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# Force

a force is any external effort that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its
movement, direction, or geometrical construction. In other words, a force can cause an object
with mass to change itsvelocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e.,
to accelerate, or a flexible object to deform, or both. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts
such as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is
measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F.
Motion
motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time and its reference point. Motion is
typically described in terms of displacement, direction, velocity, acceleration, and time.

Motion is
observed by attaching a frame of reference to a body and measuring its change in position relative to
that frame.
Inertia
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion, including changes
to its speed and direction. In other words, it is the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line
at constant linear velocity. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental principles of classical
physics that are used to describe the motion of objects and how they are affected by applied forces.
Inertia comes from the Latin word, iners, meaning idle, sluggish. Inertia is one of the primary
manifestations of mass, which is a quantitative property of physical systems. Isaac Newton defined
inertia as his first law in his Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which states:
Law of Inertia
The law of inertia is the basis of the new physics of the seventeenth century. This law is also true
according to modern physics. Galileo discovered the law during the first decade of the seventeenth
century, but in fact he did not understand the law in the general way we have formulated it here. The
general formulation of the law of inertia was devised by Galileo's pupils and by Descartes - a French
philosopher, mathematician and physicist. This law is also the first of Newton's three laws.
Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements
sliding against each other. There are several types of friction:
Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is
subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic
friction between moving surfaces.
Fluid friction describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to
each other.


Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a fluid separates two solid surfaces.


Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a fluid across the surface of
a body.
Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material
while it undergoes deformation.


Tension
Tension describes the pulling force exerted by each end of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-
dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three dimensional
object. At the atomic level, tension is produced when atoms or molecules are pulled apart from each
other and gain electromagnetic potential energy. Each end of a string or rod under tension will pull on
the object it is attached to, to restore the string/rod to its relaxed length.

Law of Acceleration
Acceleration, in physics, is the rate at which the velocity of an object changes over
time.

Velocity and acceleration are vector quantities, with magnitude anddirection that add
according to the parallelogram law.

An object's acceleration, as described by Newton's Second
Law, is due to the net force acting on the object, i.e., the net result of any and all forces acting on the
object. As avector, this net force is equal to the product of the object's mass (a scalarquantity) and the
acceleration. The SI unit for acceleration is the metre per second squared (m/s
2
).

Normal force
the normal force is the component, perpendicular to the surface (surface being a plane) of
contact, of the contact force exerted on an object by, for example, the surface of a floor or wall,
preventing the object from penetrating the surface.
Law of interaction
The law of interaction is also Newton's third law of motion, stating that each action brings an
equal and opposite reaction. Forces are either pushes or pulls resulting from the interactions
between objects. Some interactions come from contact, while others come from forces that act over
distance, such as magnetism, electricity or gravity.
Weight
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is usually taken to be theforce on the object due
to gravity.

Its magnitude (a scalar quantity), often denoted by an italic letter W, is the product of
the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g;

thus: W = mg.
The unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units(SI) is
the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons
on the surface of the Earth, and about one-sixth as much on the Moon. In this sense of weight, a
body can be weightless only if it is far away from any gravitating mass.