$e "%rtie! "enin+ !uc$ "roceein+!. T$e
"etition !$%-- not interru"t t$e cour!e o( t$e "rinci"%- c%!e, un-e!! % te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer or %
#rit o( "re-i&in%r' in*unction $%! )een i!!ue, en*oinin+ t$e "u)-ic re!"onent (ro& (urt$er "roceein+
#it$ t$e c%!e.
T$e "u)-ic re!"onent !$%-- "rocee #it$ t$e "rinci"%- c%!e #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ o( %
"etition (or certior%ri #it$ % $i+$er court or tri)un%-, %)!ent % te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer or %
"re-i&in%r' in*unction, or u"on it! e2"ir%tion. E%i-ure o( t$e "u)-ic re!"onent to "rocee #it$ t$e
"rinci"%- c%!e &%' )e % +roun (or %n %&ini!tr%ti.e c$%r+e.
Important: even i' R%le D: is 'iled, t+e proceedings in t+e principal case s+o%ld still contin%e* #+e
p%-lic respondent s+o%ld wit+in "! days contin%e wit+ t+e principal case*
o B/L0SS a #RE or PI +as -een iss%ed*
/ote t+is 'or p%rposes o' rig+t to speedy trial in criminal proced%re*
Sec. >. Proceein+! %(ter co&&ent i! (i-e. A(ter t$e co&&ent or ot$er "-e%in+! re3uire )' t$e court
%re (i-e, or t$e ti&e (or t$e (i-in+ t$ereo( $%! e2"ire, t$e court &%' $e%r t$e c%!e or re3uire t$e
"%rtie! to !u)&it &e&or%n%. I(, %(ter !uc$ $e%rin+ or (i-in+ o( &e&or%n% or u"on t$e e2"ir%tion o(
t$e "erio (or (i-in+, t$e court (in! t$%t t$e %--e+%tion! o( t$e "etition %re true, it !$%-- rener
*u+&ent (or !uc$ re-ie( to #$ic$ t$e "etitioner i! entit-e.
Ho#e.er, t$e court &%' i!&i!! t$e "etition i( it (in! t$e !%&e "%tent-' #it$out &erit or "ro!ecute
&%ni(e!t-' (or e-%', or i( t$e 3ue!tion! r%i!e t$erein %re too un!u)!t%nti%- to re3uire con!ier%tion.
In !uc$ e.ent, t$e court &%' %#%r in (%.or o( t$e re!"onent tre)-e co!t! !o-i%ri-' %+%in!t t$e
"etitioner %n coun!e-, in %ition to !u)*ectin+ coun!e- to %&ini!tr%ti.e !%nction! uner Ru-e! 1:?
%n 1:?4A o( t$e Ru-e! o( Court.
T$e Court &%' i&"o!e &otu "ro"rio, )%!e on re! i"!% -o3uitur, ot$er i!ci"-in%r' !%nction! or
&e%!ure! on errin+ -%#'er! (or "%tent-' i-%tor' %n un&eritoriou! "etition! (or certior%ri.
Co%rt can dismiss t+e petition i' it,s patently wit+o%t merit or made 'or delay or too %ns%-stantial*
o #re-le costs can -e awarded against t+e petitioner and co%nsel*
o Co%nsel can also -e disciplined*
Sec. ?. Ser.ice %n en(orce&ent o( orer or *u+&ent.
A certi(ie co"' o( t$e *u+&ent renere in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e -%!t "recein+ !ection !$%-- )e !er.e
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
u"on t$e court, 3u%!i4*uici%- %+enc', tri)un%-, cor"or%tion, )o%r, o((icer or "er!on concerne in !uc$
&%nner %! t$e court &%' irect, %n i!o)eience t$ereto !$%-- )e "uni!$e %! conte&"t. An e2ecution
&%' i!!ue (or %n' %&%+e! or co!t! %#%re in %ccor%nce #it$ !ection 1 o( Ru-e :?.
RULE << FUO =ARRANTO
Section 1. Action )' Go.ern&ent %+%in!t ini.iu%-!.
An %ction (or t$e u!ur"%tion o( % "u)-ic o((ice, "o!ition or (r%nc$i!e &%' )e co&&ence )' % .eri(ie
"etition )rou+$t in t$e n%&e o( t$e Re"u)-ic o( t$e P$i-i""ine! %+%in!t/
0%1 A "er!on #$o u!ur"!, intrue! into, or un-%#(u--' $o-! or e2erci!e! % "u)-ic o((ice, "o!ition or
(r%nc$i!e5
0)1 A "u)-ic o((icer #$o oe! or !u((er! %n %ct #$ic$, )' t$e "ro.i!ion o( -%#, con!titute! % +roun (or
t$e (or(eiture o( $i! o((ice5 or
0c1 An %!!oci%tion #$ic$ %ct! %! % cor"or%tion #it$in t$e P$i-i""ine! #it$out )ein+ -e+%--' incor"or%te
or #it$out -%#(u- %ut$orit' !o to %ct.
Sec. 8. =$en So-icitor Gener%- or "u)-ic "ro!ecutor &u!t co&&ence %ction.
T$e So-icitor Gener%- or % "u)-ic "ro!ecutor, #$en irecte )' t$e Pre!ient o( t$e P$i-i""ine!, or #$en
u"on co&"-%int or ot$er#i!e $e $%! +oo re%!on to )e-ie.e t$%t %n' c%!e !"eci(ie in t$e "recein+
!ection c%n )e e!t%)-i!$e )' "roo(, &u!t co&&ence !uc$ %ction.
Sec. :. =$en So-icitor Gener%- or "u)-ic "ro!ecutor &%' co&&ence %ction #it$ "er&i!!ion o( court.
T$e So-icitor Gener%- or % "u)-ic "ro!ecutor &%', #it$ t$e "er&i!!ion o( t$e court in #$ic$ t$e %ction i!
to )e co&&ence, )rin+ !uc$ %n %ction %t t$e re3ue!t %n u"on t$e re-%tion o( %not$er "er!on5 )ut in
!uc$ c%!e t$e o((icer )rin+in+ it &%' (ir!t re3uire %n ine&nit' (or t$e e2"en!e! %n co!t! o( t$e %ction
in %n %&ount %""ro.e )' %n to )e e"o!ite in t$e court )' t$e "er!on %t #$o!e re3ue!t %n u"on
#$o!e re-%tion t$e !%&e i! )rou+$t.
Sec. ;. =$en $e%rin+ $% on %""-ic%tion (or "er&i!!ion to co&&ence %ction.
U"on %""-ic%tion (or "er&i!!ion to co&&ence !uc$ %ction in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e ne2t "recein+
!ection, t$e court !$%-- irect t$%t notice )e +i.en to t$e re!"onent !o t$%t $e &%' )e $e%r in
o""o!ition t$ereto5 %n i( "er&i!!ion i! +r%nte, t$e court !$%-- i!!ue %n orer to t$%t e((ect, co"ie! o(
#$ic$ !$%-- )e !er.e on %-- intere!te "%rtie!, %n t$e "etition !$%-- t$en )e (i-e #it$in t$e "erio
orere )' t$e court.
Sec. 5. =$en %n ini.iu%- &%' co&&ence !uc$ %n %ction.
A "er!on c-%i&in+ to )e entit-e to % "u)-ic o((ice or "o!ition u!ur"e or un-%#(u--' $e- or e2erci!e )'
%not$er &%' )rin+ %n %ction t$ere(or in $i! o#n n%&e.
M%o warranto is a prerogative writ -y w+ic+ t+e (overnment can call %pon any person to s+ow -y
w+at warrant +e +olds a p%-lic o''ice or e>ercises a p%-ic 'ranc+ise*
4+o commences an action 'or $%o warranto9
o #+e President, directing t+e ES(
o #+e ES(, in t+e name o' t+e government w+en +e +as good reason
o t+e ES(, %pon t+e relation and re$%est o' anot+er person
4+y9
o Bs%rpation o' p%-lic o''ice, position or 'ranc+ise
o P%-lic o''icer does an act w+ic+ constit%tes a gro%nd 'or 'or'eit%re o' +is o''ice
o Association not d%ly or legally incorporated or wit+o%t law'%l a%t+ority as to act
Like w+en a (ECC o''ends against its c+arter &?ivinagracia v C2S, !!3)
or w+en a corporation de 'acto,s e>istence is imp%gned
Can an individ%al +imsel' commence an action wit+o%t +elp 'rom t+e ES(9
o @es* Bnder w+at gro%nd9
Enly w+en +e claims to -e entitled to a p%-lic o''ice or position %s%rped -y
anot+er &Sec :)
#+e person instit%ting in +is own -e+al' m%st claim and -e a-le to s+ow t+at +e is
entitled to t+e o''ice, ot+erwise t+e action may -e dismissed at any stage* &Li-an v
(ordon, !!3, w+ere Li-an wanted (ordon to 'or'eit +is seat in t+e Senate, -%t
Li-an wasn,t entitled to it anyway, so Li-an +ad no standing to 'ile $%o warranto)
Sec. <. P%rtie! %n content! o( "etition %+%in!t u!ur"%tion.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
=$en t$e %ction i! %+%in!t % "er!on (or u!ur"in+ % "u)-ic o((ice, "o!ition or (r%nc$i!e, t$e "etition !$%--
!et (ort$ t$e n%&e o( t$e "er!on #$o c-%i&! to )e entit-e t$ereto, i( %n', #it$ %n %.er&ent o( $i! ri+$t
to t$e !%&e %n t$%t t$e re!"onent i! un-%#(u--' in "o!!e!!ion t$ereo(. A-- "er!on! #$o c-%i& to )e
entit-e to t$e "u)-ic o((ice, "o!ition or (r%nc$i!e &%' )e &%e "%rtie!, %n t$eir re!"ecti.e ri+$t! to
!uc$ "u)-ic o((ice, "o!ition or (r%nc$i!e eter&ine, in t$e !%&e %ction.
Sec. 7. Venue.
An %ction uner t$e "recein+ !i2 !ection! c%n )e )rou+$t on-' in t$e Su"re&e Court, t$e Court o(
A""e%-!, or in t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court e2erci!in+ *uri!iction o.er t$e territori%- %re% #$ere t$e
re!"onent or %n' o( t$e re!"onent! re!ie!, )ut #$en t$e So-icitor Gener%- co&&ence! t$e %ction, it
&%' )e )rou+$t in % Re+ion%- Tri%- Court in t$e Cit' o( M%ni-%, in t$e Court o( A""e%-!, or in t$e
Su"re&e Court.
4+ere do yo% 'ile9
o R#C w+ere R0SPE/?0/# resides
o CA
o SC
Special r%le: 2B# i' t+e ES( commences t+e action, it may -e 'iled in t+e R#C o'
Manila
Sec. >. Perio (or "-e%in+! %n "roceein+! &%' )e reuce5 %ction +i.en "receence.
T$e court &%' reuce t$e "erio "ro.ie )' t$e!e Ru-e! (or (i-in+ "-e%in+! %n (or %-- ot$er
"roceein+! in t$e %ction in orer to !ecure t$e &o!t e2"eitiou! eter&in%tion o( t$e &%tter! in.o-.e
t$erein con!i!tent #it$ t$e ri+$t! o( t$e "%rtie!. Suc$ %ction &%' )e +i.en "receence o.er %n' ot$er
ci.i- &%tter "enin+ in t$e court.
Sec. ?. Bu+&ent #$ere u!ur"%tion (oun.
=$en t$e re!"onent i! (oun +ui-t' o( u!ur"in+, intruin+ into, or un-%#(u--' $o-in+ or e2erci!in+ %
"u)-ic o((ice, "o!ition or (r%nc$i!e, *u+&ent !$%-- )e renere t$%t !uc$ re!"onent )e ou!te %n
%-to+et$er e2c-ue t$ere(ro&, %n t$%t t$e "etitioner or re-%tor, %! t$e c%!e &%' )e, reco.er $i! co!t!.
Suc$ (urt$er *u+&ent &%' )e renere eter&inin+ t$e re!"ecti.e ri+$t! in %n to t$e "u)-ic o((ice,
"o!ition or (r%nc$i!e o( %-- t$e "%rtie! to t$e %ction %! *u!tice re3uire!.
Sec. 1@. Ri+$t! o( "er!on! %*u+e entit-e to "u)-ic o((ice5 e-i.er' o( )oo7! %n "%"er!5 %&%+e!.
I( *u+&ent )e renere in (%.or o( t$e "er!on %.erre in t$e co&"-%int to )e entit-e to t$e "u)-ic
o((ice $e &%', %(ter t%7in+ t$e o%t$ o( o((ice %n e2ecutin+ %n' o((ici%- )on re3uire )' -%#, t%7e u"on
$i&!e-( t$e e2ecution o( t$e o((ice, %n &%' i&&ei%te-' t$ere%(ter e&%n o( t$e re!"onent %-- t$e
)oo7! %n "%"er! in t$e re!"onentC! cu!to' or contro- %""ert%inin+ to t$e o((ice to #$ic$ t$e
*u+&ent re-%te!. I( t$e re!"onent re(u!e! or ne+-ect! to e-i.er %n' )oo7 or "%"er "ur!u%nt to !uc$
e&%n, $e &%' )e "uni!$e (or conte&"t %! $%.in+ i!o)e'e % -%#(u- orer o( t$e court. T$e "er!on
%*u+e entit-e to t$e o((ice &%' %-!o )rin+ %ction %+%in!t t$e re!"onent to reco.er t$e %&%+e!
!u!t%ine )' !uc$ "er!on )' re%!on o( t$e u!ur"%tion.
#+ose w+o are ad6%dged entitled to o''ice +ave a rig+t to t+e delivery o' -ooks and papers*
o I' t+e respondent neglects to deliver t+e -ooks, +e may -e p%nis+ed 'or contempt*
#+e person ad6%dged entitled to o''ice will also +ave a rig+t to damages &see ne>t section)*
Sec. 11. Li&it%tion!.
Not$in+ cont%ine in t$i! Ru-e !$%-- )e con!true to %ut$ori6e %n %ction %+%in!t % "u)-ic o((icer or
e&"-o'ee (or $i! ou!ter (ro& o((ice un-e!! t$e !%&e )e co&&ence #it$in one 011 'e%r %(ter t$e c%u!e
o( !uc$ ou!ter, or t$e ri+$t o( t$e "etitioner to $o- !uc$ o((ice or "o!ition, %ro!e5 nor to %ut$ori6e %n
%ction (or %&%+e! in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$e ne2t "recein+ !ection un-e!! t$e !%&e )e
co&&ence #it$in one 011 'e%r %(ter t$e entr' o( t$e *u+&ent e!t%)-i!$in+ t$e "etitionerC! ri+$t to
t$e o((ice in 3ue!tion.
Prescriptive period 'or $%o warranto: " year 'rom t+e ca%se o' s%c+ o%ster or t+e rig+t o' t+e
petitioner arose
Prescriptive period to recover damages 'rom a $%o warranto 6%dgment: " year 'rom entry o'
6%dgment
Sec. 18. Bu+&ent (or co!t!.
In %n %ction )rou+$t in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$i! Ru-e, t$e court &%' rener *u+&ent (or
co!t! %+%in!t eit$er t$e "etitioner, t$e re-%tor, or t$e re!"onent, or t$e "er!on or "er!on! c-%i&in+ to
)e % cor"or%tion, or &%' %""ortion t$e co!t!, %! *u!tice re3uire!.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
RULE <7 EGPROPRIATION

Section 1. T$e co&"-%int.
T$e ri+$t o( e&inent o&%in !$%-- )e e2erci!e )' t$e (i-in+ o( % .eri(ie co&"-%int #$ic$ !$%-- !t%te
#it$ cert%int' t$e ri+$t %n "ur"o!e o( e2"ro"ri%tion, e!cri)e t$e re%- or "er!on%- "ro"ert' !ou+$t to
)e e2"ro"ri%te, %n *oin %! e(en%nt! %-- "er!on! o#nin+ or c-%i&in+ to o#n, or occu"'in+, %n' "%rt
t$ereo( or intere!t t$erein, !$o#in+, !o (%r %! "r%ctic%)-e, t$e !e"%r%te intere!t o( e%c$ e(en%nt. I(
t$e tit-e to %n' "ro"ert' !ou+$t to )e e2"ro"ri%te %""e%r! to )e in t$e Re"u)-ic o( t$e P$i-i""ine!,
%-t$ou+$ occu"ie )' "ri.%te ini.iu%-!, or i( t$e tit-e i! ot$er#i!e o)!cure or ou)t(u- !o t$%t t$e
"-%inti(( c%nnot #it$ %ccur%c' or cert%int' !"eci(' #$o %re t$e re%- o#ner!, %.er&ent to t$%t e((ect
!$%-- )e &%e in t$e co&"-%int.
4+o can e>propriate9
o /ational government
o L(B
o (overnment instr%mentality
4+ere do yo% 'ile9
o R#C +as original 6%risdiction, no matter t+e val%e o' t+e property to -e e>propriated since
t+e 'oc%s +ere is on t+e e>ercise o' t+e rig+t and power to e>propriate*
4+at m%st -e alleged9
o Rig+t and p%rpose o' e>propriation
o ?escription o' t+e property
o /ames o' persons:
Ewning or claiming to own it, or
Possessing it, or
7aving interest over it
o M%st -e K0RI5I0?*
4+at i' t+e property so%g+t to -e e>propriated appears in t+e name o' t+e P+ilippines9
o #+e Rep%-lic can still 'ile a complaint against t+e private persons occ%pying t+e property*
In s%c+ a case, t+e owner o' t+e property is /E# an indispensa-le party* &Rep%-lic
v Mangotara, !"!)
o 7ence, t+e 'iling o' a complaint 'or reversion does not precl%de t+e instit%tion 'or an action
'or e>propriation* 0ven i' t+e land is reverted -ack to t+e State, t+e same may still -e
s%-6ect to e>propriation as against t+e occ%pants t+ereo'* &Mangotara)
Can t+e complaint -e wit+drawn9
o @es, as long as t+ere is no order o' e>propriation yet*
4+at i' t+ings were demolis+ed9
(overnment may -e lia-le 'or damages*
4+at i' .om-ies were 'o%nd9
#+en r%n 'or yo%r li'e* Er -risk walk &since t+ey don,t really r%n, B/L0SS
I ?ays Later scenario, w+erein .om-ies act%ally r%n*)
o Ence t+ere is an order o' e>propriation, it can no longer -e wit+drawn*
#wo stages o' e>propriation:
o Kalidity o' e>propriation
o ?etermination o' 6%st compensation
?oes e>propriation +ave to -e act%al taking o' t+e property9
o /E* It can involve a s%-stantial restriction or limitation o' t+e property rig+ts o' a party*
o In /PC v Santa Loro &!!I), t+e /PC traversed t+e party,s property wit+ transmission
lines* /PC claimed it was only an easement and only wanted to pay "!N o' t+e market
val%e o' t+e land* #+e SC said it was e>propriation and made it lia-le 'or 6%st
compensation*
Sec. 8. Entr' o( "-%inti(( u"on e"o!itin+ .%-ue #it$ %ut$ori6e +o.ern&ent e"o!it%r'.
U"on t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int or %t %n' ti&e t$ere%(ter %n %(ter ue notice to t$e e(en%nt, t$e
"-%inti(( !$%-- $%.e t$e ri+$t to t%7e or enter u"on t$e "o!!e!!ion o( t$e re%- "ro"ert' in.o-.e i( $e
e"o!it! #it$ t$e %ut$ori6e +o.ern&ent e"o!it%r' %n %&ount e3ui.%-ent to t$e %!!e!!e .%-ue o( t$e
"ro"ert' (or "ur"o!e! o( t%2%tion to )e $e- )' !uc$ )%n7 !u)*ect to t$e orer! o( t$e court. Suc$
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
27
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
e"o!it !$%-- )e in &one', un-e!! in -ieu t$ereo( t$e court %ut$ori6e! t$e e"o!it o( % certi(ic%te o(
e"o!it o( % +o.ern&ent )%n7 o( t$e Re"u)-ic o( t$e P$i-i""ine! "%'%)-e on e&%n to t$e %ut$ori6e
+o.ern&ent e"o!it%r'.
I( "er!on%- "ro"ert' i! in.o-.e, it! .%-ue !$%-- )e "ro.i!ion%--' %!cert%ine %n t$e %&ount to )e
e"o!ite !$%-- )e "ro&"t-' (i2e )' t$e court.
A(ter !uc$ e"o!it i! &%e t$e court !$%-- orer t$e !$eri(( or ot$er "ro"er o((icer to (ort$#it$ "-%ce t$e
"-%inti(( in "o!!e!!ion o( t$e "ro"ert' in.o-.e %n "ro&"t-' !u)&it % re"ort t$ereo( to t$e court #it$
!er.ice o( co"ie! to t$e "%rtie!.
(R: entry only %pon 6%dgment and payment o' 6%st compensation
01: Immediate entry is allowed -%t it depends on t+e sit%ation and t+e r%les applica-le:
o Bnder R%le DH:
5iling o' t+e complaint and d%e notice to t+e de'endant, and
?eposit wit+ t+e a%t+ori.ed government depositary an amo%nt e$%al to t+e
assessed val%e o' t+e property
o Bnder t+e L(C:
5iling o' complaint 'or e>propriation s%''icient in 'orm and s%-stance, and
?eposit o' amo%nt e$%ivalent to ":N o' t+e 5MK o' t+e property to -e
e>propriated, -ased on t+e latest ta> declaration
Bsed in 2ardillon v 2gy Masili o' Calam-a &!!8), w+ere t+e 2arangay was
given a writ o' possession a'ter complying wit+ t+e L(C re$%irements*
o Bnder RA I3H4 &w+ic+ applies to national government in'rastr%ct%re pro6ects)
H
:
5iling o' complaint
Immediate payment o' "!!N .onal or market val%e o' t+e property and t+e
improvements
I' t+ere is no .onal val%e and t+e e>propriation is o' %tmost important: 'iling o'
complaint and payment o' pro'erred val%e
Seen in Rep%-lic v 7oly #rinity, w+ere land was e>propriated to e>pand /L01
5or personal property, t+e val%e is provisionally ascertained 'or deposit
Sec. :. De(en!e! %n o)*ection!.
I( % e(en%nt $%! no o)*ection or e(en!e to t$e %ction or t$e t%7in+ o( $i! "ro"ert', $e &%' (i-e %n
!er.e % notice o( %""e%r%nce %n % &%ni(e!t%tion to t$%t e((ect, !"eci(ic%--' e!i+n%tin+ or ienti('in+
t$e "ro"ert' in #$ic$ $e c-%i&! to )e intere!te, #it$in t$e ti&e !t%te in t$e !u&&on!. T$ere%(ter, $e
!$%-- )e entit-e to notice o( %-- "roceein+! %((ectin+ t$e !%&e.
I( % e(en%nt $%! %n' o)*ection to t$e (i-in+ o( or t$e %--e+%tion! in t$e co&"-%int, or %n' o)*ection or
e(en!e to t$e t%7in+ o( $i! "ro"ert', $e !$%-- !er.e $i! %n!#er #it$in t$e ti&e !t%te in t$e !u&&on!.
T$e %n!#er !$%-- !"eci(ic%--' e!i+n%te or ienti(' t$e "ro"ert' in #$ic$ $e c-%i&! to $%.e %n intere!t,
!t%te t$e n%ture %n e2tent o( t$e intere!t c-%i&e, %n %uce %-- $i! o)*ection! %n e(en!e! to t$e
t%7in+ o( $i! "ro"ert'. No counterc-%i&, cro!!4c-%i& or t$ir4"%rt' co&"-%int !$%-- )e %--e+e or %--o#e
in t$e %n!#er or %n' !u)!e3uent "-e%in+.
A e(en%nt #%i.e! %-- e(en!e! %n o)*ection! not !o %--e+e )ut t$e court, in t$e intere!t o( *u!tice,
&%' "er&it %&en&ent! to t$e %n!#er to )e &%e not -%ter t$%n ten 01@1 %'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ t$ereo(.
Ho#e.er, %t t$e tri%- o( t$e i!!ue o( *u!t co&"en!%tion, #$et$er or not % e(en%nt $%! "re.iou!-'
7
Section 2. National Government Projects. : 0he term =national government projects= shall refer to all national government infrastructure,
engineering or's and service contracts, including projects underta'en by government:oned and controlled corporations,all projects covered by
Republic /ct 5o. +-*7, as amended by Republic /ct 5o. 771,, otherise 'non as the >uild:6perate:and:0ransfer 2a, and other related and
necessary activities, such as site ac;uisition, supply and?or installation of e;uipment and materials, implementation, construction, completion,
operation, maintenance, improvement, repair, and rehabilitation, regardless of the source of funding.
Section 3. Modes of Accounting Real Property. : 0he government may ac;uire real property needed as right:of:ay, site or location for any
national government infrastructure project through donation, negotiated sale, e1propriation or any other mode of ac;uisition as provided by la.
Section 4. Guidelines for Expropriation Proceedings. : Whenever it is necessary to ac;uire real property for the right:of:ay or location for any
national government infrastructure project through e1propriation, the appropriate implementing agency shall initiate the e1propriation
proceedings before the proper court under the folloing guidelines!
"a# @pon the filing of the complaint, and after due notice to the defendant, the implementing agency shall immediately pay the oner of the
property the amount e;uivalent to the sum of "1# one hundred percent "1..A# of the value of the property based on the current relevant &onal
valuation of the >ureau of <nternal Revenue "><R#% and "2# the value of the improvements and?or structures as determined under Section 7 hereof%
"b# <n provinces, cities, municipalities and other areas here there is no &onal valuation, the ><R is hereby mandated ithin the period of si1ty
"+.# days from the date of the e1propriation case, to come up ith a &onal valuation for said area% and
"c# <n case the completion of a government infrastructure project is of utmost urgency and importance, and there is no e1isting valuation of the
area concerned, the implementing agency shall immediately pay the oner of the property its proffered value ta'ing into consideration the
standards prescribed in Section * hereof.
@pon compliance ith the guidelines abovementioned, the court shall immediately issue to the implementing agency an order to ta'e possession
of the property and start the implementation of the project.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
%""e%re or %n!#ere, $e &%' "re!ent e.ience %! to t$e %&ount o( t$e co&"en!%tion to )e "%i (or
$i! "ro"ert', %n $e &%' !$%re in t$e i!tri)ution o( t$e %#%r.
I' t+e de'endant does not o-6ect to t+e e>propriation:
o 5ile and serve a notice o' appearance and mani'estation*
o 7e will -e entitled to notice o' all proceedings*
I' t+e de'endant o-6ects:
o 5ile answer
2%t /E co%nterclaim, crossCclaim or t+irdCparty complaint allowed*
o E-6ections not raised are waived, %nless t+e co%rt, in t+e interest o' 6%stice allows
amendments
IMPER#A/#: 4+et+er t+e de'endant o-6ects or not, +e may still present evidence 'or t+e stage
w+ere JBS# CEMP0/SA#IE/ is determined*
Sec. ;. Orer o( e2"ro"ri%tion.
I( t$e o)*ection! to %n t$e e(en!e! %+%in!t t$e ri+$t o( t$e "-%inti(( to e2"ro"ri%te t$e "ro"ert' %re
o.erru-e, or #$en no "%rt' %""e%r! to e(en %! re3uire )' t$i! Ru-e, t$e court &%' i!!ue %n orer o(
e2"ro"ri%tion ec-%rin+ t$%t t$e "-%inti(( $%! % -%#(u- ri+$t to t%7e t$e "ro"ert' !ou+$t to )e
e2"ro"ri%te, (or t$e "u)-ic u!e or "ur"o!e e!cri)e in t$e co&"-%int, u"on t$e "%'&ent o( *u!t
co&"en!%tion to )e eter&ine %! o( t$e %te o( t$e t%7in+ o( t$e "ro"ert' or t$e (i-in+ o( t$e
co&"-%int, #$ic$e.er c%&e (ir!t.
A (in%- orer !u!t%inin+ t$e ri+$t to e2"ro"ri%te t$e "ro"ert' &%' )e %""e%-e )' %n' "%rt' %++rie.e
t$ere)'. Suc$ %""e%-, $o#e.er, !$%-- not "re.ent t$e court (ro& eter&inin+ t$e *u!t co&"en!%tion to
)e "%i.
A(ter t$e renition o( !uc$ %n orer, t$e "-%inti(( !$%-- not )e "er&itte to i!&i!! or i!continue t$e
"roceein+ e2ce"t on !uc$ ter&! %! t$e court ee&! *u!t %n e3uit%)-e.
#+e co%rt can iss%e an order o' e>propriation i' it 'inds t+at t+e plainti'' +as t+e law'%l rig+t to take
property and t+at it is 'or p%-lic %se*
o #+is order can -e appealed*
2B# appeal will not prevent t+e co%rt 'rom determining t+e 6%st compensation to
-e paid*
Sec. 5. A!cert%in&ent o( co&"en!%tion.
U"on t$e renition o( t$e orer o( e2"ro"ri%tion, t$e court !$%-- %""oint not &ore t$%n t$ree 0:1
co&"etent %n i!intere!te "er!on! %! co&&i!!ioner! to %!cert%in %n re"ort to t$e court t$e *u!t
co&"en!%tion (or t$e "ro"ert' !ou+$t to )e t%7en. T$e orer o( %""oint&ent !$%-- e!i+n%te t$e ti&e
%n "-%ce o( t$e (ir!t !e!!ion o( t$e $e%rin+ to )e $e- )' t$e co&&i!!ioner! %n !"eci(' t$e ti&e
#it$in #$ic$ t$eir re"ort !$%-- )e !u)&itte to t$e court.
Co"ie! o( t$e orer !$%-- )e !er.e on t$e "%rtie!. O)*ection! to t$e %""oint&ent o( %n' o( t$e
co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- )e (i-e #it$ t$e court #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& !er.ice, %n !$%-- )e re!o-.e
#it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! %(ter %-- t$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- $%.e recei.e co"ie! o( t$e o)*ection!.
Sec. <. Proceein+! )' co&&i!!ioner!.
Ae(ore enterin+ u"on t$e "er(or&%nce o( t$eir utie!, t$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- t%7e %n !u)!cri)e %n
o%t$ t$%t t$e' #i-- (%it$(u--' "er(or& t$eir utie! %! co&&i!!ioner!, #$ic$ o%t$ !$%-- )e (i-e in court
#it$ t$e ot$er "roceein+! in t$e c%!e. E.ience &%' )e introuce )' eit$er "%rt' )e(ore t$e
co&&i!!ioner! #$o %re %ut$ori6e to %&ini!ter o%t$! on $e%rin+! )e(ore t$e&, %n t$e
co&&i!!ioner! !$%--, un-e!! t$e "%rtie! con!ent to t$e contr%r', %(ter ue notice to t$e "%rtie! to
%tten, .ie# %n e2%&ine t$e "ro"ert' !ou+$t to )e e2"ro"ri%te %n it! !urrounin+!, %n &%'
&e%!ure t$e !%&e, %(ter #$ic$ eit$er "%rt' &%', )' $i&!e-( or coun!e-, %r+ue t$e c%!e. T$e
co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- %!!e!! t$e con!e3uenti%- %&%+e! to t$e "ro"ert' not t%7en %n euct (ro& !uc$
con!e3uenti%- %&%+e! t$e con!e3uenti%- )ene(it! to )e eri.e )' t$e o#ner (ro& t$e "u)-ic u!e or
"ur"o!e o( t$e "ro"ert' t%7en, t$e o"er%tion o( it! (r%nc$i!e )' t$e cor"or%tion or t$e c%rr'in+ on o(
t$e )u!ine!! o( t$e cor"or%tion or "er!on t%7in+ t$e "ro"ert'. Aut in no c%!e !$%-- t$e con!e3uenti%-
)ene(it! %!!e!!e e2cee t$e con!e3uenti%- %&%+e! %!!e!!e, or t$e o#ner )e e"ri.e o( t$e %ctu%-
.%-ue o( $i! "ro"ert' !o t%7en.
Sec. 7. Re"ort )' co&&i!!ioner! %n *u+&ent t$ereu"on.
T$e court &%' orer t$e co&&i!!ioner! to re"ort #$en %n' "%rticu-%r "ortion o( t$e re%- e!t%te !$%--
$%.e )een "%!!e u"on )' t$e&, %n &%' rener *u+&ent u"on !uc$ "%rti%- re"ort, %n irect t$e
co&&i!!ioner! to "rocee #it$ t$eir #or7 %! to !u)!e3uent "ortion! o( t$e "ro"ert' !ou+$t to )e
e2"ro"ri%te, %n &%' (ro& ti&e to ti&e !o e%- #it$ !uc$ "ro"ert'. T$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- &%7e %
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
2-
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
(u-- %n %ccur%te re"ort to t$e court o( %-- t$eir "roceein+!, %n !uc$ "roceein+! !$%-- not )e
e((ectu%- unti- t$e court !$%-- $%.e %cce"te t$eir re"ort %n renere *u+&ent in %ccor%nce #it$
t$eir reco&&en%tion!. E2ce"t %! ot$er#i!e e2"re!!-' orere )' t$e court, !uc$ re"ort !$%-- )e (i-e
#it$in !i2t' 0<@1 %'! (ro& t$e %te t$e co&&i!!ioner! #ere noti(ie o( t$eir %""oint&ent, #$ic$ ti&e
&%' )e e2tene in t$e i!cretion o( t$e court. U"on t$e (i-in+ o( !uc$ re"ort, t$e c-er7 o( t$e court
!$%-- !er.e co"ie! t$ereo( on %-- intere!te "%rtie!, #it$ notice t$%t t$e' %re %--o#e ten 01@1 %'!
#it$in #$ic$ to (i-e o)*ection! to t$e (inin+! o( t$e re"ort, i( t$e' !o e!ire.
Sec. >. Action u"on co&&i!!ioner!C re"ort.
U"on t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio o( ten 01@1 %'! re(erre to in t$e "recein+ !ection, or e.en )e(ore
t$e e2"ir%tion o( !uc$ "erio )ut %(ter %-- t$e intere!te "%rtie! $%.e (i-e t$eir o)*ection! to t$e re"ort
or t$eir !t%te&ent o( %+ree&ent t$ere#it$, t$e court &%', %(ter $e%rin+, %cce"t t$e re"ort %n rener
*u+&ent in %ccor%nce t$ere#it$5 or, (or c%u!e !$o#n, it &%' reco&&it t$e !%&e to t$e
co&&i!!ioner! (or (urt$er re"ort o( (%ct!5 or it &%' !et %!ie t$e re"ort %n %""oint ne#
co&&i!!ioner!5 or it &%' %cce"t t$e re"ort in "%rt %n re*ect it in "%rt5 %n it &%' &%7e !uc$ orer or
rener !uc$ *u+&ent %! !$%-- !ecure to t$e "-%inti(( t$e "ro"ert' e!!enti%- to t$e e2erci!e o( $i! ri+$t
o( e2"ro"ri%tion, %n to t$e e(en%nt *u!t co&"en!%tion (or t$e "ro"ert' !o t%7en.
J%st compensation m%st -e t+e val%e o' t+e property:
o t+e date o' t+e taking o' t+e property or
o t+e 'iling o' t+e complaint,
w+ic+ever came 'irst*
4+at a-o%t interests9
o Interest is to -e imposed on t+e 6%st compensation E/L@ in case o' delay in its payment*
o I' t+e property is taken 'or p%-lic %se 205ER0 compensation is deposited wit+ t+e co%rt,
t+e 'inal compensation m%st incl%de interests on its 6%st val%e, to -e comp%ted 'rom t+e
time t+e property is take %p to t+e time w+en compensation is act%ally paid or deposited
wit+ t+e co%rt* &Apo 5r%its v CA, !!3)
o ?i''erentiate wit+ Rep%-lic v* 7oly #rinity &!!I): Interests earned from the ban+ de,osit
of the &ust com,ensation is owned -y t+e land owner, not t+e government*
#+e co%rt will appoint not more t+an 8 commissioners to ascertain t+e val%e o' t+e property*
o /onCcompliance wit+ t+is step is a denial o' d%e process*
o #+e commissioners s+all assess:
t+e conse$%ential damages to t+e property not taken and
ded%ct 'rom s%c+ t+e conse$%ential -ene'its to -e derived -y t+e owner 'rom t+e
p%-lic %se or p%rpose o' t+e property taken, t+e operation o' its 'ranc+ise -y t+e
corporation or t+e carrying on o' t+e -%siness o' t+e corporation or person taking
t+e property*
IMPER#A/#: 2%t in no case s+all
t+e conse$%ential -ene'its assessed e>ceed t+e conse$%ential damages
assessed, or
t+e owner -e deprived o' t+e act%al val%e o' +is property so taken*
#+e co%rt may accept or set aside t+e commissioners, report* It can also recommit it to a new set
o' commissioners* It can even partially accept and partially re6ect t+e report*
o Remem-er: determination o' 6%st compensation is a JB?ICIAL 5B/C#IE/, so t+e co%rt +as
control over t+e commissioners*
?oes t+e co%rt +ave control over /2A Commissioner ?avid Stern9
/o* 7e can veto anyt+ing t+at +e wants*
4+at i' t+e e>propriator did not 'ile a complaint and simply entered t+e property9
o #+e occ%pantAowner can 'ile 'or a complaint o' damages or 6%st compensation*
?o yo% need commissioners to determine damages or 6%st compensation9
/E*
4+en t+ere is no action 'or e>propriation and t+e case involves only a
complaint 'or damages or 6%st compensation, R%le DH will not apply and a
trial -e'ore commissioners is dispensa-le*
2%t i' commissioners are appointed wit+o%t t+e o-6ection
o' t+e parties, t+en it,s not improper* &Rep%-lic v CA,
Reyes, !!3)
o It can even -e -y s%mmary 6%dgment* &/PC v Santa Loro, w+ere
t+ere was no complaint 'or e>propriation -%t t+ere was a previo%s
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(.
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
agreement wit+ t+e land owners* #+e land o' t+e neig+-ors was
even %sed to peg t+e amo%nt to -e given t+e landowners)
Sec. ?. Uncert%in o#ner!$i"5 con(-ictin+ c-%i&!.
I( t$e o#ner!$i" o( t$e "ro"ert' t%7en i! uncert%in, or t$ere %re con(-ictin+ c-%i&! to %n' "%rt t$ereo(,
t$e court &%' orer %n' !u& or !u&! %#%re %! co&"en!%tion (or t$e "ro"ert' to )e "%i to t$e court
(or t$e )ene(it o( t$e "er!on %*u+e in t$e !%&e "roceein+ to )e entit-e t$ereto. Aut t$e *u+&ent
!$%-- re3uire t$e "%'&ent o( t$e !u& or !u&! %#%re to eit$er t$e e(en%nt or t$e court )e(ore t$e
"-%inti(( c%n enter u"on t$e "ro"ert', or ret%in it (or t$e "u)-ic u!e or "ur"o!e i( entr' $%! %-re%' )een
&%e.
Sec. 1@. Ri+$t! o( "-%inti(( %(ter *u+&ent %n "%'&ent.
U"on "%'&ent )' t$e "-%inti(( to t$e e(en%nt o( t$e co&"en!%tion (i2e )' t$e *u+&ent, #it$ -e+%-
intere!t t$ereon (ro& t$e t%7in+ o( t$e "o!!e!!ion o( t$e "ro"ert', or %(ter tener to $i& o( t$e %&ount
!o (i2e %n "%'&ent o( t$e co!t!, t$e "-%inti(( !$%-- $%.e t$e ri+$t to enter u"on t$e "ro"ert'
e2"ro"ri%te %n to %""ro"ri%te it (or t$e "u)-ic u!e or "ur"o!e e(ine in t$e *u+&ent, or to ret%in it
!$ou- $e $%.e t%7en i&&ei%te "o!!e!!ion t$ereo( uner t$e "ro.i!ion! o( !ection 8 $ereo(. I( t$e
e(en%nt %n $i! coun!e- %)!ent t$e&!e-.e! (ro& t$e court, or ec-ine to recei.e t$e %&ount
tenere, t$e !%&e !$%-- )e orere to )e e"o!ite in court %n !uc$ e"o!it !$%-- $%.e t$e !%&e
e((ect %! %ctu%- "%'&ent t$ereo( to t$e e(en%nt or t$e "er!on u-ti&%te-' %*u+e entit-e t$ereto.
Sec. 11. Entr' not e-%'e )' %""e%-5 e((ect o( re.er!%-.
T$e ri+$t o( t$e "-%inti(( to enter u"on t$e "ro"ert' o( t$e e(en%nt %n %""ro"ri%te t$e !%&e (or
"u)-ic u!e or "ur"o!e !$%-- not )e e-%'e )' %n %""e%- (ro& t$e *u+&ent. Aut i( t$e %""e--%te court
eter&ine! t$%t "-%inti(( $%! no ri+$t o( e2"ro"ri%tion, *u+&ent !$%-- )e renere orerin+ t$e
Re+ion%- Tri%- Court to (ort$#it$ en(orce t$e re!tor%tion to t$e e(en%nt o( t$e "o!!e!!ion o( t$e
"ro"ert', %n to eter&ine t$e %&%+e! #$ic$ t$e e(en%nt !u!t%ine %n &%' reco.er )' re%!on o(
t$e "o!!e!!ion t%7en )' t$e "-%inti((.
5iling an appeal -y t+e de'endant will /E# delay t+e entry %pon t+e property*
o 2%t i' reversed, t+e de'endant will -e restored to t+e possession and will -e entitled to
damages i' t+e co%rt deems so*
Sec. 18. Co!t!, )' #$o& "%i.
T$e (ee! o( t$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- )e t%2e %! % "%rt o( t$e co!t! o( t$e "roceein+!. A-- co!t!, e2ce"t
t$o!e o( ri.%- c-%i&%nt! -iti+%tin+ t$eir c-%i&!, !$%-- )e "%i )' t$e "-%inti((, un-e!! %n %""e%- i! t%7en
)' t$e o#ner o( t$e "ro"ert' %n t$e *u+&ent i! %((ir&e, in #$ic$ e.ent t$e co!t! o( t$e %""e%- !$%--
)e "%i )' t$e o#ner.
Sec. 1:. Recorin+ *u+&ent, %n it! e((ect.
T$e *u+&ent entere in e2"ro"ri%tion "roceein+! !$%-- !t%te e(inite-', )' %n %e3u%te e!cri"tion,
t$e "%rticu-%r "ro"ert' or intere!t t$erein e2"ro"ri%te, %n t$e n%ture o( t$e "u)-ic u!e or "ur"o!e (or
#$ic$ it i! e2"ro"ri%te. =$en re%- e!t%te i! e2"ro"ri%te, % certi(ie co"' o( !uc$ *u+&ent !$%-- )e
recore in t$e re+i!tr' o( ee! o( t$e "-%ce in #$ic$ t$e "ro"ert' i! !itu%te, %n it! e((ect !$%-- )e to
.e!t in t$e "-%inti(( t$e tit-e to t$e re%- e!t%te !o e!cri)e (or !uc$ "u)-ic u!e or "ur"o!e.
Sec. 1;. Po#er o( +u%ri%n in !uc$ "roceein+!.
T$e +u%ri%n or +u%ri%n % -ite& o( % &inor or o( % "er!on *uici%--' ec-%re to )e inco&"etent &%',
#it$ t$e %""ro.%- o( t$e court (ir!t $%, o %n "er(or& on )e$%-( o( $i! #%r %n' %ct, &%tter, or t$in+
re!"ectin+ t$e e2"ro"ri%tion (or "u)-ic u!e or "ur"o!e o( "ro"ert' )e-on+in+ to !uc$ &inor or "er!on
*uici%--' ec-%re to )e inco&"etent, #$ic$ !uc$ &inor or "er!on *uici%--' ec-%re to )e inco&"etent
cou- o in !uc$ "roceein+! i( $e #ere o( %+e or co&"etent.
RULE <> EORECLOSURE OE REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE
Section 1. Co&"-%int in %ction (or (orec-o!ure.
In %n %ction (or t$e (orec-o!ure o( % &ort+%+e or ot$er encu&)r%nce u"on re%- e!t%te, t$e co&"-%int
!$%-- !et (ort$ t$e %te %n ue e2ecution o( t$e &ort+%+e5 it! %!!i+n&ent!, i( %n'5 t$e n%&e! %n
re!ience! o( t$e &ort+%+or %n t$e &ort+%+ee5 % e!cri"tion o( t$e &ort+%+e "ro"ert'5 % !t%te&ent
o( t$e %te o( t$e note or ot$er ocu&ent%r' e.ience o( t$e o)-i+%tion !ecure )' t$e &ort+%+e, t$e
%&ount c-%i&e to )e un"%i t$ereon5 %n t$e n%&e! %n re!ience! o( %-- "er!on! $%.in+ or c-%i&in+
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(1
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
%n intere!t in t$e "ro"ert' !u)orin%te in ri+$t to t$%t o( t$e $o-er o( t$e &ort+%+e, %-- o( #$o& !$%--
)e &%e e(en%nt! in t$e %ction.
4+ere do yo% 'ile9
o R%le DI does not provide 'or t+e ven%e o' t+is SCA, -%t it is 'iled w+ere t+e property is
located* &w+at co%rt9 ?epends on t+e assessed val%e)
o I' t+e contract o' mortgage covers vario%s properties in di''erent provinces, 'ile in proper
co%rt o' any o' t+e provinces covering t+e property* &Atty (%evara)
#+ere are two kinds o' 'oreclos%re:
o J%dicial 'oreclos%re &R%le DI)
o 0>tra6%dicial 'oreclos%re &Act 8"8:)
In 6%dicial 'oreclos%re, yo% +ave to 'ile a case and pay t+e 'iling 'ees
In e>tra6%dicial 'oreclos%re, yo% 'iled a veri'ied petition -e'ore t+e o''ice o' t+e clerk o' co%rt w+o
acts as t+e e>Co''icio s+eri''
o #+e e>tra6%dicial 'oreclos%re is sc+ed%led a'ter paying o' incidental 'ees and p%-lication
'ees
Sec. 8. Bu+&ent on (orec-o!ure (or "%'&ent or !%-e.
I( u"on t$e tri%- in !uc$ %ction t$e court !$%-- (in t$e (%ct! !et (ort$ in t$e co&"-%int to )e true, it !$%--
%!cert%in t$e %&ount ue to t$e "-%inti(( u"on t$e &ort+%+e e)t or o)-i+%tion, inc-uin+ intere!t %n
ot$er c$%r+e! %! %""ro.e )' t$e court, %n co!t!, %n !$%-- rener *u+&ent (or t$e !u& !o (oun ue
%n orer t$%t t$e !%&e )e "%i to t$e court or to t$e *u+&ent o)-i+ee #it$in % "erio o( not -e!! t$%n
ninet' 0?@1 %'! nor &ore t$%n one $unre t#ent' 018@1 %'! (ro& t$e entr' o( *u+&ent, %n t$%t in
e(%u-t o( !uc$ "%'&ent t$e "ro"ert' !$%-- )e !o- %t "u)-ic %uction to !%ti!(' t$e *u+&ent.
#+e co%rt will determine t+e tr%t+'%lness o' t+e complaint and will render t+e 6%dgment, stating
+ow m%c+ is d%e to t+e mortgagee*
In JB?ICIAL 'oreclos%re, (R: no rig+t o' redemption* &7%erta Al-a v CA, !!!)
o @o% only +ave 0MBI#@ o' redemption w+ere t+e 6%dgment o-ligee +as a period o' 3!C"!
days 'rom t+e entry o' 6%dgment to pay t+e de-t*
In tr%t+, mortgagor +as %ntil t+e order o' con'irmation to pay t+e de-t* &Sec 8)
2%t t+e #ran$ said 6%st 'ollow t+e 3!C"! days 'or academic p%rposes*
o 01C0P#:
4+en t+e mortgagee is a -ank, t+en t+ere,s a redemption period o' " year*
&Atty #ran$ said t+at i' t+e mortgagee is a -ank and t+e mortgagor is a
6%ridical person in a 6%dicial 'oreclos%re sale, only e$%ity o' redemption will
apply* 2%t a reading o' t+e -anking law will s+ow ot+erwise*)
In 01#RAJB?ICIAL 'oreclos%re, (R: t+ere,s a RI(7# o' R0?0MP#IE/ w+ic+ is " year 'rom t+e
registration o' t+e con'irmation o' t+e sale*
o 01C0P#:
4+en t+e mortgagee is a -ank and t+e mortgagor is a corporation, t+en t+e
redemption period is only 8 mont+s or -e'ore t+e registration o' sale, w+ic+ever
comes 'irst*
I
Redemption JB?ICIAL 01#RAJB?ICIAL
MortgagorAMortgag
ee
2anks /on-anks 2anks /on-anks
Individ%als " year 'rom 3!C"! " year " year
,
R/ ,7-1, Section 47. Foreclosure of Real Estate Mortgage. : <n the event of foreclosure, hether judicially or e1tra:judicially, of any mortgage
on real estate hich is security for any loan or other credit accommodation granted, the mortgagor or debtor hose real property has been sold for
the full or partial payment of his obligation shall have the right ithin one year after the sale of the real estate, to redeem the property by paying
the amount due under the mortgage deed, ith interest thereon at rate specified in the mortgage, and all the costs and e1penses incurred by the
ban' or institution from the sale and custody of said property less the income derived therefrom. Boever, the purchaser at the auction sale
concerned hether in a judicial or e1tra:judicial foreclosure shall have the right to enter upon and ta'e possession of such property immediately
after the date of the confirmation of the auction sale and administer the same in accordance ith la. /ny petition in court to enjoin or restrain
the conduct of foreclosure proceedings instituted pursuant to this provision shall be given due course only upon the filing by the petitioner of a
bond in an amount fi1ed by the court conditioned that he ill pay all the damages hich the ban' may suffer by the enjoining or the restraint of
the foreclosure proceeding. 5otithstanding /ct (1(*, juridical persons hose property is being sold pursuant to an e1trajudicial foreclosure,
shall have the right to redeem the property in accordance ith this provision until, but not after, the registration of the certificate of foreclosure
sale ith the applicable Register of Ceeds hich in no case shall be more than three "(# months after foreclosure, hichever is earlier. 6ners of
property that has been sold in a foreclosure sale prior to the effectivity of this /ct shall retain their redemption rights until their e1piration. "7,a#
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(2
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
registration
o' sale
days 'rom
date o'
entry o'
6%dgment
Corporations " year 3!C"!
days 'rom
date o'
entry o'
6%dgment
8 mont+s or
-e'ore
registration
o' sale,
w+ic+ever
comes 'irst
" year
?oes t+e 6%dicial 'oreclos%re o' a mortgage to t+e (SIS +ave a rig+t o' redemption9
o /E* It is not a -ank* &2acaling v M%ya, !!)
Sec. :. S%-e o( &ort+%+e "ro"ert'5 e((ect.
=$en t$e e(en%nt, %(ter )ein+ irecte to o !o %! "ro.ie in t$e ne2t "recein+ !ection, (%i-! to
"%' t$e %&ount o( t$e *u+&ent #it$in t$e "erio !"eci(ie t$erein, t$e court, u"on &otion, !$%-- orer
t$e "ro"ert' to )e !o- in t$e &%nner %n uner t$e "ro.i!ion! o( Ru-e :? %n ot$er re+u-%tion!
+o.ernin+ !%-e! o( re%- e!t%te uner e2ecution. Suc$ !%-e !$%-- not %((ect t$e ri+$t! o( "er!on! $o-in+
"rior encu&)r%nce! u"on t$e "ro"ert' or % "%rt t$ereo(, %n #$en con(ir&e )' %n orer o( t$e court,
%-!o u"on &otion, it !$%-- o"er%te to i.e!t t$e ri+$t! in t$e "ro"ert' o( %-- t$e "%rtie! to t$e %ction %n
to .e!t t$eir ri+$t! in t$e "urc$%!er, !u)*ect to !uc$ ri+$t! o( ree&"tion %! &%' )e %--o#e )' -%#.
U"on t$e (in%-it' o( t$e orer o( con(ir&%tion or u"on t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio o( ree&"tion #$en
%--o#e )' -%#, t$e "urc$%!er %t t$e %uction !%-e or -%!t ree&"tioner, i( %n', !$%-- )e entit-e to t$e
"o!!e!!ion o( t$e "ro"ert' un-e!! % t$ir "%rt' i! %ctu%--' $o-in+ t$e !%&e %.er!e-' to t$e *u+&ent
o)-i+or. T$e !%i "urc$%!er or -%!t ree&"tioner &%' !ecure % #rit o( "o!!e!!ion, u"on &otion, (ro&
t$e court #$ic$ orere t$e (orec-o!ure.
Bpon t+e 'inality o' t+e order o' con'irmation or %pon e>piration o' t+e period o' redemption &i'
-anks), t+e p%rc+aser s+all -e entitled to t+e possession o' t+e property*
o 01C0P#: i' t+ere is a t+ird party act%ally +olding t+e property adversely
7ow to get possession9 2y applying 'or a writ o' possession*
#+e con'irmation o' sale retroacts to t+e date o' t+e act%al sale itsel'* &2acaling v M%ya)
7ow is t+is di''erent in e>tra6%dicial 'oreclos%re9
o A'ter 'oreclos%re, t+e mortgagor still possesses t+e property d%ring t+e redemption period*
2%t a writ o' possession can similarly -e applied 'or*
/ote: i' t+e mortgagee is a -ank, t+e -ank is entitled to t+e possession o' t+e property
immediately a'ter t+e con'irmation o' t+e sale &w+et+er it -e 6%dicial or e>tra6%dicial 'oreclos%re)*
Sec. ;. Di!"o!ition o( "rocee! o( !%-e.
T$e %&ount re%-i6e (ro& t$e (orec-o!ure !%-e o( t$e &ort+%+e "ro"ert' !$%--, %(ter euctin+ t$e
co!t! o( t$e !%-e, )e "%i to t$e "er!on (orec-o!in+ t$e &ort+%+e, %n #$en t$ere !$%-- )e %n' )%-%nce
or re!iue, %(ter "%'in+ o(( t$e &ort+%+e e)t ue, t$e !%&e !$%-- )e "%i to *unior encu&)r%ncer! in
t$e orer o( t$eir "riorit', to )e %!cert%ine )' t$e court, or i( t$ere )e no !uc$ encu&)r%ncer! or t$ere
)e % )%-%nce or re!iue %(ter "%'&ent to t$e&, t$en to t$e &ort+%+or or $i! u-' %ut$ori6e %+ent, or
to t$e "er!on entit-e to it.
#+e proceeds o' t+e sale are disposed as 'ollows:
o ?ed%ct costs o' sale
o Pay to t+e person 'oreclosing t+e mortgage
o 2alance or resid%e goes to t+e 6%nior enc%m-rances in order o' priority
o I' no 6%nior mortgagors, -alance to mortgagor or +is agent
?o t+e 6%nior mortgagors a rig+t to t+e resid%e in e>tra6%dicial 'oreclos%re9
o /o* #+ey only +ave t+e rig+t to redeem t+e 'oreclosed properties* &Mon.on v Relova,
!!I)
Sec. 5. Ho# !%-e to "rocee in c%!e t$e e)t i! not %-- ue.
I( t$e e)t (or #$ic$ t$e &ort+%+e or encu&)r%nce #%! $e- i! not %-- ue %! "ro.ie in t$e *u+&ent,
%! !oon %! % !u((icient "ortion o( t$e "ro"ert' $%! )een !o- to "%' t$e tot%- %&ount %n t$e co!t! ue,
t$e !%-e !$%-- ter&in%te5 %n %(ter#%r!, %! o(ten %! &ore )eco&e! ue (or "rinci"%- or intere!t %n
ot$er .%-i c$%r+e!, t$e court &%', on &otion, orer &ore to )e !o-. Aut i( t$e "ro"ert' c%nnot )e !o-
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
((
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
in "ortion! #it$out "re*uice to t$e "%rtie!, t$e #$o-e !$%-- )e orere to )e !o- in t$e (ir!t in!t%nce,
%n t$e entire e)t %n co!t! !$%-- )e "%i, i( t$e "rocee! o( t$e !%-e )e !u((icient t$ere(or, t$ere
)ein+ % re)%te o( intere!t #$ere !uc$ re)%te i! "ro"er.
Sec. <. De(icienc' *u+&ent.
I( u"on t$e !%-e o( %n' re%- "ro"ert' %! "ro.ie in t$e ne2t "recein+ !ection t$ere )e % )%-%nce ue
to t$e "-%inti(( %(ter %""-'in+ t$e "rocee! o( t$e !%-e, t$e court, u"on &otion, !$%-- rener *u+&ent
%+%in!t t$e e(en%nt (or %n' !uc$ )%-%nce (or #$ic$, )' t$e recor o( t$e c%!e, $e &%' )e "er!on%--'
-i%)-e to t$e "-%inti((, u"on #$ic$ e2ecution &%' i!!ue i&&ei%te-' i( t$e )%-%nce i! %-- ue %t t$e ti&e
o( t$e renition o( t$e *u+&ent5 ot$er#i!e, t$e "-%inti(( !$%-- )e entit-e to e2ecution %t !uc$ ti&e %!
t$e )%-%nce re&%inin+ )eco&e! ue uner t$e ter&! o( t$e ori+in%- contr%ct, #$ic$ ti&e !$%-- )e !t%te
in t$e *u+&ent.
I' a'ter t+e mortgage sale, t+ere is still de'iciency, t+e co%rt will e>ec%te against t+e mortgagee*
Sec. 7. Re+i!tr%tion.
A certi(ie co"' o( t$e (in%- orer o( t$e court con(ir&in+ t$e !%-e !$%-- )e re+i!tere in t$e re+i!tr' o(
ee!. I( no ri+$t o( ree&"tion e2i!t!, t$e certi(ic%te o( tit-e in t$e n%&e o( t$e &ort+%+or !$%-- )e
c%nce--e, %n % ne# one i!!ue in t$e n%&e o( t$e "urc$%!er.
=$ere % ri+$t o( ree&"tion e2i!t!, t$e certi(ic%te o( tit-e in t$e n%&e o( t$e &ort+%+or !$%-- not )e
c%nce--e, )ut t$e certi(ic%te o( !%-e %n t$e orer con(ir&in+ t$e !%-e !$%-- )e re+i!tere %n % )rie(
&e&or%nu& t$ereo( &%e )' t$e re+i!tr%r o( ee! u"on t$e certi(ic%te o( tit-e. In t$e e.ent t$e
"ro"ert' i! reee&e, t$e ee o( ree&"tion !$%-- )e re+i!tere #it$ t$e re+i!tr' o( ee!, %n % )rie(
&e&or%nu& t$ereo( !$%-- )e &%e )' t$e re+i!tr%r o( ee! on !%i certi(ic%te o( tit-e.
I( t$e "ro"ert' i! not reee&e, t$e (in%- ee o( !%-e e2ecute )' t$e !$eri(( in (%.or o( t$e "urc$%!er
%t t$e (orec-o!ure !%-e !$%-- )e re+i!tere #it$ t$e re+i!tr' o( ee!5 #$ereu"on t$e certi(ic%te o( tit-e
in t$e n%&e o( t$e &ort+%+or !$%-- )e c%nce--e %n % ne# one i!!ue in t$e n%&e o( t$e "urc$%!er.
Sec. >. A""-ic%)i-it' o( ot$er "ro.i!ion!.
T$e "ro.i!ion! o( !ection! :1, :8 %n :; o( Ru-e :? !$%-- )e %""-ic%)-e to t$e *uici%- (orec-o!ure o( re%-
e!t%te &ort+%+e! uner t$i! Ru-e in!o(%r %! t$e (or&er %re not incon!i!tent #it$ or &%' !er.e to
!u""-e&ent t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$e -%tter.
R%le 83 and some o' its provisions apply to 6%dicial 'oreclos%re*
3
?i''erence -etween 6%dicial 'oreclos%re and e>ec%tion:
o In 6%dicial 'oreclos%re, t+e mortgagor contin%es to -e in possession o' t+e property*
Bntil t+e 'inality o' t+e order o' con'irmation o' sale &or e>piration o' t+e
redemption period i' allowed -y law*
o I' e>ec%tion, t+e o-ligor contin%es to -e in possession o' t+e property*
RULE <? PARTITION
-
Sec. (1. 3anner of using premises pending redemption% aste restrained.
@ntil the e1piration of the time alloed for redemption, the court may, as in other proper cases, restrain the commission of aste on the property
by injunction, on the application of the purchaser or the judgment obligee, ith or ithout notice% but it is not aste for a person in possession of
the property at the time of the sale, or entitled to possession afterards, during the period alloed for redemption, to continue to use it in the
same manner in hich it as previously used% or to use it in the ordinary course of husbandry% or to ma'e the necessary repairs to buildings
thereon hile he occupies the property.
Sec. ((. Ceed and possession to be given at e1piration of redemption period% by hom e1ecuted or given.
<f no redemption be made ithin one "1# year from the date of the registration of the certificate of sale, the purchaser is entitled to a conveyance
and possession of the property% or, if so redeemed henever si1ty "+.# days have elapsed and no other redemption has been made, and notice
thereof given, and the time for redemption has e1pired, the last redemptioner is entitled to the conveyance and possession% but in all cases the
judgment obligor shall have the entire period of one "1# year from the date of the registration of the sale to redeem the property. 0he deed shall be
e1ecuted by the officer ma'ing the sale or by his successor in office, and in the latter case shall have the same validity as though the officer
ma'ing the sale had continued in office and e1ecuted it. @pon the e1piration of the right of redemption, the purchaser or redemptioner shall be
substituted to and ac;uire all the rights, title, interest and claim of the judgment obligor to the property as of the time of the levy. 0he possession
of the property shall be given to the purchaser or last redemptioner by the same officer unless a third party is actually holding the property
adversely to the judgment obligor.
Sec. (). Recovery of price if sale not effective% revival of judgment.
<f the purchaser of real property sold on e1ecution, or his successor in interest, fails to recover the possession thereof, or is evicted therefrom, in
conse;uence of irregularities in the proceedings concerning the sale, or because the judgment has been reversed or set aside, or because the
property sold as e1empt from e1ecution, or because a third person has vindicated his claim to the property, he may on motion in the same action
or in a separate action recover from the judgment obligee the price paid, ith interest, or so much thereof as has not been delivered to the
judgment obligor% or he may, on motion, have the original judgment revived in his name for the hole price ith interest, or so much thereof as
has been delivered to the judgment obligor. 0he judgment so revived shall have the same force and effect as an original judgment ould have as
of the date of the revival and no more.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
()
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Section 1. Co&"-%int in %ction (or "%rtition o( re%- e!t%te.
A "er!on $%.in+ t$e ri+$t to co&"e- t$e "%rtition o( re%- e!t%te &%' o !o %! "ro.ie in t$i! Ru-e,
!ettin+ (ort$ in $i! co&"-%int t$e n%ture %n e2tent o( $i! tit-e %n %n %e3u%te e!cri"tion o( t$e re%-
e!t%te o( #$ic$ "%rtition i! e&%ne %n *oinin+ %! e(en%nt! %-- ot$er "er!on! intere!te in t$e
"ro"ert'.
Sec. 8. Orer (or "%rtition, %n "%rtition )' %+ree&ent t$ereuner.
I( %(ter t$e tri%- t$e court (in! t$%t t$e "-%inti(( $%! t$e ri+$t t$ereto, it !$%-- orer t$e "%rtition o( t$e
re%- e!t%te %&on+ %-- t$e "%rtie! in intere!t. T$ereu"on t$e "%rtie! &%', i( t$e' %re %)-e to %+ree, &%7e
t$e "%rtition %&on+ t$e&!e-.e! )' "ro"er in!tru&ent! o( con.e'%nce, %n t$e court !$%-- con(ir& t$e
"%rtition !o %+ree u"on )' %-- t$e "%rtie!, %n !uc$ "%rtition, to+et$er #it$ t$e orer o( t$e court
con(ir&in+ t$e !%&e, !$%-- )e recore in t$e re+i!tr' o( ee! o( t$e "-%ce in #$ic$ t$e "ro"ert' i!
!itu%te.
A (in%- orer ecreein+ "%rtition %n %ccountin+ &%' )e %""e%-e )' %n' "%rt' %++rie.e t$ere)'.
#+ere are two kinds o' partition:
o J%dicial partition
o 0>tra6%dicial partition &R%le H4)
#+ese are %s%ally coCowners+ips created -y t+e deat+ o' an ascendant
Re$%isites: /o will, no de-t, and i' t+ere are minors, t+ere is appointment
o' g%ardians
M%st -e contested wit+in a period o' years
In 6%dicial partition, all persons interested in t+e property m%st -e impleaded as indispensa-le
parties
o A-sence o' an indispensa-le party renders all s%-se$%ent actions o' t+e co%rt n%ll and void
'or want o' a%t+ority to act, not only as to t+e a-sent parties -%t even as tot +ose present*
&Sep%lveda v Pelae., !!:)
o An answer can -e 'iled* It will -e 'ollowed -y preCtrial* &even i' t+e r%les don,t partic%larly
say it)
4+at kind o' property9
o Real and personal property*
4+o can instit%te an action 'or 6%dicial partition9
o Any coCowner
#wo stages in an action 'or JP:
o ?etermination o' e>istence o' coCowners+ip
#+e coCowners+ip is created eit+er -y agreement or operation ' law
o Partition o' t+e property
Can t+e parties agree on t+e partition9
o @es*
I' t+ey can,t agree, t+en it will -e re'erred to commissioners*
Compare wit+ e>propriation w+ere t+e re'erral to t+e commissioners is
mandatory*
o ?oes t+e agreement +ave to -e p%-lis+ed9
@es, it will -e treated as an e>tra6%dicial partition, according to Atty* #ran$%il,
citing R%le H4, Sec " &see last paragrap+)
"!
1.
R@2D 7) S@33/RE SD002D3D50 6F DS0/0DS
Sec. 1. Extrajudicial settlement y agreement et!een heirs. " <f the decedent left no ill and no debts and the heirs are all of age, or the minors
are represented by their judicial or legal representatives duly authori&ed for the purpose, the parties may, ithout securing letters of
administration, divide the estate among themselves as they see fit by means of a public instrument filed in the office of the register of deeds, and
should they disagree, they may do so in an ordinary action of partition. <f there is only one heir, he may adjudicate to himself the entire estate by
means of an affidavit filed in the office of the register of deeds. 0he parties to an e1trajudicial settlement, hether by public instrument or by
stipulation in a pending action for partition, or the sole heir ho adjudicates the entire estate to himself by means of an affidavit shall file,
simultaneously ith and as a condition precedent to the filing of the public instrument, or stipulation in the action for partition, or of the affidavit
in the office of the register of deeds, a bond ith the said register of deeds, in an amount e;uivalent to the value of the personal property involved
as certified to under oath by the parties concerned and conditioned upon the payment of any just claim that may be filed under Section ) of this
rule. <t shall be presumed that the decedent left no debts if no creditor files a petition for letters of administration ithin to "2# years after the
death of the decedent.
0he fact of the e1trajudicial settlement or administration shall be published in a nespaper of general circulation in the manner provided in the
ne1t succeeding section% but no e1trajudicial settlement shall be binding upon any person ho has not participated therein or had no notice
thereof.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
?o yo% need a -ond9
o JP: /E
o 0JP: @es, i' personal property
Sec. :. Co&&i!!ioner! to &%7e "%rtition #$en "%rtie! (%i- to %+ree.
I( t$e "%rtie! %re un%)-e to %+ree u"on t$e "%rtition, t$e court !$%-- %""oint not &ore t$%n t$ree 0:1
co&"etent %n i!intere!te "er!on! %! co&&i!!ioner! to &%7e t$e "%rtition, co&&%nin+ t$e& to !et
o(( to t$e "-%inti(( %n to e%c$ "%rt' in intere!t !uc$ "%rt %n "ro"ortion o( t$e "ro"ert' %! t$e court
!$%-- irect.
Sec. ;. O%t$ %n utie! o( co&&i!!ioner!.
Ae(ore &%7in+ !uc$ "%rtition, t$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- t%7e %n !u)!cri)e %n o%t$ t$%t t$e' #i--
(%it$(u--' "er(or& t$eir utie! %! co&&i!!ioner!, #$ic$ o%t$ !$%-- )e (i-e in court #it$ t$e ot$er
"roceein+! in t$e c%!e. In &%7in+ t$e "%rtition, t$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- .ie# %n e2%&ine t$e re%-
e!t%te, %(ter ue notice to t$e "%rtie! to %tten %t !uc$ .ie# %n e2%&in%tion, %n !$%-- $e%r t$e
"%rtie! %! to t$eir "re(erence in t$e "ortion o( t$e "ro"ert' to )e !et %"%rt to t$e& %n t$e co&"%r%ti.e
.%-ue t$ereo(, %n !$%-- !et %"%rt t$e !%&e to t$e "%rtie! in -ot! or "%rce-! %! #i-- )e &o!t
%.%nt%+eou! %n e3uit%)-e, $%.in+ ue re+%r to t$e i&"ro.e&ent!, !itu%tion %n 3u%-it' o( t$e
i((erent "%rt! t$ereo(.
Sec. 5. A!!i+n&ent or !%-e o( re%- e!t%te )' co&&i!!ioner!.
=$en it i! &%e to %""e%r to t$e co&&i!!ioner! t$%t t$e re%- e!t%te, or % "ortion t$ereo(, c%nnot )e
i.ie #it$out "re*uice to t$e intere!t! o( t$e "%rtie!, t$e court &%' orer it %!!i+ne to one o( t$e
"%rtie! #i--in+ to t%7e t$e !%&e, "ro.ie $e "%'! to t$e ot$er "%rtie! !uc$ %&ount! %! t$e
co&&i!!ioner! ee& e3uit%)-e, un-e!! one o( t$e intere!te "%rtie! %!7! t$%t t$e "ro"ert' )e !o-
in!te% o( )ein+ !o %!!i+ne, in #$ic$ c%!e t$e court !$%-- orer t$e co&&i!!ioner! to !e-- t$e re%-
e!t%te %t "u)-ic !%-e uner !uc$ conition! %n #it$in !uc$ ti&e %! t$e court &%' eter&ine.
/ote: w+en t+e property cannot -e divided wit+o%t pre6%dicing t+e interests o' t+e parties, t+e
co%rt may:
o Assign it to any o' t+e parties, provided +e pays t+e ot+er parties
2B# i' one party asks t+at it -e sold instead, t+en it m%st -e sold at a p%-lic sale*
Sec. <. Re"ort o( co&&i!!ioner!5 "roceein+! not )inin+ unti- con(ir&e.
T$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- &%7e % (u-- %n %ccur%te re"ort to t$e court o( %-- t$eir "roceein+! %! to t$e
"%rtition, or t$e %!!i+n&ent o( re%- e!t%te to one o( t$e "%rtie!, or t$e !%-e o( t$e !%&e. U"on t$e (i-in+
o( !uc$ re"ort, t$e c-er7 o( court !$%-- !er.e co"ie! t$ereo( on %-- t$e intere!te "%rtie! #it$ notice t$%t
t$e' %re %--o#e ten 01@1 %'! #it$in #$ic$ to (i-e o)*ection! to t$e (inin+! o( t$e re"ort, i( t$e' !o
e!ire. No "roceein+ $% )e(ore or conucte )' t$e co&&i!!ioner! !$%-- "%!! t$e tit-e to t$e
"ro"ert' or )in t$e "%rtie! unti- t$e court !$%-- $%.e %cce"te t$e re"ort o( t$e co&&i!!ioner! %n
renere *u+&ent t$ereon.
Sec. 7. Action o( t$e court u"on co&&i!!ioner!C re"ort.
U"on t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio o( ten 01@1 %'! re(erre to in t$e "recein+ !ection, or e.en )e(ore
t$e e2"ir%tion o( !uc$ "erio )ut %(ter t$e intere!te "%rtie! $%.e (i-e t$eir o)*ection! to t$e re"ort or
t$eir !t%te&ent o( %+ree&ent t$ere#it$, t$e court &%', u"on $e%rin+, %cce"t t$e re"ort %n rener
*u+&ent in %ccor%nce t$ere#it$5 or, (or c%u!e !$o#n, reco&&it t$e !%&e to t$e co&&i!!ioner! (or
(urt$er re"ort o( (%ct!5 or !et %!ie t$e re"ort %n %""oint ne# co&&i!!ioner!5 or %cce"t t$e re"ort in
"%rt %n re*ect it in "%rt5 %n &%' &%7e !uc$ orer %n rener !uc$ *u+&ent %! !$%-- e((ectu%te % (%ir
%n *u!t "%rtition o( t$e re%- e!t%te, or o( it! .%-ue, i( %!!i+ne or !o- %! %)o.e "ro.ie, )et#een t$e
!e.er%- o#ner! t$ereo(.
Sec. >. Accountin+ (or rent %n "ro(it! in %ction (or "%rtition.
In %n %ction (or "%rtition in %ccor%nce #it$ t$i! Ru-e, % "%rt' !$%-- reco.er (ro& %not$er $i! *u!t !$%re
o( rent! %n "ro(it! recei.e )' !uc$ ot$er "%rt' (ro& t$e re%- e!t%te in 3ue!tion, %n t$e *u+&ent
!$%-- inc-ue %n %--o#%nce (or !uc$ rent! %n "ro(it!.
Sec. ?. Po#er o( +u%ri%n in !uc$ "roceein+!.
T$e +u%ri%n or +u%ri%n % -ite& o( % &inor or "er!on *uici%--' ec-%re to )e inco&"etent &%', #it$
t$e %""ro.%- o( t$e court (ir!t $%, o %n "er(or& on )e$%-( o( $i! #%r %n' %ct, &%tter, or t$in+
re!"ectin+ t$e "%rtition o( re%- e!t%te, #$ic$ t$e &inor or "er!on *uici%--' ec-%re to )e inco&"etent
cou- o in "%rtition "roceein+! i( $e #ere o( %+e or co&"etent.
Sec. 1@. Co!t! %n e2"en!e! to )e t%2e %n co--ecte.
T$e court !$%-- e3uit%)-' t%2 %n %""ortion )et#een or %&on+ t$e "%rtie! t$e co!t! %n e2"en!e!
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
#$ic$ %ccrue in t$e %ction, inc-uin+ t$e co&"en!%tion o( t$e co&&i!!ioner!, $%.in+ re+%r to t$e
intere!t! o( t$e "%rtie!, %n e2ecution &%' i!!ue t$ere(or %! in ot$er c%!e!.
Sec. 11. T$e *u+&ent %n it! e((ect5 co"' to )e recore in re+i!tr' o( ee!.
I( %ctu%- "%rtition o( "ro"ert' i! &%e, t$e *u+&ent !$%-- !t%te e(inite-', )' &ete! %n )oun! %n
%e3u%te e!cri"tion, t$e "%rticu-%r "ortion o( t$e re%- e!t%te %!!i+ne to e%c$ "%rt', %n t$e e((ect o(
t$e *u+&ent !$%-- )e to .e!t in e%c$ "%rt' to t$e %ction in !e.er%-t' t$e "ortion o( t$e re%- e!t%te
%!!i+ne to $i&. I( t$e #$o-e "ro"ert' i! %!!i+ne to one o( t$e "%rtie! u"on $i! "%'in+ to t$e ot$er!
t$e !u& or !u&! orere )' t$e court, t$e *u+&ent !$%-- !t%te t$e (%ct o( !uc$ "%'&ent %n o( t$e
%!!i+n&ent o( t$e re%- e!t%te to t$e "%rt' &%7in+ t$e "%'&ent, %n t$e e((ect o( t$e *u+&ent !$%-- )e
to .e!t in t$e "%rt' &%7in+ t$e "%'&ent t$e #$o-e o( t$e re%- e!t%te (ree (ro& %n' intere!t on t$e "%rt
o( t$e ot$er "%rtie! to t$e %ction. I( t$e "ro"ert' i! !o- %n t$e !%-e con(ir&e )' t$e court, t$e
*u+&ent !$%-- !t%te t$e n%&e o( t$e "urc$%!er or "urc$%!er! %n % e(inite e!cri"tion o( t$e "%rce-!
o( re%- e!t%te !o- to e%c$ "urc$%!er, %n t$e e((ect o( t$e *u+&ent !$%-- )e to .e!t t$e re%- e!t%te in
t$e "urc$%!er or "urc$%!er! &%7in+ t$e "%'&ent or "%'&ent!, (ree (ro& t$e c-%i&! o( %n' o( t$e
"%rtie! to t$e %ction. A certi(ie co"' o( t$e *u+&ent !$%-- in eit$er c%!e )e recore in t$e re+i!tr' o(
ee! o( t$e "-%ce in #$ic$ t$e re%- e!t%te i! !itu%te, %n t$e e2"en!e! o( !uc$ recorin+ !$%-- )e
t%2e %! "%rt o( t$e co!t! o( t$e %ction.
Sec. 18. Neit$er "%r%&ount ri+$t! nor %&ic%)-e "%rtition %((ecte )' t$i! Ru-e.
Not$in+ in t$i! Ru-e cont%ine !$%-- )e con!true !o %! to "re*uice, e(e%t, or e!tro' t$e ri+$t or tit-e
o( %n' "er!on c-%i&in+ t$e re%- e!t%te in.o-.e )' tit-e uner %n' ot$er "er!on, or )' tit-e "%r%&ount to
t$e tit-e o( t$e "%rtie! %&on+ #$o& t$e "%rtition &%' $%.e )een &%e5 nor !o %! to re!trict or "re.ent
"er!on! $o-in+ re%- e!t%te *oint-' or in co&&on (ro& &%7in+ %n %&ic%)-e "%rtition t$ereo( )'
%+ree&ent %n !uit%)-e in!tru&ent! o( con.e'%nce #it$out recour!e to %n %ction.
Paramo%nt rig+ts can /E# -e pre6%diced*
o So i' a person was not noti'ied o' t+e proceedings, +e can invoke t+is section*
Sec. 1:. P%rtition o( "er!on%- "ro"ert'.
T$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$i! Ru-e !$%-- %""-' to "%rtition! o( e!t%te! co&"o!e o( "er!on%- "ro"ert', or o(
)ot$ re%- %n "er!on%- "ro"ert', in !o (%r %! t$e !%&e &%' )e %""-ic%)-e.
RULE 7@ EORCIALE ENTRY AND UNLA=EUL DETAINER
Section 1. =$o &%' in!titute "roceein+!, %n #$en.
Su)*ect to t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$e ne2t !ucceein+ !ection, % "er!on e"ri.e o( t$e "o!!e!!ion o( %n'
-%n or )ui-in+ )' (orce, inti&i%tion, t$re%t, !tr%te+', or !te%-t$, or % -e!!or, .enor, .enee, or ot$er
"er!on %+%in!t #$o& t$e "o!!e!!ion o( %n' -%n or )ui-in+ i! un-%#(u--' #it$$e- %(ter t$e e2"ir%tion
or ter&in%tion o( t$e ri+$t to $o- "o!!e!!ion, )' .irtue o( %n' contr%ct, e2"re!! or i&"-ie, or t$e -e+%-
re"re!ent%ti.e! or %!!i+n! o( %n' !uc$ -e!!or, .enor, .enee, or ot$er "er!on, &%', %t %n' ti&e #it$in
one 011 'e%r %(ter !uc$ un-%#(u- e"ri.%tion or #it$$o-in+ o( "o!!e!!ion, )rin+ %n %ction in t$e "ro"er
Munici"%- Tri%- Court %+%in!t t$e "er!on or "er!on! un-%#(u--' #it$$o-in+ or e"ri.in+ o( "o!!e!!ion,
or %n' "er!on or "er!on! c-%i&in+ uner t$e&, (or t$e re!titution o( !uc$ "o!!e!!ion, to+et$er #it$
%&%+e! %n co!t!.
Sec. 8. Le!!or to "rocee %+%in!t -e!!ee on-' %(ter e&%n.
Un-e!! ot$er#i!e !ti"u-%te, !uc$ %ction )' t$e -e!!or !$%-- )e co&&ence on-' %(ter e&%n to "%' or
co&"-' #it$ t$e conition! o( t$e -e%!e %n to .%c%te i! &%e u"on t$e -e!!ee, or )' !er.in+ #ritten
notice o( !uc$ e&%n u"on t$e "er!on (oun on t$e "re&i!e!, or )' "o!tin+ !uc$ notice on t$e
"re&i!e! i( no "er!on )e (oun t$ereon, %n t$e -e!!ee (%i-! to co&"-' t$ere#it$ %(ter (i(teen 0151 %'!
in t$e c%!e o( -%n or (i.e 051 %'! in t$e c%!e o( )ui-in+!.
Ken%e 'or e6ectment cases
o #+e M#C w+ere t+e property or a portion t+ereo' is sit%ated*
01: i' t+ere,s a stip%lation
4ait= Can t+e ven%e 'or e6ectment cases -e stip%lated9
o @es= #+e r%le governing e6ectment cases merely states t+at it
s+o%ld -e 'iled in t+e M#C, -%t it doesn,t say w+ic+ M#C* &Et+er
words, 6%risdiction is indicated, -%t t+e ven%e isn,t*)
5orci-le entry
o Possession -y reason o' 'orce, intimidation, strategy, t+reat, or stealt+ &5IS#S)
o MES# IMPER#A/#: prior p+ysical possession and w+en it was deprived
Important -eca%se it is t+e way t+e " year period is co%nted
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o #ime: 4it+in " year 'rom entry into t+e property
2%t i' done -y stealt+ G " year 'rom discovery o' entry -y stealt+
Bnlaw'%l detainer
o Previo%s law'%l possession -%t -y violation o' t+e contract or e>piration o' t+e period, it
-ecameO %nlaw'%l=
o MES# IMPER#A/#: a demand letter to:
Pay %npaid rentals ER comply wit+ t+e conditions o' t+e lease, and
Kacate
#+ere m%st always &and 'orever and ever) -e a demand to vacate 'or
%nlaw'%l detainer
o I' t+e demand letter is de'ective: dismissed since it,s a
6%risdictional re$%irement
Can yo% dispense wit+ a demand9
o @es, w+en t+e gro%nd is t+e e>piration o' t+e contract*
""
o Can yo% go to co%rt immediately a'ter yo% give t+e demand9
Bm, /E= @o% +ave to respect t+e 'ollowing grace periods:
": days in case o' land
: days in case o' -%ildings
o #ime: 4it+in " year 'rom last demand pl%s t+e grace period
@o% co%nt t+e "Cyear period 'rom t+e end o' t+e grace period -eca%se only t+en
does t+e staying -ecome %nlaw'%l* &Atty* (%evarra)
Sec. :. Su&&%r' "roceure.
E2ce"t in c%!e! co.ere )' t$e %+ricu-tur%- ten%nc' -%#! or #$en t$e -%# ot$er#i!e e2"re!!-' "ro.ie!,
%-- %ction! (or (orci)-e entr' %n un-%#(u- et%iner, irre!"ecti.e o( t$e %&ount o( %&%+e! or un"%i
rent%-! !ou+$t to )e reco.ere, !$%-- )e +o.erne )' t$e !u&&%r' "roceure $ereuner "ro.ie.
Sec. ;. P-e%in+! %--o#e.
T$e on-' "-e%in+! %--o#e to )e (i-e %re t$e co&"-%int, co&"u-!or' counterc-%i& %n cro!!4c-%i&
"-e%e in t$e %n!#er, %n t$e %n!#er! t$ereto. A-- "-e%in+! !$%-- )e .eri(ie.

Sec. 5. Action on co&"-%int.
T$e court &%', (ro& %n e2%&in%tion o( t$e %--e+%tion! in t$e co&"-%int %n !uc$ e.ience %! &%' )e
%tt%c$e t$ereto, i!&i!! t$e c%!e outri+$t on %n' o( t$e +roun! (or t$e i!&i!!%- o( % ci.i- %ction
#$ic$ %re %""%rent t$erein. I( no +roun (or i!&i!!%- i! (oun, it !$%-- (ort$#it$ i!!ue !u&&on!.
Look at Sec := #+e co%rt may dismiss t+e complaint EB#RI(7#*
Sec. <. An!#er.
=it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& !er.ice o( !u&&on!, t$e e(en%nt !$%-- (i-e $i! %n!#er to t$e co&"-%int %n
!er.e % co"' t$ereo( on t$e "-%inti((. A((ir&%ti.e %n ne+%ti.e e(en!e! not "-e%e t$erein !$%-- )e
ee&e #%i.e, e2ce"t -%c7 o( *uri!iction o.er t$e !u)*ect &%tter. Cro!!4c-%i&! %n co&"u-!or'
counterc-%i&! not %!!erte in t$e %n!#er !$%-- )e con!iere )%rre. T$e %n!#er to counterc-%i&! or
cro!!4c-%i&! !$%-- )e !er.e %n (i-e #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& !er.ice o( t$e %n!#er in #$ic$ t$e' %re
"-e%e.
Sec. 7. E((ect o( (%i-ure to %n!#er.
S$ou- t$e e(en%nt (%i- to %n!#er t$e co&"-%int #it$in t$e "erio %)o.e "ro.ie, t$e court, &otu
"ro"rio or on &otion o( t$e "-%inti((, !$%-- rener *u+&ent %! &%' )e #%rr%nte )' t$e (%ct! %--e+e in
t$e co&"-%int %n -i&ite to #$%t i! "r%'e (or t$erein. T$e court &%' in it! i!cretion reuce t$e
%&ount o( %&%+e! %n %ttorne'C! (ee! c-%i&e (or )ein+ e2ce!!i.e or ot$er#i!e uncon!cion%)-e,
#it$out "re*uice to t$e %""-ic%)i-it' o( !ection : 0c1, Ru-e ? i( t$ere %re t#o or &ore e(en%nt!.
Look ?E we +ave +ere: crossCclaims and comp%lsory co%nterclaims are allowed
o 2%t /E 8
rd
party complaints
5ail%re to s%-mit an answer will /E# lead to de'a%lt, -%t a 6%dgment o' t+e co%rt*
o /o need to declare t+e de'endant in de'a%lt &since it,s pro+i-ited anyway)
11
/rt. 1++-. <f the lease as made for a determinate time, it ceases upon the day fi1ed, ithout the need of a demand. "1*+*#
/rt. 1+7.. <f at the end of the contract the lessee should continue enjoying the thing leased for fifteen days ith the ac;uiescence of the lessor,
and unless a notice to the contrary by either party has previously been given, it is understood that there is an implied ne lease, not for the period
of the original contract, but for the time established in /rticles 1+,2 and 1+,7. 0he other terms of the original contract shall be revived.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. >. Pre-i&in%r' con(erence5 %""e%r%nce o( "%rtie!.
Not -%ter t$%n t$irt' 0:@1 %'! %(ter t$e -%!t %n!#er i! (i-e, % "re-i&in%r' con(erence !$%-- )e $e-. T$e
"ro.i!ion! o( Ru-e 1> on "re4tri%- !$%-- )e %""-ic%)-e to t$e "re-i&in%r' con(erence un-e!! incon!i!tent
#it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$i! Ru-e.
T$e (%i-ure o( t$e "-%inti(( to %""e%r in t$e "re-i&in%r' con(erence !$%-- )e c%u!e (or t$e i!&i!!%- o( $i!
co&"-%int. T$e e(en%nt #$o %""e%r! in t$e %)!ence o( t$e "-%inti(( !$%-- )e entit-e to *u+&ent on
$i! counterc-%i& in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e ne2t "recein+ !ection. A-- cro!!4c-%i&! !$%-- )e i!&i!!e.
I( % !o-e e(en%nt !$%-- (%i- to %""e%r, t$e "-%inti(( !$%-- -i7e#i!e )e entit-e to *u+&ent in %ccor%nce
#it$ t$e ne2t "recein+ !ection. T$i! "roceure !$%-- not %""-' #$ere one o( t#o or &ore e(en%nt!
!ue uner % co&&on c%u!e o( %ction #$o $% "-e%e % co&&on e(en!e !$%-- %""e%r %t t$e
"re-i&in%r' con(erence.
No "o!t"one&ent o( t$e "re-i&in%r' con(erence !$%-- )e +r%nte e2ce"t (or $i+$-' &eritoriou! +roun!
%n #it$out "re*uice to !uc$ !%nction! %! t$e court in t$e e2erci!e o( !oun i!cretion &%' i&"o!e on
t$e &o.%nt.
Sec. ?. Recor o( "re-i&in%r' con(erence.
=it$in (i.e 051 %'! %(ter t$e ter&in%tion o( t$e "re-i&in%r' con(erence, t$e court !$%-- i!!ue %n orer
!t%tin+ t$e &%tter! t%7en u" t$erein, inc-uin+ )ut not -i&ite to/
1. =$et$er t$e "%rtie! $%.e %rri.e %t %n %&ic%)-e !ett-e&ent, %n i( !o, t$e ter&! t$ereo(5
8. T$e !ti"u-%tion! or %&i!!ion! entere into )' t$e "%rtie!5
:. =$et$er, on t$e )%!i! o( t$e "-e%in+! %n t$e !ti"u-%tion! %n %&i!!ion! &%e )' t$e "%rtie!,
*u+&ent &%' )e renere #it$out t$e nee o( (urt$er "roceein+!, in #$ic$ e.ent t$e *u+&ent !$%--
)e renere #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& i!!u%nce o( t$e orer5
;. A c-e%r !"eci(ic%tion o( &%teri%- (%ct! #$ic$ re&%in contro.erte5 %n
5. Suc$ ot$er &%tter! intene to e2"eite t$e i!"o!ition o( t$e c%!e.
Sec. 1@. Su)&i!!ion o( %((i%.it! %n "o!ition "%"er!.
=it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& recei"t o( t$e orer &entione in t$e ne2t "recein+ !ection, t$e "%rtie!
!$%-- !u)&it t$e %((i%.it! o( t$eir #itne!!e! %n ot$er e.ience on t$e (%ctu%- i!!ue! e(ine in t$e
orer, to+et$er #it$ t$eir "o!ition "%"er! !ettin+ (ort$ t$e -%# %n t$e (%ct! re-ie u"on )' t$e&.
Sec. 11. Perio (or renition o( *u+&ent.
=it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! %(ter recei"t o( t$e %((i%.it! %n "o!ition "%"er!, or t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e
"erio (or (i-in+ t$e !%&e, t$e court !$%-- rener *u+&ent.
Ho#e.er, !$ou- t$e court (in it nece!!%r' to c-%ri(' cert%in &%teri%- (%ct!, it &%', urin+ t$e !%i
"erio, i!!ue %n orer !"eci('in+ t$e &%tter! to )e c-%ri(ie, %n re3uire t$e "%rtie! to !u)&it %((i%.it!
or ot$er e.ience on t$e !%i &%tter! #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& recei"t o( !%i orer. Bu+&ent !$%--
)e renere #it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! %(ter t$e recei"t o( t$e -%!t %((i%.it or t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio
(or (i-in+ t$e !%&e.
T$e court !$%-- not re!ort to t$e (ore+oin+ "roceure *u!t to +%in ti&e (or t$e renition o( t$e
*u+&ent.
Sec. 18. Re(err%- (or conci-i%tion.
C%!e! re3uirin+ re(err%- (or conci-i%tion, #$ere t$ere i! no !$o#in+ o( co&"-i%nce #it$ !uc$
re3uire&ent, !$%-- )e i!&i!!e #it$out "re*uice, %n &%' )e re.i.e on-' %(ter t$%t re3uire&ent
!$%-- $%.e )een co&"-ie #it$.
5ail%re o' t+e plainti'' to appear in t+e preliminary con'erence: dismissal, and t+e de'endant can
get 6%dgment on +is co%nterclaim
Can co%nsel go instead9
o in Macasaet v Macasaet &!!4), t+e SC allowed t+e party to -e represented -y +is co%nsel
via a SPA even i' t+e r%les on e6ectment cases were silent a-o%t it*
/ote: a'ter preliminary con'erence, even wit+o%t position papers, t+e co%rt can render 6%dgment i'
it deems 'it
#+e co%rt can also decide 8! days 'rom t+e 'iling o' t+e last 6%dicial a''idavit or position paper

Sec. 1:. Pro$i)ite "-e%in+! %n &otion!.


T$e (o--o#in+ "etition!, &otion!, or "-e%in+! !$%-- not )e %--o#e/
1. Motion to i!&i!! t$e co&"-%int e2ce"t on t$e +roun o( -%c7 o( *uri!iction o.er t$e !u)*ect &%tter,
or (%i-ure to co&"-' #it$ !ection 185
8. Motion (or % )i-- o( "%rticu-%r!5
:. Motion (or ne# tri%-, or (or recon!ier%tion o( % *u+&ent, or (or reo"enin+ o( tri%-5
;. Petition (or re-ie( (ro& *u+&ent5
5. Motion (or e2ten!ion o( ti&e to (i-e "-e%in+!, %((i%.it! or %n' ot$er "%"er5
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
(-
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<. Me&or%n%5
7. Petition (or certior%ri, &%n%&u!, or "ro$i)ition %+%in!t %n' inter-ocutor' orer i!!ue )' t$e court5
>. Motion to ec-%re t$e e(en%nt in e(%u-t5
?. Di-%tor' &otion! (or "o!t"one&ent5
1@. Re"-'5
11. T$ir4"%rt' co&"-%int!5
18. Inter.ention!.
/ote:
o M#? is not allowed 01C0P#
Lack o' 6%risdiction over t+e s%-6ect matter
5ail%re to comply wit+ a condition precedent
Sec. 1;. A((i%.it!.
T$e %((i%.it! re3uire to )e !u)&itte uner t$i! Ru-e !$%-- !t%te on-' (%ct! o( irect "er!on%-
7no#-e+e o( t$e %((i%nt! #$ic$ %re %&i!!i)-e in e.ience, %n !$%-- !$o# t$eir co&"etence to te!ti('
to t$e &%tter! !t%te t$erein.
A .io-%tion o( t$i! re3uire&ent &%' !u)*ect t$e "%rt' or t$e coun!e- #$o !u)&it! t$e !%&e to
i!ci"-in%r' %ction, %n !$%-- )e c%u!e to e2"un+e t$e in%&i!!i)-e %((i%.it or "ortion t$ereo( (ro& t$e
recor.
Sec. 15. Pre-i&in%r' in*unction.
T$e court &%' +r%nt "re-i&in%r' in*unction, in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( Ru-e 5> $ereo(, to
"re.ent t$e e(en%nt (ro& co&&ittin+ (urt$er %ct! o( i!"o!!e!!ion %+%in!t t$e "-%inti((.
A "o!!e!!or e"ri.e o( $i! "o!!e!!ion t$rou+$ (orci)-e entr' or un-%#(u- et%iner &%', #it$in (i.e 051
%'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int, "re!ent % &otion in t$e %ction (or (orci)-e entr' or un-%#(u-
et%iner (or t$e i!!u%nce o( % #rit o( "re-i&in%r' &%n%tor' in*unction to re!tore $i& in $i! "o!!e!!ion.
T$e court !$%-- ecie t$e &otion #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ t$ereo(.
#+e co%rt can grant preliminary in6%nctions in two cases:
o 4it+in : days 'rom 'iling o' t+e complaint: to recover possession in t+e pendency o' t+e
case
o 4it+in "! days 'rom t+e per'ection o' t+e appeal:
I' t+e co%rt determines t+at t+e de'endant,s appeal is merely dilatory or t+at t+e
plainti'' is entitled to possession &Sec !)
Sec. 1<. Re!o-.in+ e(en!e o( o#ner!$i".
=$en t$e e(en%nt r%i!e! t$e e(en!e o( o#ner!$i" in $i! "-e%in+! %n t$e 3ue!tion o( "o!!e!!ion
c%nnot )e re!o-.e #it$out eciin+ t$e i!!ue o( o#ner!$i", t$e i!!ue o( o#ner!$i" !$%-- )e re!o-.e
on-' to eter&ine t$e i!!ue o( "o!!e!!ion.
Sec. 17. Bu+&ent.
I( %(ter tri%- t$e court (in! t$%t t$e %--e+%tion! o( t$e co&"-%int %re true, it !$%-- rener *u+&ent in
(%.or o( t$e "-%inti(( (or t$e re!titution o( t$e "re&i!e!, t$e !u& *u!t-' ue %! %rre%r! o( rent or %!
re%!on%)-e co&"en!%tion (or t$e u!e %n occu"%tion o( t$e "re&i!e!, %ttorne'C! (ee! %n co!t!. I( it
(in! t$%t !%i %--e+%tion! %re not true, it !$%-- rener *u+&ent (or t$e e(en%nt to reco.er $i! co!t!.
I( % counterc-%i& i! e!t%)-i!$e, t$e court !$%-- rener *u+&ent (or t$e !u& (oun in %rre%r! (ro&
eit$er "%rt' %n %#%r co!t! %! *u!tice re3uire!.
Sec. 1>. Bu+&ent conc-u!i.e on-' on "o!!e!!ion5 not conc-u!i.e in %ction! in.o-.in+ tit-e or o#ner!$i".
T$e *u+&ent renere in %n %ction (or (orci)-e entr' or et%iner !$%-- )e conc-u!i.e #it$ re!"ect to t$e
"o!!e!!ion on-' %n !$%-- in no #i!e )in t$e tit-e or %((ect t$e o#ner!$i" o( t$e -%n or )ui-in+. Suc$
*u+&ent !$%-- not )%r %n %ction )et#een t$e !%&e "%rtie! re!"ectin+ tit-e to t$e -%n or )ui-in+.
T$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer !$%-- )e %""e%-%)-e to t$e %""ro"ri%te Re+ion%- Tri%- Court #$ic$ !$%--
ecie t$e !%&e on t$e )%!i! o( t$e entire recor o( t$e "roceein+! $% in t$e court o( ori+in %n !uc$
&e&or%n% %nDor )rie(! %! &%' )e !u)&itte )' t$e "%rtie! or re3uire )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court.
In 50 and B? cases, t+e co%rt can to%c+ on t+e $%estion o' owners+ip -%t only provisionally,
mainly to determine w+o is entitled to posseion*
o 2%t t+e determination is /E# -indingApre6%dicial to '%t%re $%estions o' owners+ip
Sec. 1?. I&&ei%te e2ecution o( *u+&ent5 $o# to !t%' !%&e.
I( *u+&ent i! renere %+%in!t t$e e(en%nt, e2ecution !$%-- i!!ue i&&ei%te-' u"on &otion, un-e!!
%n %""e%- $%! )een "er(ecte %n t$e e(en%nt to !t%' e2ecution (i-e! % !u((icient !u"er!ee%! )on,
%""ro.e )' t$e Munici"%- Tri%- Court %n e2ecute in (%.or o( t$e "-%inti(( to "%' t$e rent!, %&%+e!,
%n co!t! %ccruin+ o#n to t$e ti&e o( t$e *u+&ent %""e%-e (ro&, %n un-e!!, urin+ t$e "enenc'
o( t$e %""e%-, $e e"o!it! #it$ t$e %""e--%te court t$e %&ount o( rent ue (ro& ti&e to ti&e uner t$e
contr%ct, i( %n', %! eter&ine )' t$e *u+&ent o( t$e Munici"%- Tri%- Court. In t$e %)!ence o( %
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
).
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
contr%ct, $e !$%-- e"o!it #it$ t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court t$e re%!on%)-e .%-ue o( t$e u!e %n occu"%tion
o( t$e "re&i!e! (or t$e "recein+ &ont$ or "erio %t t$e r%te eter&ine )' t$e *u+&ent o( t$e -o#er
court on or )e(ore t$e tent$ %' o( e%c$ !ucceein+ &ont$ or "erio. T$e !u"er!ee%! )on !$%-- )e
tr%n!&itte )' t$e Munici"%- Tri%- Court, #it$ t$e ot$er "%"er!, to t$e c-er7 o( t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court
to #$ic$ t$e %ction i! %""e%-e.
A-- %&ount! !o "%i to t$e %""e--%te court !$%-- )e e"o!ite #it$ !%i court or %ut$ori6e +o.ern&ent
e"o!it%r' )%n7, %n !$%-- )e $e- t$ere unti- t$e (in%- i!"o!ition o( t$e %""e%-, un-e!! t$e court, )'
%+ree&ent o( t$e intere!te "%rtie!, or in t$e %)!ence o( re%!on%)-e +roun! o( o""o!ition to % &otion
to #it$r%#, or (or *u!ti(i%)-e re%!on!, !$%-- ecree ot$er#i!e. S$ou- t$e e(en%nt (%i- to &%7e t$e
"%'&ent! %)o.e "re!cri)e (ro& ti&e to ti&e urin+ t$e "enenc' o( t$e %""e%-, t$e %""e--%te court,
u"on &otion o( t$e "-%inti((, %n u"on "roo( o( !uc$ (%i-ure, !$%-- orer t$e e2ecution o( t$e *u+&ent
%""e%-e (ro& #it$ re!"ect to t$e re!tor%tion o( "o!!e!!ion, )ut !uc$ e2ecution !$%-- not )e % )%r to
t$e %""e%- t%7in+ it! cour!e unti- t$e (in%- i!"o!ition t$ereo( on t$e &erit!.
A(ter t$e c%!e i! ecie )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court, %n' &one' "%i to t$e court )' t$e e(en%nt (or
"ur"o!e! o( t$e !t%' o( e2ecution !$%-- )e i!"o!e o( in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( t$e
*u+&ent o( t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court. In %n' c%!e #$erein it %""e%r! t$%t t$e e(en%nt $%! )een
e"ri.e o( t$e -%#(u- "o!!e!!ion o( -%n or )ui-in+ "enin+ t$e %""e%- )' .irtue o( t$e e2ecution o(
t$e *u+&ent o( t$e Munici"%- Tri%- Court, %&%+e! (or !uc$ e"ri.%tion o( "o!!e!!ion %n re!tor%tion
o( "o!!e!!ion &%' )e %--o#e t$e e(en%nt in t$e *u+&ent o( t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court i!"o!in+ o(
t$e %""e%-.
Sec. 8@. Pre-i&in%r' &%n%tor' in*unction in c%!e o( %""e%-.
U"on &otion o( t$e "-%inti((, #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& t$e "er(ection o( t$e %""e%- to t$e Re+ion%-
Tri%- Court, t$e -%tter &%' i!!ue % #rit o( "re-i&in%r' &%n%tor' in*unction to re!tore t$e "-%inti(( in
"o!!e!!ion i( t$e court i! !%ti!(ie t$%t t$e e(en%ntC! %""e%- i! (ri.o-ou! or i-%tor', or t$%t t$e
%""e%- o( t$e "-%inti(( i! "ri&% (%cie &eritoriou!.
Sec. 81. I&&ei%te e2ecution on %""e%- to Court o( A""e%-! or Su"re&e Court.
T$e *u+&ent o( t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court %+%in!t t$e e(en%nt !$%-- )e i&&ei%te-' e2ecutor',
#it$out "re*uice to % (urt$er %""e%- t$%t &%' )e t%7en t$ere(ro&.
#+e decision o' t+e M#C is immediately e>ec%tory* &interestingly, it,s e>ec%tory 2B# not 'inal since
yo% can still appeal)
o 2B# it can -e stayed -y:
5iling a notice o' appeal and paying 'iling 'ees
Posting a s%persedeas -ond
4+ic+ will cover t+e rentals in arrears
Paying t+e rent d%e 'rom t+e time o' -reac+ to t+e time o' 6%dgment
5ail%re to pay will -ring a-o%t a writ o' e>ec%tion against yo%
Can yo% appeal t+e decision o' t+e M#C9
o @es, yo% can to t+e R#C=
2%t once t+e R#C makes a decision, it,s e>ec%tory and cannot -e stayed, even on
appeal* &By v Santiago, !!!)
5rom t+e R#C, w+ere do yo% go and +ow9
o CA via petition 'or review*
Can yo% 'ile a MR in t+e R#C9
o @es, -eca%se it,s acting in its appellate capacity and is no longer
s%-6ect to r%les o' s%mmary proced%re*
Can yo% 'ile an MR9
o /E* Pro+i-ited pleading*
7ow a-o%t certiorari9
/%C+%+*
4+at is accion p%-liciana9
o Action to recover rig+t to possess property
o 5iled in t+e R#C or M#C depending on property val%e
o 5ile wit+in "! years a'ter possession was lost
4+at is accion reivindicatoria9
o Action to recover owners+ip o' property
o 5ollow same val%ations 'or 6%risdiction
o 5iled wit+in "! years or 8! years, as t+e case may -e &depends i' t+e de'endant is in (5 or
25)
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)1
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
4+o else are -o%nd -y t+e 6%dgment &since it,s in personam, rig+t9)9
o #respasser, s$%atter, or agent o' de'endant occ%pying t+e property to 'r%strate t+e
6%dgment
o (%est o' t+e de'endant or mem-er o' 'amily
o S%-Clessee, coClessee
o #rans'eree pendente lite or privy o' de'endant
4ill t+e 'iling o' anot+er action 'or ann%lment o' sale, cancellation o' title, etc* s%spend t+e action
'ro e6ectment9
o /o* #+ose all deal wit+ owners+ip and e6ectment is 6%st a matter to%c+ing on possession
so t+e actions can coincide*
RULE 71 CONTEMPT
Are you contem,t with your life- &nya+=)
#wo kinds o' contempt:
o ?irect
o Indirect
Section 1. Direct conte&"t "uni!$e !u&&%ri-'.
A "er!on +ui-t' o( &i!)e$%.ior in t$e "re!ence o( or !o ne%r % court %! to o)!truct or interru"t t$e
"roceein+! )e(ore t$e !%&e, inc-uin+ i!re!"ect to#%r t$e court, o((en!i.e "er!on%-itie! to#%r
ot$er!, or re(u!%- to )e !#orn or to %n!#er %! % #itne!!, or to !u)!cri)e %n %((i%.it or e"o!ition #$en
-%#(u--' re3uire to o !o, &%' )e !u&&%ri-' %*u+e in conte&"t )' !uc$ court %n "uni!$e )' %
(ine not e2ceein+ t#o t$ou!%n "e!o! or i&"ri!on&ent not e2ceein+ ten 01@1 %'!, or )ot$, i( it )e %
Re+ion%- Tri%- Court or % court o( e3ui.%-ent or $i+$er r%n7, or )' % (ine not e2ceein+ t#o $unre
"e!o! or i&"ri!on&ent not e2ceein+ one 011 %', or )ot$, i( it )e % -o#er court.
Sec. 8. Re&e' t$ere(ro&.
T$e "er!on %*u+e in irect conte&"t )' %n' court &%' not %""e%- t$ere(ro&, )ut &%' %.%i- $i&!e-(
o( t$e re&eie! o( certior%ri or "ro$i)ition. T$e e2ecution o( t$e *u+&ent !$%-- )e !u!"ene "enin+
re!o-ution o( !uc$ "etition, "ro.ie !uc$ "er!on (i-e! % )on (i2e )' t$e court #$ic$ renere t$e
*u+&ent %n conitione t$%t $e #i-- %)ie )' %n "er(or& t$e *u+&ent !$ou- t$e "etition )e
ecie %+%in!t $i&.
?irect contempt
o An act o' disrespect in t+e presence o' or so near t+e co%rt
o As to o-str%ct or interr%pt t+e proceedings -e'ore t+e same
0>amples:
o ?isrespect towards t+e 6%dge
o 7aving an o''ensive personality towards ot+ers
o Re'%sal to -e sworn in or to answer
o Re'%sal to s%-scri-e an a''idavit or deposition w+en law'%lly re$%ired to do so &since a
deposition o''icer is an e>tension o' t+e 6%dge G Atty* (%evarra)
o 4earing s+orts in t+e co%rt
o 5iling pleadings w+ic+ contain -aseless attacks on 6%dges &Atty* (%evarra)
o Cell p+one keeps ringing
o ?ancing in t+e co%rt
o 5arting and not admitting it
/at%re: S%mmary
o /o need 'or notice or +earing
Penalty:
o R#C and %p: 'ine not e>ceeding P!!! andAor imprisonment not e>ceeding "! days
o M#C: 'ine not e>ceeding P!! andAor imprisonment not e>ceeding " day
Remedy:
o /o appeal, only certiorari or pro+i-ition
o Stay e>ec%tion -y 'iling a -ond
Sec. :. Inirect conte&"t to )e "uni!$e %(ter c$%r+e %n $e%rin+.
A(ter % c$%r+e in #ritin+ $%! )een (i-e, %n %n o""ortunit' +i.en to t$e re!"onent to co&&ent
t$ereon #it$in !uc$ "erio %! &%' )e (i2e )' t$e court %n to )e $e%r )' $i&!e-( or coun!e-, %
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)2
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
"er!on +ui-t' o( %n' o( t$e (o--o#in+ %ct! &%' )e "uni!$e (or inirect conte&"t/
0%1 Mi!)e$%.ior o( %n o((icer o( % court in t$e "er(or&%nce o( $i! o((ici%- utie! or in $i! o((ici%-
tr%n!%ction!5
0)1 Di!o)eience o( or re!i!t%nce to % -%#(u- #rit, "roce!!, orer, or *u+&ent o( % court, inc-uin+ t$e
%ct o( % "er!on #$o, %(ter )ein+ i!"o!!e!!e or e*ecte (ro& %n' re%- "ro"ert' )' t$e *u+&ent or
"roce!! o( %n' court o( co&"etent *uri!iction, enter! or %tte&"t! or inuce! %not$er to enter into or
u"on !uc$ re%- "ro"ert', (or t$e "ur"o!e o( e2ecutin+ %ct! o( o#ner!$i" or "o!!e!!ion, or in %n'
&%nner i!tur)! t$e "o!!e!!ion +i.en to t$e "er!on %*u+e to )e entit-e t$ereto5
0c1 An' %)u!e o( or %n' un-%#(u- inter(erence #it$ t$e "roce!!e! or "roceein+! o( % court not
con!titutin+ irect conte&"t uner !ection 1 o( t$i! Ru-e5
01 An' i&"ro"er conuct tenin+, irect-' or inirect-', to i&"ee, o)!truct, or e+r%e t$e
%&ini!tr%tion o( *u!tice5
0e1 A!!u&in+ to )e %n %ttorne' or %n o((icer o( % court, %n %ctin+ %! !uc$ #it$out %ut$orit'5
0(1 E%i-ure to o)e' % !u)"oen% u-' !er.e5
0+1 T$e re!cue, or %tte&"te re!cue, o( % "er!on or "ro"ert' in t$e cu!to' o( %n o((icer )' .irtue o( %n
orer or "roce!! o( % court $e- )' $i&.
Aut not$in+ in t$i! !ection !$%-- )e !o con!true %! to "re.ent t$e court (ro& i!!uin+ "roce!! to )rin+
t$e re!"onent into court, or (ro& $o-in+ $i& in cu!to' "enin+ !uc$ "roceein+!.
Sec. ;. Ho# "roceein+! co&&ence.
Proceein+! (or inirect conte&"t &%' )e initi%te &otu "ro"rio )' t$e court %+%in!t #$ic$ t$e
conte&"t #%! co&&itte )' %n orer or %n' ot$er (or&%- c$%r+e re3uirin+ t$e re!"onent to !$o#
c%u!e #$' $e !$ou- not )e "uni!$e (or conte&"t.
In %-- ot$er c%!e!, c$%r+e! (or inirect conte&"t !$%-- )e co&&ence )' % .eri(ie "etition #it$
!u""ortin+ "%rticu-%r! %n certi(ie true co"ie! o( ocu&ent! or "%"er! in.o-.e t$erein, %n u"on (u--
co&"-i%nce #it$ t$e re3uire&ent! (or (i-in+ initi%tor' "-e%in+! (or ci.i- %ction! in t$e court concerne.
I( t$e conte&"t c$%r+e! %ro!e out o( or %re re-%te to % "rinci"%- %ction "enin+ in t$e court, t$e
"etition (or conte&"t !$%-- %--e+e t$%t (%ct )ut !%i "etition !$%-- )e oc7ete, $e%r %n ecie
!e"%r%te-', un-e!! t$e court in it! i!cretion orer! t$e con!o-i%tion o( t$e conte&"t c$%r+e %n t$e
"rinci"%- %ction (or *oint $e%rin+ %n eci!ion.
Sec. 5. =$ere c$%r+e to )e (i-e.
=$ere t$e c$%r+e (or inirect conte&"t $%! )een co&&itte %+%in!t % Re+ion%- Tri%- Court or % court o(
e3ui.%-ent or $i+$er r%n7, or %+%in!t %n o((icer %""ointe )' it, t$e c$%r+e &%' )e (i-e #it$ !uc$
court.
=$ere !uc$ conte&"t $%! )een co&&itte %+%in!t % -o#er court, t$e c$%r+e &%' )e (i-e #it$ t$e
Re+ion%- Tri%- Court o( t$e "-%ce in #$ic$ t$e -o#er court i! !ittin+5 )ut t$e "roceein+! &%' %-!o )e
in!titute in !uc$ -o#er court !u)*ect to %""e%- to t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court o( !uc$ "-%ce in t$e !%&e
&%nner %! "ro.ie in !ection 8 o( t$i! Ru-e.
Sec. <. He%rin+5 re-e%!e on )%i-.
I( t$e $e%rin+ i! not orere to )e $% (ort$#it$, t$e re!"onent &%' )e re-e%!e (ro& cu!to' u"on
(i-in+ % )on, in %n %&ount (i2e )' t$e court, (or $i! %""e%r%nce %t t$e $e%rin+ o( t$e c$%r+e. On t$e
%' !et t$ere(or, t$e court !$%-- "rocee to in.e!ti+%te t$e c$%r+e %n con!ier !uc$ co&&ent,
te!ti&on' or e(en!e %! t$e re!"onent &%' &%7e or o((er.
Sec. 7. Puni!$&ent (or inirect conte&"t.
I( t$e re!"onent i! %*u+e +ui-t' o( inirect conte&"t co&&itte %+%in!t % Re+ion%- Tri%- Court or %
court o( e3ui.%-ent or $i+$er r%n7, $e &%' )e "uni!$e )' % (ine not e2ceein+ t$irt' t$ou!%n "e!o!
or i&"ri!on&ent not e2ceein+ !i2 0<1 &ont$!, or )ot$. I( $e i! %*u+e +ui-t' o( conte&"t co&&itte
%+%in!t % -o#er court, $e &%' )e "uni!$e )' % (ine not e2ceein+ (i.e t$ou!%n "e!o! or
i&"ri!on&ent not e2ceein+ one 011 &ont$, or )ot$. I( t$e conte&"t con!i!t! in t$e .io-%tion o( % #rit
o( in*unction, te&"or%r' re!tr%inin+ orer or !t%tu! 3uo orer, $e &%' %-!o )e orere to &%7e
co&"-ete re!titution to t$e "%rt' in*ure )' !uc$ .io-%tion o( t$e "ro"ert' in.o-.e or !uc$ %&ount %!
&%' )e %--e+e %n "ro.e.
T$e #rit o( e2ecution, %! in orin%r' ci.i- %ction!, !$%-- i!!ue (or t$e en(orce&ent o( % *u+&ent
i&"o!in+ % (ine un-e!! t$e court ot$er#i!e "ro.ie!.
Sec. >. I&"ri!on&ent unti- orer o)e'e.
=$en t$e conte&"t con!i!t! in t$e re(u!%- or o&i!!ion to o %n %ct #$ic$ i! 'et in t$e "o#er o( t$e
re!"onent to "er(or&, $e &%' )e i&"ri!one )' orer o( t$e court concerne unti- $e "er(or&! it.
Sec. ?. Proceein+ #$en "%rt' re-e%!e on )%i- (%i-! to %n!#er.
=$en % re!"onent re-e%!e on )%i- (%i-! to %""e%r on t$e %' (i2e (or t$e $e%rin+, t$e court &%'
i!!ue %not$er orer o( %rre!t or &%' orer t$e )on (or $i! %""e%r%nce to )e (or(eite %n con(i!c%te,
or )ot$5 %n, i( t$e )on )e "roceee %+%in!t, t$e &e%!ure o( %&%+e! !$%-- )e t$e e2tent o( t$e -o!!
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
or in*ur' !u!t%ine )' t$e %++rie.e "%rt' )' re%!on o( t$e &i!conuct (or #$ic$ t$e conte&"t c$%r+e
#%! "ro!ecute, #it$ t$e co!t! o( t$e "roceein+!, %n !uc$ reco.er' !$%-- )e (or t$e )ene(it o( t$e
"%rt' in*ure. I( t$ere i! no %++rie.e "%rt', t$e )on !$%-- )e -i%)-e %n i!"o!e o( %! in cri&in%-
c%!e!.
Sec. 1@. Court &%' re-e%!e re!"onent.
T$e court #$ic$ i!!ue t$e orer i&"ri!onin+ % "er!on (or conte&"t &%' i!c$%r+e $i& (ro&
i&"ri!on&ent #$en it %""e%r! t$%t "u)-ic intere!t #i-- not )e "re*uice )' $i! re-e%!e.
Sec. 11. Re.ie# o( *u+&ent or (in%- orer5 )on (or !t%'.
T$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer o( % court in % c%!e o( inirect conte&"t &%' )e %""e%-e to t$e "ro"er
court %! in cri&in%- c%!e!. Aut e2ecution o( t$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer !$%-- not )e !u!"ene unti- %
)on i! (i-e )' t$e "er!on %*u+e in conte&"t, in %n %&ount (i2e )' t$e court (ro& #$ic$ t$e
%""e%- i! t%7en, conitione t$%t i( t$e %""e%- )e ecie %+%in!t $i& $e #i-- %)ie )' %n "er(or& t$e
*u+&ent or (in%- orer.
Indirect contempt
o Kiolation o' an order or law'%l process o' t+e co%rt
0>amples:
o Mis-e+avior o' an o''icer o' a co%rt in t+e per'ormance o' +is o''icial d%ties or in +is o''icial
transactionsF
o ?iso-edience o' or resistance to a law'%l writ, process, order, or 6%dgment o' a co%rt,
incl%ding t+e act o' a person w+o, a'ter -eing dispossessed or e6ected 'rom any real
property -y t+e 6%dgment or process o' any co%rt o' competent 6%risdiction, enters or
attempts or ind%ces anot+er to enter into or %pon s%c+ real property, 'or t+e p%rpose o'
e>ec%ting acts o' owners+ip or possession, or in any manner dist%r-s t+e possession given
to t+e person ad6%dged to -e entitled t+eretoF
Bse in e6ectment cases=
o Any a-%se o' or any %nlaw'%l inter'erence wit+ t+e processes or proceedings o' a co%rt not
constit%ting direct contempt %nder section "F
o Any improper cond%ct tending, directly or indirectly, to impede, o-str%ct, or degrade t+e
administration o' 6%sticeF
o Ass%ming to -e an attorney or an o''icer o' a co%rt, and acting as s%c+ wit+o%t a%t+orityF
o 5ail%re to o-ey a s%-poena d%ly servedF
o #+e resc%e, or attempted resc%e, o' a person or property in t+e c%stody o' an o''icer -y
virt%e o' an order or process o' a co%rt +eld -y +im*
7ow c+arged9
o 5ormal c+arge o' t+e 6%dge mot% propio against w+ic+ t+e contempt was committed,
So i' t+e contempt was made against J%dge 2oyoyong in t+e R#C o' MC, J%dge
Corp%. o' R#C o' Makati can not make t+e 'ormal c+arge mot% propio
o Keri'ied complaint 'iled and docketed separatelyF i' incident to a case, wit+ an option to
consolidate wit+ t+e main case &old r%le w+ere indirect contempt can -e 'iled -y mere
motion is no longer e>isting)
/ote: /E# s%mmary, needs notice and +earing
4+ere do yo% 'ile9
o I' against R#C &or a co%rt o' +ig+er rank, or a person appointed -y it), 'ile in t+e R#C
o I' against t+e M#C, 'ile in t+e R#C or t+e M#C &s%-6ect to appeal to t+e R#C)
Penalty:
o R#C and %p: 'ine not e>ceeding P8!!!! andAor imprisonment not e>ceeding D mont+s
o M#C: 'ine not e>ceeding P:!!! andAor imprisonment not e>ceeding " mont+
o /ote: 4+en t+e contempt consists in t+e re'%sal or omission to do an act w+ic+ is yet in
t+e power o' t+e respondent to per'orm, +e may -e imprisoned -y order o' t+e co%rt
concerned %ntil +e per'orms it*
Since +e is in imprison, +e can +ave someone else do it on +is -e+al'*
Remedy:
o Appeal
o J%dgment will only -e stayed 'rom -eing e>ec%ted -y posting a -ond
Can a retired 6%dge -e cited 'or indirect contempt9
o @es &C%rata v PPA, !!3, w+erein t+e 6%dge diso-eyed n%mero%s orders o' t+e CA)
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
))
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec.18. Conte&"t %+%in!t 3u%!i4*uici%- entitie!.
Un-e!! ot$er#i!e "ro.ie )' -%#, t$i! Ru-e !$%-- %""-' to conte&"t co&&itte %+%in!t "er!on!,
entitie!, )oie! or %+encie! e2erci!in+ 3u%!i4*uici%- (unction!, or !$%-- $%.e !u""-etor' e((ect to !uc$
ru-e! %! t$e' &%' $%.e %o"te "ur!u%nt to %ut$orit' +r%nte to t$e& )' -%# to "uni!$ (or conte&"t.
T$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court o( t$e "-%ce #$erein t$e conte&"t $%! )een co&&itte !$%-- $%.e *uri!iction
o.er !uc$ c$%r+e! %! &%' )e (i-e t$ere(or.
5or contempt in MJA:
o C+eck t+e MJA r%les 'irst -eca%se t+at will govern*
o In t+e a-sence t+ereo', R%le H" will apply s%ppletorily*
Special r%le on ven%e: R#C w+ere t+e contempt was committed
.a,e na muna sir'
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
VENUE IN CRIMINAL CASES
Ken%e in criminal cases is 6%risdictional
o (R: #+e place w+ere t+e crime is committed determines t+e 6%risdiction o' t+e co%rt*
So i' t+e crime was committed in Makati, only t+e co%rts o' Makati +ave
6%risdiction*
Compare wit+ civil cases w+ere ven%e can -e agreed %pon*
01C0P#:
#ransitory and contin%ing o''enses, w+erein one or more o' t+e elements
+appened in di''erent ven%es*
o esta'a, w+ere t+e elements may -e committed in di''erent places
&w+ere deceit took place, or w+ere damage s%''ered )
o 2P w+ere yo% can 'ile eit+er in t+e place o' iss%e o' c+eck or
w+ere t+e c+eck was deposited and -o%nced &Isip v People, !!H,
w+ere t+e case was esta'aC2P toget+er and it was proven t+at
t+e transaction +appened in t+e ancestral +ome o' t+e
complainant, +ence ven%e was t+ere)
Can an o''ense -e committed o%tside t+e P+ilippines yet -e 'iled +ere9
o @es, %nder:
Article o' t+e RPC
"
7%man Sec%rity Law, covering acts o' terrorism
"8
Read wit+ R%le ""!, Sec ":*
"4
o I' o''ense committed in a train, car, plane, or ve+icle in t+e co%rse o' its trip: w+erever t+e
ve+icle passed d%ring its tripF incl%ding t+e place o' its depart%re and arrival
12

1(
R/ -(72, SEC. 58. D1tra:0erritorial /pplication of this /ct. GH4 Subject to the provision of an e1isting treaty of hich the $hilippines is a
signatory and to any contrary provision of any la of preferential application, the provisions of this /ct shall apply! "1# to individual persons ho
commit any of the crimes defined and punished in this /ct ithin the terrestrial domain, interior aters, maritime &one, and airspace of the
$hilippines% "2# to individual persons ho, although physically outside the territorial limits of the $hilippines, commit, conspire or plot to commit
any of the crimes defined and punished in this /ct inside the territorial limits of the $hilippines% "(# to individual persons ho, although
physically outside the territorial limits of the $hilippines, commit any of the said crimes on board $hilippine ship or $hilippine airship% ")# to
individual persons ho commit any of said crimes ithin any embassy, consulate, or diplomatic premises belonging to or occupied by the
$hilippine government in an official capacity% "*# to individual persons ho, although physically outside the territorial limits of the $hilippines,
commit said crimes against $hilippine citi&ens or persons of $hilippine descent, here their citi&enship or ethnicity as a factor in the
commission of the crime% and "+# to individual persons ho, although physically outside the territorial limits of the $hilippines, commit said
crimes directly against the $hilippine government.
1)
Rule 11., Sec. 1*. $lace here action is to be instituted.
"a# Subject to e1isting las, the criminal action shall be instituted and tried in the court of the municipality or territory here the offense as
committed or here any of its essential ingredients occurred.
"b# Where an offense is committed in a train, aircraft, or other public or private vehicle in the course of its trip, the criminal action shall be
instituted and tried in the court of any municipality or territory here such train, aircraft, or other vehicle passed during its trip, including the
place of its departure and arrival.
"c# Where an offense is committed on board a vessel in the course of its voyage, the criminal action shall be instituted and tried in the court of
the first port of entry or of any municipality or territory here the vessel passed during such voyage, subject to the generally accepted principles
of international la.
"d# 9rimes committed outside the $hilippines but punishable under /rticle 2 of the Revised $enal 9ode shall be cogni&able by the court here
the criminal action is first filed.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o I' o''ense committed on -oard a vessel: 'irst port o' entry or w+er t+e vessel passed
d%ring t+e voyage
o 5or Article : w+ere t+e criminal action is 'irst 'iled
4+at i' t+e +earings are cond%cted elsew+ere9
o /ot an e>ception to t+e r%le t+at ven%e is 6%risdictional*
o Mere trans'er o' ven%e, w+at was trans'erred was t+e ven%e o' t+e +earing, -%t t+e place
o' instit%tion was still t+e place w+ere t+e crime was committed*
0>amples: Ampat%an case -eing +eard in ManilaF Mayor Sanc+e. -eing +eard in
Pasig instead o' Lag%na
o Allowed %nder t+e Constit%tion, as long as t+e trans'er is approved -y t+e SC
4+at determines t+e 6%risdiction o' t+e co%rt9
o It is determined -y t+e allegations in t+e in'ormation
o As long as any one o' t+e elements o' t+e o''ense, or t+e o''ense itsel', is committed
wit+in t+e territorial 6%risdiction o' t+e co%rt, and t+ese are alleged in t+e in'ormation,
t+en t+e co%rt can taken cogni.ance o' t+e case* &5o. v 5a6ardo, !!3, a li-el case w+ic+
was dismissed 'or improper ven%e 'or 'ail%re to s+ow in t+e in'ormation t+e relevant
6%risdictional 'acts
":
)
o In 2oni'acio v R#C &!"!), t+e iss%e revolved aro%nd t+e ven%e o' internet li-el cases* #+e
SC +eld t+at t+e ven%e is /E# w+ere t+e online articleAwe-site was accessed* #o consider
t+e place o' access as ;printed and 'irst p%-lis+ed< wo%ld let people c+oose an
inconvenient ven%e 'or t+e acc%sed* &7ere, t+e in'ormation stated ;'irst p%-lis+ed and
accessed<)
J%risdiction o' R#CAM#C
o R#C: Penalty e>ceeds si> years imprisonment
Regardless o' 'ine or accessory penalty
?oesn,t matter i' committed in Metro Manila or o%tside o' MM
o M#C: Penalty does not e>ceed si> years imprisonment
"D
Also, 'or violations o' city or m%nicipal ordinances
o I' penalty is 6%st a 'ine &SC Circ%lar !3C34):
R#C: e>ceeds P4!!!
M#C: does not e>ceed P4!!!
4+o +as 6%risdiction to iss%e +old depart%re orders9
o Enly t+e R#C* M#C can /E#*
7oldCdepart%re orders s+all -e iss%ed only in criminal cases wit+in t+e e>cl%sive
6%risidicton o' t+e R#C* &Monde6ar v 2%-an, citing SC Circ%lar 83C3H* 7ence, a M#C
6%dge +andling a 2P case can /E# iss%e a +oldCdepart%re order*)
o #+e Secretary o' J%stice can also iss%e +oldCdepart%re orders even wit+o%t any
in'ormation 'iled in co%rt, -%t t+is is %nder t+e e>ec%tive -ranc+, and m%st -e s%pported
-y pro-a-le ca%se*
#+is is -eing $%estioned today*
o ?i''erence -etween 7?E and a watc+ list:
7?E: yo% can,t leave
4atc+ list: yo%,re -eing watc+ed, -%t yo% can leave
SPECIAL AGRARIAN COURT BURISDICTION
4+at is t+e 6%risdiction o' t+e Special Agrarian Co%rt9
o R#C, sitting as a Special Agrarian Co%rt, +as 6%risdiction over
1*
Special libel venue! 1# province or city here the libelous article as printed and first published, or 2# in the province here the offended party
actually resided at the time of the commission of the offense
1+
R/ 7+-1, Sec. (2. Iurisdiction of 3etropolitan 0rial 9ourts, 3unicipal 0rial 9ourts and 3unicipal 9ircuit 0rial 9ourts in 9riminal 9ases.
D1cept in cases falling ithin the e1clusive original jurisdiction of Regional 0rial 9ourts and of the Sandiganbayan, the 3etropolitan 0rial
9ourts, 3unicipal 0rial 9ourts, and 3unicipal 9ircuit 0rial 9ourts shall e1ercise!
="1# D1clusive original jurisdiction over all violations of city or municipal ordinances committed ithin their respective territorial jurisdiction%
and
="2# D1clusive original jurisdiction over all offenses punishable ith imprisonment not e1ceeding si1 "+# years irrespective of the amount of fine,
and regardless of other imposable accessory or other penalties, including the civil liability arising from such offenses or predicated thereon,
irrespective of 'ind, nature, value or amount thereof! $rovided, hoever, 0hat in offenses involving damage to property through criminal
negligence, they shall have e1clusive original jurisdiction thereof.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
All criminal o''enses %nder RA DD:H*
?etermination o' 6%st compensation in agrarian cases*
Rest o' iss%es on agrarian re'orm 'all %nder t+e ?AR* &Land 2ank o' t+e
P+ilippines v 2ellista, !!3)
7ow do yo% instit%te criminal cases in t+e R#C, acting as a Special Agrarian Co%rt9
o Same manner as ordinary criminal actions*
Same r%le as 'or cases in t+e commercial co%rts, etc, as long as no special law
e>presses ot+erwise*
SANDIGANAAYAN BURISDICTION
4+at is t+e 6%risdiction o' t+e Sandigan-ayan9
o #+e acc%sed is at least a Salary (rade H employee*
Like a m%nicipal mayor &0s$%ivel v Em-%dsman, !!)
Can t+ere -e instances w+en yo% are not S(H and still -e %nder t+e S2
6%risdiction9
o @es, i' t+e law e>pressly provides so* So, t+e 'ollowing are %nder
t+e S2 6%risdiction:
Mem-ers o' t+e sangg% panl%ngsod &People v S2, !!3)
A st%dent reagent &Serrana v S2, !!I, since t+e S2 +as
6%risdiction over StateCowned %niversities and t+e st%dent
reagent is a mem-er o' its -oard)
o And t+e o''ense is committed in relation to t+eir o''ice*
Meaning, wit+o%t t+e o''ice, t+e crime wo%ld not +ave -een committed*
Can yo% -e c+arged o' o''enses 'alling %nder t+e RPC in t+e Sandigan-ayan9
o @es*
Like malversation*
?oes e>tent o' participation matter9
o /o* ?oesn,t matter i' principal, accomplice or accessory*
o A long as S( H and %p, or -y e>press provision o' law, sandigan-ayan +as J?*
4+at i' t+ere is one p%-lic o''icer 'alling %nder t+e S2 6%risdiction and t+e ot+er is not9
o As long as one o' t+em is %nder t+e 6d o' t+e S2, t+ey can -ot+ -e c+arged as coCacc%sed*
&0s$%ivel v Em-, w+ere a m%nicipal mayor PS( HQ and a -arangay captain Pnot %nder S2
6dQ were correctly c+arged %nder t+e S2)
o Same r%le applies i' t+e coCacc%sed is a private party*
4+at i' t+e p%-lic o''icer is not S(H -%t t+e o''ice was a constit%tive element o' t+e o''ense9
4+ic+ co%rt +as 6%risdiction9
o Reg%lar co%rts, s%-6ect to appeal -e'ore t+e S2*
o 2eca%se t+e S2 +as -ot+ original and appellate 6%risdiction*
OMAUDSMAN BURISDICTION
4+at is t+e 6%risdiction o' t+e EM29
o Covers any o' mal'easanceAmis'easance or omission -y a p%-lic o''icer
/eed not -e related to t+e o''icial d%ties* #+e mere 'act t+at yo% are a p%-lic
o''icer means t+at t+e EM2 +as 6%risdiction*
4+at i' t+e p%-lic o''icer is not on d%ty9
o ?oesn,t matter, EM2 +as 6%risdiction to investigate*
o Remem-er: EM2 is not a co%rt, -%t an investigative -ody*
#+e EM2 +as t+e power to investigate and prosec%te any act or omission o' a p%-lic o''icer or
employee w+en s%c+ act or omission appears to -e illegal, %n6%st, improper, or ins%''icient*
&Presidential Ad 7oc v ?esierto, !!H)
o It +as discretion w+et+er or not an in'ormation s+o%ld -e 'iled*
o It can dismiss a complaint o%trig+t i' t+ere,s want o' palpa-le merit*
It can dismiss even wit+o%t a response -y t+e alleged o''ender*
o It can also 'ile t+e in'ormation even i' t+ere is a pending MR* &Ramiscal v S2, !"!,
w+erein t+e SC %sed t+e R%les o' Proced%re o' t+e EM2 to state t+at t+e 'iling o' an
MRAMotion 'or Reinvestigation s+all /E# -ar t+e 'iling o' t+e in'ormation)
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
#+e EM2 +as primary 6%risdiction over cases cogni.a-le -y t+e S2 and in t+e e>ercise o' its
primary 6%risdiction, it may take over, at any stage, 'rom any investigatory agency o' t+e
(overnment*
o 7ence, t+e EM2 can takeover at w+atever stage t+e investigation -y t+e ?EJ* &?EJ v
Liwag, !!:)
/ote: #+e EM2,s powers to prosec%te is not limited to cases in t+e S2 -%t also t+ose cogni.a-le -y
t+e reg%lar co%rts* &Castro v ?eloria, !!3, w+erein t+e EM2 'iled a malversation case against a
2IR o''icer in t+e R#C)*
o #+e law does not make a distinction -etween cases cogni.a-le -y t+e S2 and t+ose
cogni.a-le -y reg%lar co%rts*
J%st take note t+at w+en it comes to cases cogni.a-le -y t+e S2, t+e EM2 +as
primary 6%risdiction*
#+e E''ice o' t+e Special Prosec%tor &ESP) is %nder t+e a%t+ority o' t+e EM2* It may act only %pon
t+e a%t+ority o' t+e EM2*
o 7ence, wit+o%t a%t+ority 'rom t+e EM2, t+e ESP can /E# 'ile an in'ormation*
#+e ESP +as /E delegated power to amend in'ormation* It m%st -e directed -y
t+e EM2 to do so* &2ar $%estion)
o It s+o%ld also 'ile an in'ormation i' t+e EM2 directs it too, even i' its initial
recommendation is to dismiss t+e complaint* &La.atin v ?esierto)
?i''erence -etween t+e E''ice o' t+e Prosec and t+e EM2
o Prosec G general 6%risdiction over o''enses %nder t+e RPC &?EJ v Liwag)
o EM2 G primary 6%risdiction over cases %nder t+e 6%risdiction o' t+e EM2*
Can p%-lic o''icers -e investigated -y t+e E''ice o' t+e Prosec9
@0S= #+e EP is not precl%ded to investigate on alleged o''enses -y p%-lic
o''icers, -%t note t+at t+e EM2 +as primary 6%risdiction over cases %nder
t+e S2, so t+e EM2 can take over at any time* &?EJ v Liwag)
#+e EM2 can investigate %pon:
o Its own initiative, even wit+o%t a 'ormal complaint lodged -e'ore it
o In$%iry into acts o' government -ased on media &=) or ot+er so%rces
#+e met+od o' 'iling a complaint wit+ t+e EM2 is direct, in'ormal, speedy and
ine>pensive*
All yo% need is s%''icient in'ormation detailing t+e illegal or improper acts
complained o' &?EJ v Liwag)
Compare t+is to t+e E''ice o' t+e Prosec%tor w+ere yo% need an a''idavit
complaint &t+at,s anot+er di''erence -etween t+e EP and t+e EM2)
2eca%se o' AE I w+ic+ clari'ied and modi'ied certain r%les o' proced%re o' t+e EM2, all
prosec%tors are now dep%ti.ed EM2 prosec%tors*
o Resol%tions in EM2 cases against p%-lic o''icers and employees prepared -y a dep%ti.ed
assistant prosec%tor s+all -e s%-mitted to t+e Provincial or City Prosec%tor concerned w+o
s+all 'orward t+e same to t+e ?ep%ty EM2 o' t+e area wit+ +is recommendation 'or t+e
approval or disapproval t+ereo'*
#+e ?ep%ty EM2 s+all take appropriate 'inal action, incl%ding t+e approval o' its
'iling in t+e proper reg%lar co%rt or t+e dismissal*
I' its %nder t+e 6d o' t+e S2, it s+all -e 'orwarded -y t+e ?ep%ty to t+e E''ice o'
t+e EM2* &Ses-reno v Agl%g%-, !!:)
7ow do yo% review t+e actions o' t+e EM29
o I' on admin cases, go to t+e CA %nder R%le 48 &MJA,s)
o I' criminal cases and t+ere is (A?AL0J, go to t+e SC %nder R%le D:* &Antonino v EM2,
!!I)
4+ic+ decisions o' t+e EM2 in admin cases are not appeala-le9
o P%-lic cens%re or reprimand
o S%spension o' not more t+an " mont+
o 5ine o' not more t+an " mont+ salary
PO=ER OE THE SECRETARY OE BUSTICE OVER THE PROSECUTORS
#+e Secretary o' J%stice e>ercises t+e power o' direct control and s%pervision over t+e decisions or
resol%tions o' t+e prosec%tors*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
),
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o #+is incl%des t+e a%t+ority
to act directly w+enever a speci'ic '%nction is entr%sted -y law or reg%lation to a
s%-ordinate
to direct t+e per'ormance o' d%ty, and
to approve, revise or modi'y acts and decision o' s%-ordinate o''icials or %nits
&P%n.alan v de la Pena, !!4)
Read wit+ Preliminary Investigation and ?EJ Circ%lar H!*
ROLE OE THE OSG IN CRIMINAL CASES
In trial co%rts, t+e 5ISCAL represents t+e People o' t+e P+ilippines*
In t+e CA or t+e SC, it is t+e ES( w+o m%st represent t+e People, not t+e 'iscal* &People v ?%ca,
!!3, w+erein d%e process was violated -eca%se t+e ES( was not asked to comment on a case
pending in t+e CA)
o 2%t read wit+ R%le 8, Sec
"H
RULE 11@ H PROSECUTION OE OEEENSES
Section 1. In!titution o( cri&in%- %ction!.H Cri&in%- %ction! !$%-- )e in!titute %! (o--o#!/
0%1 Eor o((en!e! #$ere % "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion i! re3uire "ur!u%nt to !ection 1 o( Ru-e 118, )'
(i-in+ t$e co&"-%int #it$ t$e "ro"er o((icer (or t$e "ur"o!e o( conuctin+ t$e re3ui!ite "re-i&in%r'
in.e!ti+%tion.
0)1 Eor %-- ot$er o((en!e!, )' (i-in+ t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion irect-' #it$ t$e Munici"%- Tri%- Court!
%n Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court!, or t$e co&"-%int #it$ t$e o((ice o( t$e "ro!ecutor. In M%ni-% %n
ot$er c$%rtere citie!, t$e co&"-%int! !$%-- )e (i-e #it$ t$e o((ice o( t$e "ro!ecutor un-e!! ot$er#i!e
"ro.ie in t$eir c$%rter!.
T$e in!titution o( t$e cri&in%- %ction !$%-- interru"t t$e runnin+ o( t$e "erio o( "re!cri"tion o( t$e
o((en!e c$%r+e un-e!! ot$er#i!e "ro.ie in !"eci%- -%#!.
5or p%rposes o' 6%risdiction, no need to disting%is+ -etween MM and E%tside Metro Manila &as in
civil cases)*
2%t 'or t+e instit%tion o' t+e criminal complaint, yo% +ave to disting%is+ -etween MMAC+artered
Cities and EMM*
Metro ManilaAC+artered
Cities
E%tside Metro ManilaAECC
&9)
Re$%iring Prelim
Investigation &at least 4
years, mont+s, " day)
E''ice o' t+e Prosec E''ice o' t+e Prosec
/ot re$%iring PI E''ice o' t+e Prosec Provincial ProsecAM#C
5alling %nder R%le on
S%mmary Proced%re
E''ice o' t+e Prosec Provincial ProsecAM#C
4+o cond%cts t+e preliminary investigation9
o Prosec%tor
o Em-%dsman
4+at a-o%t t+e M#C 6%dge9 /o longer allowed, old r%le +as -een amended*
Can yo% 'ile directly in a Metropolitan #rial Co%rt &Met C9)
o /o, yo% can only 'ile directly wit+ a MB/ICIPAL trial co%rt &M#C)*
o Enly Metro Manila and C+artered Cities +ave Metropolitan #Cs &so yo% 'ile wit+ t+e EP)*
5or cases in Metro Manila w+ic+ re$%ire PI, 'ollow R%le "", Sec 8*
o 5ile complaint
o Investigating o''icer dismisses it or iss%es s%-poena to respondent
o Respondent s%-mits co%nterCa''idavit
I' s%-poena impossi-le or no co%nterCa''idavit, investigating o''icer decides -ased
on complaint
I' t+ere is co%nterCa''idavit, t+e o''icer can call a clari'icatory +earing
o Resol%tion
o /ote: all "! day periods
5or cases in Metro Manila w+ic+ do /E# re$%ire PI, 'ollow R%le "", Sec 8 &a) only*
17
Sec. 22. 5otice to the Solicitor Jeneral.
<n any action involving the validity of any treaty, la, ordinance, e1ecutive order, presidential decree, rules or regulations, the court, in its
discretion, may re;uire the appearance of the Solicitor Jeneral ho may be heard in person or through a representative duly designated by him.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
)-
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o J%st 'iling o' t+e complaint
o #+en t+e prosec%tor decides +ow to resolve
#+e instit%tion o' a criminal action s+all interr%pt t+e r%nning o' t+e prescription period
o Bnless provided -y special laws*
#+e special law t+at generally governs t+is is Act 88D* Act 88D governs special
laws w+ic+ do not provide 'or t+eir own prescriptive periods*
Laws w+ic+ +ave t+eir own prescriptive period r%les:
o 0lection law G : years
o (enocide law G /0K0R prescri-es
In Act 88D, w+at does ;proceedings< mean9
It incl%des 6%dicial proceedings, and
It also incl%des e>ec%tive proceedings* #+is means investigation -y t+e
e>ec%tive department*
o 7ence, w+en a criminal complaint is 'iled in S0C 'or t+e
investigation o' a crime, t+e period is interr%pted* &S0C K
Interport, w+erein t+e Co%rt said t+at t+e investigation o' t+e S0C
'or a crime %nder t+e Revised Sec%rities Act interr%pted t+e period*
See 'ootnote on e>act words o' SC*
"I
)
o 7ence, in a complaint %nder t+e Intellect%al Property Law, t+e
prescription period is interr%pted w+en t+e complaint is 'iled wit+
t+e ?EJ 'or preliminary investigation* &Sanrio)
o 5or 2P, t+e 'iling o' t+e case wit+ t+e E''ice o' t+e Prosec%tor
will interr%pt t+e r%nning o' t+e period* &Panag%iton v ?EJ, !!I)

Sec. 8. T$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion H T$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion !$%-- )e in #ritin+, in t$e n%&e o(
t$e Peo"-e o( t$e P$i-i""ine! %n %+%in!t %-- "er!on! #$o %""e%r to )e re!"on!i)-e (or t$e o((en!e
in.o-.e.
Sec. :. Co&"-%int e(ine. H A co&"-%int i! % !#orn #ritten !t%te&ent c$%r+in+ % "er!on #it$ %n
o((en!e, !u)!cri)e )' t$e o((ene "%rt', %n' "e%ce o((icer, or ot$er "u)-ic o((icer c$%r+e #it$ t$e
en(orce&ent o( t$e -%# .io-%te.
Sec. ;. In(or&%tion e(ine. H An in(or&%tion i! %n %ccu!%tion in #ritin+ c$%r+in+ % "er!on #it$ %n
o((en!e, !u)!cri)e )' t$e "ro!ecutor %n (i-e #it$ t$e court.
Sec. 5. =$o &u!t "ro!ecute cri&in%- %ction. 4 A-- cri&in%- %ction! eit$er co&&ence )' co&"-%int or )'
in(or&%tion !$%-- )e "ro!ecute uner t$e irection %n contro- o( % "u)-ic "ro!ecutor. In c%!e o( $e%.'
#or7 !c$eu-e o( t$e "u)-ic "ro!ecutor or in t$e e.ent o( -%c7 o( "u)-ic "ro!ecutor!, t$e "ri.%te
"ro!ecutor &%' )e %ut$ori6e in #ritin+ )' t$e C$ie( o( t$e Pro!ecution O((ice or t$e Re+ion%- St%te
Pro!ecutor to "ro!ecute t$e c%!e !u)*ect to t$e %""ro.%- o( t$e court. Once !o %ut$ori6e to "ro!ecute
t$e cri&in%- %ction, t$e "ri.%te "ro!ecutor !$%-- continue to "ro!ecute t$e c%!e u" to en o( t$e tri%-
e.en in t$e %)!ence o( % "u)-ic "ro!ecutor, un-e!! t$e %ut$orit' i! re.o7e or ot$er#i!e #it$r%#n.
T$e cri&e! o( %u-ter' %n concu)in%+e !$%-- not )e "ro!ecute e2ce"t u"on % co&"-%int (i-e )' t$e
o((ene !"ou!e. T$e o((ene "%rt' c%nnot in!titute cri&in%- "ro!ecution #it$out inc-uin+ t$e +ui-t'
"%rtie!, i( )ot$ %re %-i.e, nor, in %n' c%!e, i( t$e o((ene "%rt' $%! con!ente to t$e o((en!e or
"%rone t$e o((ener!.
T$e o((en!e! o( !euction, %)uction %n %ct! o( -%!ci.iou!ne!! !$%-- not )e "ro!ecute u"on %
co&"-%int (i-e )' t$e o((ene "%rt' o( $er "%rent!, +r%n"%rent! or +u%ri%n, nor, in %n' c%!e, i( t$e
o((ener $%! )een e2"re!!-' "%rone )' %n' o( t$e&. I( t$e o((ene "%rt' ie! or )eco&e!
inc%"%cit%te )e(ore !$e c%n (i-e t$e co&"-%int, %n !$e $%! no 7no#n "%rent!, +r%n"%rent! or
+u%ri%n, t$e St%te !$%-- initi%te t$e cri&in%- %ction in $er )e$%-(.
T$e o((ene "%rt', e.en i( % &inor, $%! t$e ri+$t to initi%te t$e "ro!ecution o( t$e o((en!e! o(
!euction, %)uction %n %ct! o( -%!ci.iou!ne!! ine"enent-' o( $er "%rent!, +r%n"%rent!, or
+u%ri%n, un-e!! !$e i! inco&"etent or inc%"%)-e o( oin+ !o. =$ere t$e o((ene "%rt', #$o i! %
1,
4<ndubitably, the prescription period is interrupted by commencing the proceedings for the prosecution of the accused. <n criminal cases, this is
accomplished by initiating the preliminary investigation. 0he prosecution of offenses punishable under the Revised Securities /ct and the
Securities Regulations 9ode is initiated by the filing of a complaint ith the SD9 or by an investigation conducted by the SD9 motu proprio.
6nly after a finding of probable cause is made by the SD9 can the C6I instigate a preliminary investigation. 0hus, the investigation that as
commenced by the SD9 in 1--*, soon after it discovered the ;uestionable acts of the respondents, effectively interrupted the prescription period.
Jiven the nature and purpose of the investigation conducted by the SD9, hich is e;uivalent to the preliminary investigation conducted by the
C6I in criminal cases, such investigation ould surely interrupt the prescription period.7
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*.
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
&inor, (%i-! to (i-e t$e co&"-%int, $er "%rent!, +r%n"%rent!, or +u%ri%n &%' (i-e t$e !%&e. T$e ri+$t to
(i-e t$e %ction +r%nte to "%rent!, +r%n"%rent!, or +u%ri%n !$%-- )e e2c-u!i.e o( %-- ot$er "er!on! %n
!$%-- )e e2erci!e !ucce!!i.e-' in t$e orer $erein "ro.ie, e2ce"t %! !t%te in t$e "recein+
"%r%+r%"$.
No cri&in%- %ction (or e(%&%tion #$ic$ con!i!t! in t$e i&"ut%tion o( %n' o( t$e o((en!e! &entione
%)o.e !$%-- )e )rou+$t e2ce"t %t t$e in!t%nce o( %n u"on co&"-%int (i-e )' t$e o((ene "%rt'.
T$e "ro!ecution (or .io-%tion o( !"eci%- -%#! !$%-- )e +o.erne )' t$e "ro.i!ion t$ereo(.
#+e p%-lic prosec%tor +as control and s%pervision o' a criminal case* As s%c+, +e +as t+e 'ollowing
d%ties:
o Cond%ct PI
o Prosec%te a case
o Cond%ct in$%est proceedings &consistent wit+ R%le "", Sec D)
/ote: #+e prosec w+o did t+e PI will not -e t+e same prosec w+o will prosec%te
t+e case*
#+%s, t+e p%-lic prosec%tor m%st -e t+ere d%ring t+e case*
o I' t+e prosec%tor is a-sent, t+e +earing will -e cancelled*
I' t+e +earing contin%es despite +is a-sence, t+e proceedings will -e considered
n%ll and void*
o 0ven i' t+e p%-lic prosec%tor,s presence is passive, +e still +as to -e t+ere since +e +as
control and s%pervision over t+e case* &Pinote v Ayco, w+erein t+e p%-lic prosec%tor was
a-sent d%ring t+e direct e>amination o' t+e witness o' t+e de'ense)
01C0P#IE/ to t+e p%-lic prosec%tor,s presence: i' t+e private prosec%tor can
o-tain a certi'ication 'rom t+e C+ie' o' t+e Prosec%tion E''ice allowing +im to
prosec%te even in t+e a-sence o' a p%-lic prosec* &#+e cert lasts %ntil t+e case
ends)
#+e private prosec%tor intervenes 'or t+e private o''ended party, and does /E# represent t+e
people*
#+ere are special r%les on private o''enses and w+o can initiate t+em &See R%le "", Sec 8A 'or
p%-lic crimes):
o Ad%lteryAconc%-inage: m%st -e -y t+e o''ended spo%se and m%st implead -ot+ t+e
o''ending spo%se and +isA+er paramo%r
Can /E# instit%te i' t+e o''ended consented or pardoned t+e o''enders
o A-d%ction, sed%ction, acts o' lascivio%sness: m%st -e -y t+e o''ended party or +er
parents, grandparents, g%ardian, or t+e State &in t+at order i' s+e is a minor, see par 4)
Can /E# instit%te i' t+ere was e>press pardon o' any o' t+em
/ote: Minors can initiate t+e action t+emselves &especially i' t+e o''ender is t+eir
relative), e>cept w+en incompetent or incapacitated)
o Rape: no longer a private crime
o ?e'amation w+ic+ consists in t+e imp%tation o' any o' t+e o''enses a-ove: m%st -e -y t+e
o''ended party
Sec. <. Su((icienc' o( co&"-%int or in(or&%tion. H A co&"-%int or in(or&%tion i! !u((icient i( it !t%te! t$e
n%&e o( t$e %ccu!e5 t$e e!i+n%tion o( t$e o((en!e +i.en )' t$e !t%tute5 t$e %ct! or o&i!!ion!
co&"-%ine o( %! con!titutin+ t$e o((en!e5 t$e n%&e o( t$e o((ene "%rt'5 t$e %""ro2i&%te %te o( t$e
co&&i!!ion o( t$e o((en!e5 %n t$e "-%ce #$ere t$e o((en!e #%! co&&itte.
=$en %n o((en!e i! co&&itte )' &ore t$%n one "er!on, %-- o( t$e& !$%-- )e inc-ue in t$e
co&"-%int or in(or&%tion.
Sec. 7. N%&e o( t$e %ccu!e. H T$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion &u!t !t%te t$e n%&e %n !urn%&e o( t$e
%ccu!e or %n' %""e--%tion or nic7n%&e )' #$ic$ $e $%! )een or i! 7no#n. I( $i! n%&e c%nnot )e
%!cert%ine, $e &u!t )e e!cri)e uner % (ictitiou! n%&e #it$ % !t%te&ent t$%t $i! true n%&e i!
un7no#n.
I( t$e true n%&e o( t$e %ccu!e i! t$ere%(ter i!c-o!e )' $i& or %""e%r! in !o&e ot$er &%nner to
t$e court, !uc$ true n%&e !$%-- )e in!erte in t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion %n recor.
Sec. >. De!i+n%tion o( t$e o((en!e. H T$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion !$%-- !t%te t$e e!i+n%tion o( t$e
o((en!e +i.en )' t$e !t%tute, %.er t$e %ct! or o&i!!ion! con!titutin+ t$e o((en!e, %n !"eci(' it!
3u%-i('in+ %n %++r%.%tin+ circu&!t%nce!. I( t$ere i! no e!i+n%tion o( t$e o((en!e, re(erence !$%-- )e
&%e to t$e !ection or !u)!ection o( t$e !t%tute "uni!$in+ it.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*1
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. ?. C%u!e o( t$e %ccu!%tion. H T$e %ct! or o&i!!ion! co&"-%ine o( %! con!titutin+ t$e o((en!e %n
t$e 3u%-i('in+ %n %++r%.%tin+ circu&!t%nce! &u!t )e !t%te in orin%r' %n conci!e -%n+u%+e %n not
nece!!%ri-' in t$e -%n+u%+e u!e in t$e !t%tute )ut in ter&! !u((icient to en%)-e % "er!on o( co&&on
uner!t%nin+ to 7no# #$%t o((en!e i! )ein+ c$%r+e %! #e-- %! it! 3u%-i('in+ %n %++r%.%tin+
circu&!t%nce %n (or t$e court to "ronounce *u+&ent.
Sec. 1@. P-%ce o( co&&i!!ion o( t$e o((en!e. H T$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion i! !u((icient i( it c%n )e
uner!too (ro& it! %--e+%tion! t$%t t$e o((en!e #%! co&&itte or !o&e o( it! e!!enti%- in+reient!
occurre %t !o&e "-%ce #it$in t$e *uri!iction o( t$e court, un-e!! t$e "%rticu-%r "-%ce #$ere it #%!
co&&itte con!titute! %n e!!enti%- e-e&ent o( t$e o((en!e c$%r+e or i! nece!!%r' (or it! ienti(ic%tion.
Sec. 11. D%te o( co&&i!!ion o( t$e o((en!e. 4 It i! not nece!!%r' to !t%te in t$e co&"-%int or
in(or&%tion t$e "reci!e %te t$e o((en!e #%! co&&itte e2ce"t #$en it i! % &%teri%- in+reient o( t$e
o((en!e. T$e o((en!e &%' )e %--e+e to $%.e )een co&&itte on % %te %! ne%r %! "o!!i)-e to t$e %ctu%-
%te o( it! co&&i!!ion.
Sec. 18. N%&e o( t$e o((ene "%rt'. H T$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion &u!t !t%te t$e n%&e %n !urn%&e
o( t$e "er!on %+%in!t #$o& or %+%in!t #$o!e "ro"ert' t$e o((en!e #%! co&&itte, or %n' %""e--%tion
or nic7n%&e )' #$ic$ !uc$ "er!on $%! )een or i! 7no#n. I( t$ere i! no )etter #%' o( ienti('in+ $i&,
$e &u!t )e e!cri)e uner % (ictitiou! n%&e.
0%1 In o((en!e! %+%in!t "ro"ert', i( t$e n%&e o( t$e o((ene "%rt' i! un7no#n, t$e "ro"ert' &u!t )e
e!cri)e #it$ !uc$ "%rticu-%rit' %! to "ro"er-' ienti(' t$e o((en!e c$%r+e.
0)1 I( t$e true n%&e o( t$e "er!on %+%in!t #$o& or %+%in!t #$o!e "ro"ert' t$e o((en!e #%! co&&itte
i! t$ere%(ter i!c-o!e or %!cert%ine, t$e court &u!t c%u!e !uc$ true n%&e to )e in!erte in t$e
co&"-%int or in(or&%tion %n t$e recor.
0c1 I( t$e o((ene "%rt' i! % *uriic%- "er!on, it i! !u((icient to !t%te it! n%&e, or %n' n%&e or
e!i+n%tion )' #$ic$ it i! 7no#n or )' #$ic$ it &%' )e ienti(ie, #it$out nee o( %.errin+ t$%t it i! %
*uriic%- "er!on or t$%t it i! or+%ni6e in %ccor%nce #it$ -%#.
Sec DC" s+ows w+en an in'ormation is s%''icient*
/ame o' t+e acc%sed: '%ll name please
o I' '%ll name not known, %se nickname &no aka, like ;C+%ck< 'or C+arles<) or appellation
&a+a ;2oy Bngas< ;2ini-ining Pokpokers< ;Manong #igasin< ;J%lio Amoy #ae< ;2oy 2%gaw<)
o I' no nickname or appellation, %se Jo+n ?oe or Jane ?oe*
?esignation o' t+e o''ense: %se t+e name given -y t+e stat%te
o I' none, 6%st say t+e section violated &;Sec : o' t+e ??A<)
o Also indicate t+e acts or omissions constit%ting t+e o''ense
0ven in t+e a-sence o' a partic%lar section, -%t t+e allegation in t+e in'o s+ows
t+at yo% know t+e nat%re o' t+e o''ense, t+en it,s allowed as s%-stantial
compliance
o 2asic r%le: w+at yo% allege, yo% +ave to prove*
Read wit+ R%le "!, Sec 4*
"3
o ;#ry and attempt to rape< in t+e in'ormation is not s%''icient &People v ?imaano, 4D3
SCRA D4H)
o I' t+ere was an alleged tampering wit+ t+e in'ormation, it can /E# -e set aside i'
arraignment +ad already -een cond%cted &Lasoy v Renarosa, w+ere ;grams< instead o'
;kilograms< were placed in t+e in'ormation 'or ??A, SC said can,t amend -eca%se acc%sed
already in do%-le 6eopardy)
M%ali'ying and aggravating circ%mstances MBS# 2E#7 -e alleged
o I' not alleged -%t proven in trial, still /E# allowed
o Mitigating: no need to allege since part o' t+e de'ense o' t+e acc%sed
Ca%se o' acc%sation:
o #+e lang%age o' t+e in'ormation m%st -e:
Stated in ordinary and concise lang%age
In t+e lang%age o' t+e in'ormation o' t+e acc%sed
So t+at +e is properly in'ormed can make a proper arraignment and plea
&R%le ""D)
?oes t+is mean t+at i' +e only speaks C+inese, t+e in'o +as to -e in
1-
Sec. ). Iudgment in case of variance beteen allegation and proof. When there is variance beteen the offense charged in the complaint or
information and that proved, and the offense as charged is included in or necessarily includes the offense proved, the accused shall be convicted
of the offense proved hich is included in the offense charged, or of the offense charged hich is included in the offense proved.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*2
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
C+inese9
o /E* It still +as to -e in 0nglis+ &or 5ilipino, -%t rarely), it 6%st +as
to -e interpreted to +im*
?ate o' commission:
o no need 'or speci'ic date, appro>imation is ok
01C0P#: w+en t+e date is a material element o' t+e o''ense
Like election o''enses, in'anticide
o ;En or a-o%t J%ne !"< t+at,s ok
o ;En or a-o%t !"< not ok
o Speci'ic date not needed in rape cases
Place o' commission: need to s+ow and aver t+at it was committed wit+in t+e territorial 6d o' t+e
co%rt
o 2B# take note 'or o''enses w+ere t+e place is material &trespass to dwelling, violation o'
domicile, election cases, arson, etc), yo% +ave to allege wit+ partic%larity
o Bs%al way o' alleging: ;wit+in t+e 6%risdiction o' San J%an<
/ame o' t+e o''ended party: aver it, i' knownF i' not, %se nicknamesF i' still not known, 'ictitio%s
name
o I' it is a crime against property and o''ended party not known, descri-e t+e property wit+
partic%larity
I' o''ended known a'terwards, co%rt m%st insert tr%e name in t+e in'ormation
o I' crime against a 6%ridical person, s%''icient to state its name*
/o need to aver t+at it is a 6%ridical person or t+at it is organi.e in accordance wit+
law*
Sec. 1:. Du"-icit' o( t$e o((en!e. H A co&"-%int or in(or&%tion &u!t c$%r+e on-' one o((en!e, e2ce"t
#$en t$e -%# "re!cri)e! % !in+-e "uni!$&ent (or .%riou! o((en!e!.
Enly one o''ense per in'ormation is allowed*
o 01C0P#:
4+en t+e law prescri-es a single p%nis+ment 'or vario%s o''enses
4+en t+ere are m%ltiple o''enses and t+e acc%sed 'ails to o-6ect
!

So don,t -e s%rprised i' t+ere are m%ltiple allegations in 6%st one complaintCa''idavit, -%t t+e
prosec%tor comes o%t wit+ m%ltiple in'ormations
Sec. 1;. A&en&ent or !u)!titution. H A co&"-%int or in(or&%tion &%' )e %&ene, in (or& or in
!u)!t%nce, #it$out -e%.e o( court %n #$en it c%n )e one #it$out c%u!in+ "re*uice to t$e ri+$t! o(
t$e %ccu!e.
Ho#e.er, %n' %&en&ent )e(ore "-e%, #$ic$ o#n+r%e! t$e n%ture o( t$e o((en!e c$%r+e in or
e2c-ue! %n' %ccu!e (ro& t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion, c%n )e &%e on-' u"on &otion )' t$e
"ro!ecutor, #it$ notice to t$e o((ene "%rt' %n #it$ -e%.e o( court. T$e court !$%-- !t%te it! re%!on!
in re!o-.in+ t$e &otion %n co"ie! o( it! orer !$%-- )e (urni!$e %-- "%rtie!, e!"eci%--' t$e o((ene
"%rt'.
I( it %""e%r! %t %n'ti&e )e(ore *u+&ent t$%t % &i!t%7e $%! )een &%e in c$%r+in+ t$e "ro"er o((en!e,
t$e court !$%-- i!&i!! t$e ori+in%- co&"-%int or in(or&%tion u"on t$e (i-in+ o( % ne# one c$%r+in+ t$e
"ro"er o((en!e in %ccor%nce #it$ !ection 1?, Ru-e 11?, "ro.ie t$e %ccu!e !$%-- not )e "-%ce in
ou)-e *eo"%r'. T$e court &%' re3uire t$e #itne!!e! to +i.e )%i- (or t$eir %""e%r%nce %t t$e tri%-.
Amendment o' t+e in'ormation can -e done* It 6%st depends w+en and w+at is c+anged*
Remem-er t+at*
o 2e'ore plea: amendment can -e done w+et+er in 'orm or s%-stance
S%-stantial amendment needs a new PI
o A'ter plea:
S%-stance: no amendment allowed
5orm: @es, as long as it will not pre6%dice t+e rig+t o' t+e acc%sed
#est: i' t+e original de'ense o' t+e acc%sed will +ave to -e c+anged d%e to
t+e c+ange in t+e 'ormal amendment
0>ample: rape case, in'ormation said ;"I< -%t it was a typo and s+o%ld,ve
said ;"H<* It will pre6%dice t+e rig+ts o' t+e acc%sed
2.
Rule 12., Sec. (. Iudgment for to or more offenses. When to or more offenses are charged in a single complaint or information but the
accused fails to object to it before trial, the court may convict him of as many offenses as are charged and proved, and impose on him the penalty
for each offense, setting out separately the findings of fact and la in each offense.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
?owngrading and 0>cl%sion
?owngrading: Lessening t+e o''ense &ro--ery to t+e't, m%rder to +omicide,
sed%ction to acts o' L)
Can yo% +ave +omicide to 'r%strated +omicide9
o (R: /E*
01C0P#: .om-ies
0>cl%sion: Removing 'rom t+e in'ormation a person
o 2ot+ o' t+ese m%st -e done:
2e'ore plea
Bpon motion o' t+e prosec
4it+ leave o' co%rt
4it+ t+e consent o' t+e o''ended party
o /ote: Since e>cl%sion +appens 205ER0 plea, no 6eopardy will attac+* So t+e acc%sed
e>cl%ded can still -e c+arged later*
Compare t+is wit+ R%le ""3, Sec "H and t+e 4itness Protection Program*
Bnder t+is r%le, t+e %se o' t+e acc%sed as a state witness is e$%al to
ac$%ittal, so do%-le 6eopardy de'ense can -e invoked*
2%t in t+e 4PP, it,s merely e>cl%sion since done -e'ore plea and wit+ t+e
?EJ*
S%-stit%tion
o #+e in'ormation will -e s%-stit%ted wit+ a new one to -e 'iled i' t+e prosec%tion cannot
prove t+e o''ense c+arged in t+e prior in'ormation &;mistake +as -een made in c+arging
t+e proper o''ense<)
Co%rt will dismiss t+e original complaint or in'o %pon 'iling o' a new one
PREKI?0?, acc%sed wo%ld not -e placed in do%-le 6eopardy*
o 4+en9 anytime -e'ore 6%dgment, provided t+e acc%sed will not -e p%t in do%-le 6eopardy
o #+ere is no s%-stit%tion o' in'ormation w+en t+ere is only a c+ange in t+e mode o' t+e
commission o' an o''ense* 7ence, no need 'or preliminary investigation eit+er* &Sal%daga
o v S2, !"!, w+erein t+e o''ense involved was RA 8!"3, and t+e 'irst in'o was 'or t+e 'irst
mode w+ic+ was dismissed* A new in'o was 'iled alleging t+e second mode and t+e SC said
no s%-stit%tion nor need 'or new prelim investigation* Co%rt said no amendment eit+er
since arose 'rom same transaction eit+er*)
o #+e acc%sed will /E# -e released i' t+ere is good reason to +old +im*
#+e old case will not -e dismissed %ntil a new in'ormation is 'iled*
"
Important: 4+en is a new preliminary investigation needed9
o S%-stit%tion o' in'ormation
2%t i' merely mode, no need &like in Sal%daga)
o S%-stantial amendment to t+e in'ormation
o Provisional dismissal w+en t+e original witnesses recanted or +ave died or no longer
availa-le and w+en new witnesses appear &People v Lacson)
o Et+er persons are c+arged %nder a new complaint 'or t+e same o''ense or complaint
o Bnder a new complaint, t+e original c+arge +as -een %pgraded
o Bnder a new complaint, t+e criminal lia-ility o' t+e acc%sed is %pgraded 'rom accessory to
principal
Sec. 15. P-%ce #$ere %ction i! to )e in!titute. H
0%1 Su)*ect to e2i!tin+ -%#!, t$e cri&in%- %ction !$%-- )e in!titute %n trie in t$e court o( t$e
&unici"%-it' or territor' #$ere t$e o((en!e #%! co&&itte or #$ere %n' o( it! e!!enti%- in+reient!
occurre.
0)1 =$ere %n o((en!e i! co&&itte in % tr%in, %ircr%(t, or ot$er "u)-ic or "ri.%te .e$ic-e in t$e cour!e
o( it! tri", t$e cri&in%- %ction !$%-- )e in!titute %n trie in t$e court o( %n' &unici"%-it' or territor'
#$ere !uc$ tr%in, %ircr%(t, or ot$er .e$ic-e "%!!e urin+ it! tri", inc-uin+ t$e "-%ce o( it! e"%rture
%n %rri.%-.
0c1 =$ere %n o((en!e i! co&&itte on )o%r % .e!!e- in t$e cour!e o( it! .o'%+e, t$e cri&in%- %ction
21
Sec. 1-. When mista'e has been made in charging the proper offense. When it becomes manifest at any time before judgment that a mista'e
has been made in charging the proper offense and the accused cannot be convicted of the offense charged or any other offense necessarily
included therein, the accused shall not be discharged if there appears good cause to detain him. <n such case, the court shall commit the accused to
anser for the proper offense and dismiss the original case upon the filing of the proper information.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
!$%-- )e in!titute %n trie in t$e court o( t$e (ir!t "ort o( entr' or o( %n' &unici"%-it' or territor'
#$ere t$e .e!!e- "%!!e urin+ !uc$ .o'%+e, !u)*ect to t$e +ener%--' %cce"te "rinci"-e! o(
intern%tion%- -%#.
01 Cri&e! co&&itte out!ie t$e P$i-i""ine! )ut "uni!$%)-e uner Artic-e 8 o( t$e Re.i!e Pen%-
Coe !$%-- )e co+ni6%)-e )' t$e court #$ere t$e cri&in%- %ction i! (ir!t (i-e.
Read wit+ r%les on ven%e*
Sec. 1<. Inter.ention o( t$e o((ene "%rt' in cri&in%- %ction. H =$ere t$e ci.i- %ction (or reco.er' o(
ci.i- -i%)i-it' i! in!titute in t$e cri&in%- %ction "ur!u%nt to Ru-e 111, t$e o((ene "%rt' &%' inter.ene
)' coun!e- in t$e "ro!ecution o( t$e o((en!e.
RULE 111 4 PROSECUTION OE CIVIL ACTION
Section 1. In!titution o( cri&in%- %n ci.i- %ction!. H
0%1 =$en % cri&in%- %ction i! in!titute, t$e ci.i- %ction (or t$e reco.er' o( ci.i- -i%)i-it' %ri!in+ (ro& t$e
o((en!e c$%r+e !$%-- )e ee&e in!titute #it$ t$e cri&in%- %ction un-e!! t$e o((ene "%rt' #%i.e!
t$e ci.i- %ction, re!er.e! t$e ri+$t to in!titute it !e"%r%te-' or in!titute! t$e ci.i- %ction "rior to t$e
cri&in%- %ction.
T$e re!er.%tion o( t$e ri+$t to in!titute !e"%r%te-' t$e ci.i- %ction !$%-- )e &%e )e(ore t$e
"ro!ecution !t%rt! "re!entin+ it! e.ience %n uner circu&!t%nce! %((orin+ t$e o((ene "%rt' %
re%!on%)-e o""ortunit' to &%7e !uc$ re!er.%tion.
=$en t$e o((ene "%rt' !ee7! to en(orce ci.i- -i%)i-it' %+%in!t t$e %ccu!e )' #%' o( &or%-,
no&in%-, te&"er%te, or e2e&"-%r' %&%+e! #it$out !"eci('in+ t$e %&ount t$ereo( in t$e co&"-%int or
in(or&%tion, t$e (i-in+ (ee! t$ere(ore !$%-- con!titute % (ir!t -ien on t$e *u+&ent %#%rin+ !uc$
%&%+e!.
=$ere t$e %&ount o( %&%+e!, ot$er t$%n %ctu%-, i! !"eci(ie in t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion, t$e
corre!"onin+ (i-in+ (ee! !$%-- )e "%i )' t$e o((ene "%rt' u"on t$e (i-in+ t$ereo( in court.
E2ce"t %! ot$er#i!e "ro.ie in t$e!e Ru-e!, no (i-in+ (ee! !$%-- )e re3uire (or %ctu%- %&%+e!.
No counterc-%i&, cro!!4c-%i& or t$ir4"%rt' co&"-%int &%' )e (i-e )' t$e %ccu!e in t$e cri&in%-
c%!e, )ut %n' c%u!e o( %ction #$ic$ cou- $%.e )een t$e !u)*ect t$ereo( &%' )e -iti+%te in % !e"%r%te
ci.i- %ction.
0)1 T$e cri&in%- %ction (or .io-%tion o( A%t%! P%&)%n!% A-+. 88 !$%-- )e ee&e to inc-ue t$e
corre!"onin+ ci.i- %ction. No re!er.%tion to (i-e !uc$ ci.i- %ction !e"%r%te-' !$%-- )e %--o#e.
U"on (i-in+ o( t$e %(ore!%i *oint cri&in%- %n ci.i- %ction!, t$e o((ene "%rt' !$%-- "%' in (u-- t$e
(i-in+ (ee! )%!e on t$e %&ount o( t$e c$ec7 in.o-.e, #$ic$ !$%-- )e con!iere %! t$e %ctu%- %&%+e!
c-%i&e. =$ere t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion %-!o !ee7! to reco.er -i3ui%te, &or%-, no&in%-,
te&"er%te or e2e&"-%r' %&%+e!, t$e o((ene "%rt' !$%-- "%' %ition%- (i-in+ (ee! )%!e on t$e
%&ount! %--e+e t$erein. I( t$e %&ount! %re not !o %--e+e )ut %n' o( t$e!e %&%+e! %re !u)!e3uent-'
%#%re )' t$e court, t$e (i-in+ (ee! )%!e on t$e %&ount %#%re !$%-- con!titute % (ir!t -ien on t$e
*u+&ent.
=$ere t$e ci.i- %ction $%! )een (i-e !e"%r%te-' %n tri%- t$ereo( $%! not 'et co&&ence, it &%' )e
con!o-i%te #it$ t$e cri&in%- %ction u"on %""-ic%tion #it$ t$e court tr'in+ t$e -%tter c%!e. I( t$e
%""-ic%tion i! +r%nte, t$e tri%- o( )ot$ %ction! !$%-- "rocee in %ccor%nce #it$ !ection 8 o( t$i! Ru-e
+o.ernin+ con!o-i%tion o( t$e ci.i- %n cri&in%- %ction!.
(R: Ence a criminal action is instit%ted, t+e civil action is likewise instit%ted*
o 01C0P#:
Reservation
/ote: /o reservation to 'ile civil action separately in 2P cases
o 2%t i' civil case 'or 2P is instit%ted prior, t+at,s ok 2B# it will -e
s%spended %ntil t+e criminal case is 'inis+ed* Consolidation is,
+owever, enco%raged -y t+e r%les* &2%n #iong v 2al-oa, !!I)
Reservation m%st -e made A/@ #IM0 -e'ore t+e prosec%tion commences
wit+ presentation o' evidence and %nder circ%mstances a''ording t+e
o''ended a reasona-le opport%nity to make s%re reservation*
o So not a strict r%le*
Instit%ted prior to t+e criminal action
Eption to consolidate wit+ t+e criminal action &see Sec )
4aiver o' civil action
4+en civil lia-ility is so%g+t to -e en'orced, 'iling 'ees is needed 'or moral, nominal, temperate or
e>emplary damages*
o I' t+e amo%nt is not speci'ied, t+e 'ees will -e a lien on t+e 6%dgment*
/E 'iling 'ees 'or act%al damages*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
**
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
5or 2P cases, 'iling 'ees is needed on all kinds o' damages &incl%ding act%al damages, t+e
amo%nt o' t+e c+eck is t+e -asis 'or t+e act%al damages)
Important: /E co%nterclaim, crossCclaim or 8
rd
party complaint allowed to -e 'iled -y t+e acc%sed*
Sec. 8. =$en !e"%r%te ci.i- %ction i! !u!"ene. H A(ter t$e cri&in%- %ction $%! )een co&&ence, t$e
!e"%r%te ci.i- %ction %ri!in+ t$ere(ro& c%nnot )e in!titute unti- (in%- *u+&ent $%! )een entere in t$e
cri&in%- %ction.
I( t$e cri&in%- %ction i! (i-e %(ter t$e !%i ci.i- %ction $%! %-re%' )een in!titute, t$e -%tter !$%-- )e
!u!"ene in #$%te.er !t%te it &%' )e (oun )e(ore *u+&ent on t$e &erit!. T$e !u!"en!ion !$%-- -%!t
unti- (in%- *u+&ent i! renere in t$e cri&in%- %ction. Ne.ert$e-e!!, )e(ore *u+&ent on t$e &erit!
renere in t$e ci.i- %ction, t$e !%&e &%', u"on &otion o( t$e o((ene "%rt', )e con!o-i%te #it$ t$e
cri&in%- %ction in t$e court tr'in+ t$e cri&in%- %ction. In c%!e o( con!o-i%tion, t$e e.ience %-re%'
%uce in t$e ci.i- %ction !$%-- )e ee&e %uto&%tic%--' re"rouce in t$e cri&in%- %ction #it$out
"re*uice to t$e ri+$t o( t$e "ro!ecution to cro!!4e2%&ine t$e #itne!! "re!ente )' t$e o((ene "%rt'
in t$e cri&in%- c%!e %n o( t$e "%rtie! to "re!ent %ition%- e.ience. T$e con!o-i%te cri&in%- %n
ci.i- %ction! !$%-- )e trie %n ecie *oint-'.
Durin+ t$e "enenc' o( t$e cri&in%- %ction, t$e runnin+ "erio o( "re!cri"tion o( t$e ci.i- %ction
#$ic$ c%nnot )e in!titute !e"%r%te-' or #$o!e "roceein+ $%! )een !u!"ene !$%-- )e to--e.
T$e e2tinction o( t$e "en%- %ction oe! not c%rr' #it$ it e2tinction o( t$e ci.i- %ction. Ho#e.er, t$e
ci.i- %ction )%!e on e-ict !$%-- )e ee&e e2tin+ui!$e i( t$ere i! % (inin+ in % (in%- *u+&ent in t$e
cri&in%- %ction t$%t t$e %ct or o&i!!ion (ro& #$ic$ t$e ci.i- -i%)i-it' &%' %ri!e i not e2i!t.
Ence crim action +as -een commenced, t+e separate civil action can /E# -e instit%ted %ntil 'inal
6%dgment o' t+e criminal action*
I' crim action comes a'ter t+e civil action, t+e civil action will -e s%spended and will contin%e to -e
s%spended %ntil 'inal 6%dgment in t+e criminal action*
o 2B#, t+ere is an option 'or consolidation* 7ow and w+en9
7ow9 2y motion o' t+e o''ended party*
4+en9 2e'ore 6%dgment on t+e merits in t+e civil case9
4+ere9 In t+e co%rt trying t+e criminal action*
En writ o' amparo cases
o Can yo% consolidate a 4rit o' Amparo wit+ a civil cases or an admin case9
/E*
o Can yo% consolidate a 4rit o' Amparo wit+ a criminal case9
@0S*
I' t+e civil case was instit%ted a+ead o' t+e criminal case, t+e civil case is
interr%pted in w+atever stage and t+e criminal case proceeds %ntil
6%dgment*
2%t t+ere is an option to consolidate*
Linds o' ac$%ittal and e''ect on civil lia-ility:
o 2ased on reasona-le do%-t: civil lia-ility lies
o ?id not commit t+e crime: no more civil lia-ility -ased on t+e delict &-%t pwede %nder
$%asiCdelict)
o P%rely civil: civil lia-ility lies
o Acts 'rom w+ic+ t+e civil lia-ility arises 'rom were not committed: no civil lia-ility
Sec. :. =$en ci.i- %ction &%' "rocee ine"enent-'. H In t$e c%!e! "ro.ie in Artic-e! :8, ::, :; %n
817< o( t$e Ci.i- Coe o( t$e P$i-i""ine!, t$e ine"enent ci.i- %ction &%' )e )rou+$t )' t$e o((ene
"%rt'. It !$%-- "rocee ine"enent-' o( t$e cri&in%- %ction %n !$%-- re3uire on-' % "re"oner%nce o(
e.ience. In no c%!e, $o#e.er, &%' t$e o((ene "%rt' reco.er %&%+e! t#ice (or t$e !%&e %ct or
o&i!!ion c$%r+e in t$e cri&in%- %ction.
Independent civil actions are:
o 8: violation o' rig+ts
o 88: de'amation, 'ra%d, and PI
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o 84: 'ail%re to aid -y police 'orce

o "HD: $%asiCdelicts
Independent civil actions are /E#:
o S%spended even i' instit%ted -e'ore t+e criminal action, or
o Reserved
@o% do /E# reserve independent civil actions*
#+ey can proceed side -y side wit+ t+e criminal actions*
o 2B# o''ended can /E# recover damages #4IC0 'or t+e same act or omission c+arged in
t+e criminal action*
Sec. ;. E((ect o( e%t$ on ci.i- %ction!. H T$e e%t$ o( t$e %ccu!e %(ter %rr%i+n&ent %n urin+ t$e
"enenc' o( t$e cri&in%- %ction !$%-- e2tin+ui!$ t$e ci.i- -i%)i-it' %ri!in+ (ro& t$e e-ict. Ho#e.er, t$e
ine"enent ci.i- %ction in!titute uner !ection : o( t$i! Ru-e or #$ic$ t$ere%(ter i! in!titute to
en(orce -i%)i-it' %ri!in+ (ro& ot$er !ource! o( o)-i+%tion &%' )e continue %+%in!t t$e e!t%te or -e+%-
re"re!ent%ti.e o( t$e %ccu!e %(ter "ro"er !u)!titution or %+%in!t !%i e!t%te, %! t$e c%!e &%' )e. T$e
$eir! o( t$e %ccu!e &%' )e !u)!titute (or t$e ece%!e #it$out re3uirin+ t$e %""oint&ent o( %n
e2ecutor or %&ini!tr%tor %n t$e court &%' %""oint % +u%ri%n % -ite& (or t$e &inor $eir!.
T$e court !$%-- (ort$#it$ orer !%i -e+%- re"re!ent%ti.e or re"re!ent%ti.e! to %""e%r %n )e
!u)!titute #it$in % "erio o( t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& notice.
A (in%- *u+&ent entere in (%.or o( t$e o((ene "%rt' !$%-- )e en(orce in t$e &%nner e!"eci%--'
"ro.ie in t$e!e ru-e! (or "ro!ecutin+ c-%i&! %+%in!t t$e e!t%te o( t$e ece%!e.c$%n ro)-e! .irtu%-
-%# -i)r%r'
I( t$e %ccu!e ie! )e(ore %rr%i+n&ent, t$e c%!e !$%-- )e i!&i!!e #it$out "re*uice to %n' ci.i-
%ction t$e o((ene "%rt' &%' (i-e %+%in!t t$e e!t%te o( t$e ece%!e.
R%les on t+e deat+ o' t+e acc%sed:
o ?ies a'ter arraignment and d%ring t+e pendency o' t+e criminal action:
Criminal lia-ility e>ting%is+ed &patay na e+*)
Civil lia-ility arising 'rom t+e delict is e>ting%is+ed
Independent civil action contin%es against t+e estate or legal rep o' t+e acc%sed
o ?ies -e'ore arraignment:
Case s+all -e dismissed wit+o%t pre6%dice to any civil action t+e o''ended may 'ile
against t+e estate o' t+e deceased
Sec. 5. Bu+&ent in ci.i- %ction not % )%r. H A (in%- *u+&ent renere in % ci.i- %ction %)!o-.in+ t$e
e(en%nt (ro& ci.i- -i%)i-it' i! not % )%r to % cri&in%- %ction %+%in!t t$e e(en%nt (or t$e !%&e %ct or
o&i!!ion !u)*ect o( t$e ci.i- %ction.

22
/rt. (2. /ny public officer or employee, or any private individual, ho directly or indirectly obstructs, defeats, violates or in any manner
impedes or impairs any of the folloing rights and liberties of another person shall be liable to the latter for damages!
"1# Freedom of religion% "2# Freedom of speech% "(# Freedom to rite for the press or to maintain a periodical publication% ")# Freedom from
arbitrary or illegal detention% "*# Freedom of suffrage% "+# 0he right against deprivation of property ithout due process of la% "7# 0he right to
a just compensation hen private property is ta'en for public use% ",# 0he right to the e;ual protection of the las% "-# 0he right to be secure in
oneKs person, house, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and sei&ures% "1.# 0he liberty of abode and of changing the same% "11#
0he privacy of communication and correspondence% "12# 0he right to become a member of associations or societies for purposes not contrary to
la% "1(# 0he right to ta'e part in a peaceable assembly to petition the government for redress of grievances% "1)# 0he right to be free from
involuntary servitude in any form% "1*# 0he right of the accused against e1cessive bail% "1+# 0he right of the accused to be heard by himself and
counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy and public trial, to meet the itnesses face to face,
and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of itness in his behalf% "17# Freedom from being compelled to be a itness against
oneKs self, or from being forced to confess guilt, or from being induced by a promise of immunity or reard to ma'e such confession, e1cept
hen the person confessing becomes a State itness% "1,# Freedom from e1cessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishment, unless the same is
imposed or inflicted in accordance ith a statute hich has not been judicially declared unconstitutional% and "1-# Freedom of access to the
courts.
<n any of the cases referred to in this article, hether or not the defendantKs act or omission constitutes a criminal offense, the aggrieved party has
a right to commence an entirely separate and distinct civil action for damages, and for other relief. Such civil action shall proceed independently
of any criminal prosecution "if the latter be instituted#, and mat be proved by a preponderance of evidence.
0he indemnity shall include moral damages. D1emplary damages may also be adjudicated.
0he responsibility herein set forth is not demandable from a judge unless his act or omission constitutes a violation of the $enal 9ode or other
penal statute.
/rt. ((. <n cases of defamation, fraud, and physical injuries a civil action for damages, entirely separate and distinct from the criminal action, may
be brought by the injured party. Such civil action shall proceed independently of the criminal prosecution, and shall re;uire only a preponderance
of evidence.
/rt. (). When a member of a city or municipal police force refuses or fails to render aid or protection to any person in case of danger to life or
property, such peace officer shall be primarily liable for damages, and the city or municipality shall be subsidiarily responsible therefor. 0he civil
action herein recogni&ed shall be independent of any criminal proceedings, and a preponderance of evidence shall suffice to support such action.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. <. Su!"en!ion )' re%!on o( "re*uici%- 3ue!tion. H A "etition (or !u!"en!ion o( t$e cri&in%- %ction
)%!e u"on t$e "enenc' o( % "re*uici%- 3ue!tion in % ci.i- %ction &%' )e (i-e in t$e o((ice o( t$e
"ro!ecutor or t$e court conuctin+ t$e "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion. =$en t$e cri&in%- %ction $%! )een
(i-e in court (or tri%-, t$e "etition to !u!"en !$%-- )e (i-e in t$e !%&e cri&in%- %ction %t %n' ti&e
)e(ore t$e "ro!ecution re!t!.
Sec. 7. E-e&ent! o( "re*uici%- 3ue!tion. H T$e e-e&ent! o( % "re*uici%- 3ue!tion! %re/ 0%1 t$e
"re.iou!-' in!titute ci.i- %ction in.o-.e! %n i!!ue !i&i-%r or inti&%te-' re-%te to t$e i!!ue r%i!e in t$e
!u)!e3uent cri&in%- %ction, %n 0)1 t$e re!o-ution o( !uc$ i!!ue eter&ine! #$et$er or not t$e cri&in%-
%ction &%' "rocee.
4+at are t+e elements o' a pre6%dicial $%estion9
o Previo%sly instit%ted civil action
o Civil action involves an iss%e similar or intimately related to t+e iss%e raised in t+e
s%-se$%ent criminal action
o Resol%tion o' s%c+ iss%e determines w+et+er or not t+e crim action may -e proceed
4+at can a pre6%dicial $%estion do9
o It can s%spend t+e criminal action*
7ow and w+ere do yo% 'ile9
5iling a motion:
o in t+e EP or t+e co%rt cond%cting t+e PI*
o I' already in co%rt, in t+e co%rt at any time -e'ore t+e prosec%tion
rests*
/E#0: M%st -e a civil action= /o pre6%dicial $%estion i' ot+er case is an admin case or a criminal
case
0>ample:
o 2P case -%t acc%sed $%estions in a civil case t+e imposition o' %s%rio%s interest /E#
a pre6%dicial $%estion &Jose v S%are., !"!)
RULE 118 4 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION
Section 1. Pre-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion e(ine5 #$en re3uire. H Pre-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion i! %n in3uir'
or "roceein+ to eter&ine #$et$er t$ere i! !u((icient +roun to en+ener % #e--4(oune )e-ie( t$%t %
cri&e $%! )een co&&itte %n t$e re!"onent i! "ro)%)-' +ui-t' t$ereo(, %n !$ou- )e $e- (or tri%-.
E2ce"t %! "ro.ie in Section 7 o( t$i! Ru-e, % "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion i! re3uire to )e conucte
)e(ore t$e (i-in+ o( % co&"-i%nt or in(or&%tion (or %n o((en!e #$ere t$e "en%-t' "re!cri)e )' -%# i! %t
-e%!t (our 0;1 'e%r!, t#o 081 &ont$! %n one 011 %' #it$out re+%r to t$e (ine.
4+at is preliminary investigation9
o In$%iry or proceeding to determine w+et+er t+ere is gro%nd to 'orm a -elie' t+at a crime
+as -een committed and t+e respondent is pro-a-ly g%ilty, and s+o%ld -e +eld 'or trial
o 2asically, t+e prosec%tor determines i' t+ere is pro-a-le ca%se
Re$%ired 'or an o''ense w+ere t+e penalty is at least 4 years, mont+s and " day 4I#7EB#
regard to t+e 'ine
As compared to an in$%est: in$%est is done w+en t+ere was a valid warrantless arrest
o ?etermines w+et+er person arrested wit+o%t warrant s+o%ld -e detained or released 'or
'%rt+er PI
Remem-er: in PI, %se ;respondent<, not ;acc%sed*<
o #+e case only -ecomes a criminal one once t+e in'ormation is 'iled*
Sec. 8. O((icer! %ut$ori6e to conuct "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion!. H T$e (o--o#in+ &%' conuct
"re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion!/
0%1 Pro.inci%- or Cit' Pro!ecutor! %n t$eir %!!i!t%nt!5
0)1 N%tion%- %n Re+ion%- St%te Pro!ecutor!5 %n
0c1 Ot$er o((icer! %! &%' )e %ut$ori6e )' -%#.
T$eir %ut$orit' to conuct "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion! !$%-- inc-ue %-- cri&e! co+ni6%)-e )' t$e
"ro"er court in t$eir re!"ecti.e territori%- *uri!iction!. 0A! %&ene )' AM @54>48<4SC, Octo)er :,
8@@51
4+o can cond%ct PI9
o City prosec%tors and t+eir assistants
o Provincial prosec%tors and t+eir assistants
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o /ational and regional state prosec%tors
o EM2, and t+e SP &i' a%t+ori.ed -y t+e EM2)
#+e /2I can /E# cond%ct a PI*
Sec. :. Proceure.H T$e "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion !$%-- )e conucte in t$e (o--o#in+ &%nner/
0%1 T$e co&"-%int !$%-- !t%te t$e %re!! o( t$e re!"onent %n !$%-- )e %cco&"%nie )' t$e
%((i%.it! o( t$e co&"-%in%nt %n $i! #itne!!e!, %! #e-- %! ot$er !u""ortin+ ocu&ent! to e!t%)-i!$
"ro)%)-e c%u!e. T$e' !$%-- )e in !uc$ nu&)er o( co"ie! %! t$ere %re re!"onent!, "-u! t#o 081 co"ie!
(or t$e o((ici%- (i-e. T$e %((i%.it! !$%-- )e !u)!cri)e %n !#orn to )e(ore %n' "ro!ecutor or
+o.ern&ent o((ici%- %ut$ori6e to %&ini!ter o%t$, or, in t$eir %)!ence or un%.%i-%)i-it', )e(ore % not%r'
"u)-ic, e%c$ o( #$o& &u!t certi(' t$%t $e "er!on%--' e2%&ine t$e %((i%nt! %n t$%t $e i! !%ti!(ie t$%t
t$e' .o-unt%ri-' e2ecute %n uner!too t$eir %((i%.it!.
0)1 =it$in ten 01@1 %'! %(ter t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int, t$e in.e!ti+%tin+ o((icer !$%-- eit$er
i!&i!! it i( $e (in! no +roun to continue #it$ t$e in.e!ti+%tion, or i!!ue % !u)"oen% to t$e
re!"onent %tt%c$in+ to it % co"' o( t$e co&"-%int %n it! !u""ortin+ %((i%.it! %n ocu&ent!.
T$e re!"onent !$%-- $%.e t$e ri+$t to e2%&ine t$e e.ience !u)&itte )' t$e co&"-%in%nt #$ic$ $e
&%' not $%.e )een (urni!$e %n to co"' t$e& %t $i! e2"en!e. I( t$e e.ience i! .o-u&inou!, t$e
co&"-%in%nt &%' )e re3uire to !"eci(' t$o!e #$ic$ $e inten! to "re!ent %+%in!t t$e re!"onent, %n
t$e!e !$%-- )e &%e %.%i-%)-e (or e2%&in%tion or co"'in+ )' t$e re!"onent %t $i! e2"en!e.
O)*ect! %! e.ience nee not )e (urni!$e % "%rt' )ut !$%-- )e &%e %.%i-%)-e (or e2%&in%tion,
co"'in+, or "$oto+r%"$in+ %t t$e e2"en!e o( t$e re3ue!tin+ "%rt'.
0c1 =it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& recei"t o( t$e !u)"oen% #it$ t$e co&"-%int %n !u""ortin+ %((i%.it!
%n ocu&ent!, t$e re!"onent !$%-- !u)&it $i! counter4%((i%.it %n t$%t o( $i! #itne!!e! %n ot$er
!u""ortin+ ocu&ent! re-ie u"on (or $i! e(en!e. T$e counter4%((i%.it! !$%-- )e !u)!cri)e %n
!#orn to %n certi(ie %! "ro.ie in "%r%+r%"$ 0%1 o( t$i! !ection, #it$ co"ie! t$ereo( (urni!$e )'
$i& to t$e co&"-%in%nt. T$e re!"onent !$%-- not )e %--o#e to (i-e % &otion to i!&i!! in -ieu o( %
counter4%((i%.it.
01 I( t$e re!"onent c%nnot )e !u)"oen%e, or i( !u)"oen%e, oe! not !u)&it counter4%((i%.it!
#it$in t$e ten 01@1 %' "erio, t$e in.e!ti+%tin+ o((ice !$%-- re!o-.e t$e co&"-%int )%!e on t$e
e.ience "re!ente )' t$e co&"-%in%nt.
0e1 T$e in.e!ti+%tin+ o((icer &%' !et % $e%rin+ i( t$ere %re (%ct! %n i!!ue! to )e c-%ri(ie (ro& %
"%rt' or % #itne!!. T$e "%rtie! c%n )e "re!ent %t t$e $e%rin+ )ut #it$out t$e ri+$t to e2%&ine or cro!!4
e2%&ine. T$e' &%', $o#e.er, !u)&it to t$e in.e!ti+%tin+ o((icer 3ue!tion! #$ic$ &%' )e %!7e to t$e
"%rt' or #itne!! concerne.
T$e $e%rin+ !$%-- )e $e- #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& !u)&i!!ion o( t$e counter4%((i%.it! %n ot$er
ocu&ent! or (ro& t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio (or t$eir !u)&i!!ion. It !$%-- )e ter&in%te #it$in (i.e
051 %'!.
0(1 =it$in ten 01@1 %'! %(ter t$e in.e!ti+%tion, t$e in.e!ti+%tin+ o((icer !$%-- eter&ine #$et$er or
not t$ere i! !u((icient +roun to $o- t$e re!"onent (or tri%-.
(R: #+e complaintCa''idavit m%st -e s%-scri-ed to -e'ore t+e prosec%tor or government o''icial
w+ere t+e case will -e 'iled*
o 7ence, do /E# 'ile a notari.ed a''idavit* @o% +ave to -ring yo%r client to t+e prosec%tor,s
o''ice*
01C0P#IE/:
4+en t+ere is no prosec%tor or government o''icial availa-le
Special case o' Sasot v People, w+ere t+e complainant was a-road
o Remem-er: t+e 6%risdiction o' prosec%tors are -ased on territory* So a prosec%tor in
Cagayan de Ero can not make an in'ormation and t+en 'orward it to Manila*
Bse R%le ""H, Sec 8 &d) to $%as+ it*
5or p%-lic crimes, t+e complaint can -e initiated -y any competent person wit+ personal
knowledge o' t+e acts committed -y t+e o''ender* It need not -e 'iled -y t+e o''ended party*
&compare to private crimes)
o ;Any competent person< incl%des witnesses &Soriano v People, !"!, w+ere t+e witnesses
e>ec%ted a''idavits 'or a case o' esta'a)
4+en a letter or /2IC/CR report is transmitted, along wit+ affidavits of witnesses as attac+ments,
t+e re$%irements 'or initiation o' PI is s%-stantially complied wit+, since t+e a''idavits are w+at
initiate t+e PI, not t+e letters* &Soriano v People, w+ere t+e a''idavits were notari.ed and t+is was
s%-stantial compliance)
#+e a-sence o' oat+ in t+e complaint does /E# necessarily render it invalid*
o 4ant o' oat+ is a mere de'ect o' 'orm, w+ic+ does not a''ect t+e s%-stantial rig+ts o' t+e
de'endant on t+e merits* &Sasot v People, w+ere t+e complaintCa''idavit was notari.ed in
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
*-
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
t+e BS* #+e copy on record was a mere p+otocopy -%t was still allowed -eca%se t+e
co%nsel said t+at t+ey wo%ld present t+e original in co%rt)
5or cases w+ic+ do /E# need PI, only section 8&a) is needed since t+e prosec%tor does not need
t+e co%nterCa''idavit 'rom t+e respondent*
Proced%re 'or PI:
o A'ter receiving t+e a''idavitCcomplaint, t+e prosec%tor +as "! days to determine i' t+ere is
pro-a-le ca%se
7e can dismiss it o%trig+t
It,s act%ally ra''led and assigned to t+e assistant prosec%tor
o #+e assistant prosec%tor will iss%e a s%-poena to t+e respondent
o #+e respondent +as "! days to s%-mit a co%nterCa''idavit
I' none given, t+e investigating o''icer can resolve -ased on t+e complaint
In practice, t+ere can also -e a reply or re6oinder 'rom t+e complainant
o Eptional clari'icatory +earing
4it+in "! days 'rom s%-mission o' t+e co%nterCa''idavits, or 'rom t+e e>piration o'
t+e period 'or s%-mission
o Resol%tion
Bs%ally prepared -y t+e assistant prosec%tor, and t+en approved -y t+e city
prosec%tor &see ne>t section)
Can yo% 'ile an MR wit+ t+e prosec%tor9
o @es= #+e r%le in /amiscal &'iling o' an MR to reverse t+e resol%tion will not -ar t+e 'iling o'
t+e in'ormation) will also apply to local co%rts*
Atty #ran$%il: 0a,at tutu+an mo tala1a yun1 case.
/ote: t+ere is no need 'or t+e service o' s%-poena &and receipt t+ereo') 'or t+e EP to o-tain 6d
over t+e respondent*
o #+ere,s no case against +im yet, 6%st an investigation*
o 0ven i' +e doesn,t s%-mit a co%nterCa''idavit, t+ere can still -e a resol%tion against +im*
Preliminary investigation is not t+e occasion 'or '%ll and e>+a%stive display o' evidence*
o 7ence, t+e admissi-ility o' a 'a> message can /E# -e determined d%ring a PI* It is -etter
ventilated in a '%llC-lown trial* &Lee v L2C 2ank, !"")
Sec. ;. Re!o-ution o( in.e!ti+%tin+ "ro!ecutor %n it! re.ie#. H I( t$e in.e!ti+%tin+ "ro!ecutor (in!
c%u!e to $o- t$e re!"onent (or tri%-, $e !$%-- "re"%re t$e re!o-ution %n in(or&%tion. He !$%-- certi('
uner o%t$ in t$e in(or&%tion t$%t $e, or %! !$o#n )' t$e recor, %n %ut$ori6e o((icer, $%! "er!on%--'
e2%&ine t$e co&"-%in%nt %n $i! #itne!!e!5 t$%t t$ere i! re%!on%)-e +roun to )e-ie.e t$%t % cri&e
$%! )een co&&itte %n t$%t t$e %ccu!e i! "ro)%)-' +ui-t' t$ereo(5 t$%t t$e %ccu!e #%! in(or&e o(
t$e co&"-%int %n o( t$e e.ience !u)&itte %+%in!t $i&5 %n t$%t $e #%! +i.en %n o""ortunit' to
!u)&it contro.ertin+ e.ience. Ot$er#i!e, $e !$%-- reco&&en t$e i!&i!!%- o( t$e co&"-%int.
=it$in (i.e 051 %'! (ro& $i! re!o-ution, $e !$%-- (or#%r t$e recor o( t$e c%!e to t$e "ro.inci%- or
cit' "ro!ecutor or c$ie( !t%te "ro!ecutor, or to t$e O&)u!&%n or $i! e"ut' in c%!e! o( o((en!e!
co+ni6%)-e )' t$e S%ni+%n)%'%n in t$e e2erci!e o( it! ori+in%- *uri!iction. T$e' !$%-- %ct on t$e
re!o-ution #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& t$eir recei"t t$ereo( %n !$%-- i&&ei%te-' in(or& t$e "%rtie! o(
!uc$ %ction.
No co&"-%int or in(or&%tion &%' )e (i-e or i!&i!!e )' %n in.e!ti+%tin+ "ro!ecutor #it$out t$e
"rior #ritten %ut$orit' or %""ro.%- o( t$e "ro.inci%- or cit' "ro!ecutor or c$ie( !t%te "ro!ecutor or t$e
O&)u!&%n or $i! e"ut'.
=$ere t$e in.e!ti+%tin+ "ro!ecutor reco&&en! t$e i!&i!!%- o( t$e co&"-%int )ut $i!
reco&&en%tion i! i!%""ro.e )' t$e "ro.inci%- or cit' "ro!ecutor or c$ie( !t%te "ro!ecutor or t$e
O&)u!&%n or $i! e"ut' on t$e +roun t$%t % "ro)%)-e c%u!e e2i!t!, t$e -%tter &%', )' $i&!e-(, (i-e
t$e in(or&%tion %+%in!t t$e re!"onent, or irect %not$er %!!i!t%nt "ro!ecutor or !t%te "ro!ecutor to
o !o #it$out conuctin+ %not$er "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion.
I( u"on "etition )' % "ro"er "%rt' uner !uc$ ru-e! %! t$e De"%rt&ent o( Bu!tice &%' "re!cri)e or
&otu "ro"io, t$e Secret%r' o( Bu!tice re.er!e! or &oi(ie! t$e re!o-ution o( t$e "ro.inci%- or cit'
"ro!ecutor or c$ie( !t%te "ro!ecutor, $e !$%-- irect t$e "ro!ecutor concerne eit$er to (i-e t$e
corre!"onin+ in(or&%tion #it$out conuctin+ %nt$er "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion, or to i!&i!! or &o.e
(or i!&i!!%- o( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion #it$ notice to t$e "%rtie!. T$e !%&e ru-e !$%-- %""-' in
"re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion! conucte )' t$e o((icer! o( t$e O((ice o( t$e O&)u!&%n.
#+e resol%tion made -y t+e investigating o''icer s+all -e 'orwarded &along wit+ t+e records) to t+e
city &or provincial or c+ie' state) prosec%tor or EM2*
o /o complaint or in'ormation may -e 'iled or dismissed -y t+e investigating o''icer wit+o%t
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+.
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
t+e prior written a%t+ority or approval o' t+e city prosec%tor &or provincial or c+ie' state)*
o I' t+e resol%tion o' t+e investigating prosec%tor is 'or dismissal -%t is disapproved -y +is
-oss, t+e -oss can eit+er:
5ile t+e in'ormation +imsel', or
?irect anot+er prosec%tor to do it
4I#7EB# need o' a new PI
0it+er party can petition to t+e Secretary o' J%stice &or +e can do it mot% propio) and
reverseAmodi'y t+e resol%tion o' t+e provincial, city or c+ie' state prosec
o #+e ?EJ Sec can direct t+e prosec to
5ile t+e corresponding in'o wit+o%t need o' anot+er PI, or
?ismiss t+e in'ormation
7ow do yo% appeal t+e resol%tion9
8
o 4it+in ": days, 'ile wit+ t+e E''ice o' t+e Secretary o' J%stice a K0RI5I0? Petition 'or
Review*
4
#+e period can /E# -e e>tended*
I' t+e ?EJ ?ecision is adverse:
Bse R%le 48 to t+e CA
Er E''ice o' t+e President i' p%nis+a-le -y RP or +ig+er
2%t i' -ased on (A?AL0J, R%le D: to t+e CA
o Compare: i' (A?AL0J o' EM2, yo% go straig+t to SC
o #+e ?EJ can only review resol%tions o' o''enses re$%iring a PI or t+ose w+ic+ +ave gone
t+ro%g+ reinvestigation*
:
I' no PI, t+en ?EJ can /E# review*
Reinvestigation: applies w+en:
#+ere was already a PI, or
#+ere was s%pposed to -e a PI -%t it was not done,
o 5iled wit+ t+e CityAProv Prosec or t+e co%rt itsel' &i' wit+ co%rt,
wit+ motion to li't warrant)
In Comm%nity R%ral 2ank v #alavera, t+e SC did not allow
t+e trial co%rt 6%dge to allow t+e reinvestigation -eca%se
t+e ?EJ Secretary +ad already r%led on t+e matter
-e'ore+and* Allowing t+e trial co%rt 6%dge to order t+e
prosec%tor to reinvestigate will, in e''ect, make t+e lowly
prosec%tor review t+e decision o' t+e ?EJ Secretary* #+at
can,t -e allowed*
So, %s%ally, i' t+e ?EJ Sec already r%les on t+e
matter, yo% can,t ask t+e 6%dge 'or a
reinvestigation anymore* 2ma+yat na sa 034 Sec
eh.
o 4+at is t+e e''ect o' t+e appeal to t+e ?EJ9
It will /E# +old t+e 'iling o' in'ormation, %nless t+e ?EJ Secretary says ot+erwise*
Alt+o%g+ Atty* #ran$%il said it will %s%ally de'er t+e proceedings*
2%t t+e appellant and t+e prosec%tor will see to it t+at t+e proceedings are +eld in
a-eyance*
D
I' in'ormation +as already -een 'iled, t+e appeal to t+e ?EJ will de'er arraignment
'or D! days*
H
2(
See C6I 9ircular 5o. 7. "2...#
2)
SD90<65 2. Where to appeal. /n appeal may be brought to the Secretary of Iustice ithin the period and in the manner herein provided.
SD90<65 (. $eriod to appeal. 0he appeal shall be ta'en ithin fifteen "1*# days from receipt of the resolution, or of the denial of the motion for
reconsideration?reinvestigation if one has been filed ithin fifteen "1*# days from receipt of the assailed resolution. 6nly one motion for
reconsideration shall be alloed.
SD90<65 ). Bo appeal ta'en. /n aggrieved party may appeal by filing a verified petition for revie ith the 6ffice of the Secretary,
Cepartment of Iustice, and by furnishing copies thereof to the adverse party and the $rosecution 6ffice issuing the appealed resolution.
2*
SD90<65 1. Scope. : 0his Rule shall apply to appeals from resolutions of the 9hief State $rosecutor, Regional State $rosecutors and
$rovincial?9ity $rosecutors in cases subject of preliminary investigation? reinvestigation.
2+
SD90<65 -. Dffect of the appeal. @nless the Secretary of Iustice directs otherise, the appeal shall not hold the filing of the corresponding
information in court on the basis of the finding of probable cause in the appealed resolution.
27
Rule 11+ l Sec. 11. #uspension of arraignment. @pon motion by the proper party, the arraignment shall be suspended in the folloing cases!
111
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+1
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o 4+at i' t+e in'ormation was already 'iled in co%rt9
A copy o' t+e motion to de'er proceedings m%st accompany t+e petition*
I
o 4+at i' t+e acc%sed was arraigned after t+e 'iling o' t+e petition wit+ ?EJ9
It will not prevent t+e ?EJ 'rom acting on t+e appeal* &Serag v CA, 4H8 SCRA :3!,
w+ere t+e SC said t+ere was %nd%e +aste on t+e R#C w+en it arraigned t+e
acc%sed knowing t+at t+ere was still an appeal and pending MR o' t+e ?EJ
decision* It s+o%ld +ave waited 'or t+e 'inal resol%tion o' t+e ?EJ -e'ore doing so*
Interesting -eca%se t+e acc%sed were arraigned 'or +omicide, -%t t+e SC
disallowed t+e arraignment -eca%se t+e 'inal ?EJ resol%tion stated it s+o%ld +ave
-een m%rder* /E do%-le 6eopardy= 7owever, Sir said t+at in practice)
2%t i' t+e arraignment +appened before t+e appeal to t+e ?EJ, t+e petition
will not -e given d%e co%rse*
3
&Adasa v A-alos, !!H)
Comments o' t+e #ran$%ili.er: In practice, t+e co%rt can,t wait 'orever 'or t+e ?EJ
to act on t+e petition 'or review* And w+atever 'indings t+e ?EJ +as, it,s merely
recommendatory as t+e co%rt already +as 6%risdiction over t+e case* I' t+e acc%sed
+ad already -een arraigned, t+en t+e petition 'or review will really -e %seless*
o Can yo% 'ile an MR to t+e decision o' t+e ?EJ9
@es, period is "! days* #+is is w+at was 'iled in Serag v CA*
?oes t+e posting o' -ail -ar t+e acc%sed 'rom $%estioning t+e cond%ct &or a-sence) o' PI or t+e
legality o' t+e arrest9
o /o, it does not* Acc%sed can still $%estion* &Eka-e v (%tierre., !!4 w+ere t+e arrest and
t+e cond%ct o' t+e PI were -ot+ $%estioned)
Sec. 5. =$en #%rr%nt o( %rre!t &%' i!!ue. H
0%1 A' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court. H =it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion,
t$e *u+e !$%-- "er!on%--' e.%-u%te t$e re!o-ution o( t$e "ro!ecutor %n it! !u""ortin+ e.ience. He
&%' i&&ei%te-' i!&i!! t$e c%!e i( t$e e.ience on recor c-e%r-' (%i-! to e!t%)-i!$ "ro)%)-e c%u!e. I(
$e (in! "ro)%)-e c%u!e, $e !$%-- i!!ue % #%rr%nt o( %rre!t, or % co&&it&ent orer i( t$e %ccu!e $%!
%-re%' )een %rre!te "ur!u%nt to % #%rr%nt i!!ue )' t$e *u+e #$o conucte t$e "re-i&in%r'
in.e!ti+%tion or #$en t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion #%! (i-e "ur!u%nt to !ection 7 o( t$i! Ru-e. In c%!e
o( ou)t on t$e e2i!tence o( "ro)%)-e c%u!e, t$e *u+e &%' orer t$e "ro!ecutor to "re!ent %ition%-
e.ience #it$in (i.e 051 %'! (ro& notice %n t$e i!!ue &u!t )e re!o-.e )' t$e court #it$in t$irt' 0:@1
%'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int o( in(or&%tion.
0)1 A' t$e Munici"%- Tri%- Court. H =$en re3uire "ur!u%nt to t$e !econ "%r%+r%"$ o( !ection o( t$i!
Ru-e, t$e "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion o( c%!e! (%--in+ uner t$e ori+in%- *uri!iction o( t$e Metro"o-it%n
Tri%- Court, Munici"%- Tri%- Court in Citie!, Munici"%- Tri%- Court, or Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court !$%-- )e
conucte )' t$e "ro!ecutor. T$e "roceure (or t$e i!!u%nce o( % #%rr%nt o( %rre!t )' t$e *u+e !$%--
)e +o.erne )' "%r%+r%"$ 0%1 o( t$i! !ection.
0c1 =$en #%rr%nt o( %rre!t not nece!!%r'. H A #%rr%nt o( %rre!t !$%-- not i!!ue i( t$e %ccu!e i!
%-re%' uner etention "ur!u%nt to % #%rr%nt i!!ue )' t$e &unici"%- tri%- court in %ccor%nce #it$
"%r%+r%"$ 0)1 o( t$i! !ection, or i( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion #%! (i-e "ur!u%nt to !ection < o( t$i!
Ru-e or i! (or %n o((en!e "en%-i6e )' (ine on-'. T$e court !$%-- t$e& "rocee in t$e e2erci!e o( it!
ori+in%- *uri!iction.
"c# / petition for revie of the resolution of the prosecutor is pending at either the Cepartment of Iustice, or the 6ffice of the $resident% provided,
that the period of suspension shall not e1ceed si1ty "+.# days counted from the filing of the petition ith the revieing office.
2,
SD90<65 *. 9ontents of petition. : 0he petition shall contain or state! "a# the names and addresses of the parties% "b# the <nvestigation Slip
number "<.S. 5o.# and criminal case number, if any, and title of the case, including the offense charged in the complaint% "c# the venue of the
preliminary investigation% "d# the specific material dates shoing that it as filed on time% "e# a clear and concise statement of the facts, the
assignment of errors, and the reasons or arguments relied upon for the alloance of the appeal% and "f# proof of service of a copy of the petition to
the adverse party and the $rosecution 6ffice concerned.
0he petition shall be accompanied by legible duplicate original or certified true copy of the resolution appealed from together ith legible true
copies of the complaint, affidavits?sorn statements and other evidence submitted by the parties during the preliminary investigation?
reinvestigation.
<f an information has been filed in court pursuant to the appealed resolution, a copy of the motion to defer proceedings filed in court must also
accompany the petition. 0he investigating?revieing?approving prosecutor shall not be impleaded as party respondent in the petition. 0he party
ta'ing the appeal shall be referred to in the petition as either =9omplainant:/ppellant= or =Respondent: /ppellant=.
2-
SD90<65 7. /ction on the petition. 0he Secretary of Iustice may dismiss the petition outright if he finds the same to be patently ithout merit
or manifestly intended for delay, or hen the issues raised therein are too unsubstantial to re;uire consideration. <f an information has been filed
in court pursuant to the appealed resolution, the petition shall not be given due course if the accused had already been arraigned. /ny arraignment
made after the filing of the petition shall not bar the Secretary of Iustice from e1ercising his poer of revie.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+2
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
#+ere is e>ec%tive determination and 6%dicial determination o' pro-a-le ca%se
o 0>ec%tive -y t+e prosec%tor, 'or in'ormation
o J%dicial -y t+e 6%dge, 'or t+e warrant o' arrest
J%dge s+o%ld not rely solely on prosec%tor,s resol%tion* #+e prosec%tor m%st
'orward t+e doc%ments to t+e 6%dge* &Eka-e v (%tierre.)
Ence t+e in'ormation is 'iled in co%rt, t+e R#C 6%dge +as t+ree options:
o ?ismiss t+e case 'or a-sence o' pro-a-le ca%se
#+e 6%dge can act%ally do t+is motu ,ro,io, -%t +e won,t -eca%se +e,ll look
s%spicio%s* So, t+e respondent +as to 'ile a motion 'or determination o' pro-a-le
ca%se in order to dismiss t+e in'ormation* 7e will allege lack o' pro-a-le ca%se*
8!
o Iss%e a warrant o' arrest &or a commitment order), a'ter personally determining t+e
e>istence o' pro-a-le ca%se, wit+in "! days
#ran$%ili.er: a%tomatic yan, -asta "! days, magCiss%e yan*
o Call 'or a +earing to determine pro-a-le ca%se
4+at a-o%t t+e M#C 6%dge9
o It depends*
/ot e>ceeding D years -%t more t+an 4 years, mont+s, " day
8"
: 6%st like t+e R#C
2elow 4 years, mont+s, " day -%t more t+an D mont+s
8
: same, -%t t+e iss%ance
o' t+e warrant is %p to t+e discretion o' t+e co%rt*
I' t+e co%rt t+inks t+at it,s not too grave, it can 6%st iss%e s%mmons*
o IMPER#A/#: #+is is t+e only criminal proced%re provision w+ic+
recogni.es t+e iss%ance o' a s%mmons*
/ot more t+an D mont+s &s%mmary proced%re): co%rt can /E# iss%e a warrant o'
arrest* Instead, it will re$%ire a co%nterCa''idavit*
#+e co%rt can only iss%e a warrant o' arrest 'or 'ail%re to appear in co%rt
despite repeated notice
Prime e>ample: 2P
4+en do yo% 'ile a motion 'or determination o' pro-a-le ca%se9
o A'ter t+e 'iling o' t+e in'o, -e'ore t+e 6%dge +as acted on it*
Can /E# -e 'iled a'ter iss%ance o' a warrant o' arrest*
4+en is a warrant o' arrest not necessary9
o Acc%sed already %nder detention
o Complaint or in'o was 'iled %nder Sec D &law'%l warrantless arrest)
o E''ense penali.ed only -y a 'ine
Sec. <. =$en %ccu!e -%#(u--' %rre!te #it$out #%rr%nt. H =$en % "er!on i! -%#(u--' %rre!te #it$out
% #%rr%nt in.o-.in+ %n o((en!e #$ic$ re3uire! % "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion, t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion
&%' )e (i-e )' % "ro!ecutor #it$out nee o( !uc$ in.e!ti+%tion "ro.ie %n in3ue!t $%! )een
conucte in %ccor%nce #it$ e2i!tin+ ru-e!. In t$e %)!ence or un%.%i-%)i-it' o( %n in3ue!t "ro!ecutor,
t$e co&"-%int &%' )e (i-e )' t$e o((ene "%rt' or % "e%ce o((icer irect-' #it$ t$e "ro"er court on t$e
)%!i! o( t$e %((i%.it o( t$e o((ene "%rt' or %rre!tin+ o((icer or "er!on.
Ae(ore t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion i! (i-e, t$e "er!on %rre!te &%' %!7 (or % "re-i&in%r'
in.e!ti+%tion in %ccor%nce #it$ t$i! Ru-e, )ut $e &u!t !i+n % #%i.er o( t$e "ro.i!ion o( Artic-e 185 o(
t$e Re.i!e Pen%- Coe, %! %&ene, in t$e "re!ence o( $i! coun!e-. Not#it$!t%nin+ t$e #%i.er, $e
&%' %""-' (or )%i- %n t$e in.e!ti+%tion &u!t )e ter&in%te #it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! (ro& it! ince"tion.
A(ter t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion in court #it$out % "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion, t$e
%ccu!e &%', #it$in (i.e 051 %'! (ro& t$e ti&e $e -e%rn! o( it! (i-in+, %!7 (or % "re-i&in%r'
in.e!ti+%tion #it$ t$e !%&e ri+$t to %uce e.ience in $i! e(en!e %! "ro.ie in t$i! Ru-e.
In$%est will only apply i':
o 4arrantless arrest
o E''ense re$%ires a PI*
4+en a person is law'%lly arrested wit+o%t warrant, w+at is t+e process9
o 7e,s -ro%g+t 'irst to t+e police station*
o Atty #ran$%il says t+ere are 4 options:
(.
9an you file a 3otion to Luash instead8 /tty 0ran;uil! 5o, as a practical matter, you file a 30L after the arrest and before arraignment. <f you
can dismiss the information before the arrant of arrest is issued, better not to use the 30L.
(1
i.e. under 309 IC but needs $<
(2
i.e. no need for $< but not under Rules on Summary $rocedure
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
In$%est* Sa ayaw mo or sa 1usto mo, ma)iinquest +a.
The other o,tions can be availed of if the co,s brin1 your client to the
,olice station at ni1ht and there arent any inquest ,rosecutors to hel,
you.
In$%est o''icer will eit+er order yo% to -e detained or released 'or '%rt+er
preliminary investigation*
o I' released 'or '%rt+er PI, reg%lar proced%re 'or PI will -e done*
@o% can 'ile 'or -ail d%ring in$%est*
Apply 'or -ail
@o% can even apply 'or -ail wit+ t+e e>ec%tive 6%dge* 5ero s+ill na yan.
I' detained and -e'ore t+e complaint or in'o is 'iled, yo% can go 'or PI, -%t yo%
+ave to waive R%le ":*
0ven wit+ t+e waiver, yo% can still apply 'or -ail*
I' t+e in'o +as already -een 'iled wit+o%t t+e PI &like w+en t+e complaint is 'iled -y
t+e o''ended party or t+e police directly wit+ t+e proper co%rt), yo% can still ask
'or PI*
4+at i' arrested 'or an o''ense and c+arged, and t+en escapes, and t+en arrested wit+o%t
warrant9
o In$%est m%st -e cond%cted*
So, w+at +appens i' warrantless arrest -%t t+e o''ense does not need PI &like vagrancy)9
o In'o will -e directly 'iled wit+ t+e prosec%tor ER t+e M#C* &Remem-er Section 8a, in
relation to Sec I)
2%t -ail can -e applied 'or since already arrested*
Sec. 7. Recor!. H
0%1 Recor! !u""ortin+ t$e in(or&%tion or co&"-%int. H An in(or&%tion or co&"-%int (i-e in court !$%--
)e !u""orte )' t$e %((i%.it! %n counter4%((i%.it! o( t$e "%rtie! %n t$eir #itne!!e!, to+et$er #it$
t$e ot$er !u""ortin+ e.ience %n t$e re!o-ution on t$e c%!e.
0)1 Recor o( "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion. H T$e recor o( t$e "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion, #$et$er
conucte )' % *u+e or % "ro!ecutor, !$%-- not (or& "%rt o( t$e recor o( t$e c%!e. Ho#e.er, t$e court,
on it! o#n initi%ti.e or on &otion o( %n' "%rt', &%' orer t$e "rouction o( t$e recor or %n' o( it! "%rt
#$en nece!!%r' in t$e re!o-ution o( t$e c%!e or %n' incient t$erein, or #$en it i! to )e introuce %!
%n e.ience in t$e c%!e )' t$e re3ue!tin+ "%rt'.
Sec. >. C%!e! not re3uirin+ % "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion nor co.ere )' t$e Ru-e on Su&&%r' Proceure.
H 0%1 I( (i-e #it$ t$e "ro!ecutor. H I( t$e co&"-%int i! (i-e irect-' #it$ t$e "ro!ecutor in.o-.in+ %n
o((en!e "uni!$%)-e )' i&"ri!on&ent o( -e!! t$%n (our 0;1 'e%r!, t#o 081 &ont$! %n one 011 %', t$e
"roceure out-ine in !ection :0%1 o( t$i! Ru-e !$%-- )e o)!er.e. T$e "ro!ecutor !$%-- %ct on t$e
co&"-%int )%!e on t$e %((i%.it! %n ot$er !u""ortin+ ocu&ent! !u)&itte )' t$e co&"-%in%nt
#it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& it! (i-in+.
0)1 I( (i-e #it$ t$e Munici"%- Tri%- Court. H I( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion i! (i-e #it$ t$e Munici"%-
Tri%- Court or Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court (or %n o((en!e co.ere )' t$i! !ection, t$e "roceure in
!ection : 0%1 o( t$i! Ru-e !$%-- )e o)!er.e. I( #it$in ten 01@1 %'! %(ter t$e (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int or
in(or&%tion, t$e *u+e (in! no "ro)%)-e c%u!e %(ter "er!on%--' e.%-u%tin+ t$e e.ience, or %(ter
"er!on%--' e2%&inin+ in #ritin+ %n uner o%t$ t$e co&"-%in%nt %n $i! #itne!!e! in t$e (or& o(
!e%rc$in+ 3ue!tion! %n %n!#er!, $e !$%-- i!&i!! t$e !%&e. He &%', $o#e.er, re3uire t$e !u)&i!!ion
o( %ition%- e.ience, #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& notice, to eter&ine (urt$er t$e e2i!tence o( "ro)%)-e
c%u!e. I( t$e *u+e !ti-- (in! no "ro)%)-e c%u!e e!"ite t$e %ition%- e.ience, $e !$%--, #it$in ten
01@1 %'! (ro& it! !u)&i!!ion or e2"ir%tion o( !%i "erio, i!&i!! t$e c%!e. =$en $e (in! "ro)%)-e
c%u!e, $e !$%-- i!!ue % #%rr%nt o( %rre!t, or % co&&it&ent orer i( t$e %ccu!e $% %-re%' )een
%rre!te, %n $o- $i& (or tri%-. Ho#e.er, i( t$e *u+e i! !%ti!(ie t$%t t$ere i! no nece!!it' (or "-%cin+
t$e %ccu!e uner cu!to', $e &%' i!!ue !u&&on! in!te% o( % #%rr%nt o( %rre!t.
Say yo% were s%ed 'or slig+t p+ysical in6%ries in MM and it was not in 'lagrante delicto, -%t on t+e
-asis o' a''idavit complaint* 4+at +appens9
o /o need 'or PI*
I' t+e complaint was 'iled wit+ t+e prosec, 8&a) will -e 'ollowed* Prosec%tor will
determine pro-a-le ca%se and t+en 'ile t+e in'o in co%rt*
I' t+e complaint or in'o was 'iled wit+ t+e M#C or MC#C, 8 &a) will -e 'ollowed*
J%dge will determine pro-a-le ca%se and it,s in +is discretion to iss%e eit+er a
warrant o' arrest or mere s%mmons*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
RULE 11: 4 ARREST
Section 1. De(inition o( %rre!t. H Arre!t i! t$e t%7in+ o( % "er!on into cu!to' in orer t$%t $e &%' )e
)oun to %n!#er (or t$e co&&i!!ion o( %n o((en!e.

Sec. 8. Arre!t5 $o# &%e. H An %rre!t i! &%e )' %n %ctu%- re!tr%int o( % "er!on to )e %rre!te, or )'
$i! !u)&i!!ion to t$e cu!to' o( t$e "er!on &%7in+ t$e %rre!t.
No .io-ence or unnece!!%r' (orce !$%-- )e u!e in &%7in+ %n %rre!t. T$e "er!on %rre!te !$%-- not )e
!u)*ect to % +re%ter re!tr%int t$%n i! nece!!%r' (or $i! etention.
7ow is an arrest made9
o Act%al restraint, or
o Kol%ntary s%-mission to t+e c%stody o' t+e person making t+e arrest

Sec. :. Dut' o( %rre!tin+ o((icer. H It !$%-- )e t$e ut' o( t$e o((icer e2ecutin+ t$e #%rr%nt to %rre!t t$e
%ccu!e %n e-i.er $i& to t$e ne%re!t "o-ice !t%tion or *%i- #it$out unnece!!%r' e-%'.
Sec. <. Ti&e o( &%7in+ %rre!t. H An %rre!t &%' )e &%e on %n' %' %n %t %n' ti&e o( t$e %' or
ni+$t.
4+atever t+e kind o' arrest &warrantless or not), it is t+e d%ty o' t+e arresting o''icer to
immediately deliver +im to t+e nearest police station*
4+en can yo% make an arrest9
o Any day, at any time o' t+e day or nig+t*
Sec. ;. E2ecution o( #%rr%nt. H T$e $e% o( t$e o((ice to #$o& t$e #%rr%nt o( %rre!t #%! e-i.ere (or
e2ecution !$%-- c%u!e t$e #%rr%nt to )e e2ecute #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& it! recei"t. =it$in ten 01@1
%'! %(ter t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio, t$e o((icer to #$o& it #%! %!!i+ne (or e2ecution !$%-- &%7e %
re"ort to t$e *u+e #$o i!!ue t$e #%rr%nt. In c%!e o( $i! (%i-ure to e2ecute t$e #%rr%nt, $e !$%-- !t%te
t$e re%!on t$ere(ore.
Sec. 7. Met$o o( %rre!t )' o((icer )' .irtue o( #%rr%nt. H =$en &%7in+ %n %rre!t )' .irtue o( %
#%rr%nt, t$e o((icer !$%-- in(or& t$e "er!on to )e %rre!te o( t$e c%u!e o( t$e %rre!t %n t$e (%ct t$%t %
#%rr%nt $%! )een i!!ue (or $i! %rre!t, e2ce"t #$en $e (-ee! or (orci)-' re!i!t! )e(ore t$e o((icer $%!
o""ortunit' to !o in(or& $i&, or #$en t$e +i.in+ o( !uc$ in(or&%tion #i-- i&"eri- t$e %rre!t. T$e o((icer
nee not $%.e t$e #%rr%nt in $i! "o!!e!!ion %t t$e ti&e o( t$e %rre!t )ut %(ter t$e %rre!t, i( t$e "er!on
%rre!te !o re3uire!, t$e #%rr%nt !$%-- )e !$o#n to $i& %! !oon %! "r%ctic%)-e.
Period to e>ec%te warrant: "! days
7ow does an arrest wit+ a warrant take place9
o E''icer in'orms t+e person to -e arrested t+e ca%se o' t+e arrest and t+at a warrant +as
-een iss%ed 'or +is arrest
01C0P#:
w+en t+e person 'lees or 'orci-ly resists, or
w+en t+e giving o' s%c+ in'o will imperil t+e arrest
?oes t+e arresting o''icer need to +ave t+e warrant on +im9
o /o* 2%t i' t+e person arrested wants to see it, it m%st -e s+own to +im as soon as
practica-le*
2e wary o' 'ake warrants=
Sec. 5. Arre!t #it$out #%rr%nt5 #$en -%#(u-. H A "e%ce o((icer or % "ri.%te "er!on &%', #it$out %
#%rr%nt, %rre!t % "er!on/
0%1 =$en, in $i! "re!ence, t$e "er!on to )e %rre!te $%! co&&itte, i! %ctu%--' co&&ittin+, or i!
%tte&"tin+ to co&&it %n o((en!e5
0)1 =$en %n o((en!e $%! *u!t )een co&&itte %n $e $%! "ro)%)-e c%u!e to )e-ie.e )%!e on "er!on%-
7no#-e+e o( (%ct! or circu&!t%nce! t$%t t$e "er!on to )e %rre!te $%! co&&itte it5 %n
0c1 =$en t$e "er!on to )e %rre!te i! % "ri!oner #$o $%! e!c%"e (ro& % "en%- e!t%)-i!$&ent or "-%ce
#$ere $e i! !er.in+ (in%- *u+&ent or i! te&"or%ri-' con(ine #$i-e $i! c%!e i! "enin+, or $%! e!c%"e
#$i-e )ein+ tr%n!(erre (ro& one con(ine&ent to %not$er.
In c%!e! (%--in+ uner "%r%+r%"$! 0%1 %n 0)1 %)o.e, t$e "er!on %rre!te #it$out % #%rr%nt !$%-- )e
(ort$#it$ e-i.ere to t$e ne%re!t "o-ice !t%tion or *%i- %n !$%-- )e "roceee %+%in!t in %ccor%nce
#it$ !ection 7 o( Ru-e 118.
Sec. 1:. Arre!t %(ter e!c%"e or re!cue. H I( % "er!on -%#(u--' %rre!te e!c%"e! or i! re!cue, %n' "er!on
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
&%' i&&ei%te-' "ur!ue or ret%7e $i& #it$out % #%rr%nt %t %n' ti&e %n in %n' "-%ce #it$in t$e
P$i-i""ine!.
4+en can yo% arrest wit+o%t a warrant9
o In 'lagrante delicto, in t+e presence o' t+e peace o''icer or private person
o E''ense +as JBS# -een committed, and t+e peace o''icer or private person +as PRE2A2L0
CABS0 to -elieve -ased on P0RSE/AL L/E4L0?(0 t+at t+e person to -e arrested +as
committed it
o Person 6%st escaped 'rom con'inement &convicted or detained) or +as escaped w+ile -eing
trans'erred
o I' a person law'%lly arrested escapes or is resc%ed, A/@ person may immediately p%rs%e
+im or retake +im 4I#7EB# a warrant &Sec "8)
o Also arrest -y 6%dicial -ondsmen, or w+en t+e acc%sed &on -ail) attempts to depart 'rom
t+e co%ntry &See R%le ""4, Sec 8)
88
Re: in 'lagrante delicto
o #wo re$%isites:
0>ec%tion o' an EK0R# act indicating t+at +e 6%st committed, is act%ally
committing, or is attempting to commit a crime, and
S%c+ overt act is done in t+e presence or wit+in t+e view o' t+e arresting o''icer
o A -%yC-%st operation is a good e>ample o' an warrantless arrest in 'lagrante delicto*
&People v ?e Leon, !"!, w+erein t+e acc%sed was ca%g+t selling s+a-% to a police
operative, note t+is case 'or searc+es and sei.%re)
o Police o''icers arrested a man wit+o%t a warrant -ased on a tip o' +is 'ormer employees
t+at +e sold dr%gs* #+e man was arrested w+ile +e was walking to +is car* /E# valid* 7e
was not committing any visi-le o''ense w+en +e was walking to +is car* &People v Lag%io,
!!H)
o 2arangay tanods arrested wit+o%t a warrant a man w+o 6%st got down 'rom a -%s and was
looking aro%nd* #+ey c+ased +im and +e 'led* #+ey ca%g+t %p to +im and 'o%nd mari6%ana
in +is -ag* Kalid searc+ and arrest 9 /E# valid* Act o' looking aro%nd a'ter getting o'' t+e
-%s was not an over act indicating t+at +e committed, act%ally committed a crime* 5lig+t
per se is not synonymo%s wit+ g%ilt* &Kalde. v People, !!H)
Re: o''ense &ust -een committed, pro-a-le ca%se wit+ personal knowledge o' t+e arresting o''icers
o #+e one w+o makes t+e arrest m%st do so -ased on pro-a-le ca%se and personal
knowledge t+at an o''ense +as &ust -een committed
5or e>ample, two o''icers were eating in a carinderia, and t+ey s%ddenly +ear a
commotion 'rom down t+e road* #+ey look o%t and see a man wit+ a -loody -olo
r%nning down t+e street* #+ey can arrest +im*
o 2eing arrested D days a'ter t+e commission o' t+e crime is not a valid warrantless arrest*
&Rolito (o v CA, "33)
A'ter t+e warrantless arrest, +e m%st immediately -e delivered to t+e nearest police station or 6ail
o I' t+e o''ense re$%ires a PI, +e will %ndergo in$%est &so +e will -e -ro%g+t to t+e
Prosec%tor,s o''ice)
I' t+e in$%est prosec%tor releases t+e arrested, t+e case is /E# dismissed* #+is
6%st means t+e a''idavitCcomplaint o' t+e arresting o''icer will -e %sed as a
complaint 'or t+e normal PI proced%re*
I' t+e in$%est prosec%tor detains t+e arrested, t+e arrestedCacc%sed can eit+er
apply 'or PI or not*
I' +e applies 'or PI, +e needs to sign a waiver o' Art ":* 7e can also apply
'or -ail wit+ t+e e>ec%tive 6%dge*
I' +e does not apply 'or PI, an in'ormation will -e 'iled against +im and +e
will -e arraigned*
Sec. >. Met$o o( %rre!t )' o((icer #it$out #%rr%nt. H =$en &%7in+ %n %rre!t #it$out % #%rr%nt, t$e
o((icer !$%-- in(or& t$e "er!on to )e %rre!te o( $i! %ut$orit' %n t$e c%u!e o( t$e %rre!t, un-e!! t$e
((
Sec. 2(. /rrest of accused out on bail. For the purpose of surrendering the accused, the bondsmen may arrest him or, upon ritten authority
endorsed on a certified copy of the underta'ing, cause him to be arrested by a police officer or any other person of suitable age and discretion.
/n accused released on bail may be re:arrested ithout the necessity of a arrant if he attempts to depart from the $hilippines ithout
permission of the court here the case is pending.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
++
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
-%tter i! eit$er en+%+e in t$e co&&i!!ion o( %n o((en!e, i! "ur!ue i&&ei%te-' %(ter it! co&&i!!ion,
$%! e!c%"e, (-ee!, or (orci)-' re!i!t! )e(ore t$e o((icer $%! o""ortunit' to !o in(or& $i&, or #$en t$e
+i.in+ o( !uc$ in(or&%tion #i-- i&"eri- t$e %rre!t.
4+at is t+e d%ty o' t+e arresting o''icer i' t+e arrest is made wit+o%t a warrant9
o State +is a%t+ority to arrest, and
o #+e ca%se o' +is arrest*
4+en is t+is C'old d%ty dispensed wit+9
o 0ngaged in t+e commission o' t+e o''ense
o P%rs%it immediately a'ter its commission
o 0scapes, 'lees, or 'orci-le resists -e'ore o''icer co%ld do so
o (iving o' s%c+ will imperil t+e arrest
Sec. ?. Met$o o( %rre!t )' "ri.%te "er!on. H =$en &%7in+ %n %rre!t, % "ri.%te "er!on !$%-- in(or&
t$e "er!on to )e %rre!te o( t$e intention to %rre!t $i& %n t$e c%u!e o( t$e %rre!t, un-e!! t$e -%tter i!
eit$er en+%+e in t$e co&&i!!ion o( %n o((en!e, i! "ur!ue i&&ei%te-' %(ter it! co&&i!!ion, or $%!
e!c%"e, (-ee!, or (orci)-' re!i!t! )e(ore t$e "er!on &%7in+ t$e %rre!t $%! o""ortunit' to !o in(or& $i&,
or #$en t$e +i.in+ o( !uc$ in(or&%tion #i-- i&"eri- t$e %rre!t.
Can a private person make an arrest9
o @es* I' not, t+is section wo%ld not e>ist* ?i -a9
?%ty o' a private person9
o State ca%se o' arrest, and
o #+e intention to arrest +im
0>ceptions9
o Same as a-ove*
Sec. 1@. O((icer &%' !u&&on %!!i!t%nce. H An o((icer &%7in+ % -%#(u- %rre!t &%' or%--' !u&&on %!
&%n' "er!on! %! $e ee&! nece!!%r' to %!!i!t $i& in e((ectin+ t$e %rre!t. E.er' "er!on !o !u&&one
)' %n o((icer !$%-- %!!i!t $i& in e((ectin+ t$e %rre!t #$en $e c%n rener !uc$ %!!i!t%nce #it$out
etri&ent to $i&!e-(.
Sec. 11. Ri+$t o( o((icer to )re%7 into )ui-in+ or enc-o!ure. H An o((icer, in orer to &%7e %n %rre!t
eit$er )' .irtue o( % #%rr%nt, or #it$out % #%rr%nt %! "ro.ie in !ection 5, &%' )re%7 into %n' )ui-in+
or enc-o!ure #$ere t$e "er!on to )e %rre!te i! or i! re%!on%)-' )e-ie.e to )e, i( $e i! re(u!e
%&itt%nce t$ereto, %(ter %nnouncin+ $i! %ut$orit' %n "ur"o!e.
Sec. 18. Ri+$t to )re%7 out (ro& )ui-in+ or enc-o!ure. H =$ene.er %n o((icer $%! entere t$e
)ui-in+ or enc-o!ure in %ccor%nce #it$ t$e "recein+ !ection, $e &%' )re%7 out t$ere(ro& #$en
nece!!%r' to -i)er%te $i&!e-(.
Sec. 1;. Ri+$t o( %ttorne' or re-%ti.e to .i!it "er!on %rre!te. H An' &e&)er o( t$e P$i-i""ine A%r
!$%--, %t t$e re3ue!t o( t$e "er!on %rre!te or o( %not$er %ctin+ in $i! )e$%-(, $%.e t$e ri+$t to .i!it %n
con(er "ri.%te-' #it$ !uc$ "er!on in t$e *%i- or %n' ot$er "-%ce o( cu!to' %t %n' $our o( t$e %' or
ni+$t. Su)*ect to re%!on%)-e re+u-%tion!, % re-%ti.e o( t$e "er!on %rre!te c%n %-!o e2erci!e t$e !%&e
ri+$t.
RULE 11; 4 AAIL

Section 1. A%i- e(ine. H A%i- i! t$e !ecurit' +i.en (or t$e re-e%!e o( % "er!on in cu!to' o( t$e -%#,
(urni!$e )' $i& or % )on!&%n, to +u%r%ntee $i! %""e%r%nce )e(ore %n' court %! re3uire uner t$e
conition! $erein%(ter !"eci(ie. A%i- &%' )e +i.en in t$e (or& o( cor"or%te !uret', "ro"ert' )on, c%!$
e"o!it, or reco+ni6%nce.
2ail is applica-le w+enever t+ere is deprivation o' li-erty*
o @o% don,t even need to wait 'or arraignment, as soon as t+ere is deprivation o' li-erty or
vol%ntary s%rrender, -ail can -e applied 'or* &Serapio v Sandigan-ayan, !!8)
Sec. 8. Conition! o( t$e )%i-5 re3uire&ent!. H A-- 7in! o( )%i- %re !u)*ect to t$e (o--o#in+ conition!/
0%1 T$e unert%7in+ !$%-- )e e((ecti.e u"on %""ro.%-, %n un-e!! c%nce--e, !$%-- re&%in in (orce %t %--
!t%+e! o( t$e c%!e unti- "ro&u-+%tion o( t$e *u+&ent o( t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court, irre!"ecti.e o(
#$et$er t$e c%!e #%! ori+in%--' (i-e in or %""e%-e to it5
0)1 T$e %ccu!e !$%-- %""e%r )e(ore t$e "ro"er court #$ene.er re3uire )' t$e court o( t$e!e Ru-e!5
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
0c1 T$e (%i-ure o( t$e %ccu!e to %""e%r %t t$e tri%- #it$out *u!ti(ic%tion %n e!"ite ue notice !$%-- )e
ee&e % #%i.er o( $i! ri+$t to )e "re!ent t$ere%t. In !uc$ c%!e, t$e tri%- &%' "rocee in %)!enti%5 %n
01 T$e )on!&%n !$%-- !urrener t$e %ccu!e to t$e court (or e2ecution o( t$e (in%- *u+&ent.
T$e ori+in%- "%"er! !$%-- !t%te t$e (u-- n%&e %n %re!! o( t$e %ccu!e, t$e %&ount o( t$e
unert%7in+ %n t$e conition! re3uire )' t$i! !ection. P$oto+r%"$! 0"%!!"ort !i6e1 t%7en #it$in t$e
-%!t !i2 0<1 &ont$! !$o#in+ t$e (%ce, -e(t %n ri+$t "ro(i-e! o( t$e %ccu!e &u!t )e %tt%c$e to t$e )%i-.
4+at are t+e conditions o' -ail9
o #+e %ndertaking s+all remain in 'orce at all time %ntil t+e prom%lgation o' 6%dgment o' t+e
R#C
?oesn,t matter i' t+e case was originally 'iled in t+e R#C, or it was appealed to t+e
R#C
2%t remem-er, in t+e M#C, -ail is a matter o' rig+t -e'ore or a'ter
conviction, so w+at will +appen i' yo% appeal to t+e CA, &since t+e -ail will
no longer remain in 'orce a'ter prom%lgation in t+e R#C)9 J%st renew it,
it,s still a matter o' rig+t*
o Acc%sed s+all appear in t+e co%rt w+en +eAs+e is ordered to do so
o 5ail%re to appear in co%rt wit+o%t 6%sti'ication will -e a waiver o' +is rig+t to -e present
t+ereat
So, trial in a-sentia will proceed
o 2ondsman will s%rrender t+e acc%sed to t+e co%rt 'or e>ec%tion
Sec. :. No re-e%!e or tr%n!(er e2ce"t on court orer or )%i-. H No "er!on uner etention )' -e+%-
"roce!! !$%-- )e re-e%!e or tr%n!(erre e2ce"t u"on orer o( t$e court or #$en $e i! %&itte to )%i-.

Sec. ;. A%i-, % &%tter o( ri+$t5 e2ce"tion. H A-- "er!on! in cu!to' !$%-- )e %&itte to )%i- %! % &%tter
o( ri+$t, #it$ !u((icient !uretie!, or re-e%!e on reco+ni6%nce %! "re!cri)e )' -%# or t$i! Ru-e 0%1
)e(ore or %(ter con.iction )' t$e Metro"o-it%n Tri%- Court, Munici"%- Tri%- Court, Munici"%- Tri%- Court in
Citie!, or Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court, %n 0)1 )e(ore con.iction )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- court o( %n
o((en!e not "uni!$%)-e )' e%t$, rec-u!ion "er"etu%, or -i(e i&"ri!on&ent.
2ail is a matter o' rig+t:
o 2e'ore conviction, w+et+er M#C or R#C
0>cept 'or cases p%nis+a-le -y RP, LI or ?eat+ Penalty
Bnless evidence o' g%ilt is not strong, t+en matter o' rig+t &Serapio v S2)
o A'ter conviction i' in t+e M#C
Since M#C +as only J? over cases less t+an D years
6asta 7TC matter of ri1ht yan'
o A'ter conviction i' in t+e R#C and less t+an D years and no dis$%ali'iers &see ne>t section)
J%dge can /E# deny -ail, -%t +e +as discretion on t+e amo%nt
Sec. 5. A%i-, #$en i!cretion%r'. H U"on con.iction )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court o( %n o((en!e not
"uni!$%)-e )' e%t$, rec-u!ion "er"etu%, or -i(e i&"ri!on&ent, %&i!!ion to )%i- i! i!cretion%r'. T$e
%""-ic%tion (or )%i- &%' )e (i-e %n %cte u"on )' t$e tri%- court e!"ite t$e (i-in+ o( % notice o(
%""e%-, "ro.ie it $%! not tr%n!&itte t$e ori+in%- recor to t$e %""e--%te court. Ho#e.er, i( t$e
eci!ion o( t$e tri%- court con.iction t$e %ccu!e c$%n+e t$e n%ture o( t$e o((en!e (ro& non4)%i-%)-e
to )%i-%)-e, t$e %""-ic%tion (or )%i- c%n on-' )e (i-e #it$ %n re!o-.e )' t$e %""e--%te court.
S$ou- t$e court +r%nt t$e %""-ic%tion, t$e %ccu!e &%' )e %--o#e to continue on "ro.i!ion%- -i)ert'
urin+ t$e "enenc' o( t$e %""e%- uner t$e !%&e )%i- !u)*ect to t$e con!ent o( t$e )on!&%n.
I( t$e "en%-t' i&"o!e )' t$e tri%- court i! i&"ri!on&ent e2ceein+ !i2 0<1 'e%r!, t$e %ccu!e !$%--
)e enie )%i-, or $i! )%i- !$%-- )e c%nce--e u"on % !$o#in+ )' t$e "ro!ecution, #it$ notice to t$e
%ccu!e, o( t$e (o--o#in+ or ot$er !i&i-%r circu&!t%nce!/
0%1 T$%t $e i! % recii.i!t, 3u%!i4recii.i!t, or $%)itu%- e-in3uent, or $%! co&&itte t$e cri&e
%++r%.%te )' t$e circu&!t%nce o( reiter%tion5
0)1 T$%t $e $%! "re.iou!-' e!c%"e (ro& -e+%- con(ine&ent, e.%e !entence, or .io-%te t$e conition!
o( $i! )%i- #it$out .%-i *u!ti(ic%tion5
0c1 T$%t $e co&&itte t$e o((en!e #$i-e uner "ro)%tion, "%ro-e, or conition%- "%ron5
01 T$%t t$e circu&!t%nce! o( $i! c%!e inic%te t$e "ro)%)i-it' o( (-i+$t i( re-e%!e on )%i-5 or
0e1 T$%t t$ere i! unue ri!7 t$%t $e &%' co&&it %not$er cri&e urin+ t$e "enenc' o( t$e %""e%-.
T$e %""e--%te court &%', &otu "ro"rio or on &otion o( %n' "%rt', re.ie# t$e re!o-ution o( t$e
Re+ion%- Tri%- Court %(ter notice to t$e %.er!e "%rt' in eit$er c%!e.
Sec. <. C%"it%- o((en!e e(ine. H A c%"it%- o((en!e i! %n o((en!e #$ic$, uner t$e -%# e2i!tin+ %t t$e
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
ti&e o( it! co&&i!!ion %n o( t$e %""-ic%tion (or %&i!!ion to )%i-, &%' )e "uni!$e #it$ e%t$.
Sec. 7. C%"it%- o((en!e or %n o((en!e "uni!$%)-e )' rec-u!ion "er"etu% or -i(e i&"ri!on&ent, not
)%i-%)-e. H No "er!on c$%r+e #it$ % c%"it%- o((en!e, or %n o((en!e "uni!$%)-e )' rec-u!ion "er"etu% or
-i(e i&"ri!on&ent, !$%-- )e %&itte to )%i- #$en e.ience o( +ui-t i! !tron+, re+%r-e!! o( t$e !t%te o(
t$e cri&in%- "ro!ecution.
#+e application 'or -ail pending appeal 'or a -aila-le o''ense +as two scenarios &Leviste v CA,
!"!
84
):
o /ot RP, LI, or deat+, and one o' t+e circ%mstances present -ail will -e ?0/I0?
o /ot RP, LI, or deat+, and none o' t+e circ%mstaces present discretionary on t+e co%rt
2ail is a matter o' discretion:
o A'ter conviction in t+e R#C,
o /ot a capital o''ense, or an o''ense p%nis+a-le -y RPALI, and
o /ot accompanied -y t+e 'ollowing instances, i' t+e penalty e>ceeds D years:
Recidivist, +a-it%al delin$%ent, reiteration
Previo%sly escaped 'rom legal con'inement
Committed o''ense w+ile %nder pro-ationAparoleApardon
5lig+tCrisk
Bnd%e risk t+at +e may commit anot+er crime d%ring t+e pendency o' t+e appeal
o /E#0: a 'inding t+at none o' t+e said circ%mstances is present will /E# a%tomatically
res%lt in t+e grant o' -ail* &Leviste v CA)
7ence, ot+er circ%mstances can -e taken into acco%nt -y t+e co%rt to deny -ail*
2ail is not allowed w+en:
o Capital o''ense, or an o''ense p%nis+a-le -y RPALI, and
o 0vidence o' g%ilt is strong
4+ere do yo% apply 'or -ail9
o I' appealed and -e'ore t+e transmission o' records to t+e appellate co%rt: to t+e R#C
o I' appealed, and t+e R#C conviction c+anged t+e nat%re o' o''ense 'rom nonC-aila-le to
-aila-le: to t+e appellate co%rt
R%les:
o I' convicted -y t+e R#C, -eyond D years, and wit+ any o' t+e dis$%ali'iers: -ail denied
o I' convicted -y t+e R#C, -eyond D years, and wit+ /E/0 o' t+e dis$%ali'iers: still a matter
o' discretion
o I' convicted -y t+e R#C less t+an D years: matter o' rig+t
o I' convicted -y t+e R#C, less t+an D years, -%t wit+ any o' t+e dis$%ali'iers: -ail matter o'
discretion, -%t co%rt will impose a +ig+er -ail
So, w+en yo% say t+at -ail is a matter o' discretion, can yo% do away wit+ t+e +earing9
o /E* 2ail +earing is mandatory* &See Sec "I)
Pro-lems:
o C+arged wit+ m%rder, -%t petition 'or -ail granted* 4as s%-se$%ently convicted o'
+omicide* Can +e apply 'or -ail9 @es, as a matter o' discretion* Iss%e on evidence o' g%ilt
is strong is irrelevant since it only applies i' t+e o''ense is nonC-aila-le &+omicide is
-aila-le)
o C+arged wit+ m%rder, petition 'or -ail granted, t+en convicted o' m%rder* Can s+e apply
'or -ail9 /o t+e nat%re o' t+e o''ense is nonC-aila-le* 2eing convicted, t+e evidence o' g%ilt
is o-vio%sly strong*
o C+arged wit+ an o''ense p%nis+a-le -y more t+an D years -%t convicted o' o''ense not
p%nis+a-le -y more t+an D years &alleged di''erent 'rom w+at is proven)* Can s+e apply
'or -ail9 @es, as a matter o' rig+t*
Sec. >. Auren o( "roo( in )%i- %""-ic%tion. H At t$e $e%rin+ o( %n %""-ic%tion (or )%i- (i-e )' % "er!on
#$o i! in cu!to' (or t$e co&&i!!ion o( %n o((en!e "uni!$%)-e )' e%t$, rec-u!ion "er"etu%, or -i(e
i&"ri!on&ent, t$e "ro!ecution $%! t$e )uren o( !$o#in+ t$%t e.ience o( +ui-t i! !tron+. T$e e.ience
()
>ac' story! 2eviste shot his aid. Be voluntarily surrendered to his friend >inay and as initially charged ith homicide hich as a bailable
offense. So he posted bail. >ut the information as upgraded to murder by the C6I and approved by the court. 3urder is a non:bailable offense,
so he filed for a petition for bail, hich as granted because the evidence of guilt as not strong. 0rial proceeded and he as found guilty of
homicide. So he filed for bail. /nd thatMs here this case left off.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
+-
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
"re!ente urin+ t$e )%i- $e%rin+ !$%-- )e con!iere %uto&%tic%--' re"rouce %t t$e tri%- )ut, u"on
&otion o( eit$er "%rt', t$e court &%' rec%-- %n' #itne!! (or %ition%- e2%&in%tion un-e!! t$e -%tter i!
e%, out!ie t$e P$i-i""ine!, or ot$er#i!e un%)-e to te!ti('.
Sec. 1>. Notice o( %""-ic%tion to "ro!ecutor. H In t$e %""-ic%tion (or )%i- uner !ection > o( t$i! Ru-e,
t$e court &u!t +i.e re%!on%)-e notice o( t$e $e%rin+ to t$e "ro!ecutor or re3uire $i& to !u)&it $i!
reco&&en%tion
Prosec%tion +as -%rden o' proo' to s+ow strong evidence o' g%ilt d%ring -ail +earings involving
capital o''enses and RPALI*
5or nonC-aila-le o''enses, t+e person is immediately arrested*
So 'ile 'or a P0#I#IE/ 5ER 2AIL* It,s mandatory t+at t+ere:
o Is a s%mmary +earing, and
o An opport%nity 'or t+e prosec%tion to comment
A +earing on application 'or -ail is MA/?A#ER@*
o 4+et+er -ail is a matter o' rig+t or o' discretion , t+e prosec%tor s+o%ld -e given
reasona-le notice o' +earing, at least +is recommendation on t+e matter m%st -e so%g+t*
&Ma-%tas v Perello, !!:, w+ere t+e c+arge was %nder t+e ??A)
Alt+o%g+ in practice, no +earings i' -ail is a matter o' rig+t*
o #+e 6%dge s+o%ld o-serve t+e 'ollowing:
In ALL cases, noti'y t+e prosec%tor o' t+e +earing or re$%ire +im to s%-mit a
recommendation
Cond%ct a +earing regardless o' w+et+er or not t+e prosec%tion re'%ses to present
evidence
A +earing is re$%ired even w+en t+e prosec%tion re'%ses to add%ce
evidence or 'ails to o-6ect to t+e motion o' -ail &?omingo v Pagayatan,
!!8)
?ecide w+et+er t+e g%ilt o' t+e acc%sed is strong -ased on t+e s%mmary evidence
o' t+e prosec%tion &relevant i' nonC-aila-le o''ense)
I' t+e g%ilt o' t+e acc%sed is not strong, disc+arge t+e acc%sed %pon approval o'
t+e -ail -ond*
Is 6oint +earing 'or m%ltiple acc%sed mandatory9
o /E* It,s discretionary* &Serapio v S2)
o A -ail +earing is a s%mmary +earing, it s+o%ld -e -rie' and speedy, so co%rt s+o%ld keep
t+at in mind*

Sec. ?. A&ount o( )%i-5 +uie-ine!. H T$e *u+e #$o i!!ue t$e #%rr%nt or +r%nte t$e %""-ic%tion !$%--
(i2 % re%!on%)-e %&ount o( )%i- con!ierin+ "ri&%ri-', )ut not -i&ite to, t$e (o--o#in+ (%ctor!/
0%1 Ein%nci%- -i%)i-it' o( t$e %ccu!e to +i.e )%i-5
0)1 N%ture %n circu&!t%nce o( t$e o((en!e5
0c1 Pen%-t' (or t$e o((en!e c$%r+e5
01 C$%r%cter %n re"ut%tion o( t$e %ccu!e5
0e1 A+e %n $e%-t$ o( t$e %ccu!e5
0(1 =ei+$t o( t$e e.ience %+%in!t t$e %ccu!e5
0+1 Pro)%)i-it' o( t$e %ccu!e %""e%rin+ %t t$e tri%-5
0$1 Eor(eiture o( ot$er )%i-5
0i1 T$e (%ct t$%t t$e %ccu!e #%! % (u+iti.e (ro& *u!tice #$en %rre!te5 %n
0*1 Penenc' o( ot$er c%!e! #$ere t$e %ccu!e i! on )%i-.
E2ce!!i.e )%i- !$%-- not )e re3uire.

Sec. 1@. Cor"or%te !uret'. H An' o&e!tic or (orei+n cor"or%tion, -icen!e %! % !uret' in %ccor%nce
#it$ -%# %n current-' %ut$ori6e to %ct %! !uc$, &%' "ro.ie )%i- )' % )on !u)!cri)e *oint-' )' t$e
%ccu!e %n %n o((icer o( t$e cor"or%tion u-' %ut$ori6e )' it! )o%r o( irector!.

Sec. 11. Pro"ert' )on, $o# "o!te. H A "ro"ert' )on i! %n unert%7in+ con!titute %! -ien on t$e re%-
"ro"ert' +i.en %! !ecurit' (or t$e %&ount o( t$e )%i-. =it$in ten 01@1 %'! %(ter t$e %""ro.%- o( t$e
)on, t$e %ccu!e !$%-- c%u!e t$e %nnot%tion o( t$e -ien on t$e certi(ic%te o( tit-e on (i-e #it$ t$e
Re+i!tr' o( Dee! i( t$e -%n i! re+i!tere, or i( unre+i!tere, in t$e Re+i!tr%tion Aoo7 on t$e !"%ce
"ro.ie t$ere(ore, in t$e Re+i!tr' o( Dee! (or t$e "ro.ince or cit' #$ere t$e -%n -ie!, %n on t$e
corre!"onin+ t%2 ec-%r%tion in t$e o((ice o( t$e "ro.inci%-, cit' %n &unici"%- %!!e!!or concerne.
=it$in t$e !%&e "erio, t$e %ccu!e !$%-- !u)&it to t$e court $i! co&"-i%nce %n $i! (%i-ure to o !o
!$%-- )e !u((icient c%u!e (or t$e c%nce--%tion o( t$e "ro"ert' )on %n $i! re4%rre!t %n etention.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
7.
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. 18. Fu%-i(ic%tion! o( !uretie! in "ro"ert' )on. H T$e 3u%-i(ic%tion! o( !uretie! in % "ro"ert' )on
!$%-- )e %! (o--o#!/
0%1 E%c$ &u!t )e % re!ient o#ner o( re%- e!t%te #it$in t$e P$i-i""ine!5
0)1 =$ere t$ere i! on-' one !uret', $i! re%- e!t%te &u!t )e #ort$ %t -e%!t t$e %&ount o( unert%7in+5
0c1 I( t$ere %re t#o or &ore !uretie!, e%c$ &%' *u!ti(' in %n %&ount -e!! t$%n t$%t e2"re!!e in t$e
unert%7in+ )ut t$e %++re+%te o( t$e *u!ti(ie !u&! &u!t )e e3ui.%-ent to t$e #$o-e %&ount o( t$e )%i-
e&%ne.
In %-- c%!e!, e.er' !uret' &u!t )e #ort$ t$e %&ount !"eci(ie in $i! o#n unert%7in+ o.er %n %)o.e
%-- *u!t e)t!, o)-i+%tion! %n "ro"ertie! e2e&"t (ro& e2ecution.

Sec. 1:. Bu!ti(ic%tion o( !uretie!. H E.er' !uret' !$%-- *u!ti(' )' %((i%.it t%7en )e(ore t$e *u+e t$%t $e
"o!!e!!e! t$e 3u%-i(ic%tion "re!cri)e in t$e "recein+ !ection. He !$%-- e!cri)e t$e "ro"ert' +i.en %!
!ecurit', !t%tin+ t$e n%ture o( $i! tit-e, it! encu&)r%nce!, t$e nu&)er %n %&ount o( ot$er )%i-!
entere into )' $i& %n !ti-- uni!c$%r+e, %n $i! ot$er -i%)i-itie!. T$e court &%' e2%&ine t$e !uretie!
u"on o%t$ concernin+ t$eir !u((icienc' in !uc$ &%nner %! it &%' ee& "ro"er. No )%i- !$%-- )e
%""ro.e un-e!! t$e !uret' i! 3u%-i(ie.

Sec. 1;. De"o!it o( c%!$ %! )%i-. H T$e %ccu!e or %n' "er!on %ctin+ in $i! )e$%-( &%' e"o!it in c%!$
#it$ t$e ne%re!t co--ector o( intern%- re.enue or "ro.inci%-, cit', or &unici"%- tre%!urer t$e %&ount o(
)%i- (i2e )' t$e court, or reco&&ene )' t$e "ro!ecutor #$o in.e!ti+%te or (i-e t$e c%!e. U"on
!u)&i!!ion o( % "ro"er certi(ic%te o( e"o!it %n % #ritten unert%7in+ !$o#in+ co&"-i%nce #it$ t$e
re3uire&ent! o( !ection 8 o( t$i! Ru-e, t$e %ccu!e !$%-- )e i!c$%r+e (ro& cu!to'. T$e &one'
e"o!ite !$%-- )e con!iere %! )%i- %n %""-ie to t$e "%'&ent o( (ine %n co!t! #$i-e t$e e2ce!!, i(
%n', !$%-- )e returne to t$e %ccu!e or to #$oe.er &%e t$e e"o!it.
Sec. 15. Reco+ni6%nce. H =$ene.er %--o#e )' -%# or t$e!e Ru-e!, t$e court &%' re-e%!e % "er!on in
cu!to' on $i! o#n reco+ni6%nce or t$%t o( % re!"on!i)-e "er!on.
#ypes o' -ail:
o Cas+ -ond
A 6%dge is not allowed to receive cas+ 'or -ail nor s+o%ld it -e kept in +is o''ice*
&Lac+ica v J%dge #ormis, !!:)*
Cas+ as -ail m%st -e deposited only:
#o t+e nearest 2IR collector, or
#o t+e provincial, city or m%nicipal treas%rer
Acc%sed is entitled to ret%rn o' '%ll amo%nt i' ac$%itted or case dismissed
o Corporate s%rety
M%st -e accredited -y t+e SC
Acc%sed pays t+e premi%m w+ic+ +e doesn,t get -ack i' ac$%itted
o Property -ond
Acc%sed need not -e t+e owner o' t+e property
#+e owner m%st -e a resident o' t+e P+ilippines &IMPER#A/#=)
#o annotate, register t+e lien wit+in "! days 'rom approval o' t+e -ond
o Recogni.ance
0it+er -y t+e acc%sed +imsel' or a responsi-le mem-er o' t+e comm%nity
Sec. 1<. A%i-, #$en not re3uire5 reuce )%i- or reco+ni6%nce. H No )%i- !$%-- )e re3uire #$en t$e
-%# or t$e!e Ru-e! !o "ro.ie.
=$en % "er!on $%! )een in cu!to' (or % "erio e3u%- to or &ore t$%n t$e "o!!i)-e &%2i&u&
i&"ri!on&ent "re!cri)e (or t$e o((en!e c$%r+e, $e !$%-- )e re-e%!e i&&ei%te-', #it$out "re*uice
to t$e continu%tion o( t$e tri%- or t$e "roceein+! on %""e%-. I( t$e &%2i&u& "en%-t' to #$ic$ t$e
%ccu!e &%' )e !entence i! e!tierro, $e !$%-- )e re-e%!e %(ter t$irt' 0:@1 %'! o( "re.enti.e
i&"ri!on&ent.
A "er!on in cu!to' (or % "erio e3u%- to or &ore t$%n t$e &ini&u& o( t$e "rinci"%- "en%-t'
"re!cri)e (or t$e o((en!e c$%r+e, #it$out %""-ic%tion o( t$e Ineter&in%te Sentence L%# or %n'
&oi('in+ circu&!t%nce, !$%-- )e re-e%!e on % reuce )%i- or on $i! o#n reco+ni6%nce, %t t$e
i!cretion o( t$e court.
Sec. 17. A%i-, #$ere (i-e. H 0%1 A%i- in t$e %&ount (i2e &%' )e (i-e #it$ t$e court #$ere t$e c%!e i!
"enin+, or in t$e %)!ence or un%.%i-%)i-it' o( t$e *u+e t$ereo(, #it$ %n' re+ion%- tri%- *u+e,
&etro"o-it%n tri%- *u+e, &unici"%- tri%- *u+e, or &unici"%- circuit tri%- *u+e in t$e "ro.ince, cit' or
&unici"%-it'. I( t$e %ccu!e i! %rre!te in % "ro.ince, cit', or &unici"%-it' ot$er t$%n #$ere t$e c%!e i!
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
71
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
"enin+, )%i- &%' %-!o )e (i-e #it$ %n' re+ion%- tri%- court o( !%i "-%ce, o( i( no *u+e t$ereo( i!
%.%i-%)-e, #it$ %n' &etro"o-it%n tri%- *u+e, &unici"%- tri%- *u+e, or &unici"%- circuit tri%- *u+e
t$erein.
0)1 =$ere t$e +r%nt o( )%i- i! % &%tter o( i!cretion, or t$e %ccu!e !ee7! to )e re-e%!e on
reco+ni6%nce, t$e %""-ic%tion &%' on-' )e (i-e in t$e court #$ere t$e c%!e i! "enin+, "& tri%-, or
%""e%-.
0c1 An' "er!on in cu!to' #$o i! not 'et c$%r+e in court &%' %""-' (or )%i- #it$ %n' court in t$e
"ro.ince, cit', or &unici"%-it' #$ere $e i! $e-.
Sec. 1?. Re-e%!e on )%i-. H T$e %ccu!e &u!t )e i!c$%r+e u"on %""ro.%- o( t$e )%i- )' t$e *u+e #it$
#$o& it #%! (i-e in %ccor%nce #it$ !ection 17 o( t$i! Ru-e.
=$en )%i- i! (i-e #it$ % court ot$er t$%n #$ere t$e c%!e i! "enin+, t$e *u+e #$o %cce"te t$e )%i-
!$%-- (or#%r it, to+et$er #it$ t$e orer o( re-e%!e %n ot$er !u""ortin+ "%"er!, to t$e court #$ere t$e
c%!e i! "enin+, #$ic$ &%', (or +oo re%!on, re3uire % i((erent one to )e (i-e.
4+ere do yo% 'ile -ail9
o I' arrested in t+e place w+ere t+e case is pending:
In t+at co%rt
I' 6%dge o' said co%rt is a-sent or %navaila-le: wit+ any 6%dge in t+e province, city
or m%nicipality
Practical tip: yo% need a certi'ication t+at 6%dge was in 'act a-sent or
%navaila-le
o A-sent or %navaila-le: on leave, sick, etc
o /ot a-sent or %navaila-le: i' merely in a meeting, +aving
merienda, etc
o I' place o' arrest is di''erent 'rom w+ere case is pending:
In t+e co%rt w+ere t+e case is pending &-%t not really practical)
In t+e R#C w+ere acc%sed was arrested
I' no R#C 6%dge: t+en M#C 6%dge
Records will -e sent to w+ere case is pending and 6%dge w+ere case is pending can
c+oose to accept it or re$%ire a new -ail &Sec "3)
o I' t+ere is a case pending -%t no arrest yet &meaning, acc%sed vol%ntarily s%rrenders)
Enly w+ere t+e case is pending
Alt+o%g+ in practice, some people s%rrender in ;'riendly< places and t+en
apply 'or -ail, t+at,s not really allowed
o I' t+ere is an arrest -%t no case pending &meaning, warrantless arrests)
Any co%rt w+ere t+e acc%sed is +eld
Pro-lems:
o Arrested in 2aragay Po-lacion, Makati, and case was 'iled in Makati:
Apply in co%rt w+ere case is pending* I' 6%dge not availa-le, apply in any co%rt in
t+e area*
o Arrested in Marikina, -%t case was pending in MC*
Apply in Marikina, not in MC*
o 4andering 'reely in t+e s+ores o' 2oracay, -%t t+e case pending in Makati*
?on,t apply 'or -ail, yo% +aven,t -een arrested* 2%t i' yo% decide to vol%ntarily
s%rrender, yo% +ave to do it in Makati and t+at,s w+ere yo% post -ail*
o Arrested in Ilocos, -%t case pending in Makati* Application in Ilocos granted and t+e
records were sent to Makati*
Is t+e 6%dge in Makati o-ligated to accept t+e -ail9 /o, +e can re$%ire a new -ail i'
+e wants* &See Section "3)
@o% need an order o' release 'rom t+e 6%dge*
o #ran$ tip: let yo%r client keep it in +is person &and +is car) at ALL times
o #ran$ tip: don,t get a certi'icate o' arrest i' yo%r client was never arrest* Perwisyo yan=
o #ran$ tip: i' yo%r client vol%ntarily s%rrenders so +e can post -ail, don,t -ring +im to t+e
co%rt, 6%st let +im +ang aro%nd in t+e vicinity in case t+e 6%dge wants to see +im
personally* #+e co%rt sta'' mig+t +ave connections wit+ t+e police* Perwisyo yan=
Sec. 8@. Incre%!e or reuction o( )%i-. H A(ter t$e %ccu!e i! %&itte to )%i-, t$e court &%', u"on +oo
c%u!e, eit$er incre%!e or reuce it! %&ount. =$en incre%!e, t$e %ccu!e &%' )e co&&itte to cu!to'
i( $e oe! not +i.e )%i- in t$e incre%!e %&ount #it$in % re%!on%)-e "erio. An %ccu!e $e- to %n!#er
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
72
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% cri&in%- c$%r+e, #$o i! re-e%!e #it$out )%i- u"on (i-in+ o( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion, &%', %t %n'
!u)!e3uent !t%+e o( t$e "roceein+! %n #$ene.er % !tron+ !$o#in+ o( +ui-t %""e%r! to t$e court, )e
re3uire to +i.e )%i- in t$e %&ount (i2e, or in -ieu t$ereo(, co&&itte to cu!to'.
Sec. 81. Eor(eiture o( )%i-. H =$en t$e "re!ence o( t$e %ccu!e i! re3uire )' t$e court or t$e!e Ru-e!,
$i! )on!&en !$%-- )e noti(ie to "rouce $i& )e(ore t$e court on % +i.en %te %n ti&e. I( t$e %ccu!e
(%i-! to %""e%r in "er!on %! re3uire, $i! )%i- !$%-- )e ec-%re (or(eite %n t$e )on!&en +i.en t$irt'
0:@1 %'! #it$in #$ic$ to "rouce t$eir "rinci"%- %n to !$o# #$' no *u+&ent !$ou- )e renere
%+%in!t t$e& (or t$e %&ount o( t$eir )%i-. =it$in t$e !%i "erio, t$e )on!&en &u!t/
0%1 "rouce t$e )o' o( t$eir "rinci"%- or +i.e t$e re%!on (or $i! non4"rouction5 %n
0)1 e2"-%in #$' t$e %ccu!e i not %""e%r )e(ore t$e court #$en (ir!t re3uire to o !o.
E%i-in+ in t$e!e t#o re3ui!ite!, % *u+&ent !$%-- )e renere %+%in!t t$e )on!&en, *oint-' %n
!e.er%--', (or t$e %&ount o( t$e )%i-. T$e court !$%-- not reuce or ot$er#i!e &iti+%te t$e -i%)i-it' o( t$e
)on!&en, un-e!! t$e %ccu!e $%! )een !urrenere or i! %c3uitte.

Sec. 88. C%nce--%tion o( )%i-. H U"on %""-ic%tion o( t$e )on!&en, #it$ ue notice to t$e "ro!ecutor,
t$e )%i- &%' )e c%nce--e u"on !urrener o( t$e %ccu!e or "roo( o( $i! e%t$.
T$e )%i- !$%-- )e ee&e %uto&%tic%--' c%nce--e u"on %c3uitt%- o( t$e %ccu!e, i!&i!!%- o( t$e
c%!e, or e2ecution o( t$e *u+&ent o( con.iction.
In %-- in!t%nce!, t$e c%nce--%tion !$%-- )e #it$out "re*uice to %n' -i%)i-it' on t$e )%i-.
5or'eit%re: w+en acc%sed 'ails to appear in person as re$%ired
o 5or'eited to t+e co%rt
o Remedy: MR to reinstate t+e -ail
Cancellation
o A%tomatic w+en
Acc%sed ac$%itted
?ismissal o' case
0>ec%tion o' t+e 6%dgment o' conviction
o Bpon application o' t+e -ondsmen
S%rrender o' t+e acc%sed, or
Proo' o' +is deat+
Sec. 8:. Arre!t o( %ccu!e out on )%i-. H Eor t$e "ur"o!e o( !urrenerin+ t$e %ccu!e, t$e )on!&en
&%' %rre!t $i& or, u"on #ritten %ut$orit' enor!e on % certi(ie co"' o( t$e unert%7in+, c%u!e $i&
to )e %rre!te )' % "o-ice o((icer or %n' ot$er "er!on o( !uit%)-e %+e %n i!cretion.
An %ccu!e re-e%!e on )%i- &%' )e re4%rre!te #it$out t$e nece!!it' o( % #%rr%nt i( $e %tte&"t! to
e"%rt (ro& t$e P$i-i""ine! #it$out "er&i!!ion o( t$e court #$ere t$e c%!e i! "enin+.
Arrest wit+o%t warrant:
o 2y -ondsmen
o Attempt -y t+e acc%sed &on -ail) to depart wit+o%t permission o' t+e co%rt
#+at,s w+y yo% s+o%ld 'ile a motion to depart w+en yo% want to leave t+e co%ntry*
Sec. 8;. No )%i- %(ter (in%- *u+&ent5 e2ce"tion. H No )%i- !$%-- )e %--o#e %(ter % *u+&ent o(
con.iction $%! )eco&e (in%-. I( )e(ore !uc$ (in%-it', t$e %ccu!e %""-ie! (or "ro)%tion, $e &%' )e
%--o#e te&"or%r' -i)ert' uner $i! )%i-. =$en no )%i- #%! (i-e or t$e %ccu!e i! inc%"%)-e o( (i-in+
one, t$e court &%' %--o# $i! re-e%!e on reco+ni6%nce to t$e cu!to' o( % re!"on!i)-e &e&)er o( t$e
co&&unit'. In no c%!e !$%-- )%i- )e %--o#e %(ter t$e %ccu!e $%! co&&ence to !er.e !entence.
(R: /o -ail a'ter 6%dgment is 'inal and e>ec%tory
o 01C0P#: i' +e applies 'or pro-ation -e'ore 6%dgment is 'inal &remem-er yo% eit+er 'ile 'or
pro-ation or appeal, m%t%ally e>cl%sive), +e can go on -ail*
Sec. 85. Court !u"er.i!ion o( et%inee!. H T$e court !$%-- e2erci!e !u"er.i!ion o.er %-- "er!on! in
cu!to' (or t$e "ur"o!e o( e-i&in%tin+ unnece!!%r' etention. T$e e2ecuti.e *u+e! o( t$e Re+ion%-
Tri%- Court! !$%-- conuct &ont$-' "er!on%- in!"ection! o( "ro.inci%-, cit', %n &unici"%- *%i-! %n t$e
"ri!oner! #it$in t$eir re!"ecti.e *uri!iction!. T$e' !$%-- %!cert%in t$e nu&)er o( et%inee!, in3uire on
t$eir "ro"er %cco&&o%tion %n $e%-t$ %n e2%&ine t$e conition o( t$e *%i- (%ci-itie!. T$e' !$%-- orer
t$e !e+re+%tion o( !e2e! %n o( &inor! (ro& %u-t!, en!ure t$e o)!er.%nce o( t$e ri+$t o( et%inee! to
con(er "ri.%te-' #it$ coun!e-, %n !tri.e to e-i&in%te conition! ini&ic%- to t$e et%inee!.
In citie! %n &unici"%-itie! to )e !"eci(ie )' t$e Su"re&e Court, t$e &unici"%- tri%- *u+e! or
&unici"%- circuit tri%- *u+e! !$%-- conuct &ont$-' "er!on%- in!"ection! o( t$e &unici"%- *%i-! in t$eir
re!"ecti.e &unici"%-itie! %n !u)&it % re"ort to t$e e2ecuti.e *u+e o( t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court $%.in+
*uri!iction t$erein.
A &ont$-' re"ort o( !uc$ .i!it%tion !$%-- )e !u)&itte )' t$e e2ecuti.e *u+e! to t$e Court
A&ini!tr%tor #$ic$ !$%-- !t%te t$e tot%- nu&)er o( et%inee!, t$e n%&e! o( t$o!e $e- (or &ore t$%n
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
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t$irt' 0:@1 %'!, t$e ur%tion o( etention, t$e cri&e c$%r+e, t$e !t%tu! o( t$e c%!e, t$e c%u!e (or
etention, %n ot$er "ertinent in(or&%tion.
Sec. 8<. A%i- not % )%r to o)*ection! on i--e+%- %rre!t, -%c7 o( or irre+u-%r "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion. H An
%""-ic%tion (or or %&i!!ion to )%i- !$%-- not )%r t$e %ccu!e (ro& c$%--en+in+ t$e .%-iit' o( $i! %rre!t
or t$e -e+%-it' o( t$e #%rr%nt i!!ue t$ere(ore, or (ro& %!!%i-in+ t$e re+u-%rit' or 3ue!tionin+ t$e
%)!ence o( % "re-i&in%r' in.e!ti+%tion o( t$e c$%r+e %+%in!t $i&, "ro.ie t$%t $e r%i!e! t$e& )e(ore
enterin+ $i! "-e%. T$e court !$%-- re!o-.e t$e &%tter %! e%r-' %! "r%ctic%)-e )ut not -%ter t$%n t$e !t%rt
o( t$e tri%- o( t$e c%!e.
2ail is not a -ar to o-6ect to:
o Illegal arrest
o Legality o' t+e warrant
o Assail t+e reg%larity, $%estioning or a-sence o' t+e PI
PREKI?0?, +e raises t+em 205ER0 entering +is plea &arraignment)
Read wit+ R%le ""H, Sec 3 &w+at are deemed waived i' not -ro%g+t %p in a
M#M -e'ore arraignment)
8:
7ence, a motion to $%as+ t+e amended in'ormation can -e 'iled d%ring t+e pendency o' a petition
'or -ail &Serapio v S2)
RULE 115 4 RIGHTS OE ACCUSED

Section 1. Ri+$t! o( %ccu!e %t tri%-. H In %-- cri&in%- "ro!ecution!, t$e %ccu!e !$%-- )e entit-e to t$e
(o--o#in+ ri+$t!/
0%1 To )e "re!u&e innocent unti- t$e contr%r' i! "ro.e )e'on re%!on%)-e ou)t.
4+en circ%mstances lead to two or more in'erences, one or more leading to innocence and one or
more leading to g%ilt, t+e 'ormer &innocence) m%st prevail*
0)1 To )e in(or&e o( t$e n%ture %n c%u!e o( t$e %ccu!%tion %+%in!t $i&.
#+is means t+at t+e acc%sed m%st %nderstand t+e nat%re and ca%se o' acc%sation against +im*
o So i' +e doesn,t speak 5ilipinoA0nglis+, an a%t+ori.ed interpreter m%st e>plain it to +im*
4+en t+e complaint or t+e resol%tion -y t+e p%-lic prosec%tor w+ic+ contain t+e missing
averments is A##AC70? to t+e in'ormation and 'orm part o' t+e records, t+en t+e acc%sed,s rig+t
to -e in'ormed o' t+e acc%sation +as -een complied wit+* &Elivare. v CA, 4D: SCRA 4D:, w+ere
t+e averments o' t+e age o' t+e victim &'or p%rposes o' t+e AntiCC+ild A-%se Law) were attac+ed
to t+e in'ormation)
0c1 To )e "re!ent %n e(en in "er!on %n )' coun!e- %t e.er' !t%+e o( t$e "roceein+!, (ro&
%rr%i+n&ent to "ro&u-+%tion o( t$e *u+&ent. T$e %ccu!e &%', $o#e.er, #%i.e $i! "re!ence %t t$e
tri%- "ur!u%nt to t$e !ti"u-%tion! !et (ort$ in $i! )%i-, un-e!! $i! "re!ence i! !"eci(ic%--' orere )' t$e
court (or "ur"o!e! o( ienti(ic%tion. T$e %)!ence o( t$e %ccu!e #it$out *u!ti(i%)-e c%u!e %t t$e tri%- o(
#$ic$ $e $% notice !$%-- )e con!iere % #%i.er o( $i! ri+$t to )e "re!ent t$ere%t. =$en %n %ccu!e
uner cu!to' e!c%"e!, $e !$%-- )e ee&e to $%.e #%i.e $i! ri+$t to )e "re!ent on %-- !u)!e3uent
tri%- %te! unti- cu!to' o.er $i& i! re+%ine. U"on &otion, t$e %ccu!e &%' )e %--o#e to e(en
$i&!e-( in "er!on #$en it !u((icient-' %""e%r! to t$e court t$%t $e c%n "ro"er-' "rotect $i! ri+$t!
#it$out t$e %!!i!t%nce o( coun!e-.
Rig+t to de'end in person and -y co%nsel
o 4+en9 0very stage o' t+e proceedings, 'rom arraignment to prom%lgation o' t+e 6%dgment
7e m%st -e present at all stages o' t+e proceeding*
01C0P#: w+en +e waives t+is rig+t* 2%t t+is waiver m%st -e p%rs%ant to
stip%lations in t+e conditions o' -ail*
?oes t+e private complainant +ave to -e t+ere always9 /o*
4+en can a co%nsel de o''icio -e appointed9
o ?%ring arraignment &MA/?A#ER@ on t+e co%rt)
o ?%ring trial &not mandatory on t+e co%rt) &Li-%it v People, w+ere SC said no d%ty to
appoint w+en acc%sed +ad +is own lawyer d%ring arraignment and d%ring some stages o'
(*
Sec. 1(. Appointment of counsel de officio for accused on appeal. : <t shall be the duty of the cler' of court of the trial court, upon filing of a
notice of appeal to ascertain from the appellant, if confined in prison, hether he desires the Regional 0rial 9ourt, 9ourt of /ppeals or the
Supreme 9ourt to appoint a counsel de officio to defend him and to transmit ith the record on a form to be prepared by the cler' of court of the
appellate court, a certificate of compliance ith this duty and of the response of the appellate to his in;uiry.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
7)
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t+e trial)
o 2e'ore records are elected on appeal &acc%sed in'ormed o' rig+t to co%nsel -y clerk o'
co%rt at t+is point)
8D
o In t+e CA: w+en t+e acc%sed signed +is appeal -y +imsel' or i' +e is in prison
o In t+e SC: c+eck SC g%idelines
#+ere can -e trial in a-sentia as long as:
o #+ere +as -een arraignment
o Acc%sed is %n6%sti'ia-ly a-sent*
/ote: A-sence o' acc%sed is only a waiver o' +is rig+t to present evidence on t+at
partic%lar day* &Crisostomo v S2, 4:D SCRA 4:)
(R: /egligence o' t+e co%nsel -inds t+e acc%sed*
o 01C0P#: i' (RESS negligence -eca%se t+at will -e deprivation o' d%e process 'or t+e
acc%sed &Andrada v People, 4: SCRA DI:, w+ere t+e co%nsel was 6%sti'ied 'or not crossC
e>amining certain witnesses)
Co%nsel m%st -e I/?0P0/?0/# co%nsel*
o 7ence, not:
Legal o''icer o' t+e city
P%-lic or private prosec%tor
Co%nsel 'or t+e police
M%nicipal attorney &People v S%nga, w+erein t+e co%nsel was t+e city legal o''icer)
01 To te!ti(' %! % #itne!! in $i! o#n )e$%-( )ut !u)*ect to cro!!4e2%&in%tion on &%tter! co.ere )'
irect e2%&in%tion. Hi! !i-ence !$%-- not in %n' &%nner "re*uice $i&.
Acc%sed can testi'y 'or t+e prosec%tion i' +e wants, -%t +e cannot -e compelled to do so*
Silence will /E# pre6%dice t+e acc%sed*
8hat if the question only raises civil liability-
0e1 To )e e2e&"t (ro& )ein+ co&"e--e to )e % #itne!! %+%in!t $i&!e-(.
Acc%sed +as a rig+t against sel'Cincrimination*
#+e privilege only applies to testimonial comp%lsion, and not mec+anical acts o' t+e acc%sed*
o 7ence, ?/A res%lts are not covered %nder t+is rig+t* &7errera v Al-a 4D! SCRA "3H)
Also not covered: e>tracting a vir%s 'rom t+e -ody, morp+ine 'orced o%t o' t+e
mo%t+ o' t+e acc%sed, an order to p%t on a pair o' appleC-ottom 6eans &wit+ -oots
wit+ t+e '%rr), pregnancy test
0(1 To con(ront %n cro!!4e2%&ine t$e #itne!!e! %+%in!t $i& %t t$e tri%-. Eit$er "%rt' &%' uti-i6e %!
"%rt o( it! e.ience t$e te!ti&on' o( % #itne!! #$o i! ece%!e, out o( or c%n not #it$ ue i-i+ence )e
(oun in t$e P$i-i""ine!, un%.%i-%)-e, or ot$er#i!e un%)-e to te!ti(', +i.en in %not$er c%!e or
"roceein+, *uici%- or %&ini!tr%ti.e, in.o-.in+ t$e !%&e "%rtie! %n !u)*ect &%tter, t$e %.er!e "%rt'
$%.in+ t$e o""ortunit' to cro!!4e2%&ine $i&.
0+1 To $%.e co&"u-!or' "roce!! i!!ue to !ecure t$e %tten%nce o( #itne!!e! %n "rouction o( ot$er
e.ience in $i! )e$%-(.
#+e acc%sed can apply 'or s%-poena ad testi'icand%m and d%ces tec%m
7e can also avail o' t+e modes o' discovery 'o%nd in R%le ""3, Secs ", "8, ": &conditional
e>amination o' witnesses 'or t+e prosec%tionAacc%sed)
o 4itnesses 'or acc%sed, p%rposes:
Sick or in'irm or %navaila-le, or
Lives more t+an "!! km 'rom co%rt
8H
(+
Rule 122, Sec. 1(. Appointment of counsel de officio for accused on appeal. : <t shall be the duty of the cler' of court of the trial court, upon
filing of a notice of appeal to ascertain from the appellant, if confined in prison, hether he desires the Regional 0rial 9ourt, 9ourt of /ppeals or
the Supreme 9ourt to appoint a counsel de officio to defend him and to transmit ith the record on a form to be prepared by the cler' of court of
the appellate court, a certificate of compliance ith this duty and of the response of the appellate to his in;uiry.
(7
Rule 11-, Sec. 12. Application for examination of !itness for accused efore trial. When the accused has been held to anser for an offense,
he may, upon motion ith notice to the other parties, have itnesses conditionally e1amined in his behalf. 0he motion shall state! "a# the name
and residence of the itness% "b# the substance of his testimony% and "c# that the itness is sic' or infirm as to afford reasonable ground for
believing that he ill not be able to attend the trial, or resides more than one hundred "1..# 'ilometers from the place of trial and has no means to
attend the same, or that other similar circumstances e1ist that ould ma'e him unavailable or prevent him from attending the trial. 0he motion
shall be supported by an affidavit of the accused and such other evidence as the court may re;uire.chan robles virtual la library
Sec. 1(. Examination of defense !itness$ ho! made. <f the court is satisfied that the e1amination of a itness for the accused is necessary, an
order shall be made directing that the itness be e1amined at a specific date, time and place and that a copy of the order be served on the
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
7*
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4+ere9 2e'ore A/@ 6%dge, mem-er o' t+e -ar in good standing &i' 6%dge
not availa-le), or -e'ore any in'erior co%rt &%pon order o' a s%perior co%rt)
o 4itnesses 'or prosec%tion:
Sick, in'irm, or %navaila-le, or
4itness is a-o%t to depart
8I
4+ere9 E/L@ in t+e co%rt w+ere t+e action is pending
0$1 To $%.e !"ee', i&"%rti%- %n "u)-ic tri%-.
4+at are t+e two rig+ts w+en it comes speed9
o Rig+t to speedy trial &criminal)
In criminal law, t+e rig+t to speedy trial can -e invoked anytime -e'ore trial
Remedy: motion to dismiss on gro%nd o' violation o' rig+t to speedy trial
83
&w+ic+ res%lts in an ac$%ittal)
o Speedy disposition o' t+e case &consti)
In constit%tional law, it can -e invoked any time as long as t+e action is pending
Remedy: +a-eas corp%s &since detention +as no more legal -asis)
Ke>atio%s, capricio%s, oppressive delays violate t+e rig+t to speedy disposition o'
t+e case &KCE)
4!
5actors:
o Lengt+ o' delay
o Reasons 'or s%c+ delay
o Assertion or 'ail%re to assert +is rig+t -y acc%sed
o Pre6%dice &@%lo v People, 4: SCRA H!:, w+ic+ involved rig+t to
speedy disposition w+ere t+e MR in t+e CA was only acted on a'ter
8 years -%t t+e SC said no violation -eca%se t+e CA 6%stice retired
and t+e case was reassigned only a'ter years*)
o Relevant time periods:
S,ace below is for your drawin1 of the time ,eriods' 9ave fun and ma+e sure to color
between the lines'

5rom arrest to preCtrial and arraignment: 8! days
5rom arraignment to trial: I! days
0ntire period o' trial: "I! days
prosecutor at least three "(# days before the scheduled e1amination. 0he e1amination shall be ta'en before a judge, or, if not practicable, a
member of the >ar in good standing so designated by the judge in the order, or if the order be made by a court of superior jurisdiction, before an
inferior court to be designated therein. 0he e1amination shall proceed notithstanding the absence of the prosecutor provided he as duly
notified of the hearing. / ritten record of the testimony shall be ta'en.
(,
Rule 11-, Sec. 1*. Examination of !itness for the prosecution. When it is satisfactorily appears that a itness for the prosecution is too sic' or
infirm to appear at the trial as directed by the court, of has to leave the $hilippines ith no definite date of returning, he may forthith be
conditionally e1amined before the court here the case is pending. Such e1amination, in the presence of the accused, or in his absence after
reasonable notice to attend the e1amination has been served on him, shall be conducted in the same manner as an e1amination at the trial. Failure
or refusal of the accused to attend the e1amination at the trial. Failure or refusal of the accused to attend the e1amination after notice shall be
considered a aiver. 0he statement ta'en may be admitted in behalf of or against the accused.
(-
Rule 11-, Sec. -. Remedy here accused is not brought to trial ithin the time limit. <f the accused is not brought to trial ithin the time limit
re;uired by Section 1"g#, Rule 11+ and Section 1, as e1tended by Section + of this Rule, the information may be dismissed on motion of the
accused on the ground of denial of his right to speedy trial. 0he accused shall have the burden of proving the motion but the prosecution shall
have the burden of going forard ith the evidence to establish the e1clusion of time under section ( of this rule. 0he dismissal shall be subject
to the rules on double jeopardy.
Failure of the accused to move for dismissal prior to trial shall constitute a aiver of the right to dismiss under this section.
).
560D! Sir said that N96 only applies to right to speedy disposition of cases, but in $eople v Bernande&, 2..+, the 9ourt also applied it to the
right of speedy trial.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
7+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
4+at are /E# incl%ded in co%nting t+e time9 4+at are 01CLB?0? 'rom
determination o' delay9
#+ose en%merated in R%le ""3, Sec 8
4"
:
o Et+er proceedings:
MentalAp+ysical e>amination o' t+e acc%sed
Et+er criminal c+arges
0>traordinary remedies against interloc%tory orders
Like t+ere was a case -e'ore t+at preCtrial
+appened only a'ter H years, -%t t+e reason was
t+at t+ere was a R%le D: pending, so t+at,s a valid
e>cl%sion*
o Remem-er t+e (R t+o%g+ t+at
e>traordinary remedies will /E# stop t+e
an ongoing criminal trial %nless t+e +ig+er
co%rt gives a #RE*
PreCtrial proceedings, as long as not e>ceeding 8! days
Erders o' in+i-ition or c+angeAtrans'er o' ven%epre6%dicail
$%estion
Any period not e>ceeding 8! days w+en t+e acc%sed is
act%ally %nder advisement
o A-sence &w+erea-o%ts B/LE4/) or %navaila-ility &w+erea-o%ts
L/E4/ -%t presence co%ld not -e o-tained) o' witness
o Mental incompetence or p+ysical ina-ility o' t+e acc%sed to stand
trial
o CoCacc%sed over w+om co%rt +as not ac$%ired J? or 'or w+om
time 'or trial +as not r%n and no motion 'or separate trial is
granted
o Prosec%tion dismissed in'ormation %pon motion and t+en 'iled
anot+er c+arge 'or t+e same case
o Contin%ance granted -y t+e co%rt mot% propio or on motion o'
eit+er t+e acc%sed or t+e prosec%tion
Rig+t to p%-lic trial
o (R: #rial s+o%ld -e p%-lic
01C0P#: w+en t+e proceedings or t+e s%-6ect matter o' t+e trial is o''ensive
decencyAp%-lic morals
4
)1
Rule 11-, Sec. (. Exclusions. : 0he folloing periods of delay shall be e1cluded in computing the time ithin hich trial must commence!
"a# /ny period of delay resulting from other proceedings concerning the accused, including but not limited to the folloing!
"1# Celay resulting from an e1amination of the physical and mental condition of the accused%
"2# Celay resulting from proceedings ith respect to other criminal charges against the accused%
"(# Celay resulting from e1traordinary remedies against interlocutory orders%
")# Celay resulting from pre:trial proceedings% provided, that the delay does not e1ceed thirty "(.# days%
"*# Celay resulting from orders of inhibition, or proceedings relating to change of venue of cases or transfer from other courts%
"+# Celay resulting from a finding of e1istence of a prejudicial ;uestion% and
"7# Celay reasonably attributable to any period, not to e1ceed thirty "(.# days, during hich any proceeding concerning the accused is actually
under advisement.
"b# /ny period of delay resulting from the absence or unavailability of an essential itness.
For purposes of this subparagraph, an essential itness shall be considered absent hen his hereabouts are un'non or his hereabouts
cannot be determined by due diligence. Be shall be considered unavailable henever his hereabouts are 'non but his presence for trial cannot
be obtained by due diligence.
"c# /ny period of delay resulting from the mental incompetence or physical inability of the accused to stand trial.
"d# <f the information is dismissed upon motion of the prosecution and thereafter a charge is filed against the accused for the same offense, any
period of delay from the date the charge as dismissed to the date the time limitation ould commence to run as to the subse;uent charge had
there been no previous charge.
"e# / reasonable period of delay hen the accused is joined for trial ith a co:accused over hom the court has not ac;uired jurisdiction, or, as
to hom the time for trial has not run and no motion for separate trial has been granted.
"f# /ny period of delay resulting from a continuance granted by any court motu proprio% or on motion of either the accused or his counsel, or
the prosecution, if the court granted the continuance on the basis of its findings set forth in the order that the ends of justice served by ta'ing such
action outeigh the best interest of the public and the accused in a speedy trial.
)2
Rule 11-, Sec. 21. Exclusion of the pulic. 0he judge may, motu proprio% e1clude the public from the courtroom if the evidence to be
produced during the trial is offensive to decency or public morals. Be may also, on motion of the accused, e1clude the public from the trial e1cept
court personnel and the counsel of the parties.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
77
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o 4+at a-o%t #K coverage9
In Petition 'or Coverage o' M%ltiple M%rder Cases against Ampat%an &!""), t+e
SC allowed ,ro hac vice &'or t+at case only) t+e coverage o' media, s%-6ect to
certain conditions*
48
0i1 To %""e%- in %-- c%!e! %--o#e %n in t$e &%nner "re!cri)e )' -%#.
RULE 11< 4 ARRAIGNMENT AND PLEA
Section 1. Arr%i+n&ent %n "-e%5 $o# &%e. 4 0%1 T$e %ccu!e &u!t )e %rr%i+ne )e(ore t$e court
#$ere t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion #%! (i-e or %!!i+ne (or tri%-. T$e %rr%i+n&ent !$%-- )e &%e in
o"en court )' t$e *u+e or c-er7 )' (urni!$in+ t$e %ccu!e #it$ % co"' o( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion,
re%in+ t$e !%&e in t$e -%n+u%+e or i%-ect 7no#n to $i&, %n %!7in+ $i& #$et$er $e "-e%! +ui-t' or
not +ui-t'. T$e "ro!ecution &%' c%-- %t t$e tri%- #itne!!e! ot$er t$%n t$o!e n%&e in t$e co&"-%int or
in(or&%tion.
0)1 T$e %ccu!e &u!t )e "re!ent %t t$e %rr%i+n&ent %n &u!t "er!on%--' enter $i! "-e%. Aot$
%rr%i+n&ent %n "-e% !$%-- )e &%e o( recor, )ut (%i-ure to o !o !$%-- not %((ect t$e .%-iit' o( t$e
"roceein+!.
0c1 =$en t$e %ccu!e re(u!e! to "-e% or &%7e! % conition%- "-e%, % "-e% o( not +ui-t' !$%-- )e
)(
a# /n audio:visual recording of the 3aguindanao massacre cases may be made both for documentary purposes and for transmittal to live radio
and television broadcasting
"b# 3edia entities must file ith the trial court a letter of application, manifesting that they intend to broadcast the audio:visual recording of the
proceedings and that they have the necessary technological e;uipment and technical plan to carry out the same, ith an underta'ing that they
ill faithfully comply ith the guidelines and regulations and cover the entire remaining proceedings until promulgation of judgment.
5o selective or partial coverage shall be alloed. 5o media entity shall be alloed to broadcast the proceedings ithout an application duly
approved by the trial court.
"c# / single fi1ed compact camera shall be installed inconspicuously inside the courtroom to provide a single ide:angle full:vie of the sala of
the trial court. 5o panning and &ooming shall be alloed to avoid unduly highlighting or donplaying incidents in the proceedings. 0he camera
and the necessary e;uipment shall be operated and controlled only by a duly designated official or employee of the Supreme 9ourt. 0he camera
e;uipment should not produce or beam any distracting sound or light rays. Signal lights or signs shoing the e;uipment is operating should not
be visible. / limited number of microphones and the least installation of iring, if not ireless technology, must be unobtrusively located in
places indicated by the trial court.
0he $ublic <nformation 6ffice and the 6ffice of the 9ourt /dministrator shall coordinate and assist the trial court on the physical set:up of the
camera and e;uipment.
"d# 0he transmittal of the audio:visual recording from inside the courtroom to the media entities shall be conducted in such a ay that the least
physical disturbance shall be ensured in 'eeping ith the dignity and solemnity of the proceedings and the e1clusivity of the access to the media
entities.
0he hardare for establishing an interconnection or lin' ith the camera e;uipment monitoring the proceedings shall be for the account of the
media entities, hich should employ technology that can "i# avoid the cumbersome sna'ing cables inside the courtroom, "ii# minimi&e the
unnecessary ingress or egress of technicians, and "iii# preclude undue commotion in case of technical glitches.
<f the premises outside the courtroom lac' space for the set:up of the media entitiesM facilities, the media entities shall access the audio:visual
recording either via ireless technology accessible even from outside the court premises or from one common eb broadcasting platform from
hich streaming can be accessed or derived to feed the images and sounds.
/t all times, e1clusive access by the media entities to the real:time audio:visual recording should be protected or encrypted.
"e# 0he broadcasting of the proceedings for a particular day must be continuous and in its entirety, e1cepting such portions thereof here Sec. 21
of Rule 11- of the Rules of 9ourt applies, and here the trial court e1cludes, upon motion, prospective itnesses from the courtroom, in
instances here, inter alia, there are unresolved identification issues or there are issues hich involve the security of the itnesses and the
integrity of their testimony "e.g., the dovetailing of corroborative testimonies is material, minority of the itness#.
0he trial court may, ith the consent of the parties, order only the pi1eli&ation of the image of the itness or mute the audio output, or both.
"f# 0o provide a faithful and complete broadcast of the proceedings, no commercial brea' or any other gap shall be alloed until the dayMs
proceedings are adjourned, e1cept during the period of recess called by the trial court and during portions of the proceedings herein the public is
ordered e1cluded.
"g# 0o avoid overriding or superimposing the audio output from the on:going proceedings, the proceedings shall be broadcast ithout any voice:
overs, e1cept brief annotations of scenes depicted therein as may be necessary to e1plain them at the start or at the end of the scene. /ny
commentary shall observe the su judice rule and be subject to the contempt poer of the court%
"h# 5o repeat airing of the audio:visual recording shall be alloed until after the finality of judgment, e1cept brief footages and still images
derived from or cartographic s'etches of scenes based on the recording, only for nes purposes, hich shall li'eise observe the su judice rule
and be subject to the contempt poer of the court%
"i# 0he original audio:recording shall be deposited in the 5ational 3useum and the Records 3anagement and /rchives 6ffice for preservation
and e1hibition in accordance ith la.
"j# 0he audio:visual recording of the proceedings shall be made under the supervision and control of the trial court hich may issue
supplementary directives, as the e1igency re;uires, including the suspension or revocation of the grant of application by the media entities.
"'# 0he 9ourt shall create a special committee hich shall forthith study, design and recommend appropriate arrangements, implementing
regulations, and administrative matters referred to it by the 9ourt concerning the live broadcast of the proceedings pro hac vice, in accordance
ith the above:outlined guidelines. 0he Special 9ommittee shall also report and recommend on the feasibility, availability and affordability of
the latest technology that ould meet the herein re;uirements. <t may conduct consultations ith resource persons and e1perts in the field of
information and communication technology.
"l# /ll other present directives in the conduct of the proceedings of the trial court "i.e., prohibition on recording devices such as still cameras,
tape recorders% and alloable number of media practitioners inside the courtroom# shall be observed in addition to these guidelines.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
7,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
entere (or $i&.
01 =$en t$e %ccu!e "-e%! +ui-t' )ut "re!ent! e2cu-"%tor' e.ience, $i! "-e% !$%-- )e ee&e
#it$r%#n %n % "-e% o( not +ui-t' !$%-- )e entere (or $i&.
0e1 =$en t$e %ccu!e i! uner "re.enti.e etention, $i! c%!e !$%-- )e r%((-e %n it! recor!
tr%n!&itte to t$e *u+e to #$o& t$e c%!e #%! r%((-e #it$in t$ree 0:1 %'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ o( t$e
in(or&%tion or co&"-%int. T$e %ccu!e !$%-- )e %rr%i+ne #it$in ten 01@1 %'! (ro& t$e %te o( t$e
r%((-e. T$e "re4tri%- con(erence o( $i! c%!e !$%-- )e $e- #it$in ten 01@1 %'! %(ter %rr%i+n&ent.
0(1 T$e "ri.%te o((ene "%rt' !$%-- )e re3uire to %""e%r %t t$e %rr%i+n&ent (or "ur"o!e! o( "-e%
)%r+%inin+, eter&in%tion o( ci.i- -i%)i-it', %n ot$er &%tter! re3uirin+ $i! "re!ence. In c%!e o( (%i-ure
o( t$e o((ene "%rt' to %""e%r e!"ite ue notice, t$e court &%' %--o# t$e %ccu!e to enter % "-e% o(
+ui-t' to % -e!!er o((en!e #$ic$ i! nece!!%ri-' inc-ue in t$e o((en!e c$%r+e #it$ t$e con(or&it' o(
t$e tri%- "ro!ecutor %-one.
0+1 Un-e!! % !$orter "erio i! "ro.ie )' !"eci%- -%# or Su"re&e Court circu-%r, t$e %rr%i+n&ent
!$%-- )e $e- #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& t$e %te t$e court %c3uire! *uri!iction o.er t$e "er!on o( t$e
%ccu!e. T$e ti&e o( t$e "enenc' o( % &otion to 3u%!$ or (or % )i-- or "%rticu-%r! or ot$er c%u!e!
*u!ti('in+ !u!"en!ion o( t$e %rr%i+n&ent !$%-- )e e2c-ue in co&"utin+ t$e "erio.
4+ere m%st arraignment -e made9
o Co%rt w+ere t+e complaint or in'o was 'iled or assigned 'or trial
4+en s+o%ld it -e made9
o ?epends*
8! days 'rom t+e date t+e co%rt ac$%ires 6%risdiction over t+e person* &'iling o' t+e
in'ormation)
/ote: -%t t+e time taken %p -y a motion to $%as+ or a -ill o' partic%lars
will not -e incl%ded in t+e co%nting o' t+e period
/ote again: preCtrial m%st +appen wit+in t+e same 8!Cday period, -%t
a'ter arraignment
8:"!:"! r%le i' t+e person is preventively detained*
5rom 'iling o' in'o, case is ra''led wit+in 8 days
Arraignment wit+in "! days o' ra''le
PreCtrial wit+in "! days o' arraignment
7ow s+o%ld arraignment -e made9
o #+e in'ormation is read against +im -y t+e 6%dge or t+e clerk
o It m%st -e in a lang%age or dialect known to +im
o Acc%sed m%st -e asked w+et+er +e pleads g%ilty or not &so arraignment 'irst -e'ore plea)
Can arraignment -e skipped9
o /o, never* #+e acc%sed can /E# waive +is arraignment*
Can t+e acc%sed ask +is lawyer to attend arraignment 'or +im instead9
o /E= Acc%sed m%st -e present at t+e arraignment and m%st personally enter +is plea*
#+e lawyer can not enter +is plea 'or +im*
?oes t+e offended party +ave to -e t+ere d%ring arraignment9
o @es, 'or t+e p%rposes o' plea -argaining, civil lia-ility and ot+er matters*
I' +e doesn,t go despite notice, t+e acc%sed can enter +is plea to a lesser o''ense
wit+ t+e con'ormity o' t+e prosec%tor*
So, go= Er else t+e acc%sed can get o'' wit+ a lesser o''ense*
4+at a-o%t a -elated arraignment9
o People v #rinidad: t+ey reali.ed t+at t+ere was no arraignment done, -%t t+e -elated
arraignment was deemed valid -eca%se t+e co%nsel o' t+e acc%sed participated in t+e trial*
4+en will a plea o' /E# g%ilty -e entered 'or t+e acc%sed9
o I' +e re'%ses to plea
o I' +e makes a conditional plea
o I' +e enters a plea o' g%ilty -%t o''ers e>c%lpatory evidence
o I' +e +imsel' makes a plea o' not g%ilty
Linds o' pleas o' g%ilt:
o #o a lesser o''ense &Sec )
o #o a capital o''ense &Sec 8)
o #o a nonCcapital o''ense &Sec 4)
o Improvident plea &Sec :)
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
7-
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. 8. Plea of guilty to a lesser offense. H At %rr%i+n&ent, t$e %ccu!e, #it$ t$e con!ent o( t$e
o((ene "%rt' %n "ro!ecutor, &%' )e %--o#e )' t$e tri%- court to "-e% +ui-t' to % -e!!er o((en!e
#$ic$ i! nece!!%ri-' inc-ue in t$e o((en!e c$%r+e. A(ter %rr%i+n&ent )ut )e(ore tri%-, t$e %ccu!e
&%' !ti-- )e %--o#e to "-e% +ui-t' to !%i -e!!er o((en!e %(ter #it$r%#in+ $i! "-e% o( not +ui-t'. No
%&en&ent o( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion i! nece!!%r'.
4+en can a plea o' g%ilty to a lesser o''ense -e made9
o At arraignment, wit+ t+e consent o' t+e o''ended party and t+e prosec%tor
Bnless t+e o''ended party was not t+ere despite notice
o At t+e preCtrial &at t+e very latest), wit+ t+e same conditions
o At trial, can /E longer plea g%ilty to lesser o''ense
/ote t+at t+e lesser o''ense m%st -e necessarily incl%ded in t+e o''ense c+arged*
Sec. :. Plea of guilty to capital offense; reception of evidence. H =$en t$e %ccu!e "-e%! +ui-t' to %
c%"it%- o((en!e, t$e court !$%-- conuct % !e%rc$in+ in3uir' into t$e .o-unt%rine!! %n (u--
co&"re$en!ion o( t$e con!e3uence! o( $i! "-e% %n !$%-- re3uire t$e "ro!ecution to "ro.e $i! +ui-t %n
t$e "reci!e e+ree o( cu-"%)i-it'. T$e %ccu!e &%' "re!ent e.ience in $i! )e$%-(.
/ow moot since no more deat+ penalty &s%spended)
Searc+ing in$%iry m%st -e made -y t+e 6%dge to determine i' plea was vol%ntary and i' t+e
acc%sed %nderstood t+e plea
o So, c+eck:
2ackgro%nd
Cond%ct o' c%stodial investigation &may tort%re -a, etc)
0>plain t+e nat%re o' t+e o''ense to t+e acc%sed
70ARI/( is needed*
I' no searc+ing in$%iry was made or was de'ective, t+en t+e plea o' g%ilty co%ld -e an improvident
plea* &People v ?oc%mento, !"!)
Sec. ;. Plea of guilty to non-capital offense; reception of evidence, discretionary. H =$en t$e %ccu!e
"-e%! +ui-t' to % non4c%"it%- o((en!e, t$e court &%' recei.e e.ience (ro& t$e "%rtie! to eter&ine t$e
"en%-t' to )e i&"o!e.
7earing +ere is discretionary, not mandatory*
o Enly i' necessary to determine penalty o' o''ense
Sec. 5. Withdrawal of improvident plea of guilty.H At %n' ti&e )e(ore t$e *u+&ent o( con.iction
)eco&e! (in%-, t$e court &%' "er&it %n i&"ro.ient "-e% o( +ui-t' to )e #it$r%#n %n )e !u)!titute
)' % "-e% o( not +ui-t'.
4+at is an improvident plea ba9
o Plea o' g%ilty wit+o%t '%lly %nderstanding t+e conse$%ences o' t+e plea
J+%nivel pleaded g%ilty to m%rder, -%t +e didn,t know w+at t+at meant*
It can -e wit+drawn A/@ time 205ER0 6%dgment o' conviction -ecomes 'inal and e>ec%tory &a'ter
appeal period e>pires)
I' t+e plea is t+e sole -asis o' t+e conviction, t+en t+e case will -e remanded to t+e trial co%rt 'or
'%rt+er proceedings* &s%pposing it went %p to t+e appellate co%rts)
o I' t+ere are ot+er pieces o' evidence, t+e appellate co%rt can decide -ased on t+ose pieces
o' evidence*
Sec. <. Dut' o( court to in(or& %ccu!e o( $i! ri+$t to coun!e-. H Ae(ore %rr%i+n&ent, t$e court !$%--
in(or& t$e %ccu!e o( $i! ri+$t to coun!e- %n %!7 $i& i( $e e!ire! to $%.e one. Un-e!! t$e %ccu!e i!
%--o#e to e(en $i&!e-( in "er!on or $%! e&"-o'e coun!e- o( $i! c$oice, t$e court &u!t %!!i+n %
coun!e- e o((icio to e(en $i&.
Sec. 7. A""oint&ent o( coun!e- e o((icio. H T$e court, con!ierin+ t$e +r%.it' o( t$e o((en!e %n t$e
i((icu-t' o( t$e 3ue!tion! t$%t &%' %ri!e, !$%-- %""oint %! coun!e- e o((icio !uc$ &e&)er! o( t$e )%r in
+oo !t%nin+ #$o, )' re%!on o( t$eir e2"erience %n %)i-it', c%n co&"etent-' e(en t$e %ccu!e. Aut
in -oc%-itie! #$ere !uc$ &e&)er! o( t$e )%r %re not %.%i-%)-e, t$e court &%' %""oint %n' "er!on,
re!ient o( t$e "ro.ince %n o( +oo re"ute (or "ro)it' %n %)i-it', to e(en t$e %ccu!e.
Sec. >. Ti&e (or coun!e- e o((icio to "re"%re (or %rr%i+n&ent. H =$ene.er % coun!e- e o((ice i!
%""ointe )' t$e court to e(en t$e %ccu!e %t t$e %rr%i+n&ent, $e !$%-- )e +i.en % re%!on%)-e ti&e
to con!u-t #it$ t$e %ccu!e %! to $i! "-e% )e(ore "roceein+ #it$ t$e %rr%i+n&ent.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,.
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
2e'ore arraignment, it is t+e d%ty o' t+e co%rt:
o to in'orm t+e acc%sed o' +is rig+t to co%nsel
o to appoint a co%nsel de o''icio
i' no lawyers availa-le, co%rt may appoint any person o' good rep%te and a-ility to
de'end t+e acc%sed
Sec. ?. Ai-- o( "%rticu-%r!. H T$e %ccu!e &%', )e(ore %rr%i+n&ent, &o.e (or % )i-- o( "%rticu-%r! to
en%)-e $i& "ro"er-' to "-e% %n "re"%re (or tri%-. T$e &otion !$%-- !"eci(' t$e %--e+e e(ect! o( t$e
co&"-%int or in(or&%tion %n t$e et%i-! e!ire.
4+en can yo% move 'or a -ill o' partic%lars9
o 205ER0 arraignment
4+at do yo% need to allege9
o ?e'ects, and
o ?etails desired
I' t+e prosec%tion does not provide a -ill o' partic%lars, or w+at it provided was de'ective, t+e case
will -e dismissed -ased on 'ail%re to prosec%te* &Kirata v Sandigan-ayan, "33H, w+ere t+e 2oP
merely reiterated st%'' and even added allegations)
Sec. 1@. Production or inspection of material evidence in possession of prosecution. H U"on &otion o(
t$e %ccu!e !$o#in+ +oo c%u!e %n #it$ notice to t$e "%rtie!, t$e court, in orer to "re.ent !ur"ri!e,
!u""re!!ion, or %-ter%tion, &%' orer t$e "ro!ecution to "rouce %n "er&it t$e in!"ection %n co"'in+
or "$oto+r%"$in+ o( %n' #ritten !t%te&ent +i.en )' t$e co&"-%in%nt %n ot$er #itne!!e! in %n'
in.e!ti+%tion o( t$e o((en!e conucte )' t$e "ro!ecution or ot$er in.e!ti+%tin+ o((icer!, %! #e-- %! %n'
e!i+n%te ocu&ent!, "%"er!, )oo7!, %ccount!, -etter!, "$oto+r%"$!, o)*ect, or t%n+i)-e t$in+! not
ot$er#i!e "ri.i-e+e, #$ic$ con!titute or cont%in e.ience &%teri%- to %n' &%tter in.o-.e in t$e c%!e
%n #$ic$ %re in t$e "o!!e!!ion or uner t$e contro- o( t$e "ro!ecution, "o-ice, or ot$er -%#
in.e!ti+%tin+ %+encie!.
Sec. 11. Suspension of arraignment. H U"on &otion )' t$e "ro"er "%rt', t$e %rr%i+n&ent !$%-- )e
!u!"ene in t$e (o--o#in+ c%!e!/
0%1 T$e %ccu!e %""e%r! to )e !u((erin+ (ro& %n un!oun &ent%- conition #$ic$ e((ecti.e-' rener!
$i& un%)-e to (u--' uner!t%n t$e c$%r+e %+%in!t $i& %n to "-e% inte--i+ent-' t$ereto. In !uc$ c%!e,
t$e court !$%-- orer $i! &ent%- e2%&in%tion %n, i( nece!!%r', $i! con(ine&ent (or !uc$ "ur"o!e5
0)1 T$ere e2i!t! % "re*uici%- 3ue!tion5 %n
0c1 A "etition (or re.ie# o( t$e re!o-ution o( t$e "ro!ecutor i! "enin+ %t eit$er t$e De"%rt&ent o(
Bu!tice, or t$e O((ice o( t$e Pre!ient5 provided, t$%t t$e "erio o( !u!"en!ion !$%-- not e2cee !i2t'
0<@1 %'! counte (ro& t$e (i-in+ o( t$e "etition #it$ t$e re.ie#in+ o((ice.
4+en is arraignment s%spended9
o Acc%sed s%''ering 'rom %nso%nd mental condition
o Pre6%dicial $%estion e>ists
o Petition 'or review is pending wit+ t+e ?EJ or t+e E''ice o' t+e Pre.
S+o%ld not e>ceed D! days 'rom 'iling
#ran$ tip: E-tain a resol%tion 'rom t+e ?EJ asap*
Remem-er t+at t+e Co%rt will not wait long a'ter t+e D! day period e>pires* @o%
+ave to watc+ and -e ready 'or t+is pro-lem*
o Pending incidents like
Motion to $%as+
Motion 'or in+i-ition
Motion 'or -ill o' partic%lars
RULE 117 H MOTION TO FUASH
Section 1. Time to move to quash. H At %n' ti&e )e(ore enterin+ $i! "-e%, t$e %ccu!e &%' &o.e to
3u%!$ t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion.
4+en do yo% 'ile a motion to $%as+9
o A/@ #IM0 -e'ore entering t+e plea
4+at are t+e -asic reasons 'or doing so9
o In'o is de'ective, or
o Co%rt +as no J?
Can yo% 'ile a motion to $%as+ a complaintCa''idavit9
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,1
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o /E* @o% $%as+ t+e in'o, not t+e complaintCa''idavit*
Sec. 8. Form and contents. H T$e &otion to 3u%!$ !$%-- )e in #ritin+, !i+ne )' t$e %ccu!e or $i!
coun!e- %n !$%-- i!tinct-' !"eci(' it! (%ctu%- %n -e+%- +roun!. T$e court !$%-- con!ier no +roun
ot$er t$%n t$o!e !t%te in t$e &otion, e2ce"t -%c7 o( *uri!iction o.er t$e o((en!e c$%r+e.
M%st -e in writing
o Signed -y t+e acc%sed or +is co%nsel
Co%rt s+all not consider any ot+er gro%nd e>cept t+ose indicated in t+e motion
o 01C0P#: no 6%risdiction over t+e s%-6ect matter
Sec. :. rounds. H T$e %ccu!e &%' &o.e to 3u%!$ t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion on %n' o( t$e
(o--o#in+ +roun!/
0%1 T$%t t$e (%ct! c$%r+e o not con!titute %n o((en!e5
0)1 T$%t t$e court tr'in+ t$e c%!e $%! no *uri!iction o.er t$e o((en!e c$%r+e5
0c1 T$%t t$e court tr'in+ t$e c%!e $%! no *uri!iction o.er t$e "er!on o( t$e %ccu!e5
01 T$%t t$e o((icer #$o (i-e t$e in(or&%tion $% no %ut$orit' to o !o5
0e1 T$%t it oe! not con(or& !u)!t%nti%--' to t$e "re!cri)e (or&5
0(1 T$%t &ore t$%n one o((en!e i! c$%r+e e2ce"t #$en % !in+-e "uni!$&ent (or .%riou! o((en!e! i!
"re!cri)e )' -%#5
0+1 T$%t t$e cri&in%- %ction or -i%)i-it' $%! )een e2tin+ui!$e5
0$1 T$%t it cont%in! %.er&ent! #$ic$, i( true, #ou- con!titute % -e+%- e2cu!e or *u!ti(ic%tion5 %n
0i1 T$%t t$e %ccu!e $%! )een "re.iou!-' con.icte or %c3uitte o( t$e o((en!e c$%r+e, or t$e c%!e
%+%in!t $i& #%! i!&i!!e or ot$er#i!e ter&in%te #it$out $i! e2"re!! con!ent.
(ro%nds:
5acts c+arged do not constit%te an o''ense &See Sec 4)
o 2asically: t+e elements o' t+e o''ense are not alleged
o #est: w+et+er or not t+e 'acts asseverated, i' +ypot+etically admitted, wo%ld esta-lis+ t+e
essential elements o' t+e crime de'ined in law &La.arte v S2)
o Matters ali%nde will /E# -e considered*
2%t w+at i' t+e 'acts alleged constit%te a di''erent crime9
#+en /E M#M* Co%rt will order an amendment*
o I' order not 'ollowed, t+en co%rt will grant t+e M#M*
?o%-le 6eopardy9 /E* /o arraignment yet*
0>ample: c+arged wit+ $%ali'ied t+e't, -%t 'ailed to s+ow t+e relations+ip -etween
t+e parties*
More t+an one o''ense was c+arged in t+e in'ormation
o Remem-er t+e r%le: one o''enseSone in'ormation
0>cept i' single p%nis+ment 'or vario%s o''enses is prescri-ed -y law &comple>
crime)
o "8 c+ecks -o%nced S "8 in'ormations
o " times raped S " in'ormations &remem-er JCCall=)
o Sta--ed a man "I times to deat+ S " in'ormation 'or m%rder
?oes not con'orm s%-stantially to prescri-ed 'orm
o #alks o' t+e s%''iciency o' an in'ormation
o Remem-er t+at it needs t+e certi'ication -y t+e prosec%tor*
44
E''icer w+o 'iled t+e in'ormation +ad /E a%t+ority to do so
o Like a special prosec%tor 'iling or amending an in'o wit+o%t a%t+ority 'rom t+e EM2*
o Er a prosec%tor in Cagayan de Ero 'iling an in'o in Makati*
2%t i' allowed or appointed -y t+e ?EJ, t+en t+at,s 'ine*
So a state prosec%tor appointed as acting city prosec%tor can +ave
a%t+ority to approveA'ile an in'ormation prepared -y t+e assistant
prosec%tor, as long as allowedAappointed -y t+e ?EJ*
))
Rule 112, Sec. ). Resolution of investigating prosecutor and its revie. <f the investigating prosecutor finds cause to hold the respondent for
trial, he shall prepare the resolution and information. Be shall certify under oath in the information that he, or as shon by the record, an
authori&ed officer, has personally e1amined the complainant and his itnesses% that there is reasonable ground to believe that a crime has been
committed and that the accused is probably guilty thereof% that the accused as informed of the complaint and of the evidence submitted against
him% and that he as given an opportunity to submit controverting evidence. 6therise, he shall recommend the dismissal of the complaint.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,2
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Lack o' 6d over t+e person o' t+e acc%sed, i*e:
o /o vol%ntary s%rrender, or not yet arrested
Lack o' 6d over t+e o''ense c+arged
o Co%rt can consider even wit+o%t alleging in t+e M#M
Criminal actionAlia-ility +as -een e>ting%is+ed -y prescription
o It is t+e criminal lia-ility w+ic+ +as -een e>ting%is+ed and w+ic+ t+is gro%nd applies to
I' t+e iss%e is wit+ t+e prescription o' penalties, t+at,s a di''erent story since t+at
pres%pposes t+at 6%dgment +ad already -een meted o%t
Contains averments w+ic+, i' tr%e, wo%ld constit%te a legal e>c%se or 6%sti'ication
o Like i' t+e in'ormation containing 6%sti'ying circ%mstances
4+at i' merely mitigating9
?oesn,t matter* Prosec%tor s+o%ldn,t +ave p%t it t+ere in t+e 'irst place*
4eak in'ormation*
?o%-le 6eopardy &read wit+ Sec H)
o Re$%isites:
5iled in a competent 6%risdiction
Kalid in'ormation previo%sly 'iled
Kalid plea
Previo%sly convicted, ac$%itted or case was dismissed wit+o%t e>press consent o'
t+e acc%sed
o #est: w+et+er one o''ense is identical wit+ t+e ot+er or is an attempt to commit it or a
'r%stration t+ereo'F or w+et+er one o''ense necessarily incl%des or is necessarily incl%ded
in t+e ot+er &Merencillo v People, !!H, w+ere SC said t+at -eing c+arged o' violating t+e
AntiC(ra't Law and ?irect 2ri-ery does /E# amo%nt to do%-le 6eopardy*)
o (R: ?ismissal m%st -e 4I#7EB# t+e e>press consent o' t+e acc%sed
Like 'ail%re to prosec%te
01C0P# &important= Ie wit+ consent o' t+e acc%sed -%t do%-le 6eopardy
can -e invoked):
o Kiolation o' rig+t to speedy trial
o ?em%rrer to evidence
4+at a-o%t motion 'or determination o' pro-a-le ca%se and granted -y t+e co%rt9
/ope, no do%-le 6eopardy -eca%se at t+is point, t+ere +as -een no plea
yet*
o 4+en will do%-le 6eopardy not set in9
S%pervening event
5acts constit%ting graver c+arge only discovered a'ter a plea was entered
Like w+en c+arge was 'r%strated +omicide, t+en a'ter plea, t+e victim dies
Plea o' g%ilty to lesser o''ense was made 4I#7EB# consent o' prosec%tor and
o''ended party
01C0P#:
o w+en t+e private o''ended party did not appear d%ring
arraignment 'or plea -argaining and t+e o''ense was necessarily
incl%ded in t+e o''ense c+arged &do%-le 6eopardy sets in=)
4:
Sec. ;. A&en&ent o( co&"-%int or in(or&%tion. H I( t$e &otion to 3u%!$ i! )%!e on %n %--e+e e(ect
o( t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion #$ic$ c%n )e cure )' %&en&ent, t$e court !$%-- orer t$%t %n
%&en&ent )e &%e.
I( it i! )%!e on t$e +roun t$%t t$e (%ct! c$%r+e o not con!titute %n o((en!e, t$e "ro!ecution !$%--
)e +i.en )' t$e court %n o""ortunit' to correct t$e e(ect )' %&en&ent. T$e &otion !$%-- )e +r%nte
i( t$e "ro!ecution (%i-! to &%7e t$e %&en&ent, or t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion !ti-- !u((er! (ro& t$e
!%&e e(ect e!"ite t$e %&en&ent.
Sec. 5. E((ect o( !u!t%inin+ t$e &otion to 3u%!$. H I( t$e &otion to 3u%!$ i! !u!t%ine, t$e court &%'
orer t$%t %not$er co&"-%int or in(or&%tion )e (i-e e2ce"t %! "ro.ie in !ection < o( t$i! ru-e. I( t$e
)*
Rule 11+, Sec 1 "f# 0he private offended party shall be re;uired to appear at the arraignment for purposes of plea bargaining, determination of
civil liability, and other matters re;uiring his presence. <n case of failure of the offended party to appear despite due notice, the court may allo
the accused to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser offense hich is necessarily included in the offense charged ith the conformity of the trial
prosecutor alone.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
orer i! &%e, t$e %ccu!e, i( in cu!to', !$%-- not )e i!c$%r+e un-e!! %&itte to )%i-. I( no orer i!
&%e or i( $%.in+ )een &%e, no ne# in(or&%tion i! (i-e #it$in t$e ti&e !"eci(ie in t$e orer or
#it$in !uc$ (urt$er ti&e %! t$e court &%' %--o# (or +oo c%u!e, t$e %ccu!e, i( in cu!to', !$%-- )e
i!c$%r+e un-e!! $e i! %-!o in cu!to' o( %not$er c$%r+e.

Sec. <. Orer !u!t%inin+ t$e &otion to 3u%!$ not % )%r to %not$er "ro!ecution5 e2ce"tion. H An orer
!u!t%inin+ t$e &otion to 3u%!$ i! not % )%r to %not$er "ro!ecution (or t$e !%&e o((en!e un-e!! t$e
&otion #%! )%!e on t$e +roun! !"eci(ie in !ection : 0+1 %n 0i1 o( t$i! Ru-e.
4+at is t+e e''ect o' a grant o' t+e M#M9
o (R: ?ISMISSAL=
01C0P#:
I' -ased on alleged de'ect w+ic+ can -e c%red -y amendment, co%rt will
order amendment*
I' -ased on gro%nd t+at 'acts c+arged do not constit%te an o''ense, co%rt
will allow amendment*
o @et, i' t+e prosec%tion 'ails to make t+e amendment, t+en
dismissal*
Can a new complaint or in'ormation -e 'iled9 &reC'iling o' in'ormation)
o (R: @es*
#+e acc%sed will not -e disc+arged %nless admitted to -ail*
I' still no new complaint or in'o is 'iled wit+in t+e speci'ic period ordered
-y co%rt, t+e acc%sed can -e disc+arged*
4ill t+e timeC-ar r%le in provisional dismissals apply to reC'iling o' an
in'ormation9
o /E= It will /E# apply* &Los 2anos v Pedro, !!3)
o 01C0P#: &4+en can t+ere -e no reC'iling)
Prescription
?o%-le 6eopardy
4+at is t+e remedy o' a denial o' a M#M9
o /one* 4ait 'or t+e 6%dgment and t+en appeal* &La.arte v S2)
01C0P# i' denial was really tainted wit+ (A?AL0J, t+en R%le D:*
Sec. 7. Former conviction or acquittal; dou!le "eopardy. H =$en %n %ccu!e $%! )een con.icte or
%c3uitte, or t$e c%!e %+%in!t $i& i!&i!!e or ot$er#i!e ter&in%te #it$out $i! e2"re!! con!ent )' %
court o( co&"etent *uri!iction, u"on % .%-i co&"-%int or in(or&%tion or ot$er (or&%- c$%r+e !u((icient
in (or& %n !u)!t%nce to !u!t%in % con.iction %n %(ter t$e %ccu!e $% "-e%e to t$e c$%r+e, t$e
con.iction or %c3uitt%- o( t$e %ccu!e or t$e i!&i!!%- o( t$e c%!e !$%-- )e % )%r to %not$er "ro!ecution
(or t$e o((en!e c$%r+e, or (or %n' %tte&"t to co&&it t$e !%&e or (ru!tr%tion t$ereo(, or (or %n'
o((en!e #$ic$ nece!!%ri-' inc-ue! or i! nece!!%ri-' inc-ue in t$e o((en!e c$%r+e in t$e (or&er
co&"-%int or in(or&%tion.
Ho#e.er, t$e con.iction o( t$e %ccu!e !$%-- not )e % )%r to %not$er "ro!ecution (or %n o((en!e
#$ic$ nece!!%ri-' inc-ue! t$e o((en!e c$%r+e in t$e (or&er co&"-%int or in(or&%tion uner %n' o( t$e
(o--o#in+ in!t%nce!/
0%1 t$e +r%.er o((en!e e.e-o"e ue to !u"er.enin+ (%ct! %ri!in+ (ro& t$e !%&e %ct or o&i!!ion
con!titutin+ t$e (or&er c$%r+e5
0)1 t$e (%ct! con!titutin+ t$e +r%.er c$%r+e )ec%&e 7no#n or #ere i!co.ere on-' %(ter % "-e% #%!
entere in t$e (or&er co&"-%int or in(or&%tion5 or
0c1 t$e "-e% o( +ui-t' to t$e -e!!er o((en!e #%! &%e #it$out t$e con!ent o( t$e "ro!ecutor %n o( t$e
o((ene "%rt' e2ce"t %! "ro.ie in !ection 10(1 o( Ru-e 11<.
In %n' o( t$e (ore+oin+ c%!e!, #$ere t$e %ccu!e !%ti!(ie! or !er.e! in #$o-e or in "%rt t$e
*u+&ent, $e !$%-- )e creite #it$ t$e !%&e in t$e e.ent o( con.iction (or t$e +r%.er o((en!e.
Sec. >. Provisional dismissal. H A c%!e !$%-- not )e "ro.i!ion%--' i!&i!!e e2ce"t #it$ t$e e2"re!!
con!ent o( t$e %ccu!e %n #it$ notice to t$e o((ene "%rt'.
T$e "ro.i!ion%- i!&i!!%- o( o((en!e! "uni!$%)-e )' i&"ri!on&ent not e2ceein+ !i2 0<1 'e%r! or %
(ine o( %n' %&ount, or )ot$, !$%-- )eco&e "er&%nent one 011 'e%r %(ter i!!u%nce o( t$e orer #it$out
t$e c%!e $%.in+ )een re.i.e. =it$ re!"ect to o((en!e! "uni!$%)-e )' i&"ri!on&ent o( &ore t$%n !i2
0<1 'e%r!, t$eir "ro.i!ion%- i!&i!!%- !$%-- )eco&e "er&%nent t#o 081 'e%r! %(ter i!!u%nce o( t$e orer
#it$out t$e c%!e $%.in+ )een re.i.e.
In provisional dismissal, t+ere is no $%estioning o' t+e in'ormation*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o #+e in'o is valid and t+e co%rt +as J? over t+e person and t+e o''ense*
/ote: always done wit+
o t+e consent o' t+e acc%sed and
o notice o' t+e o''ended party
0''ect: case is temporarily dismissed
o Meaning it can -e revived &not reC'iled since t+e dismissal was provisional)
?oes it +ave to -e in writing9
o /E* /o 'orm re$%ired*
Compare wit+ a M#M w+ic+ needs to -e in writing*
4+o can ask 'or a P?9
o Prosec%tion
4it+ t+e consent o' t+e acc%sed &so no do%-le 6eopardy)
I' no consent o' t+e acc%sed, t+e +earing will -e reset*
o I' no consent o' t+e acc%sed and was still dismissed, t+en do%-le
6eopardy will set in*
o #+e acc%sed
/o need 'or consent o' t+e prosec%tion
4+en can yo% ask 'or a P?9
o A/@ #IM0 w+ile t+e case is pending*
o 0ven -e'ore arraignment &Atty* #ran$)
Compare wit+ M#M t+at m%st -e 'iled -e'ore plea*
?o t+e gro%nds 'or a M#M apply in P?9
o /E*
Sample gro%nds 'or a P?:
4itness not availa-le 'or $%ite some time
#+e victim -ecame insane
Lack o' material evidence
7ow can provisional dismissal -e permanent9
o I' t+e o''ense does not e>ceed D years: " years
o I' o''ense goes -eyond D years: years
#+e period starts %pon receipt o' notice -y t+e acc%sed
2B#: in People v Lacson, &!!8) t+e SC said t+e period can only start %pon
receipt o' notice -y t+e p%-lic prosec%tor &since +e +as t+e d%ty to revive
t+e case)
4+y go 'or a provisional dismissal instead o' a contin%ance9
o So yo% won,t get trapped -y t+e acc%sed saying t+at +is rig+t to a speedy trial +as -een
violated*
o Asking 'or m%ltiple contin%ances and resets may piss t+e 6%dge o''*
M#M Prov ?ismissal
5iled -y9 Acc%sed Acc%sed or Prosec
5orm9 5orm and content re$%ired
-y law &in writing, etc)
/o s%c+ re$%irement
Attacks
w+at9
Assails t+e in'ormation (ro%nded on reasons ot+er t+an t+e
de'ects in t+e in'ormation
4+en
availa-le9
205ER0 plea A/@ #IM0
Permanenc
e
#imeC-ar r%le applies ?oesn,t apply
Sec. ?. E%i-ure to &o.e to 3u%!$ or to %--e+e %n' +roun t$ere(ore. H T$e (%i-ure o( t$e %ccu!e to
%!!ert %n' +roun o( % &otion to 3u%!$ )e(ore $e "-e%! to t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion, eit$er
)ec%u!e $e i not (i-e % &otion to 3u%!$ or (%i-e to %--e+e t$e !%&e in !%i &otion, !$%-- )e ee&e %
#%i.er o( %n' o)*ection! e2ce"t t$o!e )%!e on t$e +roun! "ro.ie (or in "%r%+r%"$! 0%1, 0)1, 0+1,
%n 0i1 o( !ection : o( t$i! Ru-e.
4+en s+o%ld one 'ile a M#M9
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o 2e'ore plea
I' not, t+en 4AIK0R o' t+ose gro%nds*
01C0P#:
o 5acts c+arged do not constit%te an o''ense
o /o 6%risdiction over t+e o''ense c+arged
o Criminal action +as e>ting%is+ed
o ?o%-le 6eopardy
o Rom-ie apocalypse
Motion to ?ismiss
&Civil)
Motion to M%as+ &Criminal)
Co%rt actions (rant, deny, or
order an amendment
(rant, deny or order to amend
&LIMI#0? gro%nds: de'ect t+at
can -e c%red or 'acts c+arged do
not constit%te an o''ense)
ReC'iling Pwede= 0>cept:
Prescription
Bnen'orcea-le %nder
So5
Res J%dicata
0>ting%is+ed claim
or demand
Pwede= 0>cept:
?o%-le 6eopardy
Prescription
E-6ections not raised 4aived= 0>cept:
Lack o' 6d over SM
Prescription
Litis Pendentia
Res J%dicata
4aived= 0>cept:
Lack o' 6d over o''ense
Prescription
?oes not constit%te an o''ense
?o%-le 6eopardy
RULE 11> PRE4TRIAL
Section 1. Pre-trial; mandatory in criminal cases. H In %-- cri&in%- c%!e! co+ni6%)-e )' t$e
Sandigan!ayan, Re+ion%- Tri%- Court, Metro"o-it%n Tri%- Court, Munici"%- Tri%- Court in Citie!, Munici"%-
Tri%- Court %n Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court, t$e court !$%--, %(ter %rr%i+n&ent %n #it$in t$irt' 0:@1
%'! (ro& t$e %te t$e court %c3uire! *uri!iction o.er t$e "er!on o( t$e %ccu!e, un-e!! % !$orter
"erio i! "ro.ie (or in !"eci%- -%#! or circu-%r! o( t$e Su"re&e Court, orer % "re4tri%- con(erence to
con!ier t$e (o--o#in+/
0%1 "-e% )%r+%inin+5
0)1 !ti"u-%tion o( (%ct!5
0c1 &%r7in+ (or ienti(ic%tion o( e.ience o( t$e "%rtie!5
01 #%i.er o( o)*ection! to %&i!!i)i-it' o( e.ience5
0e1 &oi(ic%tion o( t$e orer o( tri%- i( t$e %ccu!e %&it! t$e c$%r+e )ut inter"o!e! % -%#(u- e(en!e5
%n
0(1 !uc$ &%tter! %! #i-- "ro&ote % (%ir %n e2"eitiou! tri%- o( t$e cri&in%- %n ci.i- %!"ect! o( t$e c%!e.
4+en s+o%ld preCtrial occ%r9
o 8! days 'rom t+e co%rt ac$%iring 6%risdiction over t+e person A/? a'ter arraignment
Read wit+ arraignment: PreCtrial m%st -e wit+in t+e same 8!Cday period as
arraignment
2%t i' t+e acc%sed is detained, remem-er t+e 8:"!:"! r%le
Is pretrial mandatory9
o @0S* &ECA v 0spanol, !!4, w+erein a 6%dge did not avail o' preCtrial, ca%sing +er to retire
wit+ a lot o' pending cases)
Can yo% compromise9
o (R: /o compromises in criminal action
4+y not9
2eca%se o' t+e r%le t+at o''er o' compromise is a sign o' criminal lia-ility*
&0vidence)
o 2B# now, -eca%se o' t+e J?RAA?R r%les: t+e't, li-el, de'amation,
esta'a can -e compromised, -%t only on t+e civil aspect &co%ldn,t
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
'ind t+e -asis 'or t+is)
2%t yo% can compromise t+e civil aspect o' t+e case* #+at,s it* It doesn,t dismiss
t+e criminal case*
o En a''idavits o' desistance:
A''idavit o' desistance 'iled -e'ore t+e o''ice o' t+e prosec%tor &d%ring PI)
Allowed, and will dismiss t+e case i' t+e EP decides to* 7owever, no do%-le
6eopardy will set in yet &since no arraignment)
A''idavit o' desistance 'iled w+ile t+e case is already pending in co%rt &arraignment
done=
A''iant will +ave to take t+e stand to a%t+enticate t+e a''idavit*
And t+en t+e prosec%tion will move 'or dismissal*
o 7owever, it is important to coordinate and talk to t+e 'iscal* 5or all
yo% know, +e mig+t not want to dismiss t+e case* Remem-er, it,s
%nder +is control and s%pervision*
Sec. 8. Pre-trial agreement. H A-- %+ree&ent! or %&i!!ion! &%e or entere urin+ t$e "re4tri%-
con(erence !$%-- )e reuce in #ritin+ %n !i+ne )' t$e %ccu!e %n coun!e-, ot$er#i!e, t$e' c%nnot
)e u!e %+%in!t t$e %ccu!e. T$e %+ree&ent! co.erin+ t$e &%tter! re(erre to in !ection 1 o( t$i! Ru-e
!$%-- )e %""ro.e )' t$e court.
Admissions o' t+e acc%sed d%ring t+e preCtrial can -e %sed against +im provided:
o It is in writing, and
o Signed -y -ot+ t+e acc%sed and +is co%nsel
/o s%c+ re$%irement in civil cases*
Agreements &t+ose 'o%nd in Sec ") also +ave to -e
o in writing and
o signed -y -ot+ t+e acc%sed and +is co%nsel,
o wit+ t+e additional re$%irement o' approval -y t+e co%rt*
In practice, t+ese admissions and agreements are incorporated into t+e preCtrial order w+ic+ -ot+
t+e acc%sed and +is co%nsel m%st sign*
In People v S%nga, &!!8) t+e acc%sed allegedly signed a con'ession d%ring PR0LIMI/AR@
I/K0S#I(A#IE/, and was +elped -y t+e city legal o''icer to e>ec%te it* SC said t+e e>tra6%dicial
con'ession was inadmissi-le -eca%se t+e city legal o''icer was not an I/?0P0/?0/# co%nsel* &it
was assigned %nder t+is R%le, don,t know w+y* SC made a passing remark on pretrial, -%t t+e
con'ession was made d%ring PI, not preCtrial*)
Sec. :. #on-appearance at pre-trial conference. H I( t$e coun!e- (or t$e %ccu!e or t$e "ro!ecutor oe!
not %""e%r %t t$e "re4tri%- con(erence %n oe! not o((er %n %cce"t%)-e e2cu!e (or $i! -%c7 o(
coo"er%tion, t$e court &%' i&"o!e "ro"er !%nction! or "en%-tie!.
#+e r%le o' a-sences in preCtrial o' civil cases do /E# apply in criminal cases*
I' t+e o''ended partyAwitness is a-sent, t+e co%rt can eit+er reset t+e preCtrial or rely on
comp%lsory processes*
I' t+e co%nsels are a-sent, t+e co%rt may impose sanctions or penalties*
o 4+at i' yo% are admonis+ed9
#+at,s ok, don,t cry* It,s 6%st a gentle and 'riendly reproo'*
2B# cry i' it,s a reprimand, -eca%se t+at,s a penalty*
I' t+e acc%sed is a-sent, t+ere will -e
o 5or'eit%re or -ail, orAand
o 4arrant o' arrest
Sec. ;. Pre-trial order. H A(ter t$e "re4tri%- con(erence, t$e court !$%-- i!!ue %n orer recitin+ t$e
%ction! t%7en, t$e (%ct! !ti"u-%te, %n e.ience &%r7e. Suc$ orer !$%-- )in t$e "%rtie!, -i&it t$e
tri%- to &%tter! not i!"o!e o(, %n contro- t$e cour!e o( t$e %ction urin+ t$e tri%-, un-e!! &oi(ie )'
t$e court to "re.ent &%ni(e!t in*u!tice.
PreCtrial order will recite:
o Actions taken
o 5acts stip%lated
o 0vidence marked
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
RULE 11? 4 TRIAL
Section 1. Time to prepare for trial. H A(ter % "-e% o( not +ui-t' i! entere, t$e %ccu!e !$%-- $%.e %t
-e%!t (i(teen 0151 %'! to "re"%re (or tri%-. T$e tri%- !$%-- co&&ence #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro&
recei"t o( t$e "re4tri%- orer.
#rial m%st commence wit+in 8! days 'rom receipt o' preCtrial order
o I' t+ere is an order 'or new trial, t+en wit+in 8! days 'rom notice o' t+at order &Sec :)
2%t i' impractical, it can -e e>tended %p to "I! days 'rom notice o' trial
Sec. 8. Continuou! tri%- unti- ter&in%te5 "o!t"one&ent!. H Tri%- once co&&ence !$%-- continue (ro&
%' to %' %! (%r %! "r%ctic%)-e unti- ter&in%te. It &%' )e "o!t"one (or % re%!on%)-e "erio o( ti&e
(or +oo c%u!e.
T$e court !$%--, %(ter con!u-t%tion #it$ t$e "ro!ecutor %n e(en!e coun!e-, !et t$e c%!e (or
continuou! tr%i- on % #ee7-' or ot$er !$ort4ter& tri%- c%-en%r %t t$e e%r-ie!t "o!!i)-e ti&e !o %! to
en!ure !"ee' tri%-. In no c%!e !$%-- t$e entire tri%- "erio e2cee one $unre ei+$t' 01>@1 %'! (ro&
t$e (ir!t %' o( tri%-, e2ce"t %! ot$er#i!e %ut$ori6e )' t$e Su"re&e Court.
T$e ti&e -i&it%tion! "ro.ie uner t$i! !ection %n t$e "recein+ !ection !$%-- not %""-' #$ere
!"eci%- -%#! or circu-%r! o( t$e Su"re&e Court "ro.ie (or % !$orter "erio o( tri%-.
Sec. :. E2c-u!ion!. 4 T$e (o--o#in+ "erio! o( e-%' !$%-- )e e2c-ue in co&"utin+ t$e ti&e #it$in
#$ic$ tri%- &u!t co&&ence/
0%1 An' "erio o( e-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& ot$er "roceein+! concernin+ t$e %ccu!e, inc-uin+ )ut not
-i&ite to t$e (o--o#in+/
011 De-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& %n e2%&in%tion o( t$e "$'!ic%- %n &ent%- conition o( t$e %ccu!e5
081 De-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& "roceein+! #it$ re!"ect to ot$er cri&in%- c$%r+e! %+%in!t t$e %ccu!e5
0:1 De-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& e2tr%orin%r' re&eie! %+%in!t inter-ocutor' orer!5
0;1 De-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& "re4tri%- "roceein+!5 "ro.ie, t$%t t$e e-%' oe! not e2cee t$irt' 0:@1
%'!5
051 De-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& orer! o( in$i)ition, or "roceein+! re-%tin+ to c$%n+e o( .enue o( c%!e! or
tr%n!(er (ro& ot$er court!5
0<1 De-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& % (inin+ o( e2i!tence o( % "re*uici%- 3ue!tion5 %n
071 De-%' re%!on%)-' %ttri)ut%)-e to %n' "erio, not to e2cee t$irt' 0:@1 %'!, urin+ #$ic$ %n'
"roceein+ concernin+ t$e %ccu!e i! %ctu%--' uner %.i!e&ent.
0)1 An' "erio o( e-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& t$e %)!ence or un%.%i-%)i-it' o( %n e!!enti%- #itne!!.
Eor "ur"o!e! o( t$i! !u)"%r%+r%"$, %n e!!enti%- #itne!! !$%-- )e con!iere %)!ent #$en $i!
#$ere%)out! %re un7no#n or $i! #$ere%)out! c%nnot )e eter&ine )' ue i-i+ence. He !$%-- )e
con!iere un%.%i-%)-e #$ene.er $i! #$ere%)out! %re 7no#n )ut $i! "re!ence (or tri%- c%nnot )e
o)t%ine )' ue i-i+ence.
0c1 An' "erio o( e-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& t$e &ent%- inco&"etence or "$'!ic%- in%)i-it' o( t$e %ccu!e
to !t%n tri%-.
01 I( t$e in(or&%tion i! i!&i!!e u"on &otion o( t$e "ro!ecution %n t$ere%(ter % c$%r+e i! (i-e
%+%in!t t$e %ccu!e (or t$e !%&e o((en!e, %n' "erio o( e-%' (ro& t$e %te t$e c$%r+e #%! i!&i!!e
to t$e %te t$e ti&e -i&it%tion #ou- co&&ence to run %! to t$e !u)!e3uent c$%r+e $% t$ere )een no
"re.iou! c$%r+e.
0e1 A re%!on%)-e "erio o( e-%' #$en t$e %ccu!e i! *oine (or tri%- #it$ % co4%ccu!e o.er #$o&
t$e court $%! not %c3uire *uri!iction, or, %! to #$o& t$e ti&e (or tri%- $%! not run %n no &otion (or
!e"%r%te tri%- $%! )een +r%nte.
0(1 An' "erio o( e-%' re!u-tin+ (ro& % continu%nce +r%nte )' %n' court &otu "ro"rio, or on &otion
o( eit$er t$e %ccu!e or $i! coun!e-, or t$e "ro!ecution, i( t$e court +r%nte t$e continu%nce on t$e
)%!i! o( it! (inin+! !et (ort$ in t$e orer t$%t t$e en! o( *u!tice !er.e )' t%7in+ !uc$ %ction out#ei+$
t$e )e!t intere!t o( t$e "u)-ic %n t$e %ccu!e in % !"ee' tri%-.
Sec. ;. Factors for granting continuance. H T$e (o--o#in+ (%ctor!, %&on+ ot$er!, !$%-- )e con!iere )'
% court in eter&inin+ #$et$er to +r%nt % continu%nce uner !ection :0(1 o( t$i! Ru-e.
0%1 =$et$er or not t$e (%i-ure to +r%nt % continu%nce in t$e "roceein+ #ou- -i7e-' &%7e %
continu%tion o( !uc$ "roceein+ i&"o!!i)-e or re!u-t in % &i!c%rri%+e o( *u!tice5 %n
0)1 =$et$er or not t$e c%!e t%7en %! % #$o-e i! !o no.e-, unu!u%- %n co&"-e2, ue to t$e nu&)er o(
%ccu!e or t$e n%ture o( t$e "ro!ecution, or t$%t it i! unre%!on%)-e to e2"ect %e3u%te "re"%r%tion
#it$in t$e "erio! o( ti&e e!t%)-i!$e t$erein.
In %ition, no continu%nce uner !ection :0(1 o( t$i! Ru-e !$%-- )e +r%nte )ec%u!e o( con+e!tion o(
t$e courtC! c%-en%r or -%c7 o( i-i+ent "re"%r%tion or (%i-ure to o)t%in %.%i-%)-e #itne!!e! on t$e "%rt
o( t$e "ro!ecutor.
#rial m%st concl%de wit+in "I! days 'rom t+e 'irst day
o Bnless a%t+ori.ed -y t+e S%preme Co%rt
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
2%t take note o' t+e e>cl%sions, t+ese are not co%nted in determining t+e period*
5or t+e granting o' contin%ance &w+ic+ is an allowa-le e>cl%sion), t+e co%rt will c+eck t+e 'ollowing
'actors:
o 4+et+er or not it will lead to a miscarriage o' 6%stice
So, t+is can incl%de civpro gro%nds &like %navaila-ility o' material evidence,
sickness o' co%nsel)
o #+e iss%es are so novel, %n%s%al, and comple> t+at it re$%ires more time to prepare
/o contin%ance allowed:
o Lack o' diligent preparation on t+e part o' t+e prosec%tor
o Congestion o' t+e co%rt,s calendar
o 5ail%re to o-tain availa-le witness on t+e part o' t+e prosec%tor
Sec. 5. Ti&e -i&it (o--o#in+ %n orer (or ne# tri%-. H I( t$e %ccu!e i! to )e trie %+%in "ur!u%nt to %n
orer (or % ne# tri%-, t$e tri%- !$%-- co&&ence #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& notice o( t$e orer, "ro.ie
t$%t i( t$e "erio )eco&e! i&"r%ctic%- ue to un%.%i-%)i-it' o( #itne!!e! %n ot$er (%ctor!, t$e court
&%' e2ten )ut not to e2cee one $unre ei+$t' 01>@1 %'!. Eor t$e !econ t#e-.e4&ont$ "erio, t$e
ti&e -i&it !$%-- )e one $unre ei+$t' 01>@1 %'! (ro& notice o( !%i orer (or ne# tri%-.
Sec. <. E2tene ti&e -i&it. 4 Not#it$!t%nin+ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( !ection 10+1, Ru-e 11< %n t$e
"recein+ !ection 1, (or t$e (ir!t t#e-.e4c%-en%r4&ont$ "erio (o--o#in+ it! e((ecti.it' on Se"te&)er
15, 1??>, t$e ti&e -i&it #it$ re!"ect to t$e "erio (ro& %rr%i+n&ent to tri%- i&"o!e )' !%i "ro.i!ion
!$%-- )e one $unre ei+$t' 01>@1 %'!. Eor t$e !econ t#e-.e4&ont$ "erio, t$e ti&e -i&it !$%-- )e
one $unre t#ent' 018@1 %'!, %n (or t$e t$ir t#e-.e4&ont$ "erio, t$e ti&e -i&it !$%-- )e ei+$t'
0>@1 %'!.
Sec. 7. Pu)-ic %ttorne'C! utie! #$ere %ccu!e i! i&"ri!one. H I( t$e "u)-ic %ttorne' %!!i+ne to
e(en % "er!on c$%r+e #it$ % cri&e 7no#! t$%t $e -%tter i! "re.enti.e-' et%ine, eit$er )ec%u!e $e
i! c$%r+e #it$ % )%i-%)-e cri&e )ut $%! no &e%n! to "o!t )%i-, or, i! c$%r+e #it$ % non4)%i-%)-e cri&e,
or, i! !er.in+ % ter& o( i&"ri!on&ent in %n' "en%- in!titution, it !$%-- )e $i! ut' to o t$e (o--o#in+/
0%1 S$%-- "ro&"t-' unert%7e to o)t%in t$e "re!ence o( t$e "ri!oner (or tri%- or c%u!e % notice to )e
!er.e on t$e "er!on $%.in+ cu!to' o( t$e "ri!oner re3uirin+ !uc$ "er!on to !o %.i!e t$e "ri!oner o(
$i! ri+$t %n e&%n tri%-.
0)1 U"on recei"t o( t$%t notice, t$e cu!toi%n o( t$e "ri!oner !$%-- "ro&"t-' %.i!e t$e "ri!oner o( t$e
c$%r+e %n o( $i! ri+$t to e&%n tri%-. I( %t %n'ti&e t$ere%(ter t$e "ri!oner in(or&! $i! cu!toi%n t$%t
$e e&%n! !uc$ tri%-, t$e -%tter !$%-- c%u!e notice to t$%t e((ect to )e !ent "ro&"t-' to t$e "u)-ic
%ttorne'.
0c1 U"on recei"t o( !uc$ notice, t$e "u)-ic %ttorne' !$%-- "ro&"t-' !ee7 to o)t%in t$e "re!ence o( t$e
"ri!oner (or tri%-.
01 =$en t$e cu!toi%n o( t$e "ri!oner recei.e! (ro& t$e "u)-ic %ttorne' % "ro"er-' !u""orte re3ue!t
(or t$e %.%i-%)i-it' o( t$e "ri!oner (or "ur"o!e o( tri%-, t$e "ri!oner !$%-- )e &%e %.%i-%)-e %ccorin+-'.

Sec. >. S%nction!. H In %n' c%!e in #$ic$ "ri.%te coun!e- (or t$e %ccu!e, t$e "u)-ic %ttorne', or t$e
"ro!ecutor/

0%1 Ino#in+-' %--o#! t$e c%!e to )e !et (or tri%- #it$out i!c-o!in+ t$%t % nece!!%r' #itne!! #ou- )e
un%.%i-%)-e (or tri%-5
0)1 Ei-e! % &otion !o-e-' (or e-%' #$ic$ $e 7no#! i! tot%--' (ri.o-ou! %n #it$out &erit5
0c1 M%7e! % !t%te&ent (or t$e "ur"o!e o( o)t%inin+ continu%nce #$ic$ $e 7no#! to )e (%-!e %n #$ic$
i! &%teri%- to t$e +r%ntin+ o( % continu%nce5 or
01 =i--(u--' (%i-! to "rocee to tri%- #it$out *u!ti(ic%tion con!i!tent #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! $ereo(, t$e
court &%' "uni!$ !uc$ coun!e-, %ttorne', or "ro!ecutor, %! (o--o#!/
011 A' i&"o!in+ on % coun!e- "ri.%te-' ret%ine in connection #it$ t$e e(en!e o (%n %ccu!e, % (ine
not e2ceein+ t#ent' t$ou!%n "e!o! 0P8@,@@@.@@15
081 A' i&"o!in+ on %n' %""ointe coun!e- e o((icio, "u)-ic %ttorne', or "ro!ecutor % (ine not
e2ceein+ (i.e t$ou!%n "e!o! 0P5,@@@.@@15 %n
0:1 A' en'in+ %n' e(en!e coun!e- or "ro!ecutor t$e ri+$t to "r%ctice )e(ore t$e court tr'in+ t$e c%!e
(or % "erio not e2ceein+ t$irt' 0:@1 %'!. T$e "uni!$&ent "ro.ie (or )' t$i! !ection !$%-- )e
#it$out "re*uice to %n' %""ro"ri%te cri&in%- %ction or ot$er !%nction %ut$ori6e uner t$e!e ru-e!.
Sec. ?. Re&e' #$ere %ccu!e i! not )rou+$t to tri%- #it$in t$e ti&e -i&it. H I( t$e %ccu!e i! not
)rou+$t to tri%- #it$in t$e ti&e -i&it re3uire )' Section 10+1, Ru-e 11< %n Section 1, %! e2tene )'
Section < o( t$i! Ru-e, t$e in(or&%tion &%' )e i!&i!!e on &otion o( t$e %ccu!e on t$e +roun o(
eni%- o( $i! ri+$t to !"ee' tri%-. T$e %ccu!e !$%-- $%.e t$e )uren o( "ro.in+ t$e &otion )ut t$e
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
,-
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
"ro!ecution !$%-- $%.e t$e )uren o( +oin+ (or#%r #it$ t$e e.ience to e!t%)-i!$ t$e e2c-u!ion o( ti&e
uner !ection : o( t$i! ru-e. T$e i!&i!!%- !$%-- )e !u)*ect to t$e ru-e! on ou)-e *eo"%r'.
E%i-ure o( t$e %ccu!e to &o.e (or i!&i!!%- "rior to tri%- !$%-- con!titute % #%i.er o( t$e ri+$t to
i!&i!! uner t$i! !ection.
Sec. 1@. L%# on !"ee' tri%- not % )%r to "ro.i!ion on !"ee' tri%- in t$e Con!titution. H No "ro.i!ion o(
-%# on !"ee' tri%- %n no ru-e i&"-e&entin+ t$e !%&e !$%-- )e inter"rete %! % )%r to %n' c$%r+e o(
eni%- o( t$e ri+$t to !"ee' tri%- +u%r%ntee )' Section 1;081, Artic-e III, o( t$e 1?>7 Con!titution.
Sec 3 is t+e remedy 'or 'ail%re to %p+old t+e rig+t to speedy trial*
o As can -e seen, it m%st -e -ro%g+t -e'ore trial -egins*
Sec. 11. $rder of trial. H T$e tri%- !$%-- "rocee in t$e (o--o#in+ orer/
0%1 T$e "ro!ecution !$%-- "re!ent e.ience to "ro.e t$e c$%r+e %n, in t$e "ro"er c%!e, t$e ci.i-
-i%)i-it'.
0)1 T$e %ccu!e &%' "re!ent e.ience to "ro.e $i! e(en!e %n %&%+e!, i( %n', %ri!in+, (ro& t$e
i!!u%nce o( % "ro.i!ion%- re&e' in t$e c%!e.
0c1 T$e "ro!ecution %n t$e e(en!e &%', in t$%t orer, "re!ent re)utt%- %n !ur4re)utt%- e.ience
un-e!! t$e court, in (urt$er%nce o( *u!tice, "er&it! t$e& to "re!ent %ition%- e.ience )e%rin+ u"on
t$e &%in i!!ue.
01 U"on %&i!!ion o( e.ience o( t$e "%rtie!, t$e c%!e !$%-- )e ee&e !u)&itte (or eci!ion un-e!!
t$e court irect! t$e& to %r+ue or%--' or to !u)&it #ritten &e&or%n%.
0e1 =$en t$e %ccu!e %&it! t$e %ct or o&i!!ion c$%r+e in t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion )ut
inter"o!e! % -%#(u- e(en!e, t$e orer o( tri%- &%' )e &oi(ie.
Erder o' trial
o Prosec%tion
o ?e'ense
o Re-%ttal &onwards: optional)
o S%rre-%ttal
o S%-mission o' memoranda
Erder can -e reversed w+en sel'Cde'ense or ot+er e>c%lpatory de'enses are raised
Sec. 18. A""-ic%tion (or e2%&in%tion o( #itne!! (or %ccu!e )e(ore tri%-. H =$en t$e %ccu!e $%! )een
$e- to %n!#er (or %n o((en!e, $e &%', u"on &otion #it$ notice to t$e ot$er "%rtie!, $%.e #itne!!e!
conition%--' e2%&ine in $i! )e$%-(. T$e &otion !$%-- !t%te/ 0%1 t$e n%&e %n re!ience o( t$e
#itne!!5 0)1 t$e !u)!t%nce o( $i! te!ti&on'5 %n 0c1 t$%t t$e #itne!! i! !ic7 or in(ir& %! to %((or
re%!on%)-e +roun (or )e-ie.in+ t$%t $e #i-- not )e %)-e to %tten t$e tri%-, or re!ie! &ore t$%n one
$unre 01@@1 7i-o&eter! (ro& t$e "-%ce o( tri%- %n $%! no &e%n! to %tten t$e !%&e, or t$%t ot$er
!i&i-%r circu&!t%nce! e2i!t t$%t #ou- &%7e $i& un%.%i-%)-e or "re.ent $i& (ro& %ttenin+ t$e tri%-.
T$e &otion !$%-- )e !u""orte )' %n %((i%.it o( t$e %ccu!e %n !uc$ ot$er e.ience %! t$e court &%'
re3uire.
Sec. 1:. E2%&in%tion o( e(en!e #itne!!5 $o# &%e. H I( t$e court i! !%ti!(ie t$%t t$e e2%&in%tion
o( % #itne!! (or t$e %ccu!e i! nece!!%r', %n orer !$%-- )e &%e irectin+ t$%t t$e #itne!! )e
e2%&ine %t % !"eci(ic %te, ti&e %n "-%ce %n t$%t % co"' o( t$e orer )e !er.e on t$e "ro!ecutor %t
-e%!t t$ree 0:1 %'! )e(ore t$e !c$eu-e e2%&in%tion. T$e e2%&in%tion !$%-- )e t%7en )e(ore % *u+e,
or, i( not "r%ctic%)-e, % &e&)er o( t$e A%r in +oo !t%nin+ !o e!i+n%te )' t$e *u+e in t$e orer, or
i( t$e orer )e &%e )' % court o( !u"erior *uri!iction, )e(ore %n in(erior court to )e e!i+n%te
t$erein. T$e e2%&in%tion !$%-- "rocee not#it$!t%nin+ t$e %)!ence o( t$e "ro!ecutor "ro.ie $e #%!
u-' noti(ie o( t$e $e%rin+. A #ritten recor o( t$e te!ti&on' !$%-- )e t%7en.

Sec. 1;. A%i- to !ecure %""e%r%nce o( &%teri%- #itne!!. H =$en t$e court i! !%ti!(ie, u"on "roo( o(
o%t$, t$%t % &%teri%- #itne!! #i-- not te!ti(' #$en re3uire, it &%', u"on &otion o( eit$er "%rt', orer
t$e #itne!! to "o!t )%i- in !uc$ !u& %! &%' )e ee&e "ro"er. U"on re(u!%- to "o!t )%i-, t$e court !$%--
co&&it $i& to "ri!on unti- $e co&"-ie! or i! -e+%--' i!c$%r+e %(ter $i! te!ti&on' $%! )een t%7en.
Sec. 15. E2%&in%tion o( #itne!! (or t$e "ro!ecution.H =$en it i! !%ti!(%ctori-' %""e%r! t$%t % #itne!!
(or t$e "ro!ecution i! too !ic7 or in(ir& to %""e%r %t t$e tri%- %! irecte )' t$e court, o( $%! to -e%.e
t$e P$i-i""ine! #it$ no e(inite %te o( returnin+, $e &%' (ort$#it$ )e conition%--' e2%&ine )e(ore
t$e court #$ere t$e c%!e i! "enin+. Suc$ e2%&in%tion, in t$e "re!ence o( t$e %ccu!e, or in $i!
%)!ence %(ter re%!on%)-e notice to %tten t$e e2%&in%tion $%! )een !er.e on $i&, !$%-- )e conucte
in t$e !%&e &%nner %! %n e2%&in%tion %t t$e tri%-. E%i-ure or re(u!%- o( t$e %ccu!e to %tten t$e
e2%&in%tion %t t$e tri%-. E%i-ure or re(u!%- o( t$e %ccu!e to %tten t$e e2%&in%tion %(ter notice !$%--
)e con!iere % #%i.er. T$e !t%te&ent t%7en &%' )e %&itte in )e$%-( o( or %+%in!t t$e %ccu!e.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-.
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
C+eck t+e disc%ssion on rig+ts o' t+e acc%sed 'or t+is one*
o #+e law, as can -e seen, 'avors t+e acc%sed*
4ill R%le 8 on depositions apply to criminal cases9
o /E* R%le ""3 m%st -e 'ollowed* &Mang%erra v Risos, !!I, w+erein t+e old and sick
witness o' t+e prosec%tion was /E# e>amined -e'ore t+e 6%dge w+ere t+e case was
pending*)
/ote: @o% can +ave a witness post -ail to sec%re +is attendance*
Sec. 1<. Trial of several accused. H =$en t#o or &ore %ccu!e %re *oint-' c$%r+e #it$ %n o((en!e, t$e'
!$%-- )e trie *oint-' un-e!! t$e court, in it! i!cretion %n u"on &otion o( t$e "ro!ecutor or %n'
%ccu!e, orer! !e"%r%te tri%- (or one or &ore %ccu!e.
Sec. 17. %ischarge of accused to !e state witness. H =$en t#o or &ore "er!on! %re *oint-' c$%r+e
#it$ t$e co&&i!!ion o( %n' o((en!e, u"on &otion o( t$e "ro!ecution )e(ore re!tin+ it! c%!e, t$e court
&%' irect one or &ore o( t$e %ccu!e to )e i!c$%r+e #it$ t$eir con!ent !o t$%t t$e' &%' )e
#itne!!e! (or t$e !t%te #$en, %(ter re3uirin+ t$e "ro!ecution to "re!ent e.ience %n t$e !#orn
!t%te&ent o( e%c$ "ro"o!e !t%te #itne!! %t % $e%rin+ in !u""ort o( t$e i!c$%r+e, t$e court i! !%ti!(ie
t$%t/
0%1 T$ere i! %)!o-ute nece!!it' (or t$e te!ti&on' o( t$e %ccu!e #$o!e i!c$%r+e i! re3ue!te5
0)1 T$ere i! no ot$er irect e.ience %.%i-%)-e (or t$e "ro"er "ro!ecution o( t$e o((en!e co&&itte,
e2ce"t t$e te!ti&on' o( !%i %ccu!e5
0c1 T$e te!ti&on' o( !%i %ccu!e c%n )e !u)!t%nti%--' corro)or%te in it! &%teri%- "oint!5
01 S%i %ccu!e oe! not %""e%r to )e t$e &o!t +ui-t'5 %n
0e1 S%i %ccu!e $%! not %t %n' ti&e )een con.icte o( %n' o((en!e in.o-.in+ &or%- tur"itue.
E.ience %uce in !u""ort o( t$e i!c$%r+e !$%-- %uto&%tic%--' (or& "%rt o( t$e tri%-. I( t$e court
enie! t$e &otion (or i!c$%r+e o( t$e %ccu!e %! !t%te #itne!!, $i! !#orn !t%te&ent !$%-- )e
in%&i!!i)-e in e.ience.
Sec. 1>. %ischarge of accused operates as acquittal. H T$e orer inic%te in t$e "recein+ !ection
!$%-- %&ount to %n %c3uitt%- o( t$e i!c$%r+e %ccu!e %n !$%-- )e % )%r to (uture "ro!ecution (or t$e
!%&e o((en!e, un-e!! t$e %ccu!e (%i-! or re(u!e! to te!ti(' %+%in!t $i! co4%ccu!e in %ccor%nce #it$
$i! !#orn !t%te&ent con!titutin+ t$e )%!i! (or $i! i!c$%r+e.
Re$%isites o' t+e acc%sed as a state witness
o /o direct evidence
Like w+en t+e evidence is only circ%mstantial
o A-sol%te necessity 'or t+e evidence
o #estimony co%ld -e s%-stantially corro-orated in material points
?oes not need to -e corro-orated in t+e 01AC# same points, eno%g+ i' important
points are corro-orated*
I' w+at was needed was t+e e>act same points, t+en t+e re$%isite ;no
ot+er direct evidence availa-le< will -e rendered n%gatory* &Salvanera v
People, !!H, w+erein t+e testimony o' t+e disc+arged acc%sed 6ived
wit+ ot+er prosec%tion witnesses* Also People v 0stacio, !!3, w+ere t+e
disc+arged,s testimony w+ic+ led to 'inding t+e -ody o' t+e victim in a
certain lot was corro-orated -y ot+er witnesses w+o saw t+e victim near
t+e said lot*)
o Acc%sed does not appear to -e t+e most g%ilty
/ot t+e ;least g%ilty< a+=
o /ot convicted o' a crime involving moral t%rpit%de
4+en s+o%ld it -e applied 'or9
o 2e'ore t+e prosec%tion rests its case
4+at does t+e applicant need to s%-mit9
o A sworn a''idavit
4+at is t+e e''ect o' grant9
o Ac$%ittal, playa+* Ac$%ittal* So, do%-le 6eopardy kicks in*
Bnless, +e reneges on +is d%ty to testi'y according to +is sworn statement*
4+at i' t+e application is denied9
o #+e statement s+all -e inadmissi-le*
#ell me &more=) a-o%t t+e 4itness Protection Program:
o Re$%isites are t+e same, sir*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-1
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
2%t wit+ t+e 4PP, it is 'iled in t+e ?EJ, not wit+ t+e co%rt, ma,am*
o Bnder t+e 4PP, do%-le 6eopardy does /E# set in since no plea yet* So +e can -e
prosec%ted a'terwards* &@% v R#C o' #agaytay)
o Bnder t+e 4PP, it,s not an ac$%ittal, -%t a mere e>cl%sion*
Sec. 1?. =$en &i!t%7e $%! )een &%e in c$%r+in+ t$e "ro"er o((en!e. H =$en it )eco&e! &%ni(e!t %t
%n' ti&e )e(ore *u+&ent t$%t % &i!t%7e $%! )een &%e in c$%r+in+ t$e "ro"er o((en!e %n t$e
%ccu!e c%nnot )e con.icte o( t$e o((en!e c$%r+e or %n' ot$er o((en!e nece!!%ri-' inc-ue t$erein,
t$e %ccu!e !$%-- not )e i!c$%r+e i( t$ere %""e%r! +oo c%u!e to et%in $i&. In !uc$ c%!e, t$e court
!$%-- co&&it t$e %ccu!e to %n!#er (or t$e "ro"er o((en!e %n i!&i!! t$e ori+in%- c%!e u"on t$e (i-in+
o( t$e "ro"er in(or&%tion.
Read wit+ s%-stit%tion o' in'ormation*
Sec. 8@. &ppointment of acting prosecutor. H =$en % "ro!ecutor, $i! %!!i!t%nt or e"ut' i! i!3u%-i(ie
to %ct ue to %n' o( t$e +roun! !t%te in !ection 1 o( Ru-e 1:7 or (or %n' ot$er re%!on, t$e *u+e or
t$e "ro!ecutor !$%-- co&&unic%te #it$ t$e Secret%r' o( Bu!tice in orer t$%t t$e -%tter &%' %""oint %n
%ctin+ "ro!ecutor.

Sec. 81. '(clusion of the pu!lic. H T$e *u+e &%', motu proprio, e2c-ue t$e "u)-ic (ro& t$e courtroo&
i( t$e e.ience to )e "rouce urin+ t$e tri%- i! o((en!i.e to ecenc' or "u)-ic &or%-!. He &%' %-!o, on
&otion o( t$e %ccu!e, e2c-ue t$e "u)-ic (ro& t$e tri%- e2ce"t court "er!onne- %n t$e coun!e- o( t$e
"%rtie!.
Read wit+ t+e rig+ts o' t+e acc%sed*
Sec. 88. )onsolidation of trials of related offenses. H C$%r+e! (or o((en!e! (oune on t$e !%&e (%ct! or
(or&in+ "%rt o( % !erie! o( o((en!e! o( !i&i-%r c$%r%cter &%' )e trie *oint-' %t t$e i!cretion o( t$e
court.
Sec. 8:. %emurrer to evidence. H A(ter t$e "ro!ecution re!t! it! c%!e, t$e court &%' i!&i!! t$e %ction
on t$e +roun o( in!u((icienc' o( e.ience 011 on it! o#n initi%ti.e %(ter +i.in+ t$e "ro!ecution t$e
o""ortunit' to )e $e%r or 081 u"on e&urrer to e.ience (i-e )' t$e %ccu!e #it$ or #it$out -e%.e o(
court.
I( t$e court enie! t$e e&urrer to e.ience (i-e #it$ -e%.e o( court, t$e %ccu!e &%' %uce
e.ience in $i! e(en!e. =$en t$e e&urrer to e.ience i! (i-e #it$out -e%.e o( court, t$e %ccu!e
#%i.e! t$e ri+$t to "re!ent e.ience %n !u)&it! t$e c%!e (or *u+&ent on t$e )%!i! o( t$e e.ience
(or t$e "ro!ecution.
T$e &otion (or -e%.e o( court to (i-e e&urrer to e.ience !$%-- !"eci(ic%--' !t%te it! +roun! %n
!$%-- )e (i-e #it$in % non4e2teni)-e "erio o( (i.e 051 %'! %(ter t$e "ro!ecution re!t! it! c%!e. T$e
"ro!ecution &%' o""o!e t$e &otion #it$in % non4e2teni)-e "erio o( (i.e 051 %'! (ro& it! recei"t.
I( -e%.e o( court i! +r%nte, t$e %ccu!e !$%-- (i-e t$e e&urrer to e.ience #it$in % non4e2teni)-e
"erio o( ten 01@1 %'! (ro& notice. T$e "ro!ecution &%' o""o!e t$e e&urrer to e.ience #it$in %
!i&i-%r "erio (ro& it! recei"t.
T$e orer en'in+ t$e &otion (or -e%.e o( court to (i-e e&urrer to e.ience or t$e e&urrer it!e-(
!$%-- not )e re.ie#%)-e )' %""e%- or )' certior%ri )e(ore *u+&ent.
4+en can yo% 'ile a dem%rrer to evidence9
o Civil: a'ter t+e plainti'' +as completed presenting +is evidence
o Criminal: a'ter t+e prosec%tion rests
?o yo% need leave o' co%rt9
o Criminal: not really, -%t t+ere are serio%s, dire, and s%-stantial conse$%ences i' yo% do
not sec%re leave o' co%rt*
I' yo% 'ile wit+ leave o' co%rt and it,s denied, t+e acc%sed can still present
evidence*
I' yo% 'iled 4I#7EB# leave o' co%rt and it,s denied, t+e acc%sed will not -e a-le to
present evidence* J%dgment s+all -e rendered*
o Civil: no need 'or leave o' co%rt &remem-er t+e r%les)
Can t+e co%rt move 'or a dem%rrer on its own9
o @0S= It can= As long as it gives t+e prosec%tion a c+ance to -e +eard
4+at a-o%t motion 'or dem%rrer, +ow does t+at work9
o 5ile wit+in : days 'rom t+e time t+e prosec%tion rests &/E/C01#0/?I2L0)
o Prosec%tion can oppose t+e motion wit+in : days 'rom receipt &/E/C01#0/?I2L0)
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-2
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o I' leave is granted, acc%sed +as "! days 'rom notice to 'ile t+e dem%rrer &/E/C
01#0/?I2L0)
o Prosec%tion can oppose t+e dem%rrer "! days 'rom receipt &/E/C01#0/?I2L0)
I' t+e criminal dem%rrer is denied, w+at,s yo%r remedy9
o /ot+ing* J%st wait 'or 6%dgment*
Bnless, (A?L0J, so R%le D:* &?ayap v Sendiong, !!3, w+ere t+e dem%rrer was
granted and t+e SC also r%led t+at no need to remand to t+e M#C since t+e
6%dgment e>pressly stated t+at t+e act 'rom w+ic+ t+e civil lia-ility may arise did
not e>ist)
4+at is t+e e''ect o' a grant o' dem%rrer9
o Civil: 'inal disposition o' t+e case
o Criminal: ac$%ittal
2%t civil aspect o' t+e case &since it,s impliedly instit%ted) s+o%ld still -e +eard o',
%nless t+e co%rt r%les t+at t+e 'act 'rom w+ic+ t+e civil lia-ility wo%ld arise does
not e>ist*
4+at are t+e implications9
#+e acc%sed can still present evidence on t+e civil aspect*
#+e o''ended party can appeal wit+o%t t+e con'ormity o' t+e p%-lic
prosec%tion*
7ence, w+en a 6%dge grants a dem%rrer -%t immediately r%les on t+e civil
aspect o' t+e case, t+is was a violation o' d%e process o' t+e acc%sed*
&Sala.ar v People, !!8, compare wit+ ?ayap v Sendiong a-ove)
Sec. 8;. *eopening. H At %n' ti&e )e(ore (in%-it' o( t$e *u+&ent o( con.iction, t$e *u+e &%', motu
proprio or u"on &otion, #it$ $e%rin+ in eit$er c%!e, reo"en t$e "roceein+! to %.oi % &i!c%rri%+e o(
*u!tice. T$e "roceein+! !$%-- )e ter&in%te #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& t$e orer +r%ntin+ it.
Can t+ere -e reopening o' t+e case9
o @es= A/@#IM0 -e'ore 'inality o' conviction*
o Can -e -y t+e co%rt mot% propio or %pon motion &wit+ +earing)
4+y9
o #o avoid miscarriage o' 6%stice
7ow long -e'ore t+e proceedings terminate9
o 8! days 'rom grant
RULE 18@ H BUDGMENT
Section 1. Bu+&ent5 e(inition %n (or&. H Bu+&ent i! t$e %*uic%tion )' t$e court t$%t t$e %ccu!e
i! +ui-t' or not +ui-t' o( t$e o((en!e c$%r+e %n t$e i&"o!ition on $i& o( t$e "ro"er "en%-t' %n ci.i-
-i%)i-it', i( %n'. It &u!t )e #ritten in t$e o((ici%- -%n+u%+e, "er!on%--' %n irect-' "re"%re )' t$e
*u+e %n !i+ne )' $i& %n !$%-- cont%in c-e%r-' %n i!tinct-' % !t%te&ent o( t$e (%ct! %n t$e -%#
u"on #$ic$ it i! )%!e.

Sec. 8. Content! o( t$e *u+&ent. H I( t$e *u+&ent i! o( con.iction, it !$%-- !t%te 011 t$e -e+%-
3u%-i(ic%tion o( t$e o((en!e con!titute )' t$e %ct! co&&itte )' t$e %ccu!e %n t$e %++r%.%tin+ or
&iti+%tin+ circu&!t%nce! #$ic$ %ttene it! co&&i!!ion5 081 t$e "%rtici"%tion o( t$e %ccu!e in t$e
o((en!e, #$et$er %! "rinci"%-, %cco&"-ice, or %cce!!or' %(ter t$e (%ct5 0:1 t$e "en%-t' i&"o!e u"on t$e
%ccu!e5 %n 0;1 t$e ci.i- -i%)i-it' or %&%+e! c%u!e )' $i! #ron+(u- %ct or o&i!!ion to )e reco.ere
(ro& t$e %ccu!e )' t$e o((ene "%rt', i( t$ere i! %n', un-e!! t$e en(orce&ent o( t$e ci.i- -i%)i-it' )' %
!e"%r%te ci.i- %ction $%! )een re!er.e or #%i.e.
In c%!e t$e *u+&ent i! o( %c3uitt%-, it !$%-- !t%te #$et$er t$e e.ience o( t$e "ro!ecution %)!o-ute-'
(%i-e to "ro.e t$e +ui-t o( t$e %ccu!e or &ere-' (%i-e to "ro.e $i! +ui-t )e'on re%!on%)-e ou)t. In
eit$er c%!e, t$e *u+&ent !$%-- eter&ine i( t$e %ct or o&i!!ion (ro& #$ic$ t$e ci.i- -i%)i-it' &i+$t %ri!e
i not e2i!t.
4+at s+o%ld 6%dgment contain9
o #+e o''ense
o Penalty
o Participation
o Aggravating or mitigating circ%mstances
o I' ac$%itted, w+et+er:
#+ere is complete nonClia-ility
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Reasona-le do%-t
5acts 'rom w+ic+ t+e civil lia-ility mig+t arise were not committed
An ac$%ittal does not necessarily carry wit+ it t+e e>ting%is+ment o' t+e civil lia-ility*
o #+at,s w+y 6%dgments o' ac$%ittal are re$%ired to state w+et+er evidence o' t+e
prosec%tion 'ailed to prove t+e g%ilt o' t+e acc%sed or merely 'ailed to prove it -eyond a
reaonsa-le do%-t* &C+ing v /icdao, !!H, w+ere t+e o''ended party was entitled to appeal
t+e civil aspect o' a 2P case despite t+e ac$%ittal o' t+e acc%sed*)
Is t+ere a remedy against ac$%ittal9
o (R: /o, it,s immediately e>ec%tory*
/E# even an MR -y t+e prosec%tion*
01: (A?AL0J, so certiorari*
o @o% 'ile R%le D: wit+ t+e con'ormity o' t+e ES(*
2%t i' in t+e M#C, wit+ t+e con'ormity o' t+e E''ice o' t+e
Prosec%tor*
Sec. :. Bu+&ent (or t#o or &ore o((en!e!. H =$en t#o or &ore o((en!e! %re c$%r+e in % !in+-e
co&"-%int or in(or&%tion )ut t$e %ccu!e (%i-! to o)*ect to it )e(ore tri%-, t$e court &%' con.ict $i& o(
%! &%n' o((en!e! %! %re c$%r+e %n "ro.e, %n i&"o!e on $i& t$e "en%-t' (or e%c$ o((en!e, !ettin+
out !e"%r%te-' t$e (inin+! o( (%ct %n -%# in e%c$ o((en!e.
Read wit+ R%le ""!, Sec "8
Sec. ;. Bu+&ent in c%!e o( .%ri%nce )et#een %--e+%tion %n "roo(. H =$en t$ere i! .%ri%nce )et#een
t$e o((en!e c$%r+e in t$e co&"-%int or in(or&%tion %n t$%t "ro.e, %n t$e o((en!e %! c$%r+e i!
inc-ue in or nece!!%ri-' inc-ue! t$e o((en!e "ro.e, t$e %ccu!e !$%-- )e con.icte o( t$e o((en!e
"ro.e #$ic$ i! inc-ue in t$e o((en!e c$%r+e, or o( t$e o((en!e c$%r+e #$ic$ i! inc-ue in t$e
o((en!e "ro.e.
Sec. 5. =$en %n o((en!e inc-ue! or i! inc-ue in %not$er. H An o((en!e c$%r+e nece!!%ri-' inc-ue!
t$e o((en!e "ro.e #$en !o&e o( t$e e!!enti%- e-e&ent! or in+reient! o( t$e (or&er, %! %--e+e in t$e
co&"-%int or in(or&%tion, con!titute t$e -%tter. An %n o((en!e c$%r+e i! nece!!%ri-' inc-ue in t$e
o((en!e "ro.e, #$en t$e e!!enti%- in+reient! o( t$e (or&er con!titute or (or& "%rt o( t$o!e
con!titutin+ t$e -%tter.
4+at +appens i' t+ere,s a di''erence -etween t+e o''ense c+arged in t+e complaintAin'o and t+e
o''ense proved9
o Convict o' eit+er t+e
o''ense proved &w+ic+ m%st -e incl%ded in t+e o''ense c+arged), or
o''ense c+arged &w+ic+ is incl%ded in t+e o''ense proved)
-asically: t+e lesser o''ense, w+et+er it -e t+e one proved or c+arged
o 7ence, one can -e convicted o' grave coercion in an in'o w+ic+ c+arges ro--ery* &Cons%lta
v People, !!3)
Sec. <. Promulgation of "udgment. H T$e *u+&ent i! "ro&u-+%te )' re%in+ it in t$e "re!ence o( t$e
%ccu!e %n %n' *u+e o( t$e court in #$ic$ it #%! renere. Ho#e.er, i( t$e con.iction i! (or % -i+$t
o((en!e, t$e *u+&ent &%' )e "ronounce in t$e "re!ence o( $i! coun!e- or re"re!ent%ti.e. =$en t$e
*u+e i! %)!ent or out!ie t$e "ro.ince or cit', t$e *u+&ent &%' )e "ro&u-+%te )' t$e c-er7 o( court.
I( t$e %ccu!e i! con(ine or et%ine in %not$er "ro.ince or cit', t$e *u+&ent &%' )e "ro&u-+%te
)' t$e e2ecuti.e *u+e o( t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court $%.in+ *uri!iction o.er t$e "-%ce o( con(ine&ent or
etention u"on re3ue!t o( t$e court #$ic$ renere t$e *u+&ent. T$e court "ro&u-+%tin+ t$e
*u+&ent !$%-- $%.e %ut$orit' to %cce"t t$e notice o( %""e%- %n to %""ro.e t$e )%i- )on "enin+
%""e%-5 "ro.ie, t$%t i( t$e eci!ion o( t$e tri%- court con.ictin+ t$e %ccu!e c$%n+e t$e n%ture o( t$e
o((en!e (ro& non4)%i-%)-e to )%i-%)-e, t$e %""-ic%tion (or )%i- c%n on-' )e (i-e %n re!o-.e )' t$e
%""e--%te court.c$%n ro)-e! .irtu%- -%# -i)r%r'
T$e "ro"er c-er7 o( court !$%-- +i.e notice to t$e %ccu!e "er!on%--' or t$rou+$ $i! )on!&%n or
#%ren %n coun!e-, re3uirin+ $i& to )e "re!ent %t t$e "ro&u-+%tion o( t$e eci!ion. I( t$e %ccu!e
#%! trie in a!sentia )ec%u!e $e *u&"e )%i- or e!c%"e (ro& "ri!on, t$e notice to $i& !$%-- )e !er.e
%t $i! -%!t 7no#n %re!!.
In c%!e t$e %ccu!e (%i-! to %""e%r %t t$e !c$eu-e %te o( "ro&u-+%tion o( *u+&ent e!"ite
notice, t$e "ro&u-+%tion !$%-- )e &%e )' recorin+ t$e *u+&ent in t$e cri&in%- oc7et %n !er.in+
$i& % co"' t$ereo( %t $i! -%!t 7no#n %re!! or t$ru $i! coun!e-.
I( t$e *u+&ent i! (or con.iction %n t$e (%i-ure o( t$e %ccu!e to %""e%r #%! #it$out *u!ti(i%)-e
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
c%u!e, $e !$%-- -o!e t$e re&eie! %.%i-%)-e in t$e!e ru-e! %+%in!t t$e *u+&ent %n t$e court !$%--
orer $i! %rre!t. =it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! (ro& "ro&u-+%tion o( *u+&ent, $o#e.er, t$e %ccu!e &%'
!urrener %n (i-e % &otion (or -e%.e o( court to %.%i- o( t$e!e re&eie!. He !$%-- !t%te t$e re%!on! (or
$i! %)!ence %t t$e !c$eu-e "ro&u-+%tion %n i( $e "ro.e! t$%t $i! %)!ence #%! (or % *u!ti(i%)-e
c%u!e, $e !$%-- )e %--o#e to %.%i- o( !%i re&eie! #it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! (ro& notice.
In civil cases, yo% +ave 6%dgment ;served*< In criminal cases, yo% +ave 6%dgment ;prom%lgated*<
#+at,s w+y yo% need notice o' 6%dgment*
(R: #+e acc%sed m%st -e present d%ring t+e prom%lgation o' t+e 6%dgment*
o 01C0P#: lig+t o''enses
4+at +appens i' +e,s not t+ere wit+o%t 6%sti'ia-le ca%se9
o 7e loses t+e remedies availa-le in t+e r%les and +e s+all -e arrested*
Can +e e>plain9
@es, wit+in ": days*
4+o prom%lgates9
o (R: J%dge w+o r%led over t+e case, or t+e clerk o' co%rt &i' 6%dge is a-sent or o%tside t+e
province or city)
01C0P#:
I' acc%sed con'ined elsew+ere, t+e e>ec%tive 6%dge in t+e R#C w+o +as
6%risdiction over t+e place o' con'inement
o Can t+e appellate co%rts do prom%lgation9
@es*
4+en d%ly certi'ied -y t+e division, it will -e 'orwarded to t+e clerk o'
co%rt w+o will give notice o' prom%lgation on paper*
4+ere do yo% 'ile t+e notice o' appeal and t+e -ail9
o #o t+e co%rt prom%lgating t+e 6%dgment
2B#, i' t+e decision makes t+e o''ense -aila-le &'rom nonC-aila-le), t+e -ail
application m%st -e 'iled wit+ t+e appellate co%rt w+o will resolve it
#o w+om s+o%ld notice o' prom%lgation -e served9
o As m%c+ as possi-le, to t+e acc%sed personally*
01C0P#:
I' in 6ail: to t+e warden
I' o%t on -ail: to t+e -ondsman*
I' at large: to +is last known address
Sec. 7. Moi(ic%tion o( *u+&ent. H A *u+&ent o( con.iction &%', u"on &otion o( t$e %ccu!e, )e
&oi(ie or !et %!ie )e(ore it )eco&e! (in%- or )e(ore %""e%- i! "er(ecte. E2ce"t #$ere t$e e%t$
"en%-t' i! i&"o!e, % *u+&ent )eco&e! (in%- %(ter t$e -%"!e o( t$e "erio (or "er(ectin+ %n %""e%-, or
#$en t$e !entence $%! )een "%rti%--' or tot%--' !%ti!(ie or !er.e, or #$en t$e %ccu!e $%! #%i.e in
#ritin+ $i! ri+$t to %""e%-, or $%! %""-ie (or "ro)%tion.
J%dgment can -e modi'ied -e'ore it is 'inal and e>ec%tory*
o 2%t once 'inal and no appeal is per'ected, it can no longer -e modi'ied &#amayo v People,
!!I, w+ere an alleged compromise made a'ter t+e 6%dgment -ecame 'inal and e>ec%tory
was not allowed to modi'y t+e criminal aspect o' t+e case*)
01C0P#:
Correction o' n%nc pro t%nc entries or clerical errors
In criminal cases, w+en does it -ecome 'inal and e>ec%tory9
o A'ter lapse o' period to appeal
o Sentence +as -een partially or totally satis'ied or served
o Acc%sed waived +is rig+t to appeal
o Acc%sed applied 'or pro-ation
Sec. >. 'ntry of "udgment. H A(ter % *u+&ent $%! )eco&e (in%-, it !$%-- )e entere in %ccor%nce #it$
Ru-e :<.
Sec. ?. '(isting provisions governing suspension of sentence, pro!ation and parole not affected !y this
*ule. H Not$in+ in t$i! ru-e !$%-- %((ect %n' e2i!tin+ "ro.i!ion! in t$e -%#! +o.ernin+ !u!"en!ion o(
!entence, "ro)%tion or "%ro-e.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
RULE 181 4 NE= TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION
Section 1. #ew trial or reconsideration. H At %n' ti&e )e(ore % *u+&ent o( con.iction )eco&e! (in%-,
t$e court &%', on &otion o( t$e %ccu!e or %t it! o#n in!t%nce )ut #it$ t$e con!ent o( t$e %ccu!e,
+r%nt % ne# tri%-
;<
or recon!ier%tion.
4+en can acc%sed 'ile a MR or a M/#9
o Anytime -e'ore 6%dgment o' conviction -ecomes 'inal*
So t+at,s ": days*
/eypes r%le is applica-le* &S%miran v ?amaso, !!3, So i' MR denied, yo%
+ave 'res+ ": days to appeal)
7ow9
o Co%rt on its own instance -%t wit+ consent o' t+e acc%sed, or
o En motion o' t+e acc%sed
Can t+e prosec%tion 'ile 'or an MR or a M/#9
/E*
Sec. 8. rounds for a new trial. H T$e court !$%-- +r%nt % ne# tri%- on %n' o( t$e (o--o#in+ +roun!/
0%1 T$%t error! o( -%# or irre+u-%ritie! "re*uici%- to t$e !u)!t%nti%- ri+$t! o( t$e %ccu!e $%.e )een
co&&itte urin+ t$e tri%-5
0)1 T$%t ne# %n &%teri%- e.ience $%! )een i!co.ere #$ic$ t$e %ccu!e cou- not #it$ re%!on%)-e
i-i+ence $%.e i!co.ere %n "rouce %t t$e tri%- %n #$ic$ i( introuce %n %&itte #ou-
"ro)%)-' c$%n+e t$e *u+&ent.
4+at are t+e gro%nds 'or M/#9
o 0rrors o' lawAirreg%larities pre6%dicing s%-stantive rig+ts o' acc%sed d%ring trial
o /ewly discovered evidence
Re$%isites:
Material
Co%ld not +ave -een discovered and prod%ced wit+ reasona-le diligence
4o%ld pro-a-ly c+ange t+e 6%dgment
A M/# -ased on newly discovered ?/A evidence o' t+e acc%sed was not granted -eca%se t+e ?/A
evidence was capa-le o' -eing discovered or proc%red d%ring t+e trial* &4rit o' 7a-eas Corp%s o'
Reynaldo de Killa, !!4)
I' M/# granted, +ow long does t+e co%rt +ave to commence a new trial9
o 8! days 'rom notice o' s%c+ order
o 0>tenda-le %p to "I! days 'rom notice, i' t+e period is impractical
4H
Can yo% 'ile a M/# in t+e CA9
o @es, -%t only -ased on newly discovered evidence*
o 4+en9 Anytime 'rom per'ection o' t+e appeal %ntil t+e co%rt loses 6%risdiction*
4I
Sec. :. round for reconsideration. H T$e court !$%-- +r%nt recon!ier%tion on t$e +roun o( error! o(
-%# or (%ct in t$e *u+&ent, #$ic$ re3uire! no (urt$er "roceein+!.
4+at are t+e gro%nds 'or a MR9
o 0rrors o' law or 'act in t+e 6%dgment, w+ic+ re$%ires no '%rt+er proceedings
Can yo% 'ile an MR in t+e CA9
o @es, -%t 6%st once*
)+
)7
Rule 11-, Sec. *. 0ime limit folloing an order for ne trial. <f the accused is to be tried again pursuant to an order for a ne trial, the trial
shall commence ithin thirty "(.# days from notice of the order, provided that if the period becomes impractical due to unavailability of
itnesses and other factors, the court may e1tend but not to e1ceed one hundred eighty "1,.# days. For the second telve:month period, the time
limit shall be one hundred eighty "1,.# days from notice of said order for ne trial.
),
Rule 12), Sec. 1). Motion for ne! trial. /t any time after the appeal from the loer court has been perfected and before the judgment of the
9ourt of /ppeals convicting the appellant becomes final, the latter may move for a ne trial on the ground of nely:discovered evidence
material to his defense. 0he motion shall conform ith the provisions of section ), Rule 121.
Sec. 1*. &here ne! trial conducted. When a ne trial is granted, the 9ourt of /ppeals may conduct the hearing and receive evidence as
provided in section 12 of this Rule or refer the trial to the court of origin.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. ;. Form of motion and notice to the prosecutor. H T$e &otion (or ne# tri%- or recon!ier%tion !$%--
)e in #ritin+ %n !$%-- !t%te t$e +roun! on #$ic$ it i! )%!e. I( )%!e on % ne#-'4i!co.ere e.ience,
t$e &otion &u!t )e !u""orte )' %((i%.it! o( #itne!!e! )' #$o& !uc$ e.ience i! e2"ecte to )e
+i.en or )' u-' %ut$entic%te co"ie! o( ocu&ent! #$ic$ %re "ro"o!e to )e introuce in e.ience.
Notice o( t$e &otion (or ne# tri%- or recon!ier%tion !$%-- )e +i.en to t$e "ro!ecutor.
Sec. 5. +earing on motion. H =$ere % &otion (or ne# tri%- c%--! (or re!o-ution o( %n' 3ue!tion o( (%ct,
t$e court &%' $e%r e.ience t$ereon )' %((i%.it! or ot$er#i!e.

Sec. <. 'ffects of granting a new trial or reconsideration. H T$e e((ect! o( +r%ntin+ % ne# tri%- or
recon!ier%tion %re t$e (o--o#in+/
0%1 =$en % ne# tri%- i! +r%nte on t$e +roun o( error! o( -%# or irre+u-%ritie! co&&itte urin+ t$e
tri%-, %-- t$e "roceein+! %n e.ience %((ecte t$ere)' !$%-- )e !et %!ie %n t%7en %ne#. T$e court
&%', in t$e intere!t o( *u!tice, %--o# t$e introuction o( %ition%- e.ience.
0)1 =$en % ne# tri%- i! +r%nte on t$e +roun o( ne#-'4i!co.ere e.ience, t$e e.ience %-re%'
%uce !$%-- !t%n %n t$e ne#-'4i!co.ere %n !uc$ ot$er e.ience %! t$e court &%', in t$e
intere!t o( *u!tice, %--o# to )e introuce !$%-- )e t%7en %n con!iere to+et$er #it$ t$e e.ience
%-re%' in t$e recor.
0c1 In %-- c%!e!, #$en t$e court +r%nt! ne# tri%- or recon!ier%tion, t$e ori+in%- *u+&ent !$%-- )e !et
%!ie or .%c%te %n % ne# *u+&ent renere %ccorin+-'.
4+at are t+e e''ects o' granting MRAM/#9
o /ew trial and granted on errors o' law or irreg%larities in trial: everyt+ing s+all -e set
aside and taken anew
o /ew trial and granted on newly discovered evidence: evidence already add%ced s+all
stand, and new evidence will -e considered
o ALL cases: original 6%dgment s+all -e set aside or vacated and a new 6%dgment rendered
accordingly
RULE 188 4 APPEAL
2asic r%le: /E record o' appeal in criminal cases
o Enly notice o' appeal
Section 1. Who may appeal. H An' "%rt' &%' %""e%- (ro& % *u+&ent or (in%- orer, un-e!! t$e %ccu!e
#i-- )e "-%ce in ou)-e *eo"%r'.
4+o may appeal9
o Any party may do so, %nless t+e acc%sed will -e placed in do%-le 6eopardy
#+at means:
o #+e acc%sed
o #+e o''ended party
2%t only as regards t+e civil aspect o' t+e case
o People o' t+e P+ilippines
Like w+en a motion to $%as+ t+e in'ormation was granted, t+e State can appeal
since do%-le 6eopardy +as not set in &M#M is 'iled 205ER0 arraignment)
0''ect o' appeals:
o In civil, co%rt will only consider t+e assignment o' errors
o In criminal cases, t+e 0/#IR0 case is open 'or review*
So t+e penalty can act%ally -e increased on appeal*
Sec. 8. Where to appeal. H T$e %""e%- &%' )e t%7en %! (o--o#!/
0%1 To t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court, in c%!e! ecie )' t$e Metro"o-it%n Tri%- Court, Munici"%- Tri%- Court in
Citie!, Munici"%- Tri%- Court, or Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court5
0)1 To t$e Court o( A""e%-! or to t$e Su"re&e Court in t$e "ro"er c%!e! "ro.ie )' -%#, in c%!e!
ecie )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court5 %n
0c1 To t$e Su"re&e Court, in c%!e! ecie )' t$e Court o( A""e%-!.
Sec. :. +ow appeal ta,en. H 0%1 T$e %""e%- to t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court, or to t$e Court o( A""e%-! in
c%!e! ecie )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court in t$e e2erci!e o( it! ori+in%- *uri!iction, !$%-- )e t%7en )'
(i-in+ % notice o( %""e%- #it$ t$e court #$ic$ renere t$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer %""e%-e (ro& %n
)' !er.in+ % co"' t$ereo( u"on t$e %.er!e "%rt'.
0)1 T$e %""e%- to t$e Court o( A""e%-! in c%!e! ecie )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court in t$e e2erci!e o( it!
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
%""e--%te *uri!iction !$%-- )e )' "etition (or re.ie# uner Ru-e ;8.
0c1 T$e %""e%- in c%!e! #$ere t$e "en%-t' i&"o!e )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court i! reclusion perpetua, or
-i(e i&"ri!on&ent, or #$ere % -e!!er "en%-t' i! i&"o!e )ut (or o((en!e! co&&itte on t$e !%&e
occ%!ion or #$ic$ %ro!e out o( t$e !%&e occurrence t$%t +%.e ri!e to t$e &ore !eriou! o((en!e (or
#$ic$ t$e "en%-t' o( e%t$, reclusion perpetua, or -i(e i&"ri!on&ent i! i&"o!e, !$%-- )e )' notice o(
%""e%- to t$e Court o( A""e%-! in %ccor%nce #it$ "%r%+r%"$ 0%1 o( t$i! !ection.
01 No notice o( %""e%- i! nece!!%r' in c%!e! #$ere t$e e%t$ "en%-t' i! i&"o!e )' t$e Re+ion%-
Tri%- Court. T$e !%&e !$%-- )e %uto&%tic%--' re.ie#e )' t$e Court o( A""e%-! %! "ro.ie in !ection 1@
o( t$i! Ru-e.
0e1 E2ce"t %! "ro.ie in t$e -%!t "%r%+r%"$ o( !ection 1:, Ru-e 18;, %-- ot$er %""e%-! to t$e Su"re&e
Court !$%-- )e )' "etition (or re.ie# on certior%ri uner Ru-e ;5.
This s,ace is allocated for dia1rams and drawin1s of the a,,eal ,rocess (draw your own na lan1'$:
M#C decides R#C
o Kia notice o' appeal 'iled in t+e M#C
Convicted o' acts o' lascivio%sness in M#C, 'ile notice o' appeal in M#C so R#C can
r%le on t+e appeal
Compare to civil: w+ere record o' appeal can -e %sed &R%le 4!)
o R#C can re$%ire memoranda &R%le ", Sec 3)
Same wit+ civil
o /o +earing in R#C since acting in its appellate 6%risdiction
R#C decides CA
o ?epends:
R#C acting originally: Kia notice o' appeal 'iled in t+e R#C &R%le 4")
Applies also i' penalty imposed -y R#C is RP or LI
o I' deat+, straig+t to CA &no need 'or notice o' appeal)
Compared wit+ civil: record o' appeal allowed
Proced%re in CA:
5ile appellant,s -rie' wit+in 8! days, appellee,s -rie' wit+in 8! days, and
reply -rie' wit+in ! days &8!C8!C!)
43
&R%le "4)
)-
Rule 12), Sec. (. &hen rief for appellant to e filed. Within thirty "(.# days from receipt by the appellant or his counsel of the notice from
the cler' of court of the 9ourt of /ppeals that the evidence, oral and documentary, is already attached to the record, the appellant shall file seven
"7# copies of his brief ith the cler' of court hich shall be accompanied by proof of service of to "2# copies thereof upon the appellee.
Sec. ). &hen rief for appellee to e filed$ reply rief of the appellant. Within thirty "(.# days from receipt of the brief of the appellant, the
appellee shall file seven "7# copies of the brief of the appellee ith the cler' of court hich shall be accompanied by proof of service of to "2#
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
-,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o Compared wit+ civil: 4:C4:C! &R%le 44)
R#C acting as an appellate co%rt: Kia petition 'or review %nder R%le 4
Like w+en 'iled originally in M#C and a''irmed in t+e R#C
Same wit+ civil
o Can a decision 'rom t+e R#C go straig+t to t+e SC9
@0S* I' -ased p%rely on $%estions o' law* Bse R%le 4:*
CA decides SC
o (R: always via petition 'or review on certiorari %nder R%le 4:
:!
&p%re $%estions o' law)
01C0P#:
w+en CA decides penalty is RPALI, &or o''enses committed in t+e same
occasion or same occ%rrence w+ic+ game rise to t+e o''ense o' RPALI)
remedy is -y notice o' appeal wit+ t+e CA to t+e SC &important= Enly
instance w+en R%le 4: is not %sed to go %p to t+e SC on appeal G same
r%le as 'rom S2)
:"
w+en CA decides deat+, it will render -%t /E# enter a 6%dgment and
certi'y t+e case to t+e SC*
o #+e case o' t+e accomplices and accessories will also -e certi'ied
to t+e SC*
S2 decides SC &note: S2 same level as CA)
o Penalty is less t+an deat+Ali'eARP R%le 4: to SC
o Penalty is deat+ a%tomatic review to SC
o Penalty is li'eARP notice o' appeal to t+e SC
/ote: w+en t+e decision is raised to t+e SC on notice o' appeal &RPALI), -ot+ $%estions on 'acts
and law can -e raised*
?oes R%le 4", Sec "
:
&en%merates w+en appeal is pro+i-ited) apply to criminal appeals9
o /E*
#+at,s w+y yo% can appeal a M#M regardless o' t+e gro%nd availed o'*
0ven i' t+e gro%nd can lead to a simple reC'iling, appeal is still availa-le*
4+at +appens i' t+e acc%sed %ses t+e wrong mode 'or appeal9
o #+e 6%dgment will -ecome 'inal and e>ec%tory -eca%se t+e r%nning o' t+e appeal period
will not -e tolled* &?e%s v People, !!I, w+ere R%le D: was %sed instead o' a notice o'
appeal)
01C0P#:
4+en t+e interest o' 6%stice wo%ld allow &like w+en it w+en t+e wrong
mode o' appeal was done -y an indigent w+o did not +ave a lawyer, as
w+at +appened in ?e%s)
copies thereof upon the appellant.
Within tenty "2.# days from receipt of the brief of the appellee, the appellant may file a reply brief traversing matters raised in the former but
not covered in the brief of the appellant.
*.
$etition for Revie to go to the S9 only applies from 9/ and S9. 9ompare to 9ivil 9ases here it can come from the R09, 9/, S>, 90/ en
banc, etc.
*1
Rule 12), Sec. 1(. 'ertification or appeal of case to the #upreme 'ourt.O"a# Whenever the 9ourt of /ppeals finds that the penalty of death
should be imposed, the court shall render judgment but refrain from ma'ing an entry of judgment and forthith certify the case and elevate its
entire record to the Supreme 9ourt for revie.
"b# Where the judgment also imposes a lesser penalty for offenses committed on the same occasion or hich arose out of the same occurrence
that gave rise to the more severe offense for hich the penalty of death is imposed, and the accused appeals, the appeal shall be included in the
case certified for revie to, the Supreme 9ourt.
"c# <n cases here the 9ourt of /ppeals imposes reclusion perpetua, life imprisonment or a lesser penalty, it shall render and enter judgment
imposing such penalty. 0he judgment may be appealed to the Supreme 9ourt by notice of appeal filed ith the 9ourt of /ppeals.
*2
Rule )1, Section 1. Subject of appeal.
/n appeal may be ta'en from a judgment or final order that completely disposes of the case, or of a particular matter therein hen declared by
these Rules to be appealable. 5o appeal may be ta'en from!
"a# /n order denying a motion for ne trial or reconsideration% "b# /n order denying a petition for relief or any similar motion see'ing relief from
judgment% "c# /n interlocutory order% "d# /n order disalloing or dismissing an appeal% "e# /n order denying a motion to set aside a judgment by
consent, confession or compromise on the ground of fraud, mista'e or duress, or any other ground vitiating consent% "f# /n order of e1ecution% "g#
/ judgment or final order for or against one or more of several parties or in separate claims, counterclaims, cross:claims and third:party
complaints, hile the main case is pending, unless the court allos an appeal therefrom% and "h# /n order dismissing an action ithout prejudice.
<n all the above instances here the judgment or final order is not appealable, the aggrieved party may file an appropriate special civil action
under Rule +*.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
--
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. <. When appeal to !e ta,en. H An %""e%- &u!t )e t%7en #it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! (ro& "ro&u-+%tion
o( t$e *u+&ent or (ro& notice o( t$e (in%- orer %""e%-e (ro&. T$i! "erio (or "er(ectin+ %n %""e%-
!$%-- )e !u!"ene (ro& t$e ti&e % &otion (or ne# tri%- or recon!ier%tion i! (i-e unti- notice o( t$e
orer o.erru-in+ t$e &otion $%! )een !er.e u"on t$e %ccu!e or $i! coun!e- %t #$ic$ ti&e t$e )%-%nce
o( t$e "erio )e+in! to run.
4+en9
o ": days 'rom prom%lgation o' t+e 6%dgment or 'rom notice o' t+e 'inal order appealed
'rom
Sec. ;. Service of notice of appeal. H I( "er!on%- !er.ice o( t$e co"' o( t$e notice o( %""e%- c%n not )e
&%e u"on t$e %.er!e "%rt' or $i! coun!e-, !er.ice &%' )e one )' re+i!tere &%i- or )' !u)!titute
!er.ice "ur!u%nt to !ection! 7 %n > o( Ru-e 1:.

Sec. 5. Waiver of notice. H T$e %""e--ee &%' #%i.e $i! ri+$t to % notice t$%t %n %""e%- $%! )een t%7en.
T$e %""e--%te court &%', in it! i!cretion, entert%in %n %""e%- not#it$!t%nin+ (%i-ure to +i.e !uc$
notice i( t$e intere!t! o( *u!tice !o re3uire.

Sec. 7. Transcri!ing and filing notes of stenographic reporter upon appeal. H =$en notice o( %""e%-! i!
(i-e )' t$e %ccu!e, t$e tri%- court !$%-- irect t$e !teno+r%"$ic re"orter to tr%n!cri)e $i! note! o( t$e
"roceein+!. =$en (i-e )' t$e Peo"-e o( t$e P$i-i""ine!, t$e tri%- court !$%-- irect t$e !teno+r%"$ic
re"orter to tr%n!cri)e !uc$ "ortion o( $i! note! o( t$e "roceein+! %! t$e court, u"on &otion, !$%--
!"eci(' in #ritin+. T$e !teno+r%"$ic re"orter !$%-- certi(' to t$e correctne!! o( t$e note! %n t$e
tr%n!cri"t t$ereo(, #$ic$ !$%-- con!i!t o( t$e ori+in%- %n (our co"ie!, %n !$%-- (i-e !%i ori+in%- %n
(our co"ie! #it$ t$e c-er7 #it$out unnece!!%r' e-%'.c$%n ro)-e! .irtu%- -%# -i)r%r'
I( e%t$ "en%-t' i! i&"o!e, t$e !teno+r%"$ic re"orter !$%--, #it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro&
"ro&u-+%tion o( t$e !entence, (i-e #it$ t$e c-er7 t$e ori+in%- %n (our co"ie! o( t$e u-' certi(ie
tr%n!cri"t o( $i! note! o( t$e "roceein+!. No e2ten!ion o( ti&e (or (i-in+ o( !%i tr%n!cri"t o(
!teno+r%"$ic note! !$%-- )e +r%nte e2ce"t )' t$e Su"re&e Court %n on-' u"on *u!ti(i%)-e +roun!.

Sec. >. Transmission of papers to appellate court upon appeal. H =it$in (i.e 051 %'! (ro& t$e (i-in+ o(
t$e notice o( %""e%-, t$e c-er7 o( court #it$ #$o& t$e notice o( %""e%- #%! (i-e &u!t tr%n!&it to t$e
c-er7 o( court o( t$e %""e--%te court t$e co&"-ete recor o( t$e c%!e, to+et$er #it$ !%i notice. T$e
ori+in%- %n t$ree co"ie! o( t$e tr%n!cri"t o( !teno+r%"$ic note!, to+et$er #it$ t$e recor!, !$%-- %-!o
)e tr%n!&itte to t$e c-er7 o( t$e %""e--%te court #it$out unue e-%'. T$e ot$er co"' o( t$e tr%n!cri"t
!$%-- re&%in in t$e -o#er court.
Sec. ?. &ppeal to the *egional Trial )ourts. H 0%1 =it$in (i.e 051 %'! (ro& "er(ection o( t$e %""e%-, t$e
c-er7 o( court !$%-- tr%n!&it t$e ori+in%- recor to t$e %""ro"ri%te Re+ion%- Tri%- Court.
0)1 U"on recei"t o( t$e co&"-ete recor o( t$e c%!e, tr%n!cri"t! %n e2$i)it!, t$e c-er7 o( court o( t$e
Re+ion%- Tri%- Court !$%-- noti(' t$e "%rtie! o( !uc$ (%ct.
0c1 =it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! (ro& recei"t o( !%i notice, t$e "%rtie! &%' !u)&it &e&or%n% or )rie(!,
or &%' )e re3uire )' t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court to o !o. A(ter t$e !u)&i!!ion o( !uc$ &e&or%n% or
)rie(!, or u"on t$e e2"ir%tion o( t$e "erio to (i-e t$e !%&e, t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court !$%-- ecie t$e
c%!e on t$e )%!i! o( t$e entire recor o( t$e c%!e %n o( !uc$ &e&or%n% or )rie(! %! &%' $%.e )een
(i-e.
Sec. 1@. Transmission of records in case of death penalty. J In %-- c%!e! #$ere t$e e%t$ "en%-t' i!
i&"o!e )' t$e tri%- court, t$e recor! !$%-- )e (or#%re to t$e Court o( A""e%-! (or %uto&%tic re.ie#
%n *u+&ent #it$in t#ent' %'! )ut not e%r-ier t$%n (i(teen %'! (ro& t$e "ro&u-+%tion o( t$e
*u+&ent or notice o( eni%- o( % &otion (or ne# tri%- or recon!ier%tion. T$e tr%n!cri"t !$%-- %-!o )e
(or#%re #it$in ten %'! %(ter t$e (i-in+ t$ereo( )' t$e !teno+r%"$ic re"orter. 01@%1
Sec. 11. 'ffect of appeal !y any of several accused. H 0%1 An %""e%- t%7en )' one or &ore o( !e.er%-
%ccu!e !$%-- not %((ect t$o!e #$o i not %""e%-, e2ce"t in!o(%r %! t$e *u+&ent o( t$e %""e--%te court
i! (%.or%)-e %n %""-ic%)-e to t$e -%tter.
0)1 T$e %""e%- o( t$e o((ene "%rt' (ro& t$e ci.i- %!"ect !$%-- not %((ect t$e cri&in%- %!"ect o( t$e
*u+&ent or orer %""e%-e (ro&.
0c1 U"on "er(ection o( t$e %""e%-, t$e e2ecution o( t$e *u+&ent or (in%- orer %""e%-e (ro& !$%--
)e !t%'e %! to t$e %""e%-in+ "%rt'.
I' m%ltiple acc%sed:
o Enly one or several o' t+em &-%t not all) appeal: will /E# a''ect t+ose w+o did /E# appeal
B/L0SS 'avora-le and applica-le to t+em
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1..
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
o Appeal o' t+e o''ended party o' t+e civil aspect: will /E# a''ect t+e criminal aspect
o Bpon per'ection o' t+e appeal: e>ec%tion s+all -e stayed -%t only as to t+e appealing party
Sit%ation: A-a-, 2etines and C+olorg were all convicted 'or +omicide* A-ad and 2enites appealed
%sing t+e correct mode* C+olorg, -eing an orc, appealed -%t %sed t+e wrong mode o' appeal*
C+olorg,s case was dismissed* In t+e meantime, A-ad and 2enites were ac$%itted on appeal* 4ill
it -ene'it C+olorg9
o 7ell no=
o It only -ene'its i' one o' t+e acc%sed ?I? /E# appeal* &M%idet v People, !"!)
C+olorg appealed* It will not -ene'it +im*
Sec. 18. Withdrawal of appeal. 4 Not#it$!t%nin+ "er(ection o( t$e %""e%-, t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court,
Metro"o-it%n Tri%- Court, Munici"%- Tri%- Court in Citie!, Munici"%- Tri%- Court, or Munici"%- Circuit Tri%-
Court, %! t$e c%!e &%' )e, &%' %--o# t$e %""e--%nt to #it$r%# $i! %""e%- )e(ore t$e recor $%! )een
(or#%re )' t$e c-er7 o( court to t$e "ro"er %""e--%te court %! "ro.ie in !ection >, in #$ic$ c%!e,
t$e *u+&ent !$%-- )eco&e (in%-. T$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court &%' %-!o, in it! i!cretion, %--o# t$e
%""e--%nt (ro& t$e *u+&ent o( % Metro"o-it%n Tri%- Court, Munici"%- Tri%- Court in Citie!, Munici"%-
Tri%- Court, or Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court to #it$r%# $i! %""e%-, "ro.ie % &otion to t$%t e((ect i!
(i-e )e(ore renition o( t$e *u+&ent in t$e c%!e on %""e%-, in #$ic$ c%!e t$e *u+&ent o( t$e court o(
ori+in !$%-- )eco&e (in%- %n t$e c%!e !$%-- )e re&%ne to t$e -%tter court (or e2ecution o( t$e
*u+&ent.
Sec. 1:. &ppointment of counsel de officio for accused on appeal. 4 It !$%-- )e t$e ut' o( t$e c-er7 o(
court o( t$e tri%- court, u"on (i-in+ o( % notice o( %""e%- to %!cert%in (ro& t$e %""e--%nt, i( con(ine in
"ri!on, #$et$er $e e!ire! t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court, Court o( A""e%-! or t$e Su"re&e Court to %""oint %
coun!e- de officio to e(en $i& %n to tr%n!&it #it$ t$e recor on % (or& to )e "re"%re )' t$e c-er7
o( court o( t$e %""e--%te court, % certi(ic%te o( co&"-i%nce #it$ t$i! ut' %n o( t$e re!"on!e o( t$e
%""e--%te to $i! in3uir'.
#rial co%rt clerk is d%ty -o%nd to ascertain 'rom t+e acc%sed i' +e wants a co%nsel de o''icio 'or an
acc%sed &t+en co%rt will appoint):
o En appeal, and
o Acc%sed is con'ined in prison
4+at,re t+e ot+er instances w+ere mandatory to give a co%nsel de o''icio9
Bpon arraignment, -%t t+at,s -y t+e co%rt*
Read wit+ R%le "4, Sec * &appointment -y t+e CA)
Also allowed -y t+e SC -%t not 'o%nd in t+e r%les
RULE 18: 4 PROCEDURE IN THE MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS
Section 1. -niform Procedure. H T$e "roceure to )e o)!er.e in t$e Metro"o-it%n Tri%- Court!,
Munici"%- Tri%- Court! %n Munici"%- Circuit Tri%- Court! !$%-- )e t$e !%&e %! in t$e Re+ion%- Tri%-
Court!, e2ce"t #$ere % "%rticu-%r "ro.i!ion %""-ie! on-' to eit$er o( !%i court! %n in cri&in%- c%!e!
+o.erne )' t$e Re.i!e Ru-e on Su&&%r' Proceure.
RULE 18; 4 PROCEDURE IN THE COURT OE APPEALS

Section 1. Title of the case. H In %-- cri&in%- c%!e! %""e%-e to t$e Court o( A""e%-!, t$e "%rt' %""e%-in+
t$e c%!e !$%-- )e c%--e t$e .appellant. %n t$e %.er!e "%rt' t$e .appellee,. )ut t$e tit-e o( t$e c%!e
!$%-- re&%in %! it #%! in t$e court o( ori+in.
Sec. 8. &ppointment of counsel de officio for the accused. H I( it %""e%r! (ro& t$e recor o( t$e c%!e %!
tr%n!&itte t$%t 0%1 t$e %ccu!e i! con(ine in "ri!on, 0)1 i! #it$out coun!e- de parte on %""e%-, or 0c1
$%! !i+ne t$e notice o( %""e%- $i&!e-(, %!7 t$e c-er7 o( court o( t$e Court o( A""e%-! !$%-- e!i+n%te %
coun!e- de officio.
An %""e--%nt #$o i! not con(ine in "ri!on &%', u"on re3ue!t, )e %!!i+ne % coun!e- de officio #it$in
ten 01@1 %'! (ro& recei"t o( t$e notice to (i-e )rie( %n $e e!t%)-i!$e! $i! ri+$t t$ereto.
Can a co%nsel de o''icio -e named in t+e CA9
o @es, it,s mandatory w+en t+e acc%sed:
Is in prison
I' +e,s not con'ined, it,s not mandatory on t+e co%rt
Is wit+o%t co%nsel de parte on appeal, or
Signed +is own appeal
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.1
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. :. When !rief for appellant to !e filed. H =it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro& recei"t )' t$e %""e--%nt or
$i! coun!e- o( t$e notice (ro& t$e c-er7 o( court o( t$e Court o( A""e%-! t$%t t$e e.ience, or%- %n
ocu&ent%r', i! %-re%' %tt%c$e to t$e recor, t$e %""e--%nt !$%-- (i-e !e.en 071 co"ie! o( $i! )rie(
#it$ t$e c-er7 o( court #$ic$ !$%-- )e %cco&"%nie )' "roo( o( !er.ice o( t#o 081 co"ie! t$ereo( u"on
t$e %""e--ee.
Sec. ;. When !rief for appellee to !e filed; reply !rief of the appellant. H =it$in t$irt' 0:@1 %'! (ro&
recei"t o( t$e )rie( o( t$e %""e--%nt, t$e %""e--ee !$%-- (i-e !e.en 071 co"ie! o( t$e )rie( o( t$e %""e--ee
#it$ t$e c-er7 o( court #$ic$ !$%-- )e %cco&"%nie )' "roo( o( !er.ice o( t#o 081 co"ie! t$ereo( u"on
t$e %""e--%nt.
=it$in t#ent' 08@1 %'! (ro& recei"t o( t$e )rie( o( t$e %""e--ee, t$e %""e--%nt &%' (i-e % re"-' )rie(
tr%.er!in+ &%tter! r%i!e in t$e (or&er )ut not co.ere in t$e )rie( o( t$e %""e--%nt.
Sec. 5. '(tension of time for filing !riefs. H E2ten!ion o( ti&e (or t$e (i-in+ o( )rie(! #i-- not )e %--o#e
e2ce"t (or +oo %n !u((icient c%u!e %n on-' i( t$e &otion (or e2ten!ion i! (i-e )e(ore t$e e2"ir%tion
o( t$e ti&e !ou+$t to )e e2tene.
Sec. <. Form of !riefs. H Arie(! !$%-- eit$er )e "rinte, encoe or t'"e#ritten in ou)-e !"%ce on -e+%-
!i6e +oo 3u%-it' un+-%6e "%"er, ::@ &&. in -en+t$ )' 81< &&. in #it$.
Sec. 7. )ontents of !rief. H T$e )rie(! in cri&in%- c%!e! !$%-- $%.e t$e !%&e content! %! "ro.ie in
!ection! 1: %n 1; o( Ru-e ;;. A certi(ie true co"' o( t$e eci!ion or (in%- orer %""e%-e (ro& !$%-- )e
%""ene to t$e )rie( o( t$e %""e--%nt.
Sec. >. %ismissal of appeal for a!andonment or failure to prosecute. H T$e Court o( A""e%-! &%', u"on
&otion o( t$e %""e--ee or motu proprio %n #it$ notice to t$e %""e--%nt in eit$er c%!e, i!&i!! t$e
%""e%- i( t$e %""e--%nt (%i-! to (i-e $i! )rie( #it$in t$e ti&e "re!cri)e )' t$i! Ru-e, e2ce"t #$ere t$e
%""e--%nt i! re"re!ente )' % coun!e- de officio.
T$e Court o( A""e%-! &%' %-!o, u"on &otion o( t$e %""e--ee or motu proprio, i!&i!! t$e %""e%- i(
t$e %""e--%nt e!c%"e! (ro& "ri!on or con(ine&ent, *u&"! )%i- or (-ee! to % (orei+n countr' urin+ t$e
"enenc' o( t$e %""e%-.
/ote: CA can dimiss an appeal motu ,ro,io or %pon motion:
o 5ail%re to 'ile -rie'
o Acc%sed 6%mps -ail, escapes or 'lees to a 'oreign co%ntry
As w+at +appened in People v #ar%c, !!3, w+ic+ applied t+is section to t+e SC as
well
Sec. ?. Prompt disposition of appeals. H A""e%-! o( %ccu!e #$o %re uner etention !$%-- )e +i.en
"receence in t$eir i!"o!ition o.er ot$er %""e%-!. T$e Court o( A""e%-! !$%-- $e%r %n ecie t$e
%""e%- %t t$e e%r-ie!t "r%ctic%)-e ti&e #it$ ue re+%r to t$e ri+$t! o( t$e "%rtie!. T$e %ccu!e nee
not )e "re!ent in court urin+ t$e $e%rin+ o( t$e %""e%-.
Sec. 1@. /udgment not to !e reversed or modified e(cept for su!stantial error. H No *u+&ent !$%-- )e
re.er!e or &oi(ie un-e!! t$e Court o( A""e%-!, %(ter %n e2%&in%tion o( t$e recor %n o( t$e
e.ience %uce )' t$e "%rtie!, i! o( t$e o"inion t$%t terror #%! co&&itte #$ic$ in*uriou!-' %((ecte
t$e !u)!t%nti%- ri+$t! o( t$e %""e--%nt.
Sec. 11. Scope of "udgment. H T$e Court o( A""e%-! &%' re.er!e, %((ir& or &oi(' t$e *u+&ent %n
incre%!e or reuce t$e "en%-t' i&"o!e )' t$e tri%- court, re&%n t$e c%!e to t$e Re+ion%- Tri%- Court
(or ne# tri%- or retri%-, or i!&i!! t$e c%!e.
Sec. 18. Power to receive evidence.JT$e Court o( A""e%-! !$%-- $%.e t$e "o#er to tr' c%!e! %n
conuct $e%rin+!, recei.e e.ience %n "er(or& %-- %ct! nece!!%r' to re!o-.e (%ctu%- i!!ue! r%i!e in
c%!e! (%--in+ #it$in it! ori+in%- %n %""e--%te *uri!iction, inc-uin+ t$e "o#er to +r%nt %n conuct
ne# tri%-! or (urt$er "roceein+!. Tri%-! or $e%rin+! in t$e Court o( A""e%-! &u!t )e continuou! %n
&u!t )e co&"-ete #it$in t$ree &ont$!, un-e!! e2tene )' t$e C$ie( Bu!tice. 180%1
CA can receive evidence and can resolve 'act%al iss%es*
o It can even cond%ct new trials=
Sec. 1:. )ertification or appeal of case to the Supreme )ourt.J
0%1 =$ene.er t$e Court o( A""e%-! (in! t$%t t$e "en%-t' o( e%t$ !$ou- )e i&"o!e, t$e court !$%--
rener *u+&ent )ut re(r%in (ro& &%7in+ %n entr' o( *u+&ent %n (ort$#it$ certi(' t$e c%!e %n
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.2
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
e-e.%te it! entire recor to t$e Su"re&e Court (or re.ie#.
0)1 =$ere t$e *u+&ent %-!o i&"o!e! % -e!!er "en%-t' (or o((en!e! co&&itte on t$e !%&e occ%!ion or
#$ic$ %ro!e out o( t$e !%&e occurrence t$%t +%.e ri!e to t$e &ore !e.ere o((en!e (or #$ic$ t$e "en%-t'
o( e%t$ i! i&"o!e, %n t$e %ccu!e %""e%-!, t$e %""e%- !$%-- )e inc-ue in t$e c%!e certi(ie (or
re.ie# to, t$e Su"re&e Court.
0c1 In c%!e! #$ere t$e Court o( A""e%-! i&"o!e! rec-u!ion "er"etu%, -i(e i&"ri!on&ent or % -e!!er
"en%-t', it !$%-- rener %n enter *u+&ent i&"o!in+ !uc$ "en%-t'. T$e *u+&ent &%' )e %""e%-e to
t$e Su"re&e Court )' notice o( %""e%- (i-e #it$ t$e Court o( A""e%-!.

CA imposes deat+: it s+o%ld render 6%dgment -%t re'rain 'rom making an entry o' 6%dgment*
Certi'y t+e case to t+e SC 'or review*
CA imposes RP, LI or crimes made in t+e occasion o' RPALI, t+ere%nder and enter 6%dgment
imposing s%c+ penalty*
o J%dgment to -e appealed to t+e SC -y notice o' appeal 'iled wit+ t+e CA*
Sec. 1;. 0otion for new trial. H At %n' ti&e %(ter t$e %""e%- (ro& t$e -o#er court $%! )een "er(ecte
%n )e(ore t$e *u+&ent o( t$e Court o( A""e%-! con.ictin+ t$e %""e--%nt )eco&e! (in%-, t$e -%tter &%'
&o.e (or % ne# tri%- on t$e +roun o( ne#-'4i!co.ere e.ience &%teri%- to $i! e(en!e. T$e &otion
!$%-- con(or& #it$ t$e "ro.i!ion! o( !ection ;, Ru-e 181.
Sec. 15. Where new trial conducted. H =$en % ne# tri%- i! +r%nte, t$e Court o( A""e%-! &%' conuct
t$e $e%rin+ %n recei.e e.ience %! "ro.ie in !ection 18 o( t$i! Ru-e or re(er t$e tri%- to t$e court o(
ori+in.
M/# in CA: only on gro%nd o' newlyCdiscovered evidence
o I' granted, CA can:
Cond%ct t+e +earing on its own or
Remand t+e case to t+e lower co%rt
Sec. 1<. *econsideration. H A &otion (or recon!ier%tion !$%-- )e (i-e #it$in (i(teen 0151 %'! (ro&
notice o( t$e eci!ion or (in%- orer o( t$e Court o( A""e%-! #it$ co"ie! t$ereo( !er.e u"on t$e %.er!e
"%rt', !ettin+ (ort$ t$e +roun! in !u""ort t$ereo(. T$e &itti&u! !$%-- )e !t%'e urin+ t$e "enenc'
o( t$e &otion (or recon!ier%tion. No "%rt' !$%-- )e %--o#e % !econ &otion (or recon!ier%tion o( %
*u+&ent or (in%- orer.
MR in CA: only once allowed=
Sec. 17. /udgment transmitted and filed in trial court. H =$en t$e entr' o( *u+&ent o( t$e Court o(
A""e%-! i! i!!ue, % certi(ie true co"' o( t$e *u+&ent !$%-- )e %tt%c$e to t$e ori+in%- recor #$ic$
!$%-- )e re&%ne to t$e c-er7 o( t$e court (ro& #$ic$ t$e %""e%- #%! t%7en. Sec. 1>. &pplication of
certain rules in civil procedure to criminal cases. H T$e "ro.i!ion! o( Ru-e! ;8, ;; to ;< %n ;> to 5<
re-%tin+ to "roceure in t$e Court o( A""e%-! %n in t$e Su"re&e Court in ori+in%- %n %""e%-e ci.i-
c%!e! !$%-- )e %""-ie to cri&in%- c%!e! in!o(%r %! t$e' %re %""-ic%)-e %n not incon!i!tent #it$ t$e
"ro.i!ion o( t$i! Ru-e.
/ote t+at R%le :! is applica-le= #+ese are ot+er gro%nds 'or dismissal*
:8
*(
R@2D *.
C<S3<SS/2 6F /$$D/2
Section 1. Jrounds for dismissal of appeal.
/n appeal may be dismissed by the 9ourt of /ppeals, on its on motion or on that of the appellee, on the folloing grounds!
"a# Failure of the record on appeal to sho on its face that the appeal as ta'en ithin the period fi1ed by these Rules% "b# Failure to file the
notice of appeal or the record on appeal ithin the period prescribed by these Rules% "c# Failure of the appellant to pay the doc'et and other
laful fees as provided in section ) of Rule )1% "d# @nauthori&ed alterations, omissions or additions in the approved record on appeal as provided
in section ) of Rule ))% "e# Failure of the appellant to serve and file the re;uired number of copies of his brief or memorandum ithin the time
provided by these Rules% "f# /bsence of specific assignment of errors in the appellantMs brief, or of page references to the record as re;uired in
section 1(, paragraphs "a#, "c#, "d# and "f# of Rule ))% "g# Failure of the appellant to ta'e the necessary steps for the correction or completion of
the record ithin the time limited by the court in its order% "h# Failure of the appellant to appear at the preliminary conference under Rule ), or to
comply ith orders, circulars, or directives of the court ithout justifiable cause% and "i# 0he fact that the order or judgment appealed from is not
appealable.
Sec. 2. Cismissal of improper appeal to the 9ourt of /ppeals.
/n appeal under Rule )1 ta'en from the Regional 0rial 9ourt to the 9ourt of /ppeals raising only ;uestions of la shall be dismissed, issues
purely of la not being revieable by said court. Similarly, an appeal by notice of appeal instead of by petition for revie from the appellate
judgment of a Regional 0rial 9ourt shall be dismissed. /n appeal erroneously ta'en to the 9ourt of /ppeals shall not be transferred to the
appropriate court but shall be dismissed outright.
Sec. (. Withdraal of appeal.
/n appeal may be ithdran as of right at any time before the filing of the appelleeMs brief. 0hereafter, the ithdraal may be alloed in the
discretion of the court.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.(
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
RULE 185 4 PROCEDURE IN THE SUPREME COURT
Section 1. -niform Procedure. H Un-e!! ot$er#i!e "ro.ie )' t$e Con!titution or )' -%#, t$e "roceure
in t$e Su"re&e Court in ori+in%- %n in %""e%-e c%!e! !$%-- )e t$e !%&e %! in t$e Court o( A""e%-!.
Sec. 8. *eview of decisions of the )ourt of &ppeals. H T$e "roceure (or t$e re.ie# )' t$e Su"re&e
Court o( eci!ion! in cri&in%- c%!e! renere )' t$e Court o( A""e%-! !$%-- )e t$e !%&e %! in ci.i- c%!e!.

Sec. :. %ecision if opinion is equally divided. H =$en t$e Su"re&e Court en !anc i! e3u%--' i.ie in
o"inion or t$e nece!!%r' &%*orit' c%nnot )e $% on #$et$er to %c3uit t$e %""e--%nt, t$e c%!e !$%--
%+%in )e e-i)er%te u"on %n i( no eci!ion i! re%c$e %(ter re4e-i)er%tion, t$e *u+&ent o(
con.iction o( -o#er court !$%-- )e re.er!e %n t$e %ccu!e %c3uitte.
RULE 18< 4 SEARCH AND SEIKURE
Section 1. Search warrant defined. H A !e%rc$ #%rr%nt i! %n orer in #ritin+ i!!ue in t$e n%&e o( t$e
Peo"-e o( t$e P$i-i""ine!, !i+ne )' % *u+e %n irecte to % "e%ce o((icer, co&&%nin+ $i& to !e%rc$
(or "er!on%- "ro"ert' e!cri)e t$erein %n )rin+ it )e(ore t$e court.
Sec. 8. )ourt where application for search warrant shall !e filed. H An %""-ic%tion (or !e%rc$ #%rr%nt
!$%-- )e (i-e #it$ t$e (o--o#in+/
0%1 An' court #it$in #$o!e territori%- *uri!iction % cri&e #%! co&&itte.
)1 Eor co&"e--in+ re%!on! !t%te in t$e %""-ic%tion, %n' court #it$in t$e *uici%- re+ion #$ere t$e
cri&e #%! co&&itte i( t$e "-%ce o( t$e co&&i!!ion o( t$e cri&e i! 7no#n, or %n' court #it$in t$e
*uici%- re+ion #$ere t$e #%rr%nt !$%-- )e en(orce.
Ho#e.er, i( t$e cri&in%- %ction $%! %-re%' )een (i-e, t$e %""-ic%tion !$%-- on-' )e &%e in t$e court
#$ere t$e cri&in%- %ction i! "enin+.
Searc+ warrant is:
o Erder in writing
o Iss%ed in t+e name o' t+e People
o Signed -y a 6%dge
o ?irecting a peace o''icer to searc+ 'or personal property descri-ed t+erein
o And -ring s%c+ property to t+e co%rt
#+e application 'or a searc+ warrant is a special criminal process*
4+ere do yo% apply 'or a searc+ warrant9
o Co%rt wit+ territorial 6d over t+e crime
o 5or compelling reasons,
any co%rt wit+in t+e 6%dicial region o' t+e crime
Er any co%rt w+ere t+e warrant will -e en'orced
0>ample o' compelling reason: crime committed -y an in'l%ential p%-lic
o''icer o' said lcoality
Important: -%t i' criminal action +ad already -een 'iled, apply only in t+at co%rt w+ere case is
pending
#+e place o' man%'act%re o' 'ake goods are in Cavite, -%t it,s sold in San J%an* 4+ere do yo%
apply9
o 0it+er o' t+e two places*
Can a searc+ warrant applied 'or in MC or Manila -e implemented o%tside o' its territorial
6%risdiction9
o (R: /E*
01C0P#:
??A
IP Code
Illegal possession o' 'irearms
Illegal gam-ling
7eino%s crimes
AMLA
Kiolation o' tari'' and c%stoms code
o 5or t+ese crimes, yo% +ave to apply -e'ore an e>ec%tive 6%dge in
Manila or MC* #+en it will -e e''ective anyw+ere* &Marimla v
People, !!3, citing AM 33C"!C!3CSC)
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.)
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
An application 'or a S4 is not a criminal action*
o It,s a special 6%dicial process*
Sec. :. Personal property to !e sei1ed. H A !e%rc$ #%rr%nt &%' )e i!!ue (or t$e !e%rc$ %n !ei6ure o(
"er!on%- "ro"ert'/
0%1 Su)*ect o( t$e o((en!e5
0)1 Sto-en or e&)e66-e %n ot$er "rocee!, or (ruit! o( t$e o((en!e5 or
0c1 U!e or intene to )e u!e %! t$e &e%n! o( co&&ittin+ %n o((en!e.
4+at can -e t+e s%-6ect o' s searc+ warrant9
o S%-6ect o' o''ense
o Stolen or em-e..led or 'r%its o' t+e o''ense
o Bsed or intended to -e %se as t+e means o' committing t+e o''ense
?oes t+e warrant +ave to speci'y t+e $%antity o' dr%gs9
o /o* w+at is re$%ired is t+at t+e o-6ect o' t+e searc+ -e descri-ed wit+ partic%larity*
o So, an ;%ndetermined amo%nt o' s+a-%< is valid*
S%pposing a policeman +ad a searc+ warrant 'or pirated ?K?s -%t -e'ore en'orcing it, +e saw a
stas+ o' dr%gs* 4ill t+ere -e a valid searc+ and sei.%re o' t+e dr%gs9
o @es, %nder t+e plain view doctrine*

Sec. ;. *equisites for issuing search warrant. H A !e%rc$ #%rr%nt !$%-- not i!!ue e2ce"t u"on "ro)%)-e
c%u!e in connection #it$ one !"eci(ic o((en!e to )e eter&ine "er!on%--' )' t$e *u+e %(ter
e2%&in%tion uner o%t$ or %((ir&%tion o( t$e co&"-%in%nt %n t$e #itne!! $e &%' "rouce, %n
"%rticu-%r-' e!cri)in+ t$e "-%ce to )e !e%rc$e %n t$e t$in+! to )e !ei6e #$ic$ &%' )e %n'#$ere in
t$e P$i-i""ine!.
Sec. 5. '(amination of complainant; record. H T$e *u+e &u!t, )e(ore i!!uin+ t$e #%rr%nt, "er!on%--'
e2%&ine in t$e (or& o( !e%rc$in+ 3ue!tion! %n %n!#er!, in #ritin+ %n uner o%t$, t$e co&"-%in%nt
%n t$e #itne!!e! $e &%' "rouce on (%ct! "er!on%--' 7no#n to t$e& %n %tt%c$ to t$e recor t$eir
!#orn !t%te&ent!, to+et$er #it$ t$e %((i%.it! !u)&itte.
Sec. <. 2ssuance and form of search warrant. H I( t$e *u+e i! !%ti!(ie o( t$e e2i!tence o( (%ct! u"on
#$ic$ t$e %""-ic%tion i! )%!e or t$%t t$ere i! "ro)%)-e c%u!e to )e-ie.e t$%t t$e' e2i!t, $e !$%-- i!!ue
t$e #%rr%nt, #$ic$ &u!t )e !u)!t%nti%--' in t$e (or& "re!cri)e )' t$e!e Ru-e!.
It is t+e 6%dge, not t+e prosec%tor, w+o determines pro-a-le ca%se*
o J%dge needs to personally e>amine t+e complainantAapplicant and witnesses %nder oat+ or
a''irmation*
#+e applicant m%st +ave personal knowledge o' t+e 'acts* A searc+ warrant can
/E# -e iss%ed on +earsay statements o' t+e applicant*
o M%st do so -y searc+ing $%estions* &Remem-er J%stice Sa-io w+o iss%ed only searc+
warrants t+ro%g+o%t +is entire career)
#+e place m%st to -e searc+ed m%st -e descri-ed wit+ partic%larity*
o So i' w+at will -e searc+ed is an apartment, give t+e n%m-er o' t+e apartment*
I' w+at was searc+ed was t+e wrong apartment, t+e searc+, ie implementation, is
invalid* &2%t t+e warrant is valid*)
Remem-er t+e Consti cases on personal knowledge o' t+e o''icer w+o gave t+e
wrong address*
o 4+at i' no way to descri-e wit+ partic%larity &like in a province)9
Possi-le to say ;LM 8!<*
2%t won,t apply to cities or m%nicipalities since t+ere are +ave street
names naman*
#+e t+ings to -e sei.ed m%st also -e descri-ed wit+ partic%larity*
o 2%t it is /E# re$%ired t+at t+e t+ings to -e sei.ed m%st -e descri-ed in precise and min%te
detail*
o #est: w+et+er t+e t+ings descri-ed are limited to t+ose w+ic+ -ear direct relation to t+e
o''ense 'or w+ic+ t+e warrant is iss%ed* &C+an v 7onda Motors, !!H, w+ere t+e searc+
warrant was 'or ;4ave< motorcycles, and w+at was sei.ed were ;4ave ""! S< and ;4ave
": S< motorcycles* SC allowed it*)
o Rationale 'or need o' partic%larity:
Readily identi'y t+e properties to -e sei.ed
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.*
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Leave t+e police wit+ no discretion regarding w+at is to -e sei.ed and t+%s prevent
%nreasona-le searc+es and sei.%res
Important: one searc+ warrant S one speci'ic o''ense
o 7ence, w+en t+e searc+ warrant was iss%ed 'or ro--ery, -%t t+e in'ormation 'or ro--ery
was $%as+ed* #+e items sei.ed t+ro%g+ said searc+ warrant can /E# -e %sed 'or reC'iling
an in'ormation o' $%ali'ied t+e't -ased on t+e same case* &Sy #an v Sy #iong)
@o% need to proc%re a new searc+ warrant*
o 2%t, i' t+ere are two separate cases pertaining to one partic%lar property, and t+at
property was already sei.ed -y a searc+ warrant in one case, t+en t+e property need only
-e identi'ied to -e %sed in t+e second case* &Atty* #ran$%il)
(%n was %sed to kill Lili-et+* It was also %sed in anot+er occasion to ro- a -ank* It
was sei.ed in a searc+ warrant connected to t+e m%rder case o' Lili-et+* I' an
in'ormation 'or ro--ery were to -e 'iled in t+e '%t%re, no need 'or anot+er searc+
warrant to get t+e g%n, it need only -e identi'ied*
4+ere else is pro-a-le ca%se needed9
o Preliminary investigation
o 4arrantless arrests &crime 6%st -een committed)
o 4arrant o' arrest
o Searc+ and sei.%res
Sec. 7. *ight to !rea, door or window to effect search. H T$e o((icer, i( re(u!e %&itt%nce to t$e "-%ce
o( irecte !e%rc$ %(ter +i.in+ notice o( $i! "ur"o!e %n %ut$orit', &%' )re%7 o"en %n' outer or inner
oor or #ino# o( % $ou!e or %n' "%rt o( % $ou!e or %n't$in+ t$erein to e2ecute t$e #%rr%nt to -i)er%te
$i&!e-( or %n' "er!on -%#(u--' %iin+ $i& #$en un-%#(u--' et%ine t$erein.
Sec. >. Search of house, room, or premises to !e made in presence of two witnesses. H No !e%rc$ o( %
$ou!e, roo&, or %n' ot$er "re&i!e! !$%-- )e &%e e2ce"t in t$e "re!ence o( t$e -%#(u- occu"%nt
t$ereo( or %n' &e&)er o( $i! (%&i-' or in t$e %)!ence o( t$e -%tter, t#o #itne!!e! o( !u((icient %+e %n
i!cretion re!iin+ in t$e !%&e -oc%-it'. .irtu%- -%# -i)r%r'
Sec. ?. Time of ma,ing search. H T$e #%rr%nt &u!t irect t$%t it )e !er.e in t$e %' ti&e, un-e!! t$e
%((i%.it %!!ert! t$%t t$e "ro"ert' i! on t$e "er!on or in t$e "-%ce orere to )e !e%rc$e, in #$ic$
c%!e % irection &%' )e in!erte t$%t it )e !er.e %t %n' ti&e o( t$e %' or ni+$t.
7ow to implement:
o o''icer can -reak door or windows
o +as to -e made in t+e presence o' t+e law'%l occ%pant, or any mem-er o' +is 'amily, or
two witnesses o' s%''icient age and discretion residing in t+e same locality
o generally served in t+e day &compare to arrest w+ic+ can -e done any time)
%nless a''idavit asserts t+at property is on t+e person or in t+e place to -e
searc+ed, at nig+t pwede
Sec. 1@. 3alidity of search warrant. H A !e%rc$ #%rr%nt !$%-- )e .%-i (or ten 01@1 %'! (ro& it! %te.
T$ere%(ter, it !$%-- )e .oi.
Searc+ warrant lasts 'or only "! days*
Sec. 11. *eceipt for the property sei1ed. H T$e o((icer !ei6in+ t$e "ro"ert' uner t$e #%rr%nt &u!t +i.e
% et%i-e recei"t (or t$e !%&e to t$e -%#(u- occu"%nt o( t$e "re&i!e! in #$o!e "re!ence t$e !e%rc$
%n !ei6ure #ere &%e, or in t$e %)!ence o( !uc$ occu"%nt, &u!t, in t$e "re!ence o( %t -e%!t t#o
#itne!!e! o( !u((icient %+e %n i!cretion re!iin+ in t$e !%&e -oc%-it', -e%.e % recei"t in t$e "-%ce in
#$ic$ $e (oun t$e !ei6e "ro"ert'.
Implementing o''icer m%st give a detailed receipt o' t+e goods sei.ed
o to t+e local occ%pant or
o in +is a-sence, leave it in t+e place w+ere +e sei.ed t+e property, in t+e presence o' at
least witnesses
Moreover, t+e Cwitness r%le applies only to
o searc+es made %nder a%t+ority o' a searc+ warrant
o o' a +o%se, room or ot+er premises
o w+ere t+e occ%pant or +is 'amily is a-sent*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.+
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
?oes t+e Cwitness r%le apply to sei.%re o' dangero%s dr%gs9
o /E* 5ollow Sec " o' t+e ??A*
:4
&M%incot v People !!3, w+ere dr%gs were sei.ed via a
-%yC-%st operation and was not sei.ed inside a +o%se)
Sec. 18. %elivery of property and inventory thereof to court; return and proceedings thereon. H 0%1 T$e
o((icer &u!t (ort$#it$ e-i.er t$e "ro"ert' !ei6e to t$e *u+e #$o i!!ue t$e #%rr%nt, to+et$er #it$ %
true in.entor' t$ereo( u-' .eri(ie uner o%t$.
0)1 Ten 01@1 %'! %(ter i!!u%nce o( t$e !e%rc$ #%rr%nt, t$e i!!uin+ *u+e !$%-- %!cert%in i( t$e return
$%! )een &%e, %n i( none, !$%-- !u&&on t$e "er!on to #$o& t$e #%rr%nt #%! i!!ue %n re3uire $i&
to e2"-%in #$' no return #%! &%e. I( t$e return $%! )een &%e, t$e *u+e !$%-- %!cert%in #$et$er
!ection 11 o( t$i! Ru-e $%! )een co&"-ie #it$ %n !$%-- re3uire t$%t t$e "ro"ert' !ei6e )e e-i.ere
to $i&. T$e *u+e !$%-- !ee to it t$%t !u)!ection 0%1 $ereo( $%! )een co&"-ie #it$.
0c1 T$e return on t$e !e%rc$ #%rr%nt !$%-- )e (i-e %n 7e"t )' t$e cu!toi%n o( t$e -o+ )oo7 on
!e%rc$ #%rr%nt! #$o !$%-- enter t$erein t$e %te o( t$e return, t$e re!u-t, %n ot$er %ction! o( t$e
*u+e.
A .io-%tion o( t$i! !ection !$%-- con!titute conte&"t o( court.
/ormally, t+e inventory can -e done in t+e co%rt or police station*
o 2%t in ??A cases, t+e inventory m%st -e made at t+e scene o' t+e crime*
Moreover, t+e c+ain o' c%stody r%le m%st -e 'ollowed* &People v de Leon, w+erein
t+e cops did not 'ollow Sec " o' ??A to t+e letter -%t t+e co%rt admitted t+e
dr%gs -eca%se t+e integrity o' t+e proced%re was esta-lis+ed s%-stantially)
Sec. 1:. Search incident to lawful arrest. H A "er!on -%#(u--' %rre!te &%' )e !e%rc$e (or %n+erou!
#e%"on! or %n't$in+ #$ic$ &%' $%.e )een u!e or con!titute "roo( in t$e co&&i!!ion o( %n o((en!e
#it$out % !e%rc$ #%rr%nt.
(R: Arrest m%st come -e'ore or contemporaneo%s t+e searc+ and sei.%re*
*)
CC/ Section 21. 9ustody and Cisposition of 9onfiscated, Sei&ed, and?or Surrendered Cangerous Crugs, $lant Sources of Cangerous Crugs,
9ontrolled $recursors and Dssential 9hemicals, <nstruments?$araphernalia and?or 2aboratory D;uipment. 0he $CD/ shall ta'e charge and have
custody of all dangerous drugs, plant sources of dangerous drugs, controlled precursors and essential chemicals, as ell as
instruments?paraphernalia and?or laboratory e;uipment so confiscated, sei&ed and?or surrendered, for proper disposition in the folloing manner!
"1# 0he apprehending team having initial custody and control of the drugs shall, immediately after sei&ure and confiscation, physically inventory
and photograph the same in the presence of the accused or the person?s from hom such items ere confiscated and?or sei&ed, or his?her
representative or counsel, a representative from the media and the Cepartment of Iustice "C6I#, and any elected public official ho shall be
re;uired to sign the copies of the inventory and be given a copy thereof%
"2# Within tenty:four "2)# hours upon confiscation?sei&ure of dangerous drugs, plant sources of dangerous drugs, controlled precursors and
essential chemicals, as ell as instruments?paraphernalia and?or laboratory e;uipment, the same shall be submitted to the $CD/ Forensic
2aboratory for a ;ualitative and ;uantitative e1amination%
"(# / certification of the forensic laboratory e1amination results, hich shall be done under oath by the forensic laboratory e1aminer, shall be
issued ithin tenty:four "2)# hours after the receipt of the subject item?s! $rovided, 0hat hen the volume of the dangerous drugs, plant sources
of dangerous drugs, and controlled precursors and essential chemicals does not allo the completion of testing ithin the time frame, a partial
laboratory e1amination report shall be provisionally issued stating therein the ;uantities of dangerous drugs still to be e1amined by the forensic
laboratory! $rovided, hoever, 0hat a final certification shall be issued on the completed forensic laboratory e1amination on the same ithin the
ne1t tenty:four "2)# hours%
")# /fter the filing of the criminal case, the 9ourt shall, ithin seventy:to "72# hours, conduct an ocular inspection of the confiscated, sei&ed
and?or surrendered dangerous drugs, plant sources of dangerous drugs, and controlled precursors and essential chemicals, including the
instruments?paraphernalia and?or laboratory e;uipment, and through the $CD/ shall ithin tenty:four "2)# hours thereafter proceed ith the
destruction or burning of the same, in the presence of the accused or the person?s from hom such items ere confiscated and?or sei&ed, or
his?her representative or counsel, a representative from the media and the C6I, civil society groups and any elected public official. 0he >oard
shall dra up the guidelines on the manner of proper disposition and destruction of such item?s hich shall be borne by the offender! $rovided,
0hat those item?s of laful commerce, as determined by the >oard, shall be donated, used or recycled for legitimate purposes! $rovided, further,
0hat a representative sample, duly eighed and recorded is retained%
"*# 0he >oard shall then issue a sorn certification as to the fact of destruction or burning of the subject item?s hich, together ith the
representative sample?s in the custody of the $CD/, shall be submitted to the court having jurisdiction over the case. <n all instances, the
representative sample?s shall be 'ept to a minimum ;uantity as determined by the >oard%
"+# 0he alleged offender or his?her representative or counsel shall be alloed to personally observe all of the above proceedings and his?her
presence shall not constitute an admission of guilt. <n case the said offender or accused refuses or fails to appoint a representative after due notice
in riting to the accused or his?her counsel ithin seventy:to "72# hours before the actual burning or destruction of the evidence in ;uestion, the
Secretary of Iustice shall appoint a member of the public attorneyKs office to represent the former%
"7# /fter the promulgation and judgment in the criminal case herein the representative sample?s as presented as evidence in court, the trial
prosecutor shall inform the >oard of the final termination of the case and, in turn, shall re;uest the court for leave to turn over the said
representative sample?s to the $CD/ for proper disposition and destruction ithin tenty:four "2)# hours from receipt of the same% and
",# 0ransitory $rovision! a# Within tenty:four "2)# hours from the effectivity of this /ct, dangerous drugs defined herein hich are presently in
possession of la enforcement agencies shall, ith leave of court, be burned or destroyed, in the presence of representatives of the 9ourt, C6I,
Cepartment of Bealth "C6B# and the accused?and or his?her counsel, and, b# $ending the organi&ation of the $CD/, the custody, disposition, and
burning or destruction of sei&ed?surrendered dangerous drugs provided under this Section shall be implemented by the C6B.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.7
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Sec. 1;. 0otion to quash a search warrant or to suppress evidence; where to file. H A &otion to 3u%!$ %
!e%rc$ #%rr%nt %nDor to !u""re!! e.ience o)t%ine t$ere)' &%' )e (i-e in %n %cte u"on on-' )'
t$e court #$ere t$e %ction $%! )een in!titute. I( no cri&in%- %ction $%! )een in!titute, t$e &otion
&%' )e (i-e in %n re!o-.e )' t$e court t$%t i!!ue !e%rc$ #%rr%nt. Ho#e.er, i( !uc$ court (%i-e to
re!o-.e t$e &otion %n % cri&in%- c%!e i! !u)!e3uent-' (i-e in %not$er court, t$e &otion !$%-- )e
re!o-.e )' t$e -%tter court.
Motion to $%as+: -e'ore t+e implementation o' t+e searc+ warrant
Motion to s%ppress: a'ter implementation and -e'ore presentation in co%rt
4+ere to 'ile:
o Co%rt t+at iss%ed t+e warrant
i' t+at co%rt 'ails to act on it, t+en in t+e co%rt w+ere t+e criminal case is pending
RULE 187 4 PROVISIONAL REMEDIES IN CRIMINAL CASES

Section 1. &vaila!ility of provisional remedies. H T$e "ro.i!ion%- re&eie! in ci.i- %ction!, in!o(%r %!
t$e' %re %""-ic%)-e, &%' )e %.%i-e o( in connection #it$ t$e ci.i- %ction ee&e in!titute #it$ t$e
cri&in%- %ction.
Sec. 8. &ttachment. H =$en t$e ci.i- %ction i! "ro"er-' in!titute in t$e cri&in%- %ction %! "ro.ie in
Ru-e 111, t$e o((ene "%rt' &%' $%.e t$e "ro"ert' o( t$e %ccu!e %tt%c$e %! !ecurit' (or t$e
!%ti!(%ction o( %n' *u+&ent t$%t &%' )e reco.ere (ro& t$e %ccu!e in t$e (o--o#in+ c%!e!/
0%1 =$en t$e %ccu!e i! %)out to %)!con (ro& t$e P$i-i""ine!5
0)1 =$en t$e cri&in%- %ction i! )%!e on % c-%i& (or &one' or "ro"ert' e&)e66-e or (r%uu-ent-'
&i!%""-ie or con.erte to t$e u!e o( t$e %ccu!e #$o i! % "u)-ic o((icer, o((icer o( % cor"or%tion,
%ttorne', (%ctor, )ro7er, %+ent or c-er7, in t$e cour!e o( $i! e&"-o'&ent %! !uc$, or )' %n' ot$er
"er!on in % (iuci%r' c%"%cit', or (or % #i--(u- .io-%tion o( ut'5
0c1 =$en t$e %ccu!e $%! conce%-e, re&o.e, or i!"o!e o( $i! "ro"ert', or i! %)out to o !o5 %n
01 =$en t$e %ccu!e re!ie! out!ie t$e P$i-i""ine!.
(R: Provisional remedies in civil proced%re are applica-le to criminal proced%re*
o 01C0P#:
Replevin since it can only -e 'iled -e'ore an answer &and t+ere,s no answer in
crimpro)
(ro%nds 'or attac+ment:
o Acc%sed is a-o%t to a-scond
o Acc%sed concealed, removed, or disposed o' +is property &or is a-o%t to do so)
o Claim 'or money or property t+at +as -een em-e..led wit+ a-%se o' tr%st &esta'a)
o Acc%sed reside o%tside t+e P+ilippines
Attac+ment can -e availed o' w+en t+e civil action is properly instit%ted in t+e criminal action
#+anks 'or %sing t+e reviewer= Please pay it 'orward*
4ames #:!)#!
Consider it ,ure &oy, my brothers and sisters, whenever you face trials of many +inds, because
you +now that the testin1 of your faith ,roduces ,erseverance. et ,erseverance finish its wor+ so
that you may be mature and com,lete, not lac+in1 anythin1. ;f any of you lac+s wisdom, you
should as+ God, who 1ives 1enerously to all without findin1 fault, and it will be 1iven to you. 6ut
when you as+, you must believe and not doubt, because the one who doubts is li+e a wave of the
sea, blown and tossed by the wind. That ,erson should not e*,ect to receive anythin1 from the
ord. Such a ,erson is double)minded and unstable in all they do.
6elievers in humble circumstances ou1ht to ta+e ,ride in their hi1h ,osition. 6ut the rich should
ta+e ,ride in their humiliation<since they will ,ass away li+e a wild flower. =or the sun rises with
scorchin1 heat and withers the ,lant> its blossom falls and its beauty is destroyed. ;n the same
way, the rich will fade away even while they 1o about their business.
6lessed is the one who ,erseveres under trial because, havin1 stood the test, that ,erson will
receive the crown of life that the ord has ,romised to those who love him.
Let,s all keep 'ig+ting t+e good 'ig+t, 2atc+ !"*
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.,
a m + d g
Remedial Law Review: Prov Rem, SCA, and Crimpro
Ad ma&orem 0ei 1loriam.
Mickey Ingles
4C Ateneo Law !"
Atty #ran$%il &and some st%'' 'rom Atty (%evarra)
1.-