You are on page 1of 39

I.

Regulatory Affairs
REGULATORY AFFAIRS
Various laws and ethics govern pharmacy operations. While the laws are the legal framework within which a
pharmacy and its personnel can operate, ethics are professional regulations, which govern a pharmacist in
operating a pharmacy.
This module highlights the various legal compulsions that are binding upon pharmacists with regard to the
various categories of medicines, handling of prescriptions, dispensing, keeping records, and operating in this
framework by implementing Good Pharmacy Practice.
AIMS OF THIS MODULE:
To discuss the various legal aspects/ regulatory affairs related to dispensing in
community pharmacy practice.
To illustrate the need to adhere to the laws.
OBJECTIVES:
By the end of this module, pharmacists will be able to describe
The laws related to pharmacy practice in India.
The importance of adhering to these laws.
Different categories of medicines
How to tackle emergency supplies.
Other legal aspects of dispensing
This module has been grouped into the following sections to allow the free and easy flow of information.
1. Laws related to Community Pharmacy
1.1 The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules, 1945
1.2 The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act and Rules, 1985.
1.3 Drugs Price Control Order, 1995
1.4 Consumer Protection Act, 1986
1.5 Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods Act, 1992
1.6 Drugs and Magic Remedies Act and Rules, 1954.
1.7 Prevention of Food and Adulteration Act, 1954.
2. Code of ethics
3. Legal aspects in the dispensing process
3.1 Legality and authenticity of the prescription
a) Doctor's details
- 1 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
b) Patients details
c) Medicine details
d) Other details
i) Date
ii) Refill information
iii) Doctor's signature
3.2 Details of medicines and their legal requirements
A. Schedules or categories of drugs
a) Schedule H
b) Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
c) Schedule X
d) Schedule C and C (I)
e) Schedule G
f) Schedule K
g) Schedule J
h) Schedule P and P (I)
i) Schedule Y
B. OTC Medicines
C. New Drug
D. Veterinary medicines
E. Brand substitution and bio-equivalence
F. Indian systems of medicine and homoeopathy (ISM and H)
G. Physician samples and ESIC medicines
3.3 Emergency supply of prescription medicines
3.4 Record keeping
(i) Prescription Register
(ii) Cash Memos
(iii) Purchase Bills and Register
(iv) Display of Licenses
(v) Display of Registration Certificate
4. Presence of a pharmacist
5. Other aspects
1. LAWS RELATED TO COMMUNITY PHARMACY
The legal aspects related to the retail purchasing, stocking and selling or dispensing products/ medicines in a
pharmacy are prescribed and governed by various laws:
The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules, 1945.
- 2 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act and Rules, 1985.
Drugs Price Control Order, 1995.
Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods Act, 1992.
Drugs and Magic Remedies Act and Rules, 1954.
Prevention of Food and Adulteration Act, 1954.
These Acts have been devised because purchasing, stocking and dispensing the right medicines directly
affect a patient's treatment or health. A slight error could become a matter of life and death for the patient. All
pharmacists and other staff must thus ensure that the entire pharmacy operates within the legal framework of
these laws.
Need to adhere to laws
Adhering to laws is essential for providing optimum health care by minimizing errors. Thus, carrying out
duties according to the laws highlights professionalism, and wins the respect and confidence of the public/ or
of clients.
Laws regulate and lay down standards of conduct for the pharmacy trade/ profession. Legislation ensures that
the patients receive drugs of required quality, tested and evaluated for safety as well as efficacy for the
intended use.
1.1 The Drugs And Cosmetics Act, 1940, And Rules, 1945
The Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940, was enacted to regulate the import, manufacture, sale and distribution of
drugs and cosmetics. The Act includes laws governing the setting up and operation of a pharmacy.
The emphasis of the Act is on self-regulation, but it can also be an effective tool in the hands of the regulatory
agencies for quality management through licensing, periodic inspections to assess the extent of compliance,
and initiating steps to continuously enhance the degree of compliance.
The Act intends to:
1. Prevent manufacture and distribution of substandard drugs.
2. Control the manufacture, sale and distribution of drugs and ensure standard and quality drugs.
3. Monitor the licenses of premises from which medicines are sold/ distributed.
4. Bring cosmetics in its purview, to regulate their import, manufacture, distribution and sale.
1.2 Narcotic Drugs And Psychotropic Substances Act And Rules, 1985
This Act, has been enacted:
- 3 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
To consolidate and amend the law relating to narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,
To make stringent provisions for the control and regulation of operations relating to narcotic drugs
and psychotropic substances,
To provide for the forfeiture of property derived from, or used in, illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and
psychotropic substances,
To implement the provisions of the International Convention on narcotic drugs and psychotropic
substances, and for matters connected therewith.
1.3 Drugs (Prices Control) Order, 1995
The Drugs Prices Control Order, 1995, is an order that lays down rules with respect to the fixation of prices
of bulk drugs and formulations.
The Order covers details like
Fixation of maximum sales prices of bulk drugs
Calculation of retail price of formulations
Fixation of retail price and ceiling price of scheduled formulations
Maintenance of records
Penalties for contravention of provision of the Order
Other details
The Drugs Price Control Order controls the prices of medicines, trying to make them available at fair
prices.
1.4 The Consumer Protection Act, 1986
The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, is a milestone in the history of the socio-economic legislation in the
country. It is one of the most progressive and comprehensive pieces of legislation enacted for the protection of
consumers.
The main objective of the Act is to provide better protection of the consumers.
The Act intends to provide simple, speedy and extensive redress of the consumer's grievances.
The Act enshrines certain rights of the consumers and provides for the setting up of Consumer
Protection Councils in the Centre and the states. The objective of these Consumer Protection Councils
will be to promote and protect the rights of the consumers.
The salient features of the Act are summed up as under:
The Act applies to all goods and services unless specifically exempted by the Central Government.
Since a pharmacy provides goods and services, it is also covered under this Act.
It covers all the sectors whether private, public or cooperative.
- 4 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
The provisions of the Act are compensatory in nature.
It enshrines the following rights of the consumers:
i. The right to be protected against the marketing of goods, which are hazardous to life and property.
ii. The right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods
so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices.
iii. The right to be assured, wherever possible, access to a variety of goods at competitive prices
iv. The right to be heard and to be assured that the consumers interests will receive due
consideration at appropriate forums.
v. The right to seek redress against unfair trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of
consumers, and
vi. The right to consumer education.
1.5 The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles And Infant Foods (Regulation Of Production,
Supply And Distribution) Act, 1992
This Act provides for the regulation of production, supply and distribution of infant milk substitutes, feeding
bottles and infant foods with a view to protect and promote breastfeeding and ensure the proper use of infant
foods. Under this Act, Health care system means an institution or organization engaged, either directly or
indirectly, in health care for mothers, infants or pregnant women, and includes health workers in private
practice, in a pharmacy, in a drug store and any association of health workers
According to this Act, no pharmacy should :-
1. Advertise, or take part in the publication of any advertisement, for the distribution, sale or supply of
infant milk substitutes, infant foods or feeding bottles.
2. Give an impression or create a belief in any manner that feeding of infant milk substitutes and infant
foods are equivalent to, or better than, mother's milk.
3. Take part in the promotion of infant milk substitutes, infant foods or feeding bottles.
4. Supply or distribute samples of infant milk substitutes or feeding bottles or infant food gifts of utensils
or other articles.
5. Offer inducement of any other kind.
6. Use any health care system for displaying placards or posters relating to, or for the distribution of,
materials for the purpose of promoting the use or sale of infant milk substitutes, infant foods or
feeding bottles.
7. Demonstrate feeding with infant milk substitutes or infant foods to a mother of an infant or to any
member of her family, except through a health worker. The health worker must clearly explain to the
mother or to another member, the hazards of improper use of infant milk substitutes, infant foods or
feeding bottles.
8. Fix the remuneration of any employee or give any commission to such employee on the basis of the
volume of sale of such substitutes or bottles made by such employees.
- 5 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
9. Sell or otherwise distribute any infant milk substitute, infant foods and feeding bottles unless they
conform to prescribed standards.
1.6 The Drugs And Magic Remedies (objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954
This Act is enacted with a view to prevent objectionable and misleading advertisements in order to discourage
self medication and self treatment, especially with regard to certain diseases of serious nature listed in the Act
that can have a deleterious effect on the health of the community, and may affect the well being of the people.
.
The Drugs and Magic Remedies Act prohibits a person, from taking part in the publication of any
advertisement referring to any drug which suggests the use of the drug for:
a. Procurement of miscarriage of women, or prevention of conception in women.
b. Maintenance or improvement of the capacity of human beings for sexual pleasure.
c. The correction of menstrual disorder in women.
d. The diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of any venereal disease.
This Act prohibits directly or indirectly giving a false impression regarding the true character of the drug,
making a false claim for it, or conveying any false or misleading information about it.
1.7 Prevention Of Food And Adulteration Act 1954
The Act makes provision for the prevention of adulteration of food.
The Prevention of Food and Adulteration Act is a social welfare legislation enacted to curb the widely spread
evil of adulteration of food products endangering national health and human life.
The Act covers details including
General provisions as to food.
Analysis of food.
Public analysts and inspectors
Packing and labeling of foods
Prohibition and regulation of sales
Additives present
Other details
2. CODE OF ETHICS
Pharmacists are also bound by a Code of Ethics, generally laid down by the professional body, that regulates
the profession in that particular state/country. In India, the Code of Ethics for the pharmacy profession is laid
down by the Pharmacy Council of India. These ethics are enclosed as Annexure III.
- 6 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
A Code of Ethics is a carefully formulated system of principles or rules of practice for the guidance of
the members of the profession. It outlines the rules or the principles to be observed by the pharmacist
while dealing with the job, with the public, with his fellow pharmacists and with other health
professionals.
Standards of professional conduct for the pharmacy profession are necessary in the public interest to ensure
efficient pharmaceutical service. The pharmacist is responsible for safeguarding the health of the public and
should keep this in mind while handling, selling, distributing and dispensing medicines and related products.
Pharmacists should observe both, laws and ethical principles to maintain the standard of their profession.
3. LEGAL ASPECTS IN THE DISPENSING PROCESS
In this section, we shall consider the different aspects, concerning allopathic medicines. (Medicines of other
systems of medicine are dealt with in section 3.2)
3.1 Legality and Authenticity of a Prescription.
A Prescription is a very important, legal document, required at all stages of dispensing of prescribed
medicines. A prescription is said to be legal and complete when it is written by a Registered Medical
Practitioner (R.M.P) * and contains all the essential information, with regard to parts of prescription.
According to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, a prescription should:
Be in writing and be signed by the Registered Medical Practitioner (R.M.P) with his usual signature and
be dated by him. (In today's advanced world, a typed or computer printed prescription may be accepted,
provided it is personally signed with usual signature and dated by the prescriber)
Specify the name and address of the person for whose treatment it is given, (or the name and address of
the owner of the animal if the drug is meant for veterinary use).
Indicate the total amount of the medicine to be supplied and the doses to be taken.
- 7 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
CHECKLIST
Pharmacists are expected to verify the legality, genuineness and completeness of a prescription before
dispensing it. With respect to the various parts of a prescription, the following aspects must be looked at.
( a) Doctor's details: The prescription must be prescribed by a R.M.P.
*Definition of a R.M.P. :
The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945, define a R.M.P as a person
a) Holding a qualification granted by an authority specified or notified under Indian Medical
Degrees Act 1916 (Schedule 3), or specified in the schedules to the Indian Medical Council
Act, 1956, or
b) Registered or eligible for registration in a medical register of a State meant for the registration of
persons practicing the modern scientific systems of medicines (excluding Homoeopathic system
of medicine).
c) Registered in a medical register (other than for Homoeopathic Practitioners) of a state, who
although not falling within a) and b) is declared by a general or specified order made by the State
Government. in this behalf as a person practicing the modern scientific system of medicine for the
purpose of this Act, or
d) Registered or eligible for registration in the register of dentists for a state under the Dentists Act,
1948, or
e) Who is engaged in the practice of veterinary medicine, and who possesses qualifications approved
by the State Government.
In simple terms, a R.M.P. means an allopathic doctor with a valid medicine degree
(M.B.B.S) to practice the allopathic system of medicine, or a dentist (B.D.S. -
Bachelor of Dental Sciences) or a veterinary doctor (B.V.Sc - Bachelor of Veterinary
Sciences) with qualifications approved by the State Government, the respective
Medical Council, and registered in the State Medical Register in which he practices &
having a registration number.
BE CAREFUL
The connotation/abbreviation 'R.M.P.' is often a misnomer, and often misused by quacks. Some
unrecognized/fake universities offer fake certificates/degrees, by taking certain fees. Such degrees are
often given the connotation 'R.M.P.(which could mean anything, e.g. Rural Medical Practitioner) and
also a registration number (which is fake/ illegal).
- 8 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
Cross prescribing As per the Supreme Court judgement, a medical practitioner from one system of
medicine can neither practice nor prescribe medicines from another system of medicine. Thus, by law,
an Ayurvedic or Homoeopathic doctor cannot prescribe allopathic medicines, and an Allopathic doctor
cannot prescribe Ayurvedic or Homoeopathic medicines.
Therefore, by law, a pharmacist cannot honour/ dispense a medicine/ prescription for allopathic medicines,
written by a Homoeopathic, Ayurvedic, Siddha, or Unani practitioner.
Activity
Organize a debate between fellow pharmacists and doctors on 'Cross-prescribing' in the context of
different systems of medicines co-existing in India.
- 9 -

Dr. Kiran Shah

M.B.B.S

Reg.No. MMC 2314

Dr. Kiran Shah

M.B.B.S


Doctors


Doctors
These are details that
confirm that the doctor is
authorized to prescribe. It
rules out the possibility of a
fake prescription prescribed
by an unauthorized person.

3

1

WHAT TO CHECK?
The pharmacist should
CHECK the

Incomplete
information
Correct way


Doctors

2

Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
Also check
The doctor's address, and telephone numbers further help to assess the authenticity, and also aids to track the
doctor if a clarification is needed.
These details about the doctor are generally printed on the prescription (and called as a 'Prescription Blank')
The final confirmation about the authenticity of the prescription comes from the doctor's handwriting. A
prescription of a doctor, which repeatedly comes to the pharmacy, is generally recognized by the pharmacist
and other salespersons, by regular reading and experience receiving the same handwriting.
*Important BE ALERT!!
Please keep a watch/ check that people are not misusing prescription blanks that may have somehow
fallen into their hands. Addicts often try to steal prescription blanks and write the prescription
themselves to buy habit-forming drugs. If you come across such a prescription, immediately
telephone the concerned doctor and inform him/her about the misuse of his/ her prescription blank.
The doctor can then be more careful about his/ her blanks.

Patients full
Patients age/
Patients
This ensures that the right patient receives
the prescribed medicines. It also makes it
easier when the doctors opinion has to
be asked over the phone. It is a
requirement by law, and also needs to
be entered on the bill.
This is not mandatory, but it is a useful
piece of information. It is important to
assess the correctness of dose and type
of dosage form. This may be especially
important in pediatric and geriatric
patients.
This is essential for follow-up or to get
in touch with the patient in case of
prescribing or dispensing errors.
Besides, it is a legal requirement.
Patients sex
It is important to assess the
appropriateness for the patient (e.g.
pregnancy, breastfeeding)
(b)Patient's details:
Check the prescription for: -
- 10 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
* If the prescription is for an animal, the name of the animal is not required but the name and the
address of the owner should be stated on the prescription. However, all veterinary prescriptions should
include the type of animal and, ideally, the weight of the animal.
(c) Medicine details: - The pharmacist should give special attention to the details of the prescribed
medicines to ensure accurate dispensing.
(* This aspect is dealt with in detail in the Module on 'Dispensing')
If you notice that any of the medicine details such as the strength have been overwritten, or are
illegible or ambiguous, do not dispense without contacting the doctor.
If you notice that the quantity of medicines has been overwritten, be very careful because the patient
may himself have made the change - with the intention of purchasing more than the prescribed
quantity. This is especially a possibility in case of medicines of misuse/abuse.
What should you check?
q Name of the medicine - either brand or generic (in case of doubt, or illegible handwriting always
consult a senior pharmacist to avoid dispensing the wrong medicine due to reading error. If the name
is not legible, or if you have a doubt, confirm with the doctor over the phone).
q Strength or potency of the medicine (a drug may be available in more than one strength) - If the
strength is illegible confirm with the doctor. If the strength is not written, it may be necessary to ask
Checklist:

For,
Mrs. Gupta

For,

Mrs. Rachana Gupta F/36 yrs. Wt. 56 kg

H. No. 23/D, Behind Peerless Hospital, Kolkatta.

Correct way
Incorrect/
insufficient
information

Capsules. Omez 20mg............ (10)
100 x 10 days
Take 1 capsule 1 hour before breakfast for 10 days

- 11 -
Tel. No. 26262220
For,
Dog (Rocky) of
Anand Verma,
1/12, Lodhi Street, Delhi.


Breed : Alsation
24 kg.
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
the doctor just in case an additional strength has been launched in the market and the pharmacist is
not aware of it).
q Dosage form (a drug could be available in the form of tablets, liquids, capsules, etc and it is important
to confirm with the doctor which dosage form has been prescribed)
q Dosage (the dosage prescribed varies for each individual depending on the patient's age, weight and
severity of the condition. The dosage should be confirmed with the doctor if not written or not
legible).
q Dosing instructions (the instructions as to how and at what times of the day the medicines should be
administered)
q Total quantity (the total quantity mentioned indicates what quantity has to be dispensed. It also gives
an idea of the duration of therapy that has been prescribed, and a clear idea of the dosage regimen).
* The pharmacist should use and analyze the above information provided in the prescription to provide
information and counseling to the patient, and to ensure compliance.
Activity : Carefully scrutinize 10 prescriptions received by you, and check whether all the required
details about the prescribed medicines are mentioned.
(d) Other details: -

i. Date: -
The prescription should be dated by the prescriber. The pharmacist should CHECK the date when the
medicines were prescribed, as the date will mark the validity of the prescription. If the date indicates that the
prescription is not fresh (not recently dated) and there is nothing mentioned about refill, then the pharmacist
should use his personal judgement and reasoning to decide whether the prescription can be dispensed,
depending on the medicines prescribed and the time that has elapsed since the prescription was written. A
pharmacist, for example, may decide not to dispense an antibiotic prescription, which is not recently dated. In
such cases, the patient should be politely advised to seek a new prescription from the physician.
ii. Refill information: -
A prescription should be refilled only if the doctor writes specific instructions saying so.
Refill means getting the prescription dispensed (or filled) more than once by the pharmacist when so
specified by the physician on the prescription. The physician advises a refill when he/she judges that
the patient needs another course of the treatment after a particular/ specific interval of time.
A prescription in which drugs listed under Schedule H (and Schedule X) have been prescribed, should have
the refill information written by the doctor, stating whether the prescription has to be refilled or not (i.e.
whether the patient has to take the same quantity of medicine again). The refill information should indicate
the maximum number of times the prescription should be refilled and the intervals after which it should be
refilled.
- 12 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
CHECK the prescription :
Whether it is old, or recently dated
Is already dispensed, or
Whether there is any 'refill information' on it.
A prescription which bears/ contains no refilling instructions by the prescriber SHOULD BE
DISPENSED ONLY ONCE (SHOULD NOT BE DISPENSED MORE THAN ONCE)
Guidelines for refilling a prescription
By law, a person dispensing a prescription containing a drug specified in Schedule H (and Schedule X) should
follow the guidelines given below:
Pharmacists should refill prescriptions only when the doctor mentions refill information on the
prescription.
A prescription that does not contain refill information should not, by law, be dispensed more than
once.
Where refill information is mentioned, the prescription should be refilled only for the number of times
& at intervals specified on the prescription.
For this purpose, the pharmacist should make use of the 'Dispensed Stamp' to put on a prescription
once it is dispensed for the first time. This stamp indicates the name of the pharmacy that dispensed
the medicines, and the date on which they were dispensed.
If only a part of the prescription is dispensed, along with the 'Dispensed Stamp' the pharmacist should
write down the quantity dispensed against each medicine along with the date. The next time the
patient goes to any pharmacy to take the remaining quantity, the pharmacist can dispense the balance
quantity and mention the quantity dispensed.

- 13 - Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
I. Regulatory Affairs
Every time a prescription is refilled, the pharmacist should put a 'Dispensed stamp' and sign it along with the
date of refill.

Sample Rubber Stamp:

DISPENSED
ABC Pharmacy
Mapusa, Goa.
Date:
Signature of Pharmacist .


A Sample Dispensed Prescription: -

Dr. Armaan Shukla
MBBS, D.Ortho Reg.no. MMC 2314
Address: 12 Gharse Towers, M.G.Road, Mumb ai-4
Tel. no. 022-22242862

Date: 1/1/2005

For Mr L.M.Nayak Age 17 years
Address 2/1 Antop Hill, Mumbai - 18
Tel. No. 2842862

Rx

1. Tab. Valdecoxib 20mg . . (10)

DISPENSED
ABC Pharmacy
Date .2/1/05
Sign of pharmacist
- 14 -
sd/-
sd/-

Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE


I. Regulatory Affairs
In India, a typical commonplace situation occurs in pharmacies. Clients often do not buy the entire quantity of
medicines prescribed by the doctor due to various reasons.
A few reasons for not buying the entire quantity :
Financial constraints.
The doctor had changed the treatment half way last time, so this time the patient buys only half the
quantity - deciding to buy the rest later.
Fear of adverse effects.
Would like to try out a small quantity first
In such cases, the pharmacist should put down the quantity of the medicine dispensed, next to the
'DISPENSED' stamp. The quantity dispensed can also be written on the reverse side of prescription. Another
alternative is attaching the cash memo (which denotes the quantity purchased) to the prescription.
iii. Doctor's Signature: -
The signature of the RMP makes the prescription a legal document. This has to be in indelible ink, and in full,
so that the genuineness of the signature can be verified in case of any misuse or dispute.


A Sample complete prescription
- 15 -

Dr. A.B. Kumar
M.B.B.S Reg. no. 1650 (MMC)
Clinic Old Vaddo, Margao-Goa.
Tel. no.: 0832-2765434
Consultation timings 9.00 A.M to 1.00 P.M
4.00 P.M to 6.00 P.M

Date: 1/1/2005
For Tina Age 45 years
Add: Flat no. A-01, Plaza Complex, Margao-Goa
Tel: 0832-2765878

Rx

1. Tab. Alprax 0.5 mg. . . (10)

Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE


I. Regulatory Affairs
Activity
Go through the above prescription carefully, and point out if it is incomplete in any way.
Activity
Collect 5 prescriptions of doctors in your neighborhood, and check each of them for :
Validity
Legality
Completeness
Make a brief report of each, and discuss with other pharmacist colleagues in the neighborhood, and
find out how they handle incomplete prescriptions.


A Sample veterinary prescription
- 16 -
Dr. A.B. Kumar, B.V.Sc.

Reg. no. 1560
Clinic New Vaddem, Vasco, Goa
Tel. no.: 0832-2773854
Consultation timings - 4.00 P.M to 8.00 P.M

Date: 3/12/04
For Blacky (a dog) 6 months
Owner: Anup Mehta, 3/T, Sapna Gardens, Vasco

Rx

1. Praziquantel 50mg (1)

Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE


I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
If the prescription is found to be incomplete, or if the prescription is illegible, the pharmacist should contact
the doctor (usually on telephone) either to get the prescription completed or clarified.
A Prescription is an important legal document. The patient should understand the importance of bringing
a prescription along at every visit to the pharmacy. The pharmacist should play a major role in identifying
prescriptions that are not complete or not valid. A complete prescription makes the pharmacist's job
easier as it provides all the information to ensure delivery of the right medicines with the right advice.
3.2 Details of Medicines and their Legal Requirements
Prescription medicines and importance of adherence to laws
Prescription medicines are medicines that can be sold by retail on the prescription of a Registered Medical
Practioner only.
Strict adherence to the law is required in case of prescription medicines because :
Prescription medicines are serious medicines.
Self-medication of these medicines can be harmful.
Selling medicines without a prescription leads to massive misuse of medicines.
Patients begin buying medicines without a prescription, and the seriousness of prescription
medicines is lost.
Activity
1. Prepare a small pamphlet (for distribution to your clients) in your local language explaining in
simple terms, the importance of a prescription, and the need to buy prescription medicines only
against a valid prescription.
2. Design an attractive poster to put up in your pharmacy, explaining in a simple manner the
importance of bringing a prescription, and the seriousness of prescription medicines.

Allopathic
Schedule H Schedule X NDPS Schedule K OTC
Prescription
medicines
Non-prescription
medicines
MEDICINES
Veterinary
AYUSH
Ayurvedic, (Yoga), Unani,
Siddha and Homeopathy.
Schedule G
- 17 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
A) Schedules or categories of drugs
The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules thereunder classifies medicines into different schedules or
categories. Schedules are lists of drugs according to their condition of sale in the pharmacy. The various
schedules, and the drugs under them are listed in the appendices of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules.
a) Schedule H drugs
Schedule H drugs contains a list of drugs, that
Are prescription drugs, i.e. these can be sold only against the prescription of a R.M.P.
Can be sold only under the personal/direct supervision of a Pharmacist.
Can be stocked and sold to the client/patient only by a pharmacy/
chemists and druggists/ medical store holding a valid retail license.
Carry on the label a mandatory warning 'Schedule H Drug - Warning: To
be sold by retail on the prescription of a Registered Medical
Practitioner only.'
Have the symbol Rx conspicuously displayed on the left top corner of
the label and a red line across the left side.
Should be sold against a proper bill of sale. The proof/records of
purchase and sale of the medicines should be retained for a period of at
least 3 years.
Examples of a few drugs under Schedule H
Diclofenac Glimepiride
Amoxycillin Betamethasone
Atenolol Ibuprofen
Allopurinol Alprazolam
Activity: Prepare a list of Schedule H drugs, with a few brand names for each to be displayed or kept
handy in your pharmacy.
Ref: Drugs & Cosmetics Act & Rules
Prescription drugs are medicines that can help a patient when taken according to the doctor's
prescription but can cause considerable harm if misused. Pharmacists should therefore avoid
dispensing prescription medicines without a prescription except in case of an emergency, but always
exercising strict caution.
(Refer to 'Emergency Supply of prescription medicines' in the next section.)
If a Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) contains a non-prescription drug and a prescription drug then the
FDC automatically becomes a 'Prescription medicine'

H
- 18 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
b) Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS)
Substances and drugs coming under this Act are placed under following
categories
Controlled substances
Manufactured drugs
Narcotic drugs
Psychotropic substances
A pharmacy may obtain permission to stock drugs under the categories of
manufactured drugs (e.g. pethidine, paracodine) and can stock psychotropic
substances (e.g. alprazolam, diazepam).
Manufactured drugs
Manufactured drugs contains a list of drugs which :-
Are prescription drugs, i.e. these can be sold only against the prescription of a Registered Medical
Practitioner. Under no circumstances, should these drugs be dispensed without a prescription.
Can be sold only under the personal/direct supervision of a Pharmacist.
Can be stocked and sold to the client/patient only by a pharmacy/ chemists and druggists/ medical
store having a valid retail license.
All manufactured drugs are also included in Schedule H and therefore carry on the label a mandatory
warning ' Schedule H Drug Warning: To be sold by retail on the prescription of a Registered Medical
Practitioner only.'
Have the symbol NRx conspicuously displayed on the left top corner of the label
Should be sold against a proper bill of sale. The original prescription has to be defaced with a
dispensed stamp and retained by the pharmacist. The prescriptions and detailed records of
purchase and sale have to be maintained for a period of 3 years. Quarterly reports of purchase and
sale have to be submitted to the FDA.
Have to be stored under lock and key and the key must be kept with the Chief Pharmacist or
pharmacist in charge.
Have a potential for misuse and abuse and therefore should be carefully stored and carefully
dispensed.
Psychotropic substances
Psychotropic substances includes a list of drugs which :-
Are prescription drugs, i.e. these can be sold only against the prescription of a Registered Medical
Practitioner.

N
D
P
S
- 19 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Can be sold only under the personal/direct supervision of a Pharmacist.
Can be stocked and sold to the client/patient only by a pharmacy/ chemists and druggists/ medical
store having a valid retail license.
All the psychotropic substances are also included in Schedule H and therefore carry on the label a
mandatory warning ' Schedule H Drug. Warning: To be sold by retail on the prescription of a
Registered Medical Practitioner only.'
Have the symbol NRx conspicuously displayed on the left top corner of the label and a red line
across the left side.
Should be sold against a proper bill of sale. The proof/records of purchase and sale of the medicines
should be retained for a period of at least 3 years.
Activity: Prepare a list of drugs under NDPS Act along with a few brand names for each.
Ref: Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, NDPS Act
Guidelines for dealing with NDPS Drugs :
Purchase
Thoroughly check your invoice for correct Name and Address of Supplier, Drug License No, Sales
Tax No, quantity, batch number and expiry.
Purchase minimum quantity possible.
Do not accept these drugs from unauthorized persons or medical representatives or on challan, etc
Let the supply come from the authorized wholesaler only.
Do not accept these drugs as replacement for settlement of expiry or claims.
Sale
Insist on a valid prescription on letterhead with signature of doctor.
While preparing the bill write the complete name and address of the doctor and the patient with the
exact quantity of medicine dispensed, batch number, expiry date, etc.
After dispensing the prescription, put a 'DISPENSED' stamp.
DO NOT dispense more than the prescribed quantity.
Storage and records
Store all NDPS medicines safely and place them under the supervision of a qualified person or a
responsible person.
In case of theft or loss, immediately inform the Drug Authorities.
Maintain proper records of all sales and purchases for a period of three years.
Avoid home delivery of these medicines.
Do not accept any telephonic orders.
Never SUBSTITUTE such medicines. Contact the doctor in case of unavailability or any other
problem.
In case of any doubts, like huge quantity prescribed or a suspicious character with a bogus
- 20 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
prescription immediately contact and confirm with the doctor/ prescriber, OR POLITELY REFUSE
to dispense the prescription.
All expired/ damaged stock should be returned by filling in all the relevant details and obtaining
stamps/ signatures on the goods returned proforma. If sent by transport/ courier, maintain a copy of
the LR/RR or POD
Do not fall prey to evil designs of unscrupulous persons who would like to purchase huge quantities
without bills and are ready to pay a premium.
Psychotropic drugs are generally habit forming and could have adverse effects if taken without
proper care. It is, therefore advisable to be extra cautious while purchasing, storing and selling
such products.
Educate pharmacy personnel to be extra cautious while purchasing, storing and selling such
products.
Educate pharmacy personnel to follow the necessary guidelines given above, comply with the
rules and counsel the patient whilst dispensing the products.
c) Schedule X drugs:
Schedule X contains a list of drugs which :-
Need discretion while dispensing, and the pharmacist should ensure
that these drugs are not sold without a prescription.
Have a warning mentioned on the label 'Schedule X drug - Warning:
To be sold by retail on the prescription of a Registered Medical
Practitioner only.' The label will also have the symbol XRx in red,
and conspicuously displayed on the top left corner of the label.
After dispensing the drug, the pharmacist must
Stamp and retain the prescription.
Maintain a record of the purchase and sales of the drugs, and
Preserve it for a period of two years from the date of transaction
Examples of a few drugs under Schedule X
Amobarbital Barbital
Amphetamine Cyclobarbital
Dexamphetamine Glutethimide
Meprobamate Methylphenidate
Activity: Prepare a list of Schedule X drugs to be displayed in the
Pharmacy or kept handy.
Ref: Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940

X
- 21 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
d) Schedule C and C(1)
(i) Schedule C
The drugs under this schedule include biological and special products.
Examples of a few drugs under Schedule C
Toxins Insulin
Vaccines (parenteral) Ophthalmic preparations
Antibiotics (parenteral) Adrenaline
The drugs in Schedule C are also listed under Schedule H, and thus are prescription medicines. A proper bill
of sale has to be made against their sale. The proof/record of details of purchase and sale must be maintained
for a period of at least three years.
(ii) Schedule C (1)
The drugs under this schedule include other special products
Examples of a few drugs under Schedule C (1)
Fish Liver Oil and preparations containing Fish Liver Oil
Vaccines not in a form to be administered parenterally
Antibiotics and preparations thereof, not in a form to be administered parenterally
In vitro Blood Grouping Sera
Those medicines from this schedule listed in Schedule H are to be sold against the prescription of a R.M.P.,
and against a proper bill of sale.
The proof/record of details of purchase and sale must be maintained for a period of at least 3 years.
e) Schedule G
Medicines listed as schedule G medicines carry on the label a caution:
'Caution : It is dangerous to take this preparation except under
medical supervision.'
These can be sold without the prescription of a doctor/ R.M.P.
However, it is necessary to make a proper bill of sale.
Records of purchase and sale of these medicines must be maintained
for a period of two years.

G
- 22 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Examples of a few drugs under Schedule G
Pheniramine Chlorpheniramine
Cyclophosphamide Aminopterin
Daunorubicin Glibenclamide
Metformin Triprolidine
Activity:
Prepare a list of Schedule G drugs available in your pharmacy to be displayed in the pharmacy or kept
handy.
Ref: Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940
f) Schedule K
Schedule K specifies the extent and conditions of exemption for certain
classes of drugs. One of the clauses in Schedule K which is related to a
community pharmacy, is related to the sale of Household Remedies, namely

Aspirin tablets.
Paracetamol tablets.
Analgesic balms.
Antacid preparations.
Gripe Water for use of infants.
Inhalers, containing drugs for treatment of cold and nasal congestion.
The provisions of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, and the Rules there under state that the above mentioned
household remedies can be sold, stocked or exhibited for sale, or distributed by retail by dealers who do not
engage the services of a qualified person i.e. Pharmacist, by possessing a sales licence in Form 20A subject to
the following conditions :-
(a) The drugs are sold only in a village having a population of not more than one thousand persons, and
where there is no licensed dealer under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act,
(b) The drugs do not contain any substance specified in Schedules G, H or X.
g) Schedule J
Schedule J specifies the diseases and ailments, which a drug may not purport to prevent or cure or make
claims to prevent or cure.
It states that: No drug may purport or claim to prevent or cure or may convey to the intending user thereof
any idea that it may prevent or cure, one or more of the diseases or ailments specified in Schedule J.

K
- 23 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Some of the diseases and ailments listed under this schedule include:-
AIDS
Angina Pectoris
Fairness of skin
Improvement in height of children/ adults
Premature ageing
Sexual impotence
(The detailed list of 51 diseases and ailments can be found in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and
Rules)
h) Schedule P
Schedule P specifies the life period of drugs between the date of manufacture and date of expiry, which the
labeled potency period of the drug should not exceed under the condition of storage specified.
The Schedule includes antibiotics, vitamins, insulin preparations, normal human plasma, sera toxins and
toxoids, other vaccines, antitoxins and miscellaneous drugs.
The names of some drugs & their maximum shelf life period under this schedule are given below:
SCHEDULE P Life Period of Drugs
Name of the drug Period in months Conditions of storage
Adriamycin 30 In a cool place
Ampicillin 36 In a cool place
Cephalexin 24 In a cool place
Riboflavin 60 In a well-closed container,
protected from light, in a cool
place.
0
Insulin injection 24 At a temperature between 2 C -
0
8 C, must not be allowed to freeze.
- 24 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Schedule P-I
Schedule P-I specifies the pack sizes of certain drugs. It gives the names of drugs, along with the dosage form
and the pack size. No other pack size than the one listed is allowed to be marketed.
Examples of a few drugs under this schedule :-
SCHEDULE P-I - Pack Sizes of Drugs
Name of the Drug Dosage form Pack size
Albendazole Suspension 10 ml
Atenolol Tablets 14
Famotidine Tablets 14
Piperazine Granules 5 gm
Syrup 30 ml
Loxapine Oral liquid concentrate 15 ml
i) Schedule Y
Schedule Y specifies the requirements and guidelines for the import and/ or manufacture of a new drug.
The Schedule covers details like :-
Chemical and pharmaceutical information
Animal tests, toxicology and pharmacology
Clinical trials
Nature of trials
Permission for trials
Responsibility of sponsor/investigator
Each medicine is listed under a particular schedule for specific reasons. The label contains the
necessary warning / caution, to make the pharmacist alert while dispensing such listed drugs.
B) OTC Medicines
There is no separate provision for Over the Counter (OTC) medicines in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
Therefore, the drugs, which have not been included in any of the Schedules, may be considered as non-
prescription or OTC drugs.
OTC medicines are medicines that can be sold without the prescription of a Registered Medical Practitioner.
- 25 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
These can either be recommended by a pharmacist, or requested/ purchased by a client independently.
Since OTC medicines too can have adverse effects, pharmacists should assist clients in choosing/ selecting
the right OTC remedy for their ailment.
It is advisable for a pharmacy to purchase OTC medicines from a reliable source, against a proper bill, and
also record the sale along with batch number and expiry in a cash memo.
Examples of Non-prescription medicines
Paracetamol 500mg tablets
Calamine lotion
Chlorhexidine solution 5%
Lindane lotion 1%
Povidone iodine solution 5%/ ointment
Clotrimazole cream
Xylometazoline 0.1%
C) New Drugs
A drug or a Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) of 2 or more drugs or new drugs is said to be a 'New Drug' when :-
1) It is a new bulk drug substance of chemical, biological or biotechnological origin, and except during
local clinical trials, has not been used in the country to a significant extent, and not been recognized in
the country as safe and effective for the proposed claims.
2) A drug already approved by the licensing authority for certain claims, which is now proposed to be
marketed with modified or new claims - namely indications, dosage, dosage form (including
sustained release dosage form) and route of administration.
3) A fixed dose combination of two or more drugs, individually approved earlier for certain claims
which are now proposed to be combined for the first time in a ratio, or if the ratio of ingredients in an
already marketed combination is proposed to be changed with certain claims namely indications,
dosage, dosage form (including sustained release dosage form) and route of administration.
In India, a new drug shall continue to be considered as a new drug for a period of four years from the
date of its first approval or its inclusion in the Indian Pharmacopoeia whichever is earlier. After 4
years, the drug as per latest decision of the DTAB (Drugs Technical Advisory Board) will be put in one
of the schedules, (usually Schedule H).
- 26 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
D) Veterinary Medicines :
The medicines for treatment of animals are to be labeled with the words Not for human use- for
treatment of animals only and shall be stored :-
In a cupboard or drawer reserved solely for the storage of veterinary drugs, and
In a part of the premises separated from the remainder of the premises to which customers are
not permitted to have access.
The sale of veterinary medicines requires a drug license to sell medicines, and the sale should be
carried out under the direct supervision of a registered pharmacist.
E) Brand Substitution and Bioequivalence
The same generic drug may be marketed by different pharmaceutical companies,
under different brand names. For example Atorva and TG TOR are brand names
used by different companies, for the same drug Atorvastatin Calcium.
If a physician prescribes a particular brand of a drug, and the pharmacy substitutes
(dispenses) it with another brand of the same drug, it is called brand substitution.
Reasons why a pharmacy may indulge in brand substitution
1. No stock in the shelves.
2. Shortage of the brand in the market.
3. The pharmacy tries to push a particular brand because it has excess stocks, or it gives more profits.
4. A pharmacy cannot afford to stock all brands in the market due to space or financial limitations.
Bioequivalence evaluation
While evaluating bioavailability or bioequivalence, two things are looked at how much of the
drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, and how fast.
One brand must match the standard brand name drug in bioavailability of the drug closely, but it need
not be identical. That is because two formulations of the same drug can vary slightly in their
absorption and still work equally well in the body.
Bioavailability: is an absolute term that indicates measurement of both, the true rate, and total
amount (extent) of drug that reaches the general circulation from an administered dosage form.
Bioequivalence: indicates that a drug in two or more similar dosage forms reaches the general
circulation at the same relative rate and the same relative extent, i.e. that the plasma
(blood/serum) level profiles of the drug obtained using the 2 dosage forms are, within reason,
'super imposable.
In case of drugs with a Narrow Therapeutic Index*, the slight decrease or increase in blood
- 27 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
levels due to change in the brand could result in ineffective therapy or toxic effects respectively.
It is very essential NOT to do brand substitution for such drugs. Doctors may authorize brand
substitution incase the prescribed brand is not available, and keep a check on the effect of the
new drug on the patient.
In patients on long-term therapy e.g. epilepsy, hypertension etc., fluctuations in blood levels of
the drug due to shift in brands could cause ineffective control of condition, or toxicity.
Example
Patient is taking theophylline Brand A His asthma is under control, and he
for a couple of months does not experience adverse effects
Patient is forced to take theophylline Brand B, The patient's asthma remains in control,
because Brand A is not available. however he experiences adverse effects
Brand B is more bioavailable than Brand A (tachycardia, palpitations, nausea and gastro
intestinal disturbances).
Patient is forced to take Brand C because Brand A Patient does not experience adverse effects,
is not available. Brand C is less bioavailable but he gets an attack of asthma, because
than Brand A. sufficient theophylline levels were not
maintained in the blood.
*Narrow therapeutic index drugs are a critical class of drugs for which even slight decrease in blood
levels may result in ineffective therapy, while slight increase in blood level may result in toxic effects.
For these drugs, relatively small changes in systemic concentration lead to marked changes in
pharmacodynamic response. E.g. Theophylline, phenytoin, digoxin
Guidelines:
According to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act,
When the doctor specifies the brand name on the prescription, the pharmacist should dispense the same brand
(i.e. brand substitution is not permitted).
In case of non-availability of the brand, the prescriber may be contacted by the pharmacist or the
patient, seeking an alternate brand.
The code of ethics for pharmacists does not permit brand substitution
F) ISM and H (Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy) :
In India, pharmacies also deal with other systems of medicines, other than allopathic (or modern system of
medicine). The Department of AYUSH (Ayurvedic, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and
- 28 -

I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Homoeopathy), formerly known as the department of ISM and H (Indian System of Medicines and
Homoeopathy), under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, recognizes only the following systems of
medicine :-
A- Ayurvedic
Y- Yoga and Naturopathy
U- Unani
S- Siddha
H- Homoeopathy
(Other systems of medicine, e.g. Pranic healing, Reiki, Magnetotherapy, Acupressure, Acupuncture, etc are
not recognized by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India)
Ayurvedic, Siddha or Unani drug includes all medicines intended for internal or external use for or in the
diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease or disorder in human beings or animals, and
manufactured exclusively in accordance with the formulae described in, the authoritative books of
Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems specified in the First Schedule.
Patent or proprietary medicine (in relation to Ayurvedic, Siddha or Unani Tibb systems of medicine)
means:
'All formulations containing only such ingredients mentioned in the formulae described in the authoritative
books of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani systems specified in the First Schedule, but does not include a
medicine which is administered by parenteral route and also a formulation included in the specified
authoritative books
The First Schedule and the Second Schedule of The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
The First Schedule includes the standard reference books available for the Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani
Tibb systems
The Second Schedule gives the standards to be complied with by imported drugs and by drugs manufactured
for sale, stocked or exhibited for sale or distributed.
Manufacture of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medicines requires a manufacturing drug license (to be
taken from the state FDA), and these have to be manufactured in accordance with the standards prescribed
under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, and the second Schedule.
Sale of Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani Drugs: As per laws, there is no drug license/ permission required to
sell/ distribute Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medicines. These medicines can, therefore, be stocked and sold
by any person, shop, outlet, etc, and not necessarily in a pharmacy. Such persons can however, sell, stock or
exhibit or offer for sale or distribute only those Ayurvedic, Siddha or Unani medicines that have been
manufactured according to the provisions of the Act.
Expiry dates of Ayurvedic medicines:
Ancient Ayurvedic texts and Indian Pharmacopoeia (Ayurvedic), which are the basis for the manufacture of
- 29 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
classical Ayurvedic medicines, specify the expiry date for various categories of medicines. In spite of this,
you may notice that most Ayurvedic medicines do not have any expiry date mentioned on the label. This is
because, it is not yet mandatory to mention the expiry date on the label. However this does not imply that
these medicines can be used indefinitely. There is a specific time period within which they can be used.
Homoeopathic medicines include any drug which is recorded in Homoeopathic provings, or the therapeutic
efficacy of which has been established through long clinical experience as recorded in the authoritative
Homoeopathic literature of India and abroad and which is prepared according to the techniques of
Homoeopathic pharmacy, and covers combination of ingredients of such Homoeopathic medicines, but does
not include a medicine which is administered by parenteral route.
Sale of Homoeopathic medicines
1. It is compulsory to obtain a license from the State Drug Licensing Authority to stock and sell
Homeopathic medicines.
2. The license shall be displayed in a prominent place in a part of the premises open to the public.
3. Premises where homoeopathic medicines are stocked for sale should be maintained in a clean
condition.
4. The sale of homoeopathic medicines is conducted under the supervision of a person, capable of
dealing with homoeopathic medicines.
5. Records of purchase and sale of Homoeopathic medicines containing alcohol should be maintained.
G) Physician samples, ESIC medicines
A pharmacy SHOULD NOT stock or sell:
A drug intended for distribution to the medical profession as free sample which bears a label on the container
with the words Physician's Sample, Not For Sale
OR
A drug meant for consumption by the Employees State Insurance Corporation, the Central Government
Health Scheme, the Government Medical Stores Depots, the Armed Forces Medical Stores or other
Government institutions, which bears a distinguishing mark or any inscription on the drug or on the label
affixed to the container thereof indicating this purpose shall be sold or stocked by the licensee on the
premises.
This rule shall not be applicable to licensees who have been appointed as approved chemists, by the
State Government in writing, under the Employees State Insurance Scheme, or have been appointed as
authorized agents or distributors, by the manufacturer in writing, for drugs meant for consumption by the
above institutions under those schemes, subject to the conditions that the stock shall be stored separately from
the trade stocks and shall maintain separate records of the stocks received and distributed by them.
- 30 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
3.3. Emergency supply of prescription medicines
[* Emergency supply of medicines is not a LEGAL provision in India today.
This is an attempt by us to provoke a thought in pharmacists who are faced with a dilemma whether to
dispense a prescription medicine or not, in an emergency situation where a prescription is not
produced by a client.
We feel that this is a much more logical approach to the situation, in comparison to the chaotic
situation in India today, where prescription medicines are freely sold without a prescription being
produced by clients.
The supply of prescription medicines needs to be carried out under STRICT CAUTION. Under no
circumstances should pharmacists misuse this possible provision by dispensing prescription
medicines without a prescription in any instance.]
In the Drugs and Cosmetic Act and Rules (India), Emergency Supply of prescription medicines is
NOT recognized. It is, however, a legal provision in some developed countries. We feel that at some
point of time, such guidelines/provisions should be carefully considered and approved by the Health
Ministry of India
When a patient comes to the pharmacy asking for prescription medicines without a prescription, the
pharmacist has to analyze the case carefully. He has to distinguish between genuine and fake requisites. In
such cases, when the pharmacist is convinced that the need for the prescription medicines is genuine and is an
emergency, an 'emergency supply' may be provided.
Cases encountered could be of 2 types :-
1) The client has not brought a prescription, because he has genuinely forgotten it (left it at home) or lost
it, and it is not practicable for him to bring one now, and he needs to take home the medicines as an
emergency, and the patient's doctor is not contactable.
2) The client/patient has just arrived with the need for a medication, and is unable to go to a doctor or a
doctor is unavailable.
Points to consider
The pharmacist should consider the medical consequences of not supplying the medicine.
If the pharmacist does not know the patient, the patient's identity should be established by way of
appropriate documentation.
It is best not to dispense drugs listed under the NDPS Act or those otherwise having a potential for
misuse/ abuse, or contact the prescriber to confirm.
Also, contact the doctor, if the pharmacist does not know the doctor mentioned by the patient (if phone
call is to be made, use the number from the Telephone directory rather than using the number that the
patient has given).
- 31 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Care should be taken to ask whether the patient's doctor has stopped the treatment, or whether the
patient is taking any other medication.
Proper questioning will enable pharmacists to get information that will help them to decide whether the
request for prescription medicine is genuine, and whether it requires emergency supply of that medicine.
3.4 Record Keeping
As per The Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules, a pharmacy has to maintain certain records. These records,
besides being a legal requirement, can be useful for the pharmacist's personal records and observations.
Such records are open to inspection by officers of the Drug Control Department.
As per the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules, the pharmacy has 2 options for recording the sale of
medicines. Recording can be done at the time of supply in a :
i) Prescription register specially maintained for the purpose and the serial number of the entry shall be
entered on the prescription. The following particulars shall be entered in the register:
a) Serial number of the entry.
b) The date of supply.
c) The name and address of the prescriber.
d) The name and address of the patient, or the name and address of the owner of the animal if the drug
supplied is for veterinary use.
e) The name of the drug or preparation, and the quantity, or in the case of a medicine made up by the
licensee, the ingredients and quantities there of.
f) In the case of a drug specified in Schedule C or Schedule H, the name of the manufacturer of the drug,
it's batch number and the date of expiry of potency, if any.
g) The signature of the registered pharmacist by or under whose supervision the medicine was made up
or supplied.
This option of maintaining a prescription register is not being used by many pharmacies today because it is
time consuming and tedious.
In the case of drugs which are not compounded in the pharmacy and which are supplied from or in the original
containers, the particulars specified in items (a) to (g) above may be entered in a cash or credit memo book,
serially numbered and specifically maintained for this purpose. This is the easiest option, and is most
commonly followed by pharmacies today. It is a more convenient option, and prevents duplication of work.
The option to maintain a prescription register or a cash or credit memo book for drugs and medicines,
which are supplied from or in the original container, shall be made in writing to the Licensing
Authority at the time of application for the grant or renewal of the license to sell by retail.
- 32 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
ii) Cash Memo
In a pharmacy, the retail sale of medicines has to be made against a cash memo/ bill. The following particulars
should be written on every cash memo for medicines listed under Schedule H, X, G. :-
Medicine name (Brand, and Generic if there is no brand name)
Quantity.
Batch number.
Expiry date .
The Schedule under which the medicine is included.
Also, the bill/ cash memo should indicate
Who the medicines are for (i.e. the patient's name and address) and
Who has prescribed them (i.e. the physician's name and address).

The following particulars must be pre-printed (or printed along with medicine and patient details in case of a
computerized bill) on the cash memo:
Name, address, and telephone number of the pharmacy,
Drug license numbers,
Serial number of the bill,
TIN i.e. Tax Identification Number (if applicable).
The cash memo must always be signed by the pharmacist under whose supervision the medicines are
dispensed.

Qty. Product Name Sche
dule
Mfr.
name
B. No. Exp.
Date
Amount in
Rs.
Drug Lic. No.___________ CASH MEMO Sr. no. of Cash memo ______
TIN:---- Date: _________
Name of Patient: _______________________Name of Doctor: ___________
Address of Patient: ___________________________Address of Doctor: ______________
___________________________ _______________
Total - __________
XYZ Pharmacy
Shop no. L/5,
Opp. Blossom Complex,
Panaji, Goa. -----------------------
Ph. no. 2227435 (Signature of Pharmacist)
Sample format
- 33 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Guidelines:
It is the pharmacist's duty to ensure that medicines are sold against a cash memo / bill.
The bill should be legible enough to be understood by the patient / consumer.
The bill should contain all the necessary details. Patients have a right to information about medicines,
as well as the right to receive a bill for whatever they buy.
All calculations should be checked properly before entering into the cash memo.
Once the bill is made, a final check should be performed. The items dispensed should be checked
against the prescription, tallied against the bill, and then signed by the pharmacist under whose
supervision the sale is made. (The person making the bill should also preferably sign).


Who can make the bill?















Any of the salespersons/technicians, or pharmacist can make the bill of sale.
The cash memo can be written by hand, or can be computerized.
Who should sign on the bill?

The person making the bill should ideally sign, and the pharmacist under whose
supervision the medicines have been dispensed should compulsorily (as a legal
requirement) countersign.

- 34 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
The carbon copies/duplicate copies of the cash memos should be maintained and preserved by the pharmacy
as a record for a period of three years from the date of sale of the drug. The bills should be serially numbered
by the pharmacy and maintained in a chronological order.
Information which you may give your clients: -

Clients should be requested to preserve the bill at least till the medicine is fully utilized, because
A Bill/cash memo is a proof of legal sale of quality medicines
The batch number, expiry date even if not on the part of the strip that is dispensed to them,
the patient can find out from the bill.
It is easier to return medicines when a bill of sale is produced.
The bill is the only proof available to the patient that a medicine of a particular batch and
manufacturer was purchased from that particular pharmacy, especially incase any
complaints/defects have to be reported.
iii) Purchase bills and register
Records of purchases of drugs intended for sale, or sold by retail, should be maintained in the pharmacy in
a purchase register.

Example of recorded purchase details
Date Sr.No Bill No Supplier Total
01/04/05 01 14 G K Pharma 5160.36
02/04/05 02 30055 L.M Agencies 2970.04
02/04/05 03 138 J.L Enterprises 1610.00
Purchase bills including cash or credit memos should be serially numbered by the licensee and maintained
in chronological order.
iv) Display of license
It is compulsory to obtain a license from the State Drug Licensing Authority to stock and sell
medicines.
The license should be displayed in a prominent place in a part of the premises open to the public.
v) Display of Pharmacist's Registration certificate
The supply by retail of medicines in the pharmacy should be carried out under the personal
supervision of a pharmacist.
The registration certificate obtained from the State Pharmacy Council should be displayed in a
prominent place in a part of the premises open to the public.
- 35 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
4. PRESENCE OF A PHARMACIST

As per law, prescription medicines must be sold only under the personal supervision of a Registered
pharmacist. This means that a pharmacist has to be present at all times of dispensing (during the entire
working hours of a pharmacy).
Registered pharmacist means a person who is a Registered Pharmacist as defined in clause (i) of Section
(2) of the Pharmacy Act, 1948 (Act 8 of 1948): Provided that the provisions of sub clause (i) shall not apply to
st
those persons who are already approved as qualified person by the Licensing Authority on or before the 31
December, 1969.
Along with pharmacists, there might be nonpharmacists (salespeople/pharmacy technicians) as well as
trainee pharmacists working in the pharmacy. These persons can perform various functions including
assembling of prescribed medicines. The final dispensing step must, however, be taken under the personal
supervision of the pharmacist.

Personal supervision of a pharmacist means :
Whenever a salesperson/pharmacy technician or trainee pharmacist carries out dispensing, the
pharmacist should supervise and check that the medicines are correctly dispensed against the
prescription, and only then sign the bill, and permit medicines to be packed and handed over to the
client.
The pharmacist assures legality and completeness of prescription.
The pharmacist ensures that the correct medicines are dispensed.
When the pharmacy has a single pharmacist, he/she will have to ensure that no prescription is
dispensed unless checked by him/her.
Legally, pharmacists are responsible for situations caused by negligence or incompetence of
non-pharmacists when these are working under their supervision. Pharmacists have been
authorized to supply these items on the understanding that they accept responsibility for
ensuring their safe and effective use.
Today, with increasing exposure to health related information and growing curiosity among the public,
people expect much more. They look for professionalism where all queries will be
answered, and will not settle for anything less.

Pharmacists are trained professionals. They can recommend medicines
when customers require assistance in choosing OTC medicines for their
conditions, so as to ensure rational, safe and effective use of medicines.
Pharmacists are aware of the side effects of drugs as well as the incidence of
drug interactions with other medication.
- 36 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Pharmacists can do measurements of blood pressure, blood sugar, and weight, and give non-
pharmacological advice to control them.
Pharmacists are in a position to give advice on the medicines prescribed, how and when to use them,
and for how long.
Guidelines :
Ensure the presence of a pharmacist during working hours, on the counter, for public access.
By law, all prescription medicines need to be sold under the direct/personal supervision of a
pharmacist.
The pharmacist should ensure that dispensing occurs in accordance with statutory regulations,
accurately reflects the prescriber's intentions, and is consistent with the needs and safety of the
patient.
The pharmacist should sign all bills of sale after checking the dispensed medicines against the
prescription to check for accuracy.
The pharmacist ensures that the patients and/or their caregivers have sufficient knowledge of their
medications and medication delivery devices to facilitate their safe and effective use.
If the pharmacist goes out for tea or to use the toilet, or takes a break for some other reason, prescription
medicines should not be dispensed till the pharmacist is back. The client should be requested to wait for a
while till the pharmacist resumes duty.
If a pharmacist is absent or the only pharmacist resigns without a replacement, it is well justified that
the pharmacy be closed down till a pharmacist resumes work. This is a legal requirement.
Salesperson/Pharmacy Technicians:
Salespersons/ pharmacy technicians do not have formal education in pharmacy and cannot be
considered competent in knowledge of drugs and their dosage forms.
They may have experience of dispensing but do not possess appropriate knowledge or awareness
about drug interactions that could occur with OTC medicines, the drug or disease related aspects,
the correctness of a prescription or the recent developments in the field of medicine and
pharmacy.
The law permits any person (regardless of qualifications) to stand at the pharmacy counter and
dispense medications, but this can be done only under the personal/direct supervision of a
registered pharmacist.
Recommending medicines without the consent of the pharmacist could not only cause harm to the
patient but could also result in loss of faith and reputation of the pharmacy. The seriousness and
importance of accurate dispensing and proper advice is often not realized by technicians.
- 37 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Who is a Pharmacy Technician?
The definition currently accepted in the U.S.A for a pharmacy technician is an individual
working in a retail pharmacy setting who under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist assists in
pharmacy activities that do not require the education, training and professional judgement of a
pharmacist (Source: White Paper on Pharmacy Technicians 2002.)
The concept of a pharmacy technician is very well established in the U.K, the U.S.A, and Australia.
Infact, with each passing day, the role and function of a pharmacy technician is being maximized and
the pharmacist is given sufficient time to focus on patient care.
Today, in these countries, pharmacy technicians are performing several activities once exclusively
performed by pharmacists. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians work as a team to provide patient
care services through the mutual recognition of their roles and responsibilities, and through the
responsible and efficient use of technology and resources.
It is time that in our country also, we begin giving sufficient training to our salespersons, and have licensing
and examination/ accreditation systems for pharmacy technicians.
5. OTHER ASPECTS
Telephonic orders by clients
By law, telephonic orders by clients, for prescription medicines are not valid/not recognized, because a
prescription is not produced.
Supply of prescription medicines against such telephonic orders, amounts to sale of prescription medicines,
without a prescription.
Non-prescription medicines can be sold against telephonic orders/requests by clients.
Door delivery
If a prescription is physically produced at the pharmacy the prescribed medicines can be home-delivered.
Non-prescription medicines can be sold and delivered to the door/home of the client/patient.
Internet pharmacies
Internet pharmacies are wrongly understood by many,as pharmacies on the Internet, where one can 'log on'
and order any medicine one wants. This unfortunately is an inaccurate interpretation of Internet pharmacy.
Often such pharmacies are operated by people who are out only to make money from vulnerable clients.
Most often, such 'unlicensed' Internet pharmacies promote drugs of misuse (e.g. psychotropics, sex
stimulants, anabolic steroids, etc). Such Internet pharmacies can be labeled as unauthorized or 'bogus'.
- 38 -
I. Regulatory Affairs
Good Pharmacy Practice - I.P.A. - C.D.S.C.O. - W.H.O. INDIA COUNTRY OFFICE
Genuine Internet pharmacies have the following:
A physical, licensed and duly authorized pharmacy.
Authorization from the State/Country's FDA to run an Internet pharmacy.
They display their physical address as well as telephone numbers on their websites so that patients can
get in touch with them, or verify online information.
Do not dispense prescription medicines unless an actual prescription is produced by the client, after
physical examination by a physician.
Currently, Internet pharmacies are not authorized in India.
What the pharmacist would have learnt from this module :
The practice of pharmacy in India is governed by many laws It is important to adhere to these laws,
and to perform all pharmaceutical activities within the purview of these laws.
The profession of pharmacy in the country is regulated by a Code of Ethics.
A prescription is an important, legal document and its legality and authenticity needs to be
ascertained at all stages of dispensing.
Medicines are classified into different schedules or categories. Medicines should be sold only after
taking into consideration the legal requirements for their sale.
According to the laws, the pharmacy is required to maintain records and other relevant
documentation for specified periods of time.
The sale of medicines should only be undertaken under the personal supervision of a Registered
Pharmacist.
The dispensing of medicines requires the professional expertise of a pharmacist. Pharmacists are legally
responsible for the quality of the product, which they distribute. It is for this reason that the law requires that
the distribution of all drugs be strictly carried out under the supervision and direct involvement of the
pharmacist.
The pharmacist plays a pivotal role in the efficient functioning of the pharmacy. He should be vigilant, and
should carry out this responsibility within the confinement of the laws.
Further Reading :-
1) Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945; Govt. of India
2) The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, & Rules,1985; Govt. of India.
3) The Drugs and Magic Remedies Act, & Rules; Govt. of India
4) British National Formulary (BNF 46) Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
5) Medicines, Ethics & Practice A Guide To Pharmacists; Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great
Britain; Pharmaceutical Press, U.K.
6) FIP Statement of Professional Standards FIP Code of Ethics.
7) A Textbook of Homoeopathic Pharmacy Dr. D. D. Banerjee.
th
8) Indian Pharmacopoeia, 5 Edition; Govt. of India.
- 39 -
I. Regulatory Affairs