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An Elementary

Pali Course
Ven. Narada, Thera

BO

e
DHANET
'
UD

O K LIB R A R

E-mail: bdea@buddhanet.net
Web site: www.buddhanet.net

Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc.

Nrada Thera

TO MY VENERABLE TEACHER PELENE SIRI


IRA
VAJIRANA MAH NYAKA THERA

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION


The word Pi means "the Text", though it has now come to be the name of a language.
Mgadhi was the original name for Pi. It was the language current in the land of Magadha during
the time of the Buddha (6th century B.C.).
Suddha Mgadh, the pure form of the provincial dialect, was what the Buddha used as His medium of
instruction.
The elements of Pi can be mastered in a few months, Pi opens ones ears to the Dhamma and the
music of the Buddhas speech. It is also a lingua franca in Buddhist countries, and therefore worth
acquiring.
This slender volume is intended to serve as an elementary guide for beginners. With its aid one may
be able to get an introduction to the Pi language within a short period.
I have to express my deep indebtedness to my Venerable Teacher, Pelene Siri Vajirana Mah
Nyaka Therapda, who introduced me to this sacred language. Words cannot indicate how much I owe to
his unfailing care and sympathy.
My thanks are due to the Venerable Nynatiloka Thera, for his valued assistance.
Table of Contents
NRADA
October, 1952.

If you have problems in your Pli lessons then join our E-mail Pli classes at
[

ibric@sri.lanka.net]
s

Computerised by Bhikkhu Saghasobhana.


This work is provided as Public domain under terms of GNU

Abbrevi tions
Abbreviations
Adj.

Adjective

Ind., Indec. -

Indeclinables

Ind. p.p.

indeclinable Past Participles

f.

Feminine

m.

Masculine

n.

Neuter

p.p.

Past Participles

Pre.

Prefix

Pres. p.

Present Participles

Pres.

Present

Pro.

Pronoun

Table of Contents

CONTENTS
PREFACE

ABBREVIATIONS

INTRODUCTION

ALPHABET

10

PRONUNCIATION OF LETTERS
CIA

11

Lesson I
sson

A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Nom. & Acc. Cases


B. Conj. of Verbs - Pres. Tense. Act. Voice, 3rd person

12

Lesson II
sson

A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Instr. & Dat. Cases


B. Conj. of Verbs- Pres. Tense. Act. Voice, 2nd person

18

Lesson III
sson

A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Abl. &. Gen. Cases


B. Conj. of Verbs- Pres. Tense. Act. Voice, 1st person

23

Lesson IV
sson

A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Loc. & Voc. Cases


B. Full Conj. of Verbs- Pres. Tense Act. Voice

28

Lesson V
sson

Full Decl. of Nouns ending in " a "

33

Lesson VI
sson

A. Nouns ending in " "


B. Infinitive

38

Lesson VII
sson

Aorist (Ajjatan) Act. Voice


Possessive Pronouns

43

Lesson VIII
sson

A. Nouns ending in " i "


B. Indeclinable Past Participles

48

Lesson IX
sson

A. Feminine Nouns ending in " i "


B. Future Tense (Bhavissanti)

52

Lesson X
sson

A. Nouns ending in " "


B. The Formation of Feminines

56

Lesson XI
sson

A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " u " & " "


B. Verbs- Imperative & Benedictive Mood ( Pacam)

61

Lesson XII
sson

A. Personal Pronouns
B. Conditional Mood (Sattam)

68

Lesson XIII
sson

Relative Pronouns
The Interrogative Pronoun

72

Lesson XIV
sson

Participles

79

Lesson XV
sson

A. Demonstrative Pronouns
B. Adjectives

86

Lesson XVI
sson

Numerals
Ordinals

92

Lesson XVII
sson

A. Some Irregular Nouns ending in " a "


B. Conjugations

98

Lesson XVIII
sson

A. Declension of " Satthu "


B. Causal Forms (Krita)

103

Lesson XIX
sson

A. Decl. of " go "


B. Perfect Tense (Hyattan)v

108

Lesson XX
sson

Compounds (Samsa)

112

Lesson XXI
sson

Indeclinables (Avyaya)

119

Lesson XXII
sson

Taddhita- Nominal Derivatives

126

Lesson XXIII
sson

Kitaka- Verbal Derivatives

132

Lesson XXIV
sson

Rules of Sandhi (Combinations)

138

Lesson XXV
sson

Uses of the Cases

143

Lesson XXVI
sson

Passive Voice

155

Sel tions fo ran


Selections for Translation
on

160

Not
Sel tion fo ran
ons
Notes on Selections for Translation

170

Vocabulary Pal -Eng


nglish
Vocabulary Pali-English
cabu

177

Vocabulary Englis
ngli
Vocabulary English-Pali
cabu

202

Guide Exe
Guide to Exercises
id

227

for
Legal Information
ega Info

234

AN ELEMENTARY PI COURSE
INTRODUCTION
Bhagavato rahato Sam
haga
Sam-Buddhas
ass
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Samm-Sam-Buddhassa !
Pi was the language spoken by the Buddha and employed by Him to expound His Doctrine of
Deliverance.
Mgadh is its real name, it being the dialect of the people of Magadha a district in Central India.
Pi, lit. "line" or "text", is, strictly speaking, the name for the Buddhist Canon. Nowadays the term
Pi is often applied to the language in which the Buddhist texts or scriptures were written.
The Pi language must have had characters of its own, but at present they are extinct.

Table of Contents

ALPHABET
The Pi Alphabet consists of forty-one letters, eight vowels and thirty-three consonants.
8 Vowels (Sara)
a, , i, , u, , e, o.
33 Consonants (Vyajana)
Gutturals
k, kh, g, gh, .
Palatals
c, ch, j, jh, .
Cerebrals
, h, , h, .
Dentals
t, th, d, dh, n.
Labials
p, ph, b, bh, m.
*Palatal
y.
*Cerebral
r.
*Dental
l.
*Dental and Labial
v.
Dental (sibilant)
s.
Aspirate
h.
Cerebral
.
Niggahita
.

ka group
ca group
a group
ta group
pa group

*Semi-vowels

Table of Contents

10

PRONUNCIATION OF LETTERS
CIA
a

k
g

c
j

p
b
m
y
r
l
v
s
h

Pi is a phonetic language. As such each letter has its own characteristic sound.
is pronounced like
u
in
but
is pronounced like
a
in
art
is pronounced like
i
in
pin
is pronounced like
i
in
machine
is pronounced like
u
in
put
is pronounced like
u
in
rule
is pronounced like
e
in
ten
is pronounced like
a
in
fate
is pronounced like
o
in
hot
is pronounced like
o
in
note
is pronounced like
k
in
key
is pronounced like
g
in
get
is pronounced like
ng in
ring
is pronounced like
ch
in
rich
is pronounced like
j
in
jug
is pronounced like
gn in
signor
is pronounced like
t
in
not
is pronounced like
d
in
hid
is pronounced like
n
in
hint
is pronounced like
p
in
lip
is pronounced like
b
in
rib
is pronounced like
m in
him
is pronounced like
y
in
yard
is pronounced like
r
in
rat
is pronounced like
l
in
sell
is pronounced like
v
in
vile
is pronounced like
s
in
sit
is pronounced like
h
in
hut
is pronounced like
l
in
felt
is pronounced like
ng in
sing

The vowels " e " and " o " are always long, except when followed by a double consonant; e.g., ettha,
oha.
The fifth consonant of each group is called a "nasal".

11

There is no difference between the pronunciation of " " and " ". The former never stands at the
end, but is always followed by a consonant of its group.
The dentals " t " and " d " are pronounced with the tip of the tongue Placed against the front upper
teeth.
The aspirates " kh ", " gh ", " h ", " h ", " th ", " dh ", " ph ", " bh ", are pronounced with " h " sound
immediately following; e.g., in blockhead, pighead, cat-head, log-head, etc., where the " h " in each is
combined with the preceding consonant in pronunciation.

Table of Contents

12

Lesson I
sson
clension
ouns endi
A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "
Nara*, m**. man
SINGULAR
Nominative naro***
Accusative nara

PLURAL

nar
a man, or the man

men, or the men

nare
a man, or the man

men, or the men

Terminations
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nominative o

Accusative

* In Pi nouns are declined according to the terminated endings a, , i, , u, , and o. There are no nouns
ending in " e ". All nouns ending in " a " are either in the masculine or in the neuter gender.
** There are three, genders in Pi. As a rule males and those things possessing male characteristics are in
the masculine gender, e.g., nara, man; suriya, sun; gma, village. Females and those things possessing
female characteristics are in the feminine gender, e.g., itthi, woman; gang, river. Neutral nouns and most
inanimate things are in the neuter gender, e.g., phala, fruit; citta, mind. It is not so easy to distinguish the
gender in Pi as in English.

13

*** Nara + o = naro. Nara + = nar. When two vowels come together either the preceding or the
following vowel is dropped. In this case the preceding vowel is dropped.
ubs nti
Masculine Substantives :
culin Sub tant
li

Buddha
Draka
Dhamma
Gma
Ghaa
Janaka
Odana
Putta
Sda
Ycaka

The Enlightened One


child
Doctrine, Truth, Law
village
pot, jar
father
rice, cooked rice
son
cook
beggar

Conjugat
onjugation Verbs
B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE
rd

3 person terminations
SING ti

PLU anti

paca = to cook
SING.

So pacati*
S pacati

he cooks, he is cooking
she cooks, she is cooking

PLU.

Te pacanti,

they cook, they are cooking

* The verbs are often used alone without the corresponding pronouns since the pronoun is implied by the
termination.

14

Verbs :
rbs

Dhvati*
Dhovati
Vadati
Vandati
Rakkhati

(dhva)
(dhova)
(vada)
(vanda)
(rakkha)

runs
washes
speaks, declares
salutes
protects

* As there are seven conjugations in Pi which differ according to the conjugational signs, the present
tense third person singulars of verbs are given. The roots are given in brackets.
Illustrations :
llu ations*:
ions

1. Sdo
The cook

pacati
is cooking

2. Sd
The cooks

pacanti
are cooking

3. Sdo
The cook rice

odana pacati
is cooking

4. Sd
The cooks

ghae
pots

dhovati
are washing

* In Pi sentences, in plain language, the subject is placed first, the verb last, and the object before the
verb.
Exe
Exercise i
A
TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH
1.
2.
3.

Buddho vadati.
Dhammo rakkhati.
S dhovati.

15

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Ycako dhvati.
Sd pacanti.
Janak vadanti.
Te vandanti.
Nar rakkhanti.
Putt dhvanti.
Drako vandati.
Buddho dhamma rakkhati.
Drak Buddha vandanti.
Sdo ghae dhovati.
Nar gma. rakkhanti.
S odana pacati.
Buddh dhamma vadanti.
Putt janake vandanti.
Ycak. ghae dhovanti.
Te gme rakkhanti.
Janako Buddha vandati.
Vocabulary: Pali-English
B
TRANSLATE INTO PALI

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

He protects.
The man salutes.
The child is washing.
The son speaks.
The beggar is cooking.
They are running.
The children are speaking.
The fathers are protecting.
The sons are saluting.
The cooks are washing.
The men are saluting the Buddha.
Fathers protect men.

16

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

The cook is washing rice.


The truth protects men.
She is saluting the father.
The Enlightened One is declaring the Doctrine.
The boys are washing the pots.
The men are protecting the villages.
The beggars are cooking rice.
The cook is washing the pot.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

17

Lesson II
sson
A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "
clension
ouns endi
(contd.)

Nara
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Instrumental

narena
by or with a man

narebhi, narehi
by or with men

Dative

narya,* narassa
to or for a man

narna
to or for men

Terminations
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Instrumental

ena**

ebhi,** ehi**

Dative

ya, ssa

na***

* This form is not frequently used.


** The Instrumental case is also used to express the Auxiliary case (Tatiy).
*** The vowel preceding " na " is always long.

18

ubs nti
Masculine Substantives :
culin Sub tant
li

dara
hra
Daa
Dsa
Gilna
Hattha
Osadha
Ratha
Samaa
Sunakha
Vejja

esteem, care, affection


food
stick
slave, servant
sick person
hand
medicine
cart, chariot
holy man, ascetic
dog
Doctor, physician

Conjugat
onjugation Verbs
B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE (contd.)
nd

2 person terminations

SINGULAR

PLURAL

si

tha

2nd person SING. Tva pacasi, you cook, you are cooking*
2nd person PLU. Tumhe pacatha, you cook, you are cooking
* "Thou cookest, or thou art cooking." In translation, unless specially used for archaic or poetic reasons, it
is more usual to use the plural forms of modern English.

19

Verbs :
rbs

Deseti
Deti
Harati
harati
Nharati
Paharati
Gacchati
gacchati
Labhati
Peseti

(disa)
preaches
(d)
gives
(hara)
carries
(hara with *)
brings
(hara with n*) removes
(hara with pa*) strikes
(gamu) goes
(gamu with )
comes
(labha)
guest, receives
(pesa)
sends

* , n, pa, etc. are Prefixes (upasagga) which when attached to nouns and verbs, modify their original
sense.
Illustrations:
llu ati

1. Dsena (instr. s.)


with the slave

gacchati
he goes

2. Vejjebhi (instr pl.)


by means of doctors

labhasi
you obtain

3. Sunakhassa (dat. s.)


to the dog

desi
you give

4. Samana (dat. pl.)


to the ascetics

pesetha
you send

20

Exe
Exercise ii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Tva rathena gacchasi.


Tva darena Dhamma desesi.
Tva gilnassa osadha desi.
Tva. daena sunakha paharasi.
Tva vejjna rathe pesesi.
Tumhe darena gilnna hra detha.
Tumhe dsehi gma* gacchatha.
Tumhe samanna dhamma desetha.
Tumhe hattehi osadha labhatha.
Tumhe sunakhassa hra hratha.
Drak sunakhehi gma gacchanti.
Sd hatthehi ghae dhovanti.
Tumhe gilne vejjassa pesetha.
Dso janakassa hra harati.
Sama darena dhamma desenti.
Tumhe daehi sunakhe paharatha.
Vejjo rathena gma gacchati.
Drak darena ycakna hra denti.
Tva samaehi Buddha vandasi.
Tumhe hatthehi osadha nharatha.

* Verbs implying motion take the Accusative.

Vocabulary: Pali-English

21

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

You are coming with the dog.


You are giving medicine to the ascetic.
You are sending a chariot to the sick person.
You are striking the dogs with sticks.
You are preaching the Doctrine to the ascetics.
You give food to the servants with care.
You are going to the village with the ascetics.
You are bringing a chariot for the doctor.
The sick are going with the servants.
The dogs are running with the children.
The Enlightened One is preaching the Doctrine to the sick.
The servants are giving food to the beggars.
The father is going with the children to the village.
You are going in a chariot with the servants.
You are carrying medicine for the father.
You get medicine through* the doctor.

* Use the Instrumental case.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

22

Lesson III
sson
A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "
eclension
ending
si
nd
(contd)

nara
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Ablative

nar, naramh, narasm


from a man

narebhi, narehi
from men

Genitive

narassa
of a man

narna
of men

Terminations
SINGULAR
Ablative
Genitive

PLURAL

, mh, sm
ssa

ebhi, ehi
na

Masculine Substantives :

23

cariya
Amba
paa
rma
Assa
Mtula
Ovda
Pabbata
Pakra
Rukkha
Sissa
Taka

teacher
mango
shop, market
temple, garden, park
horse
uncle
advice, exhortation
rock, mountain
reward, gift
tree
pupil
pond, pool, lake

Conjugat
onjugation Verbs
B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE
(contd.)

1st person terminations


SINGULAR
mi*
SING.
PLU.

PLURAL
ma*

Aha pacmi
Maya pacma

I cook, I am cooking.
We cook, we are cooking.

* The vowel preceding " mi " and " ma " is always lengthened.

24

Verbs :
rbs

Gahti* (gaha)
Sagahti (gaha with sa)
Uggahti (gaha with u)
Kiti (ki)
Vikkiti (ki with vi)
Nikkhamati (kamu with ni)
Patati (pata)
Ruhati (ruha)
ruhati (ruha with )
Oruhati (ruha with ava**)
Sunti (su)

takes, receives, seizes


Treats, compiles
learns
buys
sells
departs, goes away
falls
grows
ascends, climbs
descends
hears

* Plural - gahanti. So are sagahanti, uggahanti, kianti and suanti.


** " Ava " is often changed into " o "
Illustrations :
llu ations

1. amb rukkhasm (abl. s.)


mangoes from the tree

patanti
fall

2. rukkhehi (abl. pl.)


from trees

patma
we fall

3. paehi (abl. pl.)


from the markets

kimi
I buy

4. pa (abl. s.)
from market

paa (acc. s.)


to market

5. mtulassa (gen. s.)


Uncles

rmo
garden

25

6. cariyna (gen. pl.)


of the teachers

siss
pupils

Exe
Exercise iii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Aha cariyasm Dhamma sumi.


Aha mtulasm pakra gahmi.
Aha assasm patmi.
Aha mtulassa rmasm nikkhammi.
Aha paasm ambe kimi.
Maya pabbatasm oruhma.
Maya cariyehi uggahma.
Mayam cariyassa ovda labhma.
Maya cariyna putte saganhma.
Mayam assna hra paehi kima.
Siss samana rmehi nikkhamanti.
cariyo mtulassa assa ruhati.
Maya rathehi gm gma gacchma.
Tumhe cariyehi pakre gahtha.
Nar sissna dsna ambe vikkianti.
Maya samana ovda suma.
Rukkh pabbatasm patanti.
Aha suakhehi taka oruhmi.
Maya rmasm rma gacchma.
Putt darena janakna ovda gahanti.

Vocabulary: Pali-English

26

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

I receive a gift from the teacher.


I depart from the shop.
I treat the uncles teacher.
I take the advice of the teachers.
I am descending from the mountain.
We buy mangoes from the markets.
We hear the doctrine of the Buddha from the teacher.
We are coming out of the pond.
We are mounting the uncles horse.
We fall from the mountain.
We treat the fathers pupil with affection.
Pupils get gifts from the teachers.
You are selling a horse to the fathers physician.
We go from mountain to mountain with the horses.
Teachers give advice to the fathers of the pupils.
We are learning from the ascetics.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

27

Lesson IV
sson
A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "
eclension
ending
si
nd
(contd.)

nara
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Locative

nare, naramhi, narasmi


in or upon a man

naresu
in or upon men

Vocative

nara, nar
O man !

nar
O men !

Terminations
SINGULAR
Locative
Vocative

PLURAL

e, mhi, smi
a,

esu

28

ubs nti
Masculine Substantives :
culin Sub tant
li

ksa
Maca
Canda
Sakua
Kassaka
Samudda
Maccha
Suriya
Magga
Vija
Maggika
Loka

sky
bed
moon
bird
farmer
sea, ocean
fish
sun
way, road
merchant
traveller
world, mankind

Conjugat
onjugation Verbs
B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE

paca,

to cook

SING.
pacati
pacasi
pacmi

PLU.
pacanti
pacatha
pacma

su, to hear
SING.
suti
susi
sumi

PLU.
suanti
sutha
suma

disa,

to preach

29

SING.
deseti
desesi
desemi

PLU.
desenti
desetha
desema

Verbs :
rbs

Kati
Uppajjati
Passati*
Vasati
Supati
Vicarati

(ka)
(pada with u)
(disa)
(vasa)
(supa)
(cara with vi)

plays
is born
sees
dwells
sleeps
wanders, goes about

* " Passa " is a substitute for " disa "


Som Indeclin
ina
Some Indeclinables :

Ajja
ma
Api
Ca
Idni
Idha
Kad
Kasm
Kuhi
Kuto
Na
Puna
Sabbad
Sad
Saddhi*

to-day
yes
also, too
also, and
now
here
when
why
where
whence
no, not
again
every day
always
with

30

* " Saddhi " is used with the "Instrumental" and is placed after the noun; as Narena saddhi - with a
man.
llu ations
Illustrations :

1. Mace (loc. s.)


on the bed

supati
he sleeps

2. Nar
Men

gmesu (loc. pl)


in the villages

3. Draka (voc. s.)


child,

kuhi tva gacchasi?


where are you going?

4. Janaka,
father,

na gacchmi.
am not going.

aha
I

vasanti
live

Exe
Exercise iv
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Saku rukkesu vasanti.


Kassako mace supati.
Maya magge na kma.
Nar loke uppajjanti.
Maggika, kuhi tva gacchasi?
ma sad te na uggahanti.
Macch take kanti.
Kuto tva gacchasi? Janaka aha idni rmasm gacchmi.
Kassak sabbad gmesu na vasanti.
Kasm tumhe macesu na supatha?
Maya samaehi saddhi rme vasma.
Macch takesu ca samuddesu ca uppajjanti.
Aha kse suriya passmi, na ca canda.
Ajja vijo pae vasati.
Kasm tumhe drakehi saddhi magge katha?
ma, idni so* pi gacchati, aham** pi gacchmi.
Maggik maggesu vicaranti.

31

18. Kassk, kad tumhe puna idha gacchatha?


19. cariya, sabbad maya Buddha vandma.
20. Vij maggikehi saddhi rathehi gmesu vicaranti.
* So + api = so pi.
** The vowel following a Niggahita is often dropped, and the Niggahita is changed into the nasal of the
group consonant that immediately follows; e.g.,
Aha + api = aham pi.
Vocabulary: Pali-English
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

He is playing on the road.


The farmers live in the villages.
I do not see birds in the sky.
The Buddhas are not born in the world everyday.
Travellers, from where are you coming now?
We see fishes in the ponds.
O farmers, when do you come here again?
The travellers are wondering in the world,
We do not see the sun and the moon in the sky now.
Why do not ascetics live always in the mountains?
Yes, father, we are not playing in the garden today.
Why do not the sick sleep on beds?
O merchants, where are you always wandering?
Children, you are always playing with the dogs in the tank.
Teachers and pupils are living in the monastery now.
Yes, they are also going.

Vocabulary: English-Pali
Table of Contents

32

Lesson V
sson
Full Declension of Nouns ending in " a "
Ful
clension
ouns endi
Nara, m. man
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.

naro
a man

nar
men

Voc.

nara, nar
O man !

nar
O men !

Acc.

nara
a man

nare
men

Instr.

narena
by or with a man

narebhi, narehi
by or with men

Abl.

nar, naramh, narasm


from a man

narebhi, narehi
from men

Dat.

narya, narassa
to or for a man

narna
to or for men

Gen.

narassa
of a man

narna
of men

Loc.

nare, naramhi, narasmi


in or upon a man

naresu
in or upon men

ende
Neuter Gender
eut

Phala, fruit
SINGULAR

33

PLURAL

Nom.
Voc.
Acc.

phala
phala, phal
phala

phal, phalni
phal, phalni
phale, phalni

(The rest like the masculine)


THE CASES IN PI

Paham
lapana
Dutiy
Tatiy
Karaa
Catutthi
Pacam
Chahi
Sattam

(1st)
(2nd)
(3rd)
(4th)
(5th)
(6th)
(7th)

Nominative
Vocative
Accusative
Auxiliary*
Instrumental*
Dative
Ablative
Genitive
Locative

* As Tatiy (Auxiliary) and Karaa (Instrumental) have the same terminations, only the Instrumental case
is given in the declensions.

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Aux.
Instr.
Dat.
Abl.
Gen.
Loc.

m.
o

PLURAL
n.

--,

ena
ena
ya, ssa
, mh, sm
ssa
e, mhi, smi

34

m.

n.
, ni
, ni
e, ni
ebhi, ehi
ebhi, ehi
na
ebhi, ehi
na
esu

The vowels preceding- ni, bhi, hi, na and su are always long.
tiv
Neuter Substantives :
eut Subs anti

Bja
Bhada
Ghara
Khetta
Lekhana
Mitta
Mukha
Nagara
Pda
Pha
Potthaka
Puppha
Udaka
Vattha

seed, germ
goods, article
home, house
field
letter
(m. n.) friend
face, mouth
city
(m.n.) foot
chair, bench
book
flower
water
cloth, raiment

Verbs :
rbs

Bhujati
Khdati
Likhati
Nisdati
Pjeti
Vapati

(bhuja)
(khda)
(likha)
(sada with ni)
(pja)
(vapa)

eats, partakes
eats, chews
writes
sits
offers
sows

35

Exe
Exercise v
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Saku phalni khdanti.


Maya phesu nisdma, macesu supma.
Nar paehi bhadni kianti
Phalni rukkhehi patanti.
Kassak khettesu bjni vapanti.
Sabbad maya udakena pde ca mukha* ca dhovma.
Siss cariyna lekhanni likhanti.
Idni aha mittehi saddhi ghare vasmi.
Dso takasmi vatthni dhovati.
So pupphehi Buddha pjeti.
Kasm tva hra na bhujasi?
Ajja siss cariyehi potthakni uggahanti.
Maggik mittehi saddhi nagar nagara vicaranti.
Aha sabbad rmasm pupphni harmi.
Maya nagare gharni passma.
Kassak nagare takasm udaka haranti.
Drak janakassa phasmi na nisdanti.
Mitta cariyassa potthaka pjeti.
Tumhe narna vatthni ca bhadni ca vikkitha.
cariyassa rme sama darena narna Buddhassa Dhamma desenti.

* Mukha + ca = mukha ca

Vocabulary: Pali-English

36

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

I am writing a letter to (my) friend.


We eat fruits.
We offer flowers to the Buddha everyday.
He is not going home now.
You are sowing seeds in the field to-day.
The sons are washing the fathers feet with water.
They are partaking food with the friends in the house.
Childrens friends are sitting on the benches.
Are you writing letters to the teachers to-day?
I am sending books home through the servant.
I see fruits on the trees in the garden.
The birds eat the seeds in the field.
Friends are not going away from the city to-day.
We are coming from home on foot*.
From where do you buy goods now?
Men in the city are giving clothes and medicine to the sick.

* Use the Instrumental.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

37

Lesson VI
sson
A. Nouns ending in " "
Nouns ending in
oun ndi
Ka, f. maiden, virgin
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr., Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

Ka,
Kae
Kaa
Kaya
Kaya
Kaya, Kaya

Ka, Kayo
Ka, Kayo
Ka, Kayo
Kabhi, Khi
Kana
Kasu

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

-e
a
ya
ya
ya, ya

--, yo
--, yo
--, yo
bhi, hi
na
su

All nouns ending in " " are in the feminine with the exception of " s ", m. dog.

38

Feminine Subs anti


tiv
Feminine Substantives :
in

Bhariy
Bhs
Drik
Dhammasl
Gang
Nv
Osadhasl
Pibhs
Pa
Phasl
Saddh
Sal
Gilnasl
Visikh

wife
language
girl
preaching-hall
Ganges, river
ship, boat
dispensary
Pi language
wisdom
school
faith, devotion, confidence
hall
hospital
street

Infini
nitive
B. Infinitive
The Infinitives are formed by adding the suffix " tu " to the root. If the ending of the root is " a ", it
is often changed into " i ".
Examples : -

paca
rakkha
d

+ tu
+ tu
+ tu

= pacitu
= rakkhitu
= dtu

to cook
to protect
to give

Generally the above suffix is added to the forms the roots assume before the third person plural
termination of the present tense*
Examples : -

39

desenti
kianti
bhujanti
suanti
pesenti

desetu
kiitu
bhujitu
suitu, sotu
pesetu

* This same principle applies to the Indeclinable Past Participles and Present Participles which will be
treated later.
TABLE
Root

Meaning

3rd per. pres. pl.

Infinitive

Ind. Past Part.*

disa
disa
gaha
gamu
gamu with
h
isu
kara
lapa with sa
(jna)
nah
p
ruha with
h

to preach
to see
to take
to go
to come
to be
to wish
to do
to converse
to know
to bathe
to drink
to ascend
to stand

desenti
passanti
gahanti
gacchanti
gacchanti
honti
icchanti
karonti
sallapanti
jnanti
nahyanti
pibanti, pivanti
ruhanti
tihanti

desetu
passitu
gahitu
gantu
gantu
hotu
icchitu
ktu
sallapitu
tu, jnitu
nahyitu
ptu, pibitu
ruhitu
htu

desetv
disv, passitv
gahitv, gahetv
gantv
gantv, gamma
hutv
icchitv
katv
sallapitv
atv, jnitv
nahyitv,nahtv
ptv, pibitv
ruhitv, ruyha
hatv

* These Indeclinable Past Participles will be treated in lesson VIII.


Illustrations :
llu ations

1. Bhariy drikna
The wife to the girls

dtu odana
to give rice

40

pacati.
cooks.

2. Drikyo
The girls

uggahitu
to learn

phasla
to school

gacchanti.
go.

3. Te
They

gagya
in the river

kitu
to play

icchanti.
wish.

4. Kayo
The maidens

hra bhujitu
food
to eat

slya
in the hall

nisdanti.
sit.

Exe
vi
Exercise vi
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Kayo gagya nahyitu gacchanti.


Aha phasla gantu icchmi.
Maya Dhamma sotu slya nisdma.
Kuhi tva bhariyya saddhi gacchasi?
Drikyo saddhya Buddha vandanti.
Siss idni Pibhsya lekhanni likhitu jnanti.
Nar paa labhitu bhsyo uggahanti.
Kae, kuhi tva pupphni haritu icchasi?
Kayo drikhi saddhi gilne phalehi sagahitu vejjasla gacchanti.
Ass udaka pibitu gaga oruhanti.
S cariyassa bhariy hoti.
Gilne saganhitu visikhya osadhasl na hoti.
Nar bhariyna dtu paehi vatthni kianti.
Drik ghara gantu magga na jnti.
Drak ca drikyo ca phaslya phesu nisditu na icchanti.
Giln gharni gantu osadhaslya nikkhamanti.
Maya cariyehi saddhi pibhsya sallapma.
Bhariye, kuhi tva gantu icchasi?
Maya gagya nvyo passitu gacchma.
Paa ca saddha ca labhitu maya Dhamma suma.

Vocabulary: Pali-English

41

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

O maidens, do you wish to go to the temple to-day?


I am coming to take medicine from the dispensary.
There are no dispensaries in the street here
Father, I know to speak in Pi now.
We see no ships on the river.
She wishes to go with the maidens to see the school.
With faith the girl goes to offer flowers to the Buddha.
You are sitting in the preaching hall to hear the Doctrine.
Boys and girls wish to bathe in rivers.
There are no patients in the hospital.
We study languages to obtain wisdom.
I do not wish to go in ships.
With faith they sit in the hall to learn the Doctrine.
I do not know the language of the letter.
O girls, do you know the way to go home?
He is bringing a book to give to the wife.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

42

Lesson VII
sson
Aor
Ajj an
tiv voice
Aorist (Ajjatan) Active voice
Terminations
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

o
i

PLURAL
u
ttha
mha

paca, to cook
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

apac,
apaci,
apaco,
apaci,

pac
paci
he cooked
paco
you cooked
paci
I cooked

PLURAL
3rd
2nd
1st

apacu,
apacisu,
apacittha
apacimh,

pacu
pacisu
pacittha
pacimh

they cooked
you cooked
we cooked

gamu, to go
SING.
3rd
2nd
1st

PLU.

agam, gam
agami, gami
agamo, gamo
agami, gami

agamu, gamu
agamisu, gamisu
agamittha, gamittha
agamimh, gamimh

43

su, to hear
SING.
3rd
2nd
1st

PLU.

asu, su
asui, sui
asuo, suo
asui, sui

asuisu
suisu
asuittha, suittha
asuimh, suimh

In the past tense the augment " a " is optionally used before the root *. The third person " " is
sometimes shortened, and the third person plural " u " is often changed into " isu ". The vowel
preceding " ttha " and " mh " is changed into " i ". The second person " o " is mostly changed into "i ".
Whenever the root or stem ends in a vowel e or the s Aorist is used i.e., s is added before the suffix.
Examples : -

SINGULAR

PLURAL

si
si
si

su, su
sittha
simh

d, to give
SING.
PLU.

disa, to preach

d + s + i = adsi
d + su = adasu

disa + s + i = desesi
desisu

h, to stand
SING.
PLU.

h + s + i = ahsi
+ su = ahasu

* This " a " should not be mistaken for the negative prefix " a ".

44

Pos ssi Pronouns


Possessive Pronouns

3rd
nd

m. n.
f.

tassa, his
tass, her

m. n.
f.

tesa, their
tsa, their

m. f. n. tava, tuyha your or thine

m. f. n. tumhka, your

1st

m. f. n. mama, mayha, my

m. f. n. amhka, our

These are the Genitive cases of the Personal Pronouns.


Words
Words : rd

Aparaha
Cira
Eva
Hyo
Pto
Ptarsa
Pubbaha
Purato
Syamsa
Viya

m.
indec.
indec.
indec.
indec.
m.
m.
indec.
m.
indec.

afternoon
long, for a long time
just, quite, even, only (used as an emphatic affirmative)
yesterday
early in the morning
morning meal
forenoon
in the presence of
evening meal, dinner
like
Exe
vii
Exercise vii
A

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Buddho loke uppajji.


Hyo samao dhamma desesi.
Drako ptova* tassa phasla agam.
Acariy tesa sissna pubbahe ovda adasu.
Cira te amhka ghara na agamisu.
Drik tsa janakassa purato ahasu.
Tva tass hatthe mayha pottaka passo.
Tva gagya nahyitu ptova agamo.
Tva ajja ptarsa na bhujo.

45

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Kuhi tumhe tumhka mittehi saddhi aparahe agamittha?


Kasm tumheyeva** mama cariyassa lekhanni na likhittha?
Tumhe cira mayha putte na passittha.
Aha tuyha pakre hyo na alabhi.
Ahameva*** gilnna ajja osadha adsi.
Aha asse passitu visikhya asi.
Maya tuyha cariyassa siss ahosimh.
Maya ajja pubbahe na uggahimh.
Sama viya mayampi **** saddhya dhamma suimh.

* Pto + eva = ptova. Here the following vowel is dropped.


** Tumhe + eva = Tumhe yeva. Sometimes " y " is augmented between vowels.
*** Aha + eva = ahameva. When a niggahita is followed by a vowel it is sometimes changed into "m".
**** Maya + api = mayampi. Here the following vowel is dropped and niggahita is changed into "m"

Vocabulary: Pali-English

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

I slept on my bed.
I stood in their garden in the evening.
I sat on a bench in the hall to write a letter to his friend.
We bathed in the river in the early morning. *
We ourselves** treated the sick yesterday.
For a long time we lived in our uncles house in the city.
Child, why did you stand in front of your teacher?
Wife, you cooked rice in the morning.
Son, where did you go yesterday?
You obtained wisdom through your teachers.
Why did you not hear the Doctrine like your father?
Where did you take your dinner yesterday?

46

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

She was standing in her garden for a long time.


He himself*** washed the feet of his father.
For a long time my friend did not buy goods from his shop.
The doctors did not come to the hospital in the afternoon.
The boys and girls did not bring their books to school yesterday.
I myself gave medicine to the sick last**** morning.

* Use Ptova.
** Use mayameva
*** Use so eva
**** Use hyo.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

47

Lesson VIII
sson
Noun endi in
ouns nding
A. Nouns ending in " "
Muni, m. sage
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

muni
muni
munin
munin, munimh,
munism
munino, munissa
munimhi, munismi

mun, munayo
mun, munayo
munbhi, munhi
munbhi, munhi
munna
munsu

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc. -Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

n
n, mh, sm
no, ssa
mhi, smi

, ayo
, ayo
bhi, hi
bhi, hi
na
su

Ahi, n. bone
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc.
Acc.

PLURAL

ahi
ahi

ah, ani
ah, ani

48

Terminations
SINGULAR
-

Nom., Voc.
Acc.

PLURAL
, ni
, ni

The rest like masculine, with the exception of the Loc. plural which has two forms - ahisu, ahsu.
Words
Words :
rd

Adhipati
Aggi
Asi
Atithi
Gahapati
Kapi
Kavi
Mai
Narapati
ti
Pati
Vhi

m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.
m.

chief, master
fire
sword
guest
house-holder
monkey
poet
jewel
King
relative
husband, lord
paddy

Indeclina Pas Par cip


Indeclinable Past Participles*
in
These are generally formed by adding the suffix " tva " to the root. If the ending of the root is " a ", it
is often changed into " i ". Sometimes " tvna " and " tna " are also added to the roots.
Examples :-

49

paca
khipa
su
kara**

+ tv
+ tv
+ tv
+ tv

= pacitv,
= khipitv,
= sutv,
= katv,

having cooked
having thrown
having heard; also sutvna, sotna
having done; also katvna, ktna

* See note and the table in lesson VII - B


** In this case the final " ra " is dropped.
Illustrations :
llu ations

1. nisditv
having sat

bhuji
he ate,

or he sat and ate

2. Buddha
the Buddha

vanditv
having saluted

dhamma
the Doctrine

sotu
agam
to hear he went

or- He saluted the Buddha and went to hear the Doctrine.

3. He stood and
So hatv

spoke
vadi

4. After playing he went to bathe


So kitv nahyitu agami
Exe
viii
Exercise viii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Muni narapati Dhammena sagahitv agami.


Kapayo rukkha ruhitv phalni khdisu.
Kad tumhe kavimh potthakni alabhittha?
Aha tesa rme adhipati ahosi.
Maya gahapathi saddhi gagya udaka haritv aggimhi khipimh.
Narapati hatthena asi gahetv assa ruhi.
Tva tuyha pati darena sagaho.
Gahapatayo narapatino purato hatv vadisu.

50

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Atith amhka ghara gantv hra bhujisu.


Saku khettesu vhi disv khdisu.
Narapati gahapatimh mai labhitv kavino adsi.
Adhipati atithhi saddhi hra bhujitv muni passitu agmi.
Aha mayha tino ghare cira vasi.
Sunakh ahhi gahetv magge dhvisu.
Dhamma sutv gahapatna Buddhe saddha uppajji.

Vocabulary: Pali-English
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

The father of the sage was a king.


O house-holders, why did you not advise your children to go to school?
We saw the king and came.
I went and spoke to the poet.
The chief of the temple sat on a chair and preached the Doctrine to the householders.
Only yesterday I wrote a letter and sent to my master.
The poet compiled a book and gave to the king.
Our relatives lived in the guests house for a long time and left only (this) morning.
The householders bought paddy from the farmers and sowed in their fields.
We sat on the benches and listened to the advice of the sage.
The king built a temple and offered to the sage.
After partaking* my morning meal with the guests I went to see my relatives.
I bought fruits from the market and gave to the monkey.
Why did you stand in front of the fire and play with the monkey?
Faith arose in the king after hearing the Doctrine from the sage.

*Use "bhujitv"

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

51

Lesson IX
sson
Feminin Noun endi in
mini
ouns nding
A. Feminine Nouns ending in " i "
Bhmi f. ground
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc.
Acc.
Instr. Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

bhmi
bhmi bhm,
bhmiy
bhmiy
bhmiy, bhmiya

bhm, bhmiyo
bhmiyo
bhmbhi, bhmhi
bhmna
bhmsu

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc. -Acc.
Instr. Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

y
y
y, ya

, iyo
, iyo
bhi, hi
na
su

52

Words
Words :
rd

Agui
Aavi
Bhaya
Mutti
Pti
Rati
Khanti
Ratti
Kuddla
Soka
Kpa
Suve, Sve

f.
f.
n.
f.
f.
f.
f.
f.
m.,n.
m.
m.
adv.

finger
forest
fear
deliverance
joy
attachment
patience
night
spade
grief
well
tomorrow

(Bhav san
avi
B. FUTURE TENSE (Bhavissanti) - ACTIVE VOICE
Terminations*
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

PLURAL

ssati
ssasi
ssmi

ssanti
ssatha
ssma
paca, to cook

SINGULAR
3rd

PLURAL

pacissati
he will cook

pacissanti
they will cook

53

2nd

pacissasi
you will cook

pacissatha
you will cook

1st

pacissmi
I will cook

pacissma
we will cook

In the future tense the vowel preceding the terminations is changed into " i ".
* Note that, the future tense terminations are formed by adding "ssa" to the present tense terminations.
Verbs :
rbs

Bhavati
Khaati
Jyati
Pputi
Pavisati
Tarati

(bh)
(khaa)
(jana)
(apa with pa)
(visa with pa)
(tara)

becomes (be)
digs
arises, is born
arrives
enters
crosses
Exe
Exercise ix
A

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Gahapati kuddlena bhmiya kpa khaissati.


Khantiy pti uppajjissati.
Narapati sve aavi pavisitv muni passissati.
Gahapatayo bhmiya nisditv dhamma suissanti.
Rattiya te aavsu na vasissanti.
Narapatino putt aaviya nagara karissanti.
Narapati, tva mutti labhitv Buddho bhavissasi.
Kad tva aaviy nikkhamitv nagara ppuissasi?
Kuhi tva sve gamissasi?
Tumhe rattiya visikhsu na vicarissatha.
Rattiya tumhe canda passissatha.

54

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Aha assamh bhmiya na patissmi.


Aha mayha agulhi mani gahissmi.
Maya gaga taritv sve aavi ppuissma.
Sve maya dhammasla gantv bhmiya nisditv mutti labhitu ptiy dhamma sunissma.
" Ratiy jyati soko - ratiy jyati bhaya. "

Vocabulary: Pali-English
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

The monkey will eat fruits with his fingers.


He will cross the forest tomorrow.
Sorrow will arise through attachment.
Child, you will fall on the ground.
You will see the moon in the sky at night.
O sages, when you obtain deliverance and preach the Doctrine to the world?
O farmers, where will you dig a well to obtain water for your fields?
Why will you not bring a spade to dig the ground?
I will go to live in a forest after receiving * instructions from the sage.
I will be a poet.
I will not stand in the presence of the king.
Through patience we will obtain deliverance.
Why shall we wander in the forests with fear?
We ourselves shall treat the sick with joy.

* Use gahetv

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

55

Lesson X
sson
A. Declension of Nouns ending in " "
clension
ouns endi
Sm m. lord, husband
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

sm
sm, smino
sm
sm, smino
smi
sm, smino
smin
smbhi, smhi
smin
smbhi, smhi
smimh, smism
smino, smissa smna
smini, smimhi smsu
smismi

The Loc. sing. has an additional " ni "

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.

PLURAL

-i

--, no
--, no
--, no

The rest like " i " terminations

56

Da, n. one who has a stick


Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc.
Acc.

PLURAL

SING. PLU.

dai
dai

da, daini
,,
,,

i,

The rest like the masculine

Nr, f. woman
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr., Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

nr
nri
nri
nriy
nriy
nriy, nriya

nr, nriyo
nr, nriyo
nr, nriyo
nrbhi, nrhi
nrna
nrsu

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.

PLURAL

-i

--, iyo
--, iyo
--, iyo

The rest like " i " terminations.

57

,ni
, ni

Words
Words :
rd

Appamda
Bhagin
Brahmacr
Dhammacr
Dhana
Duggati
Have
Iva
Janan
Mahes
Medhv
ppa
Ppakr
Pua
Puakr
Seha
Sugati

m.
f.
m.
m.
n.
f.
indec.
indec.
f.
f.
m.
n.
m.
n.
m.
adj.
f.

earnestness, heedfulness
sister
celibate
he who acts righteously
wealth
evil state
indeed, certainly
like
mother
queen
wise man
evil
evil-doer
merit, good
well-doer
excellent, chief
good or happy state

B. The Formation of Feminines


Th Fo ation Femini
in
Some feminines are formed by adding " " and " " to the masculines ending in " a ".
Examples :-

Aja
Assa
Upsaka
Draka

goat
horse
male devotee
boy

Aj
Ass
Upsik
Darik

she-goat
mare
female devotee
girl

(If the noun ends in " ka ", the preceding vowel is often changed into " i ".)

58

Deva
Dsa
Nara

god
servant
man

Dev
Ds
Nr

goddess
maid-servant
woman

Some are formed by adding " ni " or " ini " to the masculines ending in " a ", " i " " ", and " u ".
Examples :-

Rja
Hatthi
Medhv
Bhikkhu

king
elephant
wise man
monk

Rjin
Hatthin
Medhvin
Bhikkhun

queen
she-elephant
wise woman
nun

But :
Mtula, uncle becomes mtuln, aunt and
Gahapati, male house-holder - gahapatn, female house-holder.
Exe
Exercise x
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

" Dhammo have rakkhati Dhammacr. "


" Na duggati gacchati dhammacr. "
Nar ca nriyo ca pua katv sugatsu uppajjissanti.
Bhagin tassa smin saddi janani passitu sve gamissati.
Ppakr, tumhe ppa katv duggatsu uppajjissatha.
Idni maya brahmacrino homa.
Mahesiyo nrna pua ktu dhana denti.
Hatthino ca hatthiniyo ca aavsu ca pabbatesu ca vasanti.
Mayha smino janan bhikkhunna* ca upsikna ca sagahi.
Mahesi narapatin saddhi sve nagara ppuissati.
Medhvino ca medhviniyo ca appamdena Dhamma uggahitv mutti labhissanti.
Puakrino brahmacrhi saddhi vasitu icchanti.
Nriyo mahesi passitu nagara agamisu.
Bhikkhuniyo gahapatnna ovda adasu.
"Appamda ca medhvi - dhana sehava** rakkhati."

59

* Niggahita () when followed by a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group,
e.g.,
sa
sa
aha
aha
ta

+ gaho
+ hna
+ pi
+ ca
+ dhana

= sagaho
= sahna
= ahampi
= aha ca
= tandhana

** Seha + iva.

Vocabulary: Pali-English
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Those who act righteously will not do evil and be born in evil states.
The well-doers will obtain their deliverance.
My husband mounted the elephant and fell on the ground.
She went to school with her sister.
The queens mother is certainly a wise lady.
Boys and girls are studying with diligence to get presents from their mothers and fathers.
Men and women go with flowers in their hands to the temple everyday.
My sister is protecting her mother as an excellent treasure.
Mother, I shall go to see my uncle and aunt tomorrow.
Amongst celebates* there are wise men.
Having seen the elephant, the she-goats ran away through fear.
The king, accompanied by** the queen, arrived in the city yesterday.

* Use the Locative.


** Use "Saddhi"

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

60

Lesson XI
sson
A. Declension of Nouns ending in " u " and " "
clension
ouns endi
Bhikkhu, m. mendicant
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.

Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

bhikkhu
bhikkhu
bhikkhu
bhikkhun
bhikkhun
bhikkhumh,
bhikkhusm
bhikkhuno, bhikkhussa
bhikkhumhi,
bhikkhusmi

bhikkh, bhikkhavo
bhikkh, bhikkhavo, bhikkhave
bhikkh, bhikkhavo
bhikkhbhi, bhikkhhi
bhikkhbhi, bhikkhhi

bhikkhna
bhikkhsu

yu, n. age.
SING.
Nom., Voc.
Acc.

PLU.

yu
yu

y, yuni
y, yuni

The rest like the masculine

61

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.

PLURAL

m.
--

m.
, avo
, avo, ave
, avo

n.
--

n.
, ni
, ni
, ni

The rest like the " i " terminations

Dhenu, f. cow
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc
Acc.
Instr., Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

dhenu,
dhenu
dhenuy
dhenuy
dhenuy, dhenuya

dhen, dhenuyo
dhen, dhenuyo
dhenbhi, dhenhi
dhenna
dhensu

Terminations
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc
Acc.

PLURAL

, yo
, yo

The rest like " i " terminations

62

Abhibh, m. conqueror
SINGULAR
Nom., Voc
Acc.

PLURAL

abhibh
abhibhu

abhibh, abhibhuvo
abhibh, abhibhuvo

The rest like bhikkhu

Sabba, m. All-knowing One


SINGULAR
Nom., Voc
Acc.

PLURAL

sabba
sabbau

sabba, sabbauno
sabba, sabbauno

The rest like bhikkhu

Gotrabh, n. The Sanctified One


SINGULAR
Nom., Voc

PLURAL

gotrabh

gotrabh, gotrabhni

The rest like bhikkhu

Vadh, f. young wife


SINGULAR
Nom., Voc

PLURAL

vadh

vadh, vadhuyo

The rest like dhenu

63

Words
Words :
rd

vuso
Bhante
Cakkhu
Dru
Dpa
Kata
Khra
Kujara
Maccu
Madhu
Paha
Sdhuka
Sen
Tia
Ygu
Yva
Tva

indec.
indec.
n.
n.
n.
m.
n.
m.
m.
m.
m.
indec.
f.
n.
m.
indec.
indec.

friend, brother
Lord, Rev. Sir
eye
wood, fire-wood
light, lamp
grateful person
milk
elephant
death
honey
question
well
army
grass
rice-gruel
till*
until*

*Correlatives as long as so long

rbs mpe tiv and Bene cti


ned
(Pac
B Verbs : Imperative and Benedictive Mood (Pacam)
Terminations
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

PLURAL

tu
hi
mi

antu
tha
ma

64

paca, to cook
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

pacatu
paca, pachi
pacmi

PLURAL
may he cook
may you cook
may I cook

pacantu
pacatha
pacma

may they cook


may you cook
may we cook

This mood is used to express a command or wish, and it corresponds to the Imperative and
Benedictive moods.
The vowel preceding " hi ", " mi ", and " ma " is always lengthened. In the second person there is an
additional termination " a ".
Illustrations :
llu ations

COMMAND
Idha gaccha,
Tva gharasm nikkhamhi,
Tumhe idha tihatha,

come here.
you go away from the house.
you stand here.

WISH
Aha Buddho bhavmi,
Buddho dhamma desetu,

may I become a Buddha.


let the Buddha preach the Doctrine.

The prohibitive particle " m " is sometimes used with this mood, * e.g.,

m gaccha

do not go.

* This particle is mostly used with the Aorist 3rd person; e.g.,

65

m agamsi,
m ahsi,
m bhuji,

do not go.
do not stand.
do not eat.

Verbs :
rbs

Bujjhati
Dhunti
Kujjhati
Jvati
Pucchati

(budha)
(dhu)
(kudha)
(jva)
(puccha)

understands
destroys
gets angry
lives
asks
Exe
xi
Exercise xi
A

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Sabba bhikkhna dhamma desetu!


Dhenu tia khdatu!
vuso, aaviy dru haritv aggi karohi.
Gahapatayo, bhikkhsu m kujjhatha.
Bhikkhave, aha dhamma desessmi, sdhuka sutha.
" Dhuntha maccuno sena nagrava kujaro. "
Yvha gacchmi tva idha tihatha.
Bhikkh paha sdhuka bujjhantu!
Siss, sad kata hotha.
Katauno, tumhe yu labhitv cira jvatha!
"Dhamma pibatha, bhikkhavo. "
Mayha cakkhhi ppa na passmi, Bhante.
Dhenuy khra gahetv madhun saddhi pibma.
vuso, bhikkna purato m tihatha.
Bhante, bhikkhumh maya paha pucchma.
Nar ca nriyo ca bhikkhhi dhamma sdhuka sutv pua katv sugatsu uppajjantu!
Vocabulary: Pali-English

66

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Let him salute the mendicants!


May you live long, O All-knowing One!
Do not give grass to the cows in the afternoon.
Friend, do not go till I come.
Rev. Sirs, may you see no evil with your eyes!
Let us sit on the ground and listen to the advice of the Bhikkhus.
May you be grateful persons!
Let them stay here till we bring firewood from the forest.
O young wives, do not get angry with your husbands.
May I destroy the army of death!
May I drink rice-gruel with honey!
May we know your age, O bhikkhu!
Do not stand in front of the elephant.
O house-holders, treat your mothers and fathers well.
Friends, do not offer rice-gruel to the Bhikkhus till we come.
Do not drink honey, child.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

67

Lesson XII
sson
Persona ronouns
A. Personal Pronouns
Amha, I
SINGULAR
Nom.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen
Loc.

PLURAL

aha
ma, mama
may (me)
may
mama, mayha,
amha, mama, (me)
mayi

maya, amhe, (no)


amhka, amhe, (no)
amhebhi, amhehi, (no)
amhebhi, amhehi
amhka, amhe, (no)
amhesu

Tumha, you
SINGULAR
Nom.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen
Loc.

PLURAL

tva, tuva
ta, tava, tva, tuva
tvay, tay, (te)
tvay, tay
tava, tuyha,
tumha, (te)
tvayi, tayi

tumhe , (vo)
tumhka, tumhe, (vo)
tumhebhi, tumhehi, (vo)
tumhebhi, tumhehi
tumha, tumhka, (vo)
tumhesu

" te ", "me ", " vo ", and " no ", are not used in the beginning of a sentence.

68

B. Conditional Mood (sattam)


Condit onal
ondi
Terminations
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

PLURAL

eyya
eyysi
eyymi

eyyu
eyytha
eyyma
paca, to cook

SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

pace, paceyya
paceyysi
paceyymi

PLURAL
he should cook
you should cook
I should cook

paceyyu
paceyytha
paceyyma

they should cook


you should cook
we should cook

The third person singular " eyya " is sometimes changed into " e ".
This mood is also used to express wish, command, prayer, etc. When it is used in a conditional sense,
the sentence often begins with " sace ", " ce " or " yadi " if.

69

Words
Words: rd

Alikavd
roceti
Asdhu
Bhajati
Bhaati
Dna
Eva
Jinti
Kadariya
Kodha
Khippa
Paita
Ppaka
Sdhu
Vyamati
Vaa
Sacca
Yad
Tad

m.
(ruca with )
m.
(bhaja)
(bhaa)
n.
indec.
(ji)
m.
m.
indec.
m.
adj.
m.
(yamu with vi and a)
m.
n.
indec.
indec.

he who speaks lies


informs, tells, announces
bad man; adj. bad, wicked
associates
speaks, recites
alms, giving, gift
thus
conquers
miser, avaricious person
anger
quickly, immediately
wise man
evil
good man; adj. good
strives, tries
appearance, colour, praise, quality
truth
when*
then*

* Correlatives
Exe
xii
Exercise xii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

" Gma no gaccheyyma."


" Buddhopi Buddhassa bhaeyya vaa. "
" Na bhaje ppake mitte. "
" Sacca bhae, na kujjheyya. "
" Dhamma vo desessmi. "
Sace aha saccni bujjheyymi te roceyymi.

70

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Yadi tva vymeyysi khippa paito bhaveyysi.


Yva tumhe ma passeyytha tva idha tiheyytha.
Sace bhikkh dhamma deseyyu maya sdhuka sueyyma.
Sdhu bhante, eva no kareyyma.
Yadi tva may saddhi gantu iccheyysi tava janani rocetv gaccheyysi.
Amhesu ca tumhesu ca gahapatayo na khujjheyyu.
Sace dhamma sutv mayi saddh tava uppajjeyya aha tva adhipati kareyymi.
Yva tumhe mutti labheyytha tva appamdena vyameyytha.
" Akkodhena jine kodha - asdhu sdhun jine
Jine kadariya dnena - saccena alikavdina ".
16. " Khippa vyama; paito bhava. "
Vocabulary: Pali-English

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

B
You should not go with him.
Children, you should always speak the truth.
Rev. Sir. I should like to ask a question from you.
Well, you should not be angry with me thus.
I shall not go to see your friend until I receive a letter from you.
You should endeavour to overcome your anger by patience.
If you would listen to my advice, I would certainly go with you.
You should tell me if he were to send a book to you.
We should like to hear the doctrine from you, Rev. Sir.
By giving we should conquer the misers.
We should not be born in evil state until we should understand the truths.
Would you go immediately and bring the letter to me?
If a good person were to associate with a wicked person, he may also become a wicked person.
Should wicked persons associate with the wise, they would soon become good men.
If you should hear me well, faith should arise in you.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

71

Lesson 
Relative Pronouns
tiv Pronouns
Ya, who, which, that
SINGULAR
m.
Nom.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen
Loc.

yo

n.

f.

ya
y
ya
ya
yena
yya
yamh, yasm
yya
yassa
yassa, yya
yamhi, yasmi yassa, yya
PLURAL

m.
Nom.
Acc
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen
Loc.

ye
ye

n.

f.

ye, yni
y, yyo
ye, yni
y, yyo
yebhi, yehi
ybhi, yhi
yesa, yesna ysa, ysna
yesu
ysu

72

Ta, who, he
SINGULAR
m.
Nom.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.

so

Dat., Gen
Loc.

f.

na, ta
na, ta
nena, tena
namh, tamh
nasm, tasm
nassa, tassa
namhi, tamhi
nasmi, tasmi

m.
Nom.
Acc.
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen
Loc.

n.

ne, te
ne, te

PLURAL
n.

s
na, ta
nya, tya
nya, tya
tissya, tiss
tass, tya
tissa, tassa, tya

f.

ne,te, nni, tni n, nyo, t, tyo


ne,te, nni, tni n, nyo, t, tyo
nebhi, nehi, tebhi, tehi
nbhi, nhi, tbhi, thi
nesa, nesna, tesa, tesna tsa, tsna
nesu, tesu
tsu

The forms beginning with " t " are more commonly used.
The pronouns " ya " and " ta " are frequently used together. They are treated as Correlatives.
Examples :-

" Yo Dhamma passati so Buddha passati "


He who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha
" Ya hoti ta hotu " be it as it may
ya icchasi ta vadehi Say what you wish

73

" Yo gilna upahti so ma upahti "


He who serves the sick serves me
Eta, that (yonder)
SINGULAR

PLURAL

m.
Nom.
Acc.

n.

f.

eso
eta

eta
eta

m.

es
eta

ete
ete

n.

ete, etni
ete, etni

f.
et, etyo
et, etyo

The rest like " ta ", with the exception of forms beginning with " n ".
The Int rrogati Pr
ogat
The Interrogative Pronoun :

Ka, who, which?


SINGULAR
m.
n.
Nom.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen
Loc.

ko
ka,

ka, ki
ka, ki
kena,
kamh, kasm
kassa, kissa
kamhi, kasmi
kimhi, kismi

f.
k
k
kya,
kya
kya, kass
kya, kya

The rest like " ya "


" ci " is suffixed to all the cases of " ka " in all the genders to form Indefinite Pronouns ; e.g., koci,
kci, any, etc.
The following adjectives are declined like "ya " :-

74

Aa
Aatara
Apara
Dhakkhia
Eka
Itara
Katara
Katama
Pacchima
Para
Pubba
Puratthima
Sabba
Uttara

another
certain
other, subsequent, Western
South
one, certain, some
different, the remaining
what? which? (generally of the two)
what? which? (generally of many)
West
other, different
first, foremost, Eastern, earlier
East
all
higher, superior, Northern

Aa, aatara, itara, eka are sometimes declined in the Dative and Genitive feminine singular as:
aiss, aatariss, itariss and ekiss respectively; in the Locative feminine singular as: aissa,
aatarissa, itarissa and ekissa respectively.
Pubba, para, apara are sometimes declined in the Ablative masculine singular, as: pubb, par, and
apar respectively; in the locative masculine singular, as: pubbe, pare, and apare respectively.

75

Words
Words :
rd

dya
Dis
Ki
Nma

indec.
f.
indec.
n.
indec.

Nu

lndec.

Payojana
V

indec.
indec.

p. p. (d with ) having taken.


quarter, direction.
Why? what? pray
name; mind
by name, indeed,
(Sometimes used without a meaning.)
pray, I wonder!
(Sometimes used in asking a question.)
use, need
either, or

Exe
xiii
Exercise xiii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Ko nma tva?
Ko nma eso?
Ko nma te cariyo?
Idni eso ki karissati?
Ki tva eta pucchasi?
Es nr te ki hoti?
Sve kimete karissanti?
Kassa bhikkhussa ta potthaka pesessma?
Tesa dhanena me ki payojana?
Ko jnti kieso karissatti?
Kissa phala nma eta?
Kya disya tass janan idni vasati?
Kassa dhamma sotu ete icchanti?
" Yo Dhamma passati so Buddham passati, yo Buddha passati so Dhamma pasati ".
Ya tva icchasi ta etassa arocehi.

76

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Ya te karonti tam* eva gahetv para loka gacchanti.


Yassa disya so vasati tassa disya etepi vasitu icchanti.
Eso naro eka vadati, es nr aa vadati.
Paresa bhani maya na gahma.
Etni phalni m tassa sakuassa detha.
Idni sbbepi te Bhikkh uttarya disya aatarasmi rme vasanti.
Etasmi nagare sabbe nar apara nagara agamisu.
Kicipi ktu so na jnti.
Katama disa tumhe gantu iccheyytha -puratthima v dakkhia v pacchima v uttara
v?
25. Katarya disya tva suriya passasi -pubya v aparya v?
* When a niggahita () is followed by a vowel, it is sometimes changed into " m ".
See note in Exercise 10 - A

Vocabulary: Pali-English

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Who is she?
What is his name?
In which direction did he go?
Is he a relative of yours?
What is the name of that fruit?
From whom did you buy those books?
With whom shall we go to-day?
In whose garden are those boys and girls playing?
In which direction do you see the sun in the morning?
Of what use is that to him or to her?
To whom did he give those presents?

77

12. What is the use of your wealth, millionaire? You are not going to take all that with you to the other
world. Therefore* eat well. Have no attachment to your wealth. Grief results thereby. ** Do merit
with that wealth of yours. Erect hospitals for the sick schools for children, temples for monks and
nuns. It is those good actions you take with you when you go to the other world.
13. Those who do good deeds are sure to be born in good states.
14. Let him say what he likes.
15. We did not write all those letters.
16. You should not tell others all that you see with your eyes.
17. We like to live in cities in which wise men live.
* Use " tasm ".
** Use " tena ".

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

78

Lesson XIV
sson
Par ipl
Participles
In Pi there are six kinds of Participles viz :
(i) Present Active participles,
ent tive pa ici
(ii) Present Passive Participles,
ent Pas ive Par ipl
(iii) Past Indeclinable Participles,
Pas Inde lina Par cip es,*
ndec nab
(iv) Past Active Participles,
Pas Ac ive Par ipl
(v) Past Passive Participles, and
Pas Pas
Par ple
(vi) Potential Participles
* These have been already dealt with in lesson VIII - B. See Table in lesson VI - B
i. The Present Active Participles are formed by adding " anta " and " mna " to the root; e.g:,

paca
paca

+ anta = pacanta;
+ mna = pacamna,

cooking.

ii. The Present Passive Participles are formed by adding the Passive suffix "ya " between the root and the
suffix " mna ". If the ending of the root is " a " or " ", it is changed into " i " , e.g.,

paca
s

+ ya
+ ya

+ mna
+ mna

= pacyamna, being cooked;


= syamna,
being heard.

Generally these suffixes are added to the forms the roots assume before the third person plural
terminations of the present tense.
These participles are inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify, in gender, number
and case. They are also used when contemporaneity of action is to be indicated. The sense of the English
words as, since, while, whilst may be expressed by them.

79

masc
sculine
Declension of pacanta in the masculine
lension pac

SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen
Loc.

PLURAL

paca, pacanto
paca, paca, pac
pacanta
pacat, pacantena
pacat, pacantamh
pacantasm
pacato, pacantassa
pacati, pacante,
pacantamhi,
pacantasmi

pacanto, pacant
pacanto, pacant
pacante
pacantebhi, pacantehi
pacantebhi, pacantehi
pacata, pacantna
pacantesu

Feminine
Feminine
in
The feminine is formed by adding the suffix " ", as
pacanta + = pacant, and is declined like feminine nouns ending in " " (See lesson X.)

Neuter
eut

SINGULAR
Nom., Voc
Acc.

PLURAL

paca,
pacanta

pacant, pacantni
pacante, pacantni

The rest like the masculine.


The Present Participles ending in " mna " are declined like " nara ", " ka " and " phala "; as
pacamno (m.) pacamn (f.) and pacamna (n.)

80

Illustrations :
llu ations

gacchanto puriso,
going man, or the man who is going.
gacchantassa purisassa,
to the man who is going.
paccant (or) pacamn itth,
the woman who is cooking.
so vadamno gacchati,
he goes speaking.
patamna phala,
the falling fruit.
rakkhyamna nagara,
the city that is being protected.
Aha magge gacchanto ta purisa passi, I saw that man while I was going on the
way.

(iv), (v) The Past Active and Passive participles are formed by adding the suffix " ta ", or " na " after " d "
etc. to the root or stem. If the ending of the root is " a ", it is often changed into " i ".
Examples :-

su
paca
rakkha
chidi
bhidi

+ ta
+ ta
+ ta
+ ta
+na
+ na

= ta,
= suta,
= pacita,
= rakkhita,
= chinna,
= bhinna,

known
heard
cooked
protected
cut
broken

These are also inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and
case. They are frequently used to supply the place of verbs, sometimes in conjunction with the auxiliaries "
asa " and " hu " to be.

81

Illustrations :
llu ations

So gato,
hito naro,
hitassa narassa,
hitya nriy,
Buddhena desito dhammo,
Sissehi pucchitassa pahassa,

he went or he is gone. (Here hoti is understood.)


the man who stood.
to the man who stood or to the man standing.
to the woman who stood.
the Doctrine preached by the Buddha.
to the question asked by the pupils.

(vi) The Potential Participles are formed by adding the suffix " tabba " to the root or stem with or without.
If the ending of the root is " a ", it is often changed into " i ".
Examples :-

paca

+ tabba
+ tabba
+ tabba

= dtabba,
= tabba,
= pacitabba,

should or must be given.


should be known.
should be cooked.

These participles too agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and case. The
agent is put in the Instrumental.

Illustrations :
llu ations

Janako vanditabbo,
Janan rakkhitabb,
Citta rakkhitabba,
Tay gantabba,
Svakehi dhammo sotabbo,

the father should be saluted.


the mother should be protected.
the mind should be guarded.
you should go.
the Doctrine should be heard by the disciples.

Examples :-

82

Root

present Act. Participle

Present Pass. Part.

Past Part.

Potential Part.

d
disa*

denta
desenta, desamna
passanta, passamna
bhujanta, bhujamna
gacchanta, gacchamna
gahanta, gahamna
karonta, kurumna

dyamana
desyamna
passiyamna
bhujyamna
gacchyamna
gayhamna
kayiramna,
karyamna
pyamna

dinna
desita
diha
bhutta
gata
gahita
kata

dtabba
desetabba
passitabba
bhujitabba
gantabba
gahetabba
kattabba, ktabba

pta

ptabba

syamna

suta

sotabba, suitabba

bhuja
gamu
gaha
kara
p

pibanta, pivanta
pibamna, pivamna
suanta, suamna

su

* disa, (i) to preach; (ii) to see. Desenta, preaching; Passanta, seeing


Words
Words :
rd

Atthi
v.
Avihehayanta
p.
Bhta
n.
Carati
v.
Khaggavisakappa m.
Nidhya
ind.
Pema
m.
Sahya
m.
Tah
f.
Upasakamati
v.

is, there is
part. a + vi + heha, not hurting
being
(cara) wanders
like a rhinoceros
p. p. ni + dh, having left aside
attachment, love
friend
craving
(kamu with upa + sa) approaches

83

Exercise xiv
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

19.
20.

" Eva me suta. "


Mayi gate* so gato.
Ki tena kata?
So tassa vaa bhaamno ma upasakami.
Aha magge gacchanto tasmi rukkhe nisinna sakua passi.
Bhikkhhi lokassa dhammo desetabbo.
Pua kattabba, ppa na ktabba.
Ajja etena maggena may gantabba.
Sabb itthiyo dhamma sunantiyo etya slya nisdisu.
Pait ya ya desa bhajanti tattha tattheva pjit honti.
Buddhena bujjhitni saccni maypi bujjhitabbni.
Para loka gacchante tay kata pua v ppa v tay saddhi gacchati.
hito v nisinno v gacchanto v sayanto (or sayno) v aha sabbesu sattesu metta karomi.
Vejjaslya vasantna gilnna pure osadha dtabba, pacch aparesa dtabba.
Ki nu kattabbanti ajnant te mama purato ahasu.
" Pemato** jyati soko - pemato jyati bhaya;
Pemato vippamuttassa - natthi soko kuto bhaya. "
" Tahya jyati soko - tahya jyati bhaya;
Tahya vippamuttassa - natthi soko kuto bhaya. "
Ekasmi samaye aataro devo rattiya Buddha upasakamitv saddhya vanditv bhmiya
ahsi. hito so devo Buddha eka paha pucchi. Pucchantassa devassa Buddho eva dhamma
desesi.
Te gagya nahyante maya passimh.
" Sabbesu bhtesu nidhya daa
Avihehaya aatarampi tesa
Na puttamiccheyya kuto sahya
Eko care Khaggavisakappo. "

* This is the Locative absolute.


** " To " is another suffix for forming the ablative.
Vocabulary: Pali-English

84

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

This wad done by you.


The branch was cut by him.
I saw a man going in the street.
She stood saluting the sage.
I came home when he had gone to school.
The monkeys ate the fallen fruits.
They saw her sitting in the hall.
You should not bathe in the river.
Let him do what should be done.
Thus should it be understood by you.
The books written by me should not be given to them.
My friends saw the jewel that was thrown into the fire.
I sat on the ground listening to the doctrine preached by the monks.
The virtuous should do much merit.
The people saw the sick persons drinking medicine given by the physician.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

85

Lesson XV
sson
emon ati Pronouns
ons
A. Demonstrative Pronouns
Ima, this
SINGULAR
m.
Nom.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.

aya
ima

Dat., Gen.
Loc.

n.

f.

ida, ima
ida, ima
imin, anena
imamh, imasm
asm
imassa, assa
imamhi, imasmi
asmi

aya
ima
imya
imya
imiss, imya,
ass, assya
imissa, imya,
assa

PLURAL
m.
Nom., Acc
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

ime

n.

f.

ime, imni
im, imyo
imebhi, imehi, ebhi, ehi imbhi, imhi
imesa, imesna,
imsa, imsna
esa, esna
imesu, esu
imsu

86

Amu, this, that, such


SINGULAR
m.
Nom.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

n.

f.

asu, amuko
adu
asu, amu
amu
adu
amu
amun
amuy
amumh, amusm
amuy
amuno, amussa, amuss, amuy
amumhi, amusmi
amussa, amuya,
PLURAL
m.

Nom., Acc
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

am

n.

f.

amuyo
ambhi, amhi
amsa, amsna
amsu

87

am, amni

Ad ect
B. Adjectives
In Pi Adjectives are inflectional and they agree with the substantives they qualify in gender number
Adj cti
and case. Generally they are placed before the noun.
Adjectives ending in " a " are declined in the masculine feminine, and neuter like nara, phala, and
ka respectively. Sometimes in the feminine they are declined like nr.
Some adjectives may be formed by adding " vantu " to nouns ending in " a ", " " and " mantu " to
nouns ending in " i " and " u ".
Examples : -

bala
bandhu
dhiti
gua

+ vantu
+ mantu
+ mantu
+ vantu

= balavantu,
= bandhumantu,
= dhitimantu,
= guavantu,

powerful
having relatives
courageous
virtuous

These adjectives are declined like " pacanta " with the exception of the Nominative singular;
e.g., :-

SING.
bandhum
dhitim
guav

PLU.
bandhumanto, bandhumant
dhitimanto, dhitimant
guavanto, guavant

88

words
words:
rd

Antima,
sana,
Arahanta,

adj,
n.
p.p.

last
seat
araha (used as noun & adjective) exalted, worthy,
sanctified
Bhagavantu,
adj.
blessed (used as an epithet of the Buddha, the Blessed
One.)
Dgha,
adj.
long
Kaha,
adj.
black
Khuddaka,
adj.
small
Majjhima,
adj.
middle
Mahanta,
adj.
big
Namo,
indec. honour, homage, praise, salutation
Nca,
adj.
mean, low
Nla,
adj.
blue
Paipad,
f.
course, path, practice, conduct
Pta,
adj.
yellow
Ratta,
adj.
red
Samm-sambuddha, m.
Fully Enlightened One
Seta,
adj.
white
Sta,
adj.
cold, cool
Sukhita,
adj.
happy, healthy
Tarua,
adj.
young
Ucca,
adj.
high
Uha,
adj.
hot

89

Exe
Exercise xv
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Kimida?
Kassa imni?
Imin te ki payojana?
Ida mayha hotu.
Ko nma aya puriso?
Aya me mtuln hoti.
Ida may kattabba.
Sabba ida asukena kata.
Aya smi cao na hoti.
Aya me antim jti.
Aya seto asso khippa na dhvati.
Guavantehi ime giln sagahitabb.
" Yath ida tath eta yath eta tath ida. "
" Ida vo tna hotu sukhit hontu tayo! "
" Tva etasmi pabbate vasa, aha imasmi pabbate vasissmi. "
" Namo tassa Bhagavato, arahato smm-sambuddhassa. "
Asmi loke ca paramhi ca guavant sukhena vasanti.
Asukya nma visikhya asukasmi ghare aya taruo vejjo vasati.
Imehi pupphehi Buddha pjetha.
Maya imasmi rme mahantni rukkhni passma.
Imassa gilnassa uha udaka dtabba.
Janako ucce sane nisdi, putto nce sane nisdi.
Imesu pupphesu setni ca rattni ca ptni ca pupphni gahetv gacchhi.
Imni khuddakni phalni maya na kima.
Imin dghena maggena ete gamissanti.

Vocabulary: Pali-English

90

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Who is this boy?


This is my book.
Who are these men?
He is living in this house.
This was done by me.
There is such a young doctor in this street.
Cold water should not be drunk by the sick.
He is the last boy in the school.
Did you see him sitting on this high seat?
Take these long sticks and throw into the fire.
May all these beings be happy!
I like to mount this white horse.
Bring those small books and give to these boys.
You should wash your face with this hot water.
These Exalted Ones understood the middle Path of the Buddha.
This Doctrine was preached by the Blessed One.
We shall go by this long way.
There are tall, big trees in this forest.
I shall take these white flowers; you may take those red flowers.
These are small ships.
Young men and women should always associate with the virtuous.
This city is protected by a powerful king.
The courageous do not run away through fear.
Little children are playing with these little dogs.
May the Blessed One preach the Doctrine to these monks and nuns!

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

91

Lesson XVI
sson
Num
Numerals
1. eka
2. dvi
3. ti
4. catu
5. paca
6. cha
7. satta
8. aha
9. nava
10. dasa
11. ekdasa
12. dvdasa, brasa
13. terasa, teasa
14. cuddasa, catuddasa
15. pacadasa, paarasa
16. soasa, sorasa
17. sattadasa, sattrasa
18. ahadasa, ahrasa
19. ekna-vsati (lit. one less twenty)
20. vsati, vsa
21. eka-vsati
22. dve-vsati, dv-vsati
23. te-vsati
24. catu-vsati
25. paca-vsati
26. chabbsati
27. satta-vsati

92

28. aha-vsati
29. ekna-tisati
30. tisati, tis
31. ekatisati, ekatis
32. dvattisati, dvattis
33. tettisati, tettis
34. catuttisati, catuttis
35. paca-tisati, paca-tis
36. chattisati, chattis
37. satta-tisati, satta-tis
38. aha-tisati, aha-tis
39. ekna cattsati
40. cattsati, cattsa, catts
49. ekna pasa
50. pasa, pas
60. sahi
70. sattati
79. eknsti
80. asti
90. navuti
99. ekna-sata
100. sata
200. dvi sata
1,000. sahassa
10,000. dasa-sahassa, nahuta
100,000. sata-sahassa, lakkha
10,000,000. koi
100,000,000. dasa-koi
1,000,000,000. sata-koi

93

" Eka ", " ti " and " catu " are declinable in the three genders. When " eka " is used in the sense of
some, certain, incomparable, it is declinable in the three genders and in both numbers. Otherwise it is
declined only in the singular.
Numerals from " dvi " to "ahrasa " are declined only in the plural. With the exception of " ti " and "
catu " all the other numerals are common to all genders.
These numerals agree with the noun they qualify in number and case. Eka, ti, and catu agree in
gender also. Generally they are placed before the noun.
Declension of " dvi "
len sion
dvi
Nom., Acc
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen.

Loc.

dve, duve
dvbhi, dvhi
dvinna

dvsu
" ti "
m.

Nom., Acc
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

n.

f.

tayo
tbhi, thi
tia
tsu

tni

tisso

tianna

tissanna

" catu "


m.
Nom., Acc
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

n.

f.

cattro, caturo
cattri
catbhi, cathi
catunna
catusu, catsu

94

catasso
catussanna

" paca "


Nom., Acc
Instr., Abl
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

paca
pacabhi, pacahi
pacanna
pacasu

Numerals from " eknavsati " to " aha-navuti " and " koi "are treated as feminines and are
declined only in the singular like feminine " i " (see bhmi). Tis , catts, and pas are declined
like feminine " " (see ka).
Numerals from " eknasata " to " lakkha " are declined only in the singular like the neuter " a " (see
phala). When, however, numerals from " vsati " and upwards are used collectively they take the plural;
e.g.,

dve vsatiyo,
ti satni,

two twenties
three hundreds
Ordinals
rdina
in

1. pahama (first)
2. Dutiya (second)
3. Tatiya (third)
4. Catuttha (fourth)
5. Pacama (fifth)
6. Chaha (sixth)
The rest are formed by suffixing " ma ", as sattama (seventh), ahama (eighth), etc.
The ordinals also agree with the noun they qualify in gender, number and case. In the masculine and
neuter they are declined like " nara " and " phala " respectively. In the feminine " pahama ", " dutiya ",
and " tatiya " are declined like " ka ". The ordinals from " catuttha " to " dasama " assume the feminine
suffix " " and are declined like " nr "; e.g., catuttha + = catutth, sattama + i = sattam, etc.
The feminines of other ordinals are formed by adding " " directly to the numerals, as ekdasa + " "
= ekdas.

95

Words
Words:
rd

Divasa
Ito
Msa
Pana

m., n.
indec.
m., n.
indec.

Pariccheda m.
Saraa
n.
Sla n.
Vassa
m., n.

day
hence, ago, from now, from here
month
but, however, further (sometimes used without a
meaning)
limit, extent, chapter
refuge
morality, precept, virtue
year, rain

Exe
xvi
Exercise xvi
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Cattrimni, bhikkhave, saccni.


" Eka nma ki? "
Tsu lokesu satt uppajjanti.
Ekasmi hatthe paca aguliyo honti.
Ito sattame divase aha gamissmi.
Maya ti vassni imasmi gme vasimh.
Aya pana imasmi potthake soasamo paricchedo hoti.
" Buddha saraa gacchmi. Dutiyampi Buddha saraa gacchmi. Tatiyampi Buddha
saraa gacchmi "
So tassa tia puttna cattri cattri katv dvdasa phalni adsi.
Etasmi ghare catasso itthiyo vasanti.
Yo pahama gaccheyya so pakra labheyya.
Imasmi ghare aya tatiy bhmi.
Antimena paricchedena gahapathi paca slni rakkhitabbni.
Guavanto sad paca slni ca ahamiya ctuddasiya pacadasiya ca aha slni rakkhanti.
Bhikkh paneva dvisata sttavsati sikkhpadni rakkhanti.

96

16. Tassa sehino catupasakoi dhana atthi.


17. Ekasmi mse tisa divas honti. Ekasm vasse pana tisata pacasahi divas honti.
18. Imya phaslya pacasatni siss uggahanti.

Vocabulary: Pali-English
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

I gave him four books.


He lived three days in our house.
We have two eyes, but only one mouth.
There are thirty days in one month, and twelve months in one year.
They are now studying the twelfth chapter of the book.
Which of these two presents would you take?
The child bought three mangoes, ate one and took two home.
He will come on the 28th day of this month.
They took the Three Refuges and the five precepts to-day.
There were two hundred patients in the hospital yesterday.
Seven days hence my father will come to see me.
Some householders observe the ten precepts on the fifteenth day.
If you do evil, you will be born in the four evil states.
If you do good, you will be born in the seven states of happiness.
He gave five hundred and received thousand.
She brought three presents for her three little sisters.
My age is eighteen years.
In his 29th year he left home, and endeavouring for six years he understood the Four Truths and
became a fully Enlightened One in his thirty-fifth year. After becoming a Buddha He preached the
Doctrine for forty-five years.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

97

Lesson XVII
sson
So Irr gul
end
nding
A. Some Irregular Nouns ending in " a "
Atta*, m. soul, self
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

att
attno
atta, att
attno
attna, atta
attno
attena, attan
attanebhi, attanehi
attan, attamh, attasm attanebhi, attanehi
attano
attna
attani
attanesu

* This noun is sometimes used in the sense of a reflexive pronoun.

Rja, m. king
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

rj
rja, rj
rjna, rja
ra, rjena

rjno
rjno
rjno
rjbhi, rjhi
rjebhi, rjehi
ra, rjamh, rjbhi, rjhi
rjasm
rjebhi, rjehi
rao, rjino
raa, rjna, rjna
rae, rjini
rjusu, rjsu, rjesu
rjamhi, rjasmi

98

Conjugat
onjugations
B. Conjugations
In Pi there are seven conjugations. They differ according to their respective conjugational signs
(Vikaraa) which are added on to the roots before the terminations.
There is no definite rule to indicate to which class of conjugation the roots belong.
The conjugations are as follows :-

Class
1st paca -to cook

Conj. sign
a

Pres. 3rd
pac + a + ti = pacati
bh + a + ti = bhav + a + ti = bhavati

2nd rudhi -to hinder ......a


(In this conjugation too the conjugational sign is " a ", but " " is argumented before the final
consonant of the root and is afterwards changed into the nasal of the group-consonant that follows.
This rule applies only to the active voice.)

ru--dh + a + ti = rundhati
bhu--ja + a + ti = bhujati

bhuja to eat
3rd divu to shine ya
h to abandon
4th su to hear

u, , u

pa + apa -to arrive


5th ji to conquer n*

div + ya + ti = divyati
= dibyati = dibbati
h + ya + ti = hyati
su + + ti = suti
also su + u + ti = suoti
pa + apa + u + ti = pputi
ji + n + ti =jinti

99

6th tanu to spread

o, yira

tanu + o + ti = tanoti
kara + o + ti = karoti
+ yira + ti = kayirati

7th cura to steal e, aya

cura + e + ti = coreti
cura + aya + ti = corayati

* In the conjugation of the root ki, to buy, which belongs to this class n is changed into ; e.g. ki + +
ti = kiti.
The initial vowel in this class, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes vuddhi substitute, i.e.,
a, i and u become , e, o respectively.
Words
Words:
rd

Amacca
Attha
Hi
Ntha
Psda
Raha
Sakiissati
Siy
Ti
Vihaati
Visujjhati

m.
minister
m.
matter, good, welfare, meaning
indec. indeed
m.
lord, refuge
m.
palace
n.
country, kingdom, realm
(kilisa with sa) is defiled
3rd pers. singular subjunctive of asa, to be
indec. thus. This particle is used in quoting the words of others, at the end
of sentences, etc.
(hana with vi) perishes
(sudha with vi) is purified

100

Exe
xvii
Exercise xvii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

" Aya me attano attho. "


" Na me so att. "
" Bhagavato eta* attha roceyyma. "
" Dhamma cara rja!. "
" Att hi attano ntho - Ko hi ntho paro siy. "
" Attna rakkhanto para rakkhati. Para rakkhanto attna rakkhati. "
Atte pana amhka rahe guav rj ahosi.
Ra likhita* ida lekhana amacc passantu!
Ppakehi amaccehi rao ko attho?
Amhka rjna passitu puratthimya disya dve rjno gat.
Rj attano mahesiy saddhi psde vasati.
Cathi dishi cattro rjno gantv Bhagavanta vanditv etamattha pucchisu.
" Putt matthi dhana matthi Iti blo vihaati
Att hi attano natthi Kuto putt kuto dhana. "
14. " Attanva kata ppa attan sakilissati
Attan akata ppa attanva visujjhati. "
* is changed into m.

Vocabulary: Pali-English

101

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

l am my own master.
He advised himself.
These presents were sent by the king.
Good or evil is done by oneself.
The ministers taking their own sons went to the palace to see the king.
It is not good for kings to get angry with the people.
Virtuous kings are always respected by all.
He does not know his own good.
Righteous kings do not wish to associate with wicked kings.
By wisdom is one purified.
Ministers obtain wealth by means of kings.
He for his own good associates with kings and ministers.
Some kings perish on account of their greediness towards the countries of others.
The ministers told that matter to the king.
He does not shine like a king.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

102

Lesson XVIII
sson
clension Satthu, m.
A. Declension of Satthu, m. Teacher
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr., Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.
bhattu,
dtu,
jetu,
kattu,
nattu,
tu,
netu,
sotu,
vattu,

PLURAL

satth
sattha, satth
satthra
satthr
satthu, satthuno
satthussa
satthari

satthro
satthro
satthro, satthre
satthrebhi, satthrehi
satthrna, satthna
satthresu, satthusu

husband
giver
conqueror
doer
nephew
knower
leader
hearer
talker

etc. are declined like " satthu ".

103

Pitu, m. father
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr., Abl

pit
pita, pit
pitara
pitar, pitun

Dat., Gen

pitu, pituno
pitussa
pitari

pitaro
pitaro
pitaro, pitare
pitbhi, pithi
pitarebhi, pitarehi
pitarna, pitna
pitunna, pitna
pitaresu, pitusu

Loc.

bhtu, brother is declined like " pitu ".


mtu, mother is also declined like " pitu " with the exception of the following:

SINGULAR

Inst., Abl. mtar, mtuy


Dat., Gen. mtu, mtuy

Dhtu, duhitu daughter, are declined like " mtu ".

Cau Fo
B. Causal Forms (Krita)
Causals are formed by adding " e ", " aya " to roots ending in " u " and " ", " pe ", " paya " to
roots ending in " " and all the four or two to the other roots. The terminations are added afterwards. All
tenses, moods and participles have their own causal forms. The initial vowel, not followed by a double
consonant, often undergoes vuddhi substitute. Sometimes the vuddhi substitutes " e " and " o " are changed
into " aya " and " ava " respectively.
Examples:-

104

paca
paca
paca
paca

+e
+ ti
+ aya + ti
+ pe + ti
+ paya + ti

= pceti
= pcayati
= pcpeti
= pcpayati

causes to cook

pcesi, pcay, pcpesi, pcpay,


he caused to cook
pcessati, pcayissati, pcpessati, pcpayissati, he will cause to cook
d
d
chidi
chidi
ni
gamu
su
bh

+ pe
+ paya
+e
+ ti
+ pe + ti
+ pe + ti
+e
+ ti
+e
+ ti
+e
+ ti

= dpeti
= dpayati
= chindeti
= chindpeti
= naypeti
= gameti
= sveti
= bhveti

causes to give
causes to give
causes to cut
causes to cut
causes to lead
causes to go
causes to hear
develops lit. causes to become

Intransitive verbs become transitive, and ordinary transitive verbs take two objects when they assume
causal forms.
Examples :-

Rukkho patati.
So rukkha pteti.
Dso odana pacati.
So dsa odana pceti.

The tree falls.


He makes the tree fall.
The servant is cooking rice.
He makes the servant cook rice.

Sometimes the agent of the causal verb or, in other words the indirect object is put in the Instrumental
case e.g.,

So dsena odana pceti.


In some cases the causal forms modify the original meaning of the verb; e.g.,

vaca to speak,
bh to be,

vceti reads
bhveti develops, cultivates

105

Exe
xviii
Exercise xviii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

" Namatthu* satthuno ".


" Tay suta dhamma amhepi svehi ".
Satth svake dhamma despeti (or svakehi).
Pit putta gma gameti.
Mt attano dhtara nahpetv phasla pesesi.
Bhatt attano bhariyya atithayo sagahpesi.
Dhtaro, dsehi drni harpetv aggi dpetha.
Dhthi mtaro ca pitaro ca rakkhitabb, mthi ca pithi ca dhtaro rakkhitabb.
Mt dhtare satthra vandpeti.
Aha mtuy ca pitar ca saddhi rma gantv te dhamma svessmi.
Mtula, maya pana tava nattro homa. Tasm no sdhuka uggahpehi.
Satth sotre saccni bodhento gm gma nagar nagara vicarati.
Tesa rahe dhitimante netre na passma.
Mtari ca pitari ca darena mayha bhatt attano dhanena mahanta ghara krpetv te tattha
vaspesi.

* Namo + atthu = namatthu


atthu Benedictive mood 3rd person singular of asa to be.

Vocabulary: Pali-English

106

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Talkers are not always doers.


The leaders are not always conquerors.
My father taught my brother well and made him a leader of the country.
I made my mother give alms to the disciples of the Teacher.
My nephew is reading the letter sent by his father.
Virtuous daughters cause their husbands to treat their mothers and fathers well.
Daily my father and mother cultivate good-will towards all beings and advise us also to do likewise.
Of my two brothers one is a talker and the other is a doer.
I do not cause my servants to give food to my husband.
Let the Teacher cause the monks to preach the Doctrine. There will be knowers. They will understand
the Truth and make others realise their Deliverance.
Our father made our brothers cut the trees in the garden.
The conquerors caused the people to erect a large hall in the kingdom.
Daughters, you should not do evil, nor cause others to do evil.
The monks should neither dig the ground nor cause others to dig the ground.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

107

Lesson XIX
sson
clension
A. Declension of " go "
go, m. bull
SINGULAR
Nom. Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.

Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

go
gvu, gava, gva
gvena, gavena
gv, gav, gvamh,
gavamh, gvasm,
gavasm
gvassa, gavassa
gve, gave, gvamhi,
gavamhi, gvasmi,
gavasmi

gvo, gavo
gvo, gavo
gobhi, gohi
gobhi, gohi

gava, gunna, gona


gosu

mana, n. mind
SINGULAR
Nom.
Voc.
Acc.
Instr.
Abl.
Dat., Gen.
Loc.

PLURAL

mana
mana, man
mana
mans, manena
manas, man,
manamh, manasm
manaso, manassa
manasi, mane,
manamhi, manasmi

man, manni
manni
mane, manni
manebhi, manehi
manebhi, manehi

108

manna
manesu

The following nouns are declined like " mana ":

aha,
aya,
ceta,
chanda,
oja,
pya,
raja,
sara,
sira,
tama,
tapa,
teja,
ura,
vaca,
vaya,
yasa,

day
iron
mind
wish, consent, metre
essence
water, milk
dust
lake
head
darkness
asceticism, control
majesty
shoulder
word
age
glory

Per
Te
(H att
B. Perfect Tense (Hyattan)
Terminations
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

PLURAL

o
a

ttha
mh

109

paca
SINGULAR
3rd
2nd
1st

PLURAL

apac
apaco
apaca, apaca

apac
apacattha
apacamh

In this tense, as in the first past tense (ajjatan), " a " is prefixed to the root. Sometimes an additional "
" is found in the 1st person.
As a rule the Ajjatan is more commonly used than the Hyattan to express the past. It will be safer
for the students to adopt the former.*
* See lesson VII
Exe
xix
Exercise xix
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

" Etad* avoca satth. "


" Bhagav etamha. "
" Idamavoca Bhagav ".
" cariy evamha."
" Attha hi ntho saraa avoca. "
" Satth ta itthi ha -etiss tava putta dehti. "
Eko go tamasi khetta agam.
Vayas aha paca vsati vassni.
" Manas savaro sdhu. "
" Ta sdhuka suhi, manasi karohi. "
Amhka sattuno pde maya siras avandamh.
Tava vacas v manas v m ki ci ppaka kamma karohi.
Aya nv ayas kat.
Satta ahni maya kicipi hra na abhujamh.
Mayha bht gona tia ad

* Eta + avoca = Etad avoca.


Vocabulary: Pali-English

110

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

There is no dust in this street.


The consent of the sick monks should be taken.
Fathers carry their sons on their shoulders.
My father is 45 years of age.
The World was in darkness for four, days.
We should purify our own mind.
A fruit from the tree fell on my head.
The farmers caused their sons to give grass to the cattle and went to the city.
People reverence him on account of his asceticism.
In glory may you shine like the moon.
The king by his majesty conquered all the people.
They have no anger in their minds.
The cattle do not, drink the water of this lake.
There is no essence in this milk.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

111

Lesson XX
sson
Compounds
Compounds (samsa)
mpound
A Samsa is a compound which is composed of two or more simple words.
As a rule only the final member of the compound takes the case terminations. The preceding
members, with a few exceptions, drop their case endings and assume their bases.
The component parts of the compound are combined, wherever necessary, according to the rules of
Sandhi.

In Pali there are five classes of compounds, viz:1. Adjectival Compounds (Kammadhraya),
Adj cti Compound
mpounds
2. Case Compounds (Tappurissa),
Compound
mpounds
3. Copulative Compounds (Dvanda),
Copul tive Compound
mpounds
4. Attributive Compounds (Bahubbhi) and
Att ibuti Compound
tive mpounds
5. Adverbial Compounds (Avyaybhva).
Adverbi Compound
mpounds
1. An Adjectival Compound (Kammadhraya) is that which is formed by combining a substantive with an
Adj cti Compound
adjective, or a noun in apposition, or an indeclinable used in an adjectival sense, as its prior member.
In some instances the qualifying adjective follows the noun.
Examples : -

112

Taruo-puriso
taruapuriso
(m)
Taru-ka
taruaka
(f)
Tarua-phala
taruaphala (n)
Sumedho-paito sumedhapaito
Mukhameva cando mukhacando
Slameva dhana sladhana
Su-jano
sujano
Na-kusala
akusala
Na-asso
anasso
Na-manusso
amanuusso

young man
young maiden
young fruit
Sumedha the wise or wise Sumedha
moon-face
wealth of virtue
good man
immoral or non-moral
non-horse (mule)
non-man (a spirit)

"Na" followed by a consonant is changed into "a", and into "an" when followed by a vowel.
Those Adjectival Compounds that have a numeral as their first member are in Pi known as
Digu Samsa ( Numerical Compounds
Num
Compounds).
ompounds
They generally take the neuter singular when they imply an aggregate.
Examples : -

Dve-aguliyo
Tayo-lok
Catasso-dis
Cattri-saccni
Satta-ahni

dvagula
tiloka
catuddisa
catusacca
sattha

two-finger
three-fold world
four-fold direction
four-fold truth
week

They do not take the neuter singular when they do not imply an aggregate.
Examples :-

Eko-putto
Tayo-bhav
Cattasso-dis

ekaputto
tibhav
catuddis

one son
three existences
four directions

2. A Case Compound (Tappurisa) is that which is formed by combining a substantive with another
Compound
mpound*
substantive belonging to anyone of the oblique cases, by dropping its case endings.

113

In some exceptional cases the preceding members retain their case endings.
These compounds take the gender of the final member and are declined accordingly.
With the exception of the Nominative and Vocative cases all the other oblique cases go to form
these compounds.
* According to Saskrit grammarians this class of compounds is known as Determinative Compound.
Examples :-

1. Dutiy-Acc.

gma-gato
siva-karo
2. Tatiy-Abl. of Agent. Buddhena-desito
3. Karaa-Instr.
Asin-kalaho
4. Catutth-Dat.
Lokassa-hito
5. Pacam-Abl.
Corasm-bhaya
6. Chah- Gen.
Buddhassa-dhammo
7. Sattam-Loc.
Vane-vso
Ante-vsiko

= gmagato, he who has gone to the village.


= sivakaro,* blessings-bestower.
= Buddhadesito, preached by the Buddha.
= asikalaho,
sword-fight.
= lokahito,
beneficial to the world.
= corabhaya fear from thief.
= Buddhadhammo, Buddhas Doctrine.
= vanavso,
residence in the forest.
= antevsiko,* pupil (lit. he who lives near).

* The case endings are retained in these instances.


3. A Copulative Compound (Dvanda) is that which is formed by combining two or more substantives
Copul tive Compound
which, if not compounded, would be connected by the particle "ca".
(a) These compounds generally take the plural and the gender of the final member when the
component members are viewed separately.
(b) If they collectively imply an aggregate, they take the neuter singular.
Examples :-

a. Cando ca suriyo ca
nar ca nriyo ca
b. Nma ca rpaca
Sukha ca dukkha ca
Hatthi ca gavo ca ass ca

= candasuriy,*
= naranriyo,

moon and sun.


men and women.

= nmarpa,
mind and matter.
= sukhadukkha,
happiness and pain.
= hatthigavssa, elephants, cattle, and horses.

114

*. Words with fewer syllables are often placed first.


4. An Attributive Compound (Bahubbhi) is that in which the component members collectively denote
Att ibuti Compound
tive mpound*
something else than what is originally expressed by them.
These compounds assume the gender of the implied object and are declined accordingly.
* Words with fewer syllables are often placed first.
Examples :-

Pta means yellow. ambara, garment; but ptambaro means he who has a yellow garment,
gata, come; samaa, ascetics; gatasamao, the place to which ascetics have come, i.e.,
a monastery.
Diho, seen; dhammo, Truth; dihadhammo, by whom the Truth has been seen, i.e., a
Saint.
Ni, free from; tah craving; nittaho, he who is free from craving, i.e., an Arahant.
5. An Adverbial Compound (Avyaybhva) is that which has as its first member a prefix (upasagga) or an
Adverbi Compound
indeclinable (nipta), not used in an adjectival sense, * but used in determining the sense of the final
member.
The Adverbial Compounds generally take the neuter gender and are indeclinable. They are
treated like the nominative singular of neuter substantives.
If the final member of these compounds ends in " a " of " ", the neuter termination " " is
affixed; otherwise the final vowel is retained except in cases of long vowels which are shortened.
* See Adjectival Compounds.
Examples :-

115

Prefixes :ixe

Anu-pubba
Adhi-itth
Upa-gag
Upa-naggra

= anupubba,
= adhitthi,
= upagaga,
= upanagara,

in due course, in regular succession.


in a woman or relating to a woman.
near a river (riverside place).
near a city, i.e., a suburb.

Indeclina
Indeclinables :in

Yath-bala
Yath-kama
Yath-vuddha
Yath-satti
Yva-attha

= ythbala,
= yathkkama,
= yathvuddha,
= yathsatti,
= yvadattha,

Yva-jva
Pacch-bhatta

= yvajva,
= pacchbhatta,

according to strength.
according to order.
according to seniority.
according to ones ability.
as one wishes, as much as
required.
till life lasts.
after meal, i.e., after-noon.

mpounds
Mixed Compounds
ixed Compound
When a compound is further compounded with another single word or compound it is treated as a
mixed compound.
Examples :-

Seta-vattha
Pituno-setavattha
Putt ca dhtaro ca

= setavattha,
= pitusetavattha,
= puttadhtaro,

white cloth-adj. comp.


fathers white cloth-case comp.
sons and daughterscopulative comp.
Mahantani gharni
= mahgharni,
big houses-adj. comp.
Puttadhtarna mahgharni = puttadhtumahgharni, the big houses of
sons and daughters-case comp.

116

Exe
Exercise xx
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

" Sabbadna dhammadna jinti. "


" Aha te saddhi puttadhthi ds bhavissmi. "
" Tisaraena saddhi pacasla detha me bhante. "
" Itipi so Bhagav araha, samm-sambuddho,.....satth devamanussna....."
" Mtpit dis pubb, cariy dakkhi dis. "
Paraloka gacchanta puttadhtaro v bhtaro v hatthigavssa v na anugacchanti (follow).
Eho taruavejjo vejjakamma karonto gmanagaresu vicarati.
Drakadrikyo tesa mtpitunna ovde hatv kicipi ppakamma na karonti.
Stodaka v uhodaka v hara.
Amhka Buddho pana pubbe Sumedhapaito nma ahosi.
Sattasu dhanesu saddhdhana pana pahama; sladhana dutiya, padhana sattama.
Dvipadesu v catuppadesu v sad mettacittena vasitabba.
Aha khsave v na dihapubbo, satthudhamma v na sutapubbo.
Itthipuris sukhadukkha bhujamn tibhave vicaranti.
Amaccaputt rjabhayena mahpsdato nikkhamisu.
Mayha antevsikesu dve brahmacrino saddhcetas Buddhadesita dhamma sutv
samaadhamma katv dihadhamm ahesu.

Vocabulary: Pali-English

117

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

The boys and girls are studying diligently.


The monks and nuns heard the Teachers Doctrine and gained their Deliverance.
Sons and daughters should respect their parents.
Little children wash their hands and feet with hot water.
O young men! You should not associate with evil friends.
Sun and Moon shine in the sky
My brothers son is a pupil teacher in a village-school.
Great beings are born amongst men for the good of the world.
In this vessel is well-water and in that is sea-water.
The lion is the king of quadrupeds.
His pupils gave the three Refuges and the eight precepts to the male and female devotees.
These chairs and beds were washed by the servants and maid-servants to-day.
May I understand the four-fold Truth Preached by the Buddha and be a Desireless One!
There is no fear of death to the Saints.
Never before have I seen white elephants or blue horses.
By this gift of Truth may I be an all-knowing Buddha!

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

118

Lesson XXI
sson
Indeclina
(Avy
Avya
Indeclinables (Avyaya)
in
An Avyaya is that whose form remains the same in all genders, numbers, and cases, without
undergoing any change.
There are two kinds of Avyayas, viz :-Upasagga and Nipta.
An Upasagga (prefix) is an indeclinable word which possesses an independent meaning and which,
when prefixed to substantives and verbs, usually modifies their original sense.
These Upasaggas correspond to prefixes in Latin and sometimes to prepositions in English.
A Nipta is an indeclinable word which may stand either before or after another word.
These Niptas comprise particles, adverbs, conjunctions and interjections in English.
Prefixes
ixe
There are twenty Upasaggas or prefixes in Pi.
1. " " up to, until, as far as, around, reversing to;
pabbata,
gacchati,
harati,

as far as the rock;


comes, gacchati, goes;
brings, harati, carries.

2. " Abhi " to, unto, forward, towards, high, great, special, over;
Abhigacchati,
Abhikkhamati,
Abhidhamma,
Abhi,
Abhijnti,
Abhibhavati,
Abhimukha,
Abhimagala,

goes near to, goes forward;


goes forward;
higher Doctrine;
higher knowledge, special knowledge;
perceives, jnati, knows;
overcomes, bhavati, is;
facing towards;
special or high festival.

3. " Adhi " in, upon, above, over, great, excessive;

119

Adhivasati,
Adhisessati,
Adhitihati,
Adhibh,
Adhibhta,
Adhisla,
Adhista,
Adhigacchati,

dwells in;
will lie upon;
stands on, stands above;
lord, master, bh, to be;
overcome, mastered;
higher morality;
very cold;
enters upon, attains, acquires.

4. " Anu " after, like, behind, along, under, sub, according to;
Anugacchati,
Anunyaka,
Anurj,
Anulomato,

goes after, follows;


sub-chief;
following king, successor;
in accordance with.

5. " Apa " away, from, away from;


Apa slya,
Apagacchati,
Apavda,

from the hall;


goes away;
blame, abuse, vda, speech.

6. " Api " sometimes contracted to " pi ", over, near to;
Apidhna, pidhna, pidahana, lid, cover.
7. " Ati " very, over, beyond, excessive;
Atisundara,
Atikkamati,
Atigacchati,

very beautiful;
goes beyond, transgresses;
overcomes.

8. " Ava " often contracted to " o ", down, away, off, around;

120

Avakkamati, okkamati,
Avaharati,
Avajnti,
Avamaati,
Avabodha,
Avacarati,

steps down, descends;


takes away, removes;
despises, jnti, knows;
looks down upon;
full knowledge;
goes through, traverses.

9. " Du " bad, difficult;


Duggati,
Duddama,
Duranubodha,

evil state;
difficult to tame;
difficult of comprehension.

10. " Ni " away, in, into, down, free from, down wards, without, great;
Niggacchati,
Nikkhamati,
Nidahati,
Nirhra,
Nicaya,
Nigama,
Nikhaati,
Nivattati,

goes away;
goes away, departs;
lays aside;
without food;
great collection, accumulation;
market town;
digs into, bury;
ceases, turns back.

11. " N " away, without, outwards, out of;


Nharati,
Nroga,
Nrasa,

takes away, draws out;


healthy, without disease;
sapless, tasteless.

12. " Pa " forward, forth, in, chief;


Pabala
Payti,
Pakkhipati,
Pakkamati,

very strong;
goes forth;
throws in, puts in;
sets out, goes away.

121

13. " Par " away, aside, back, opposed to;


Parbhava,
Parjaya
Parakkamati,

decline, ruin (lit. away from being);


defeat (lit. away from, or opposed to, victory);
puts forth ones strength, strives.

14. " Pari " around, about, complete;


Paridahati,
Paridhvati,
Parikkhipati,
Parisuddha,

puts on;
runs about;
throws around, surround;
complete purity.

15. " Pati " (frequently changed into " pai ") again, against, towards, back;
Paikkamati,
Paideti,
Paivadati,
Pailoma,
Paisota,
Patirpa,
Patirja,
Patilekhana,

steps backwards retreats;


gives in return;
answers (lit. speaks in return);
backwards;
against the stream;
counterfeit, suitable;
hostile king;
letter in reply.

16. " Sa " with, together, self;


Sambuddha,
Samgacchati,
Sameti,
Saharati,
Sakhipati,
Sagaha,
Sammukha,

self enlightened;
comes together, assembles;
meets together;
collects, folds up;
condenses, (lit. throws together);
collection;
face to face with.

122

17. " Su " good, well, thoroughly, excellent;


Sugati,
Sujana,
Sudesita,
Subhvita,
Sudubbala,
Sukara,

happy state;
good man;
well-preached;
thoroughly practised;
very weak;
easy to do.

18. " U " up, above, away;


Uggacchati,
Ukkhipati,
Ucchindati,
Uttarati,
Udaya,

rises;
throws upwards;
cuts off;
comes up, ascends;
rise, beginning.

19. " Upa " near, towards, next, by the side of, sub, below, less, strong;
Upagacchati,
Upaskh,
Upadhvati,
Uparj,
Upakaa,
Upakahati,
Updna,

goes near;
minor branch;
runs up to;
viceroy;
into the ear;
drags down;
attachment, clinging (lit. strong or firm hold).

20. " Vi " apart, separate, not, free from, special, around, clear, different, opposed to;

123

Vimala,
Vibhava,
Vigata,
Vicarati,
Visoka,
Vikkhipati,
Vipassati,
Visama,
Vicchindati,
Vimutti,
Viloma,
Vimukha,
Vykaroti,

stainless;
power or free from existence;
separated, disappeared;
wanders about;
free from sorrow;
scatters;
sees clearly;
not equal, uneven;
cuts, off;
perfect release;
reverse;
averted (lit. face away);
expounds.

Of the above prefixes abhi, anu, pati, and pari are sometimes used after the words.
Frequently the consonant following du, ni, and u, and sometimes vi, is duplicated. If the consonant is
aspirated, the first duplicated one is changed into the same unaspirated consonant.
Before a vowel " r " is augmented in the case of " du " and " ni ", " d " in the case of " u ", and " y " in
the case of " vi ".

Exe
xxi
Exercise xxi
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

" M nivatta abhikkama. "


Puttadhthi mtpitaro yathsatti sagahetabb.
Idhgacchatha, bhikkhavo, yathbuha vandatha.
Sacepi dujjan yvajva sujane bhajeyyu tesa kocipi attho na bhaveyya.
Sudesita Buddhadhamma uggahmi yathbala.
Sabbe devamanuss manussaloke v devaloke v yathkamma uppajjanti.
*Tvha Pibhsa uggahmi. Api ca kho pana** tassa bhsya pailekhana likhitu
vyammi.
Tassantevsik gmanigamesu vicaritv suriyodaye nagara samppuisu.
Senpatiputto anupubbena tassa rahe senpati ahosi.

124

10. " Iti heta vijnhi pahamo so parbhavo. "


11. Duranubodha abhidhamma ythbala padit-sotna desetu vaati ***.
12. Uparj pairjna abhibhavitu upanagara gato.
13. Sattasattha so nirhrova vane vasi.
14. Mahsehino corabhayena yathsukha na supisu.
15. " Att hi kira duddamo. "
* Tva, Still
** Api ca kho pana, nevertheless.
*** vaati, it is fit.

Vocabulary: Pali-English
B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

The viceroy became the king in due course.


You should sit according to seniority.
Just when the sun had set they in due course arrived in the suburb.
Husbands should treat their wives and children according to their might.
Good men and bad men do not always come together.
I shall try to be a celibate as long as I live.
It is not right to sleep after meals as one wishes.
He is yet studying the Higher Doctrine. Nevertheless he will try to teach it according to his strength.
Boys, I shall question you now. You must give answers according to order.
Pupils follow their teachers according to their ability.
Take as much as you require and go away from this home.
It is not right for good men to look down upon bad men and women.
The mind is indeed difficult to tame. The wise nevertheless overcome it by degrees.
When the moon arises darkness disappears.
Healthy people do not eat and sleep as much as they like.

Vocabulary: English-Pali
Table of Contents

125

Lesson XXII
sson
Nom
omi
erivat
Taddhita Nominal Derivatives
addhi
Words formed by adding suffixes to the bases of substantives, primary or derived from roots,
adjectives, etc. are called Taddhita.
Some of these derivatives are treated as nouns and adjectives and are declined accordingly. A few
others are treated as indeclinables.
There are many such suffixes which are used in various senses. The following are the principal ones
of these :1. " A " is used to signify possession, pedigree, etc.
In this case the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute.
Examples :Pa
Saddh

+a
+a

Vasih

+a

= paa (m. Nom. Sing. pao), he who has wisdom, or wise.


= saddha (m. Nom. Sing. saddho), he who has faith, or faithful;
devotional.
= Vsiha -vsiho, son of Vasiha; vsih, daughter of Vasiha;
vsiha, Vasiha clan.

2. " Ika "* is used to signify pertaining to, mixed with, crossing, versed in, engaged in, etc.
In this case too the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi
substitute.
Examples :Dhamma
Ky
Nagara
Loka

+ ika
+ ika
+ ika
+ ika

= dhammika,
= kyika,
= ngarika,
= lokika,

righteous.
bodily
pertaining to the city, i.e., urban.
worldly

126

Loa
Nv
Magga
Vinaya
Bhagra

+ ika
+ ika
+ ika
+ ika
+ ika

= loika,
= nvika,
= maggika,
= venayika,
= bhagrika,

mixed with salt


navigator, he who crosses in a ship
traveller
he who studies vinaya
treasurer

* English-ish and ic, as in hellish or heroic.


3. " Ima " and " iya " are also used to signify pertaining to .
Examples :Anta
Majjha
Loka

+ ima
+ ima
+ iya

= antima,
= majjhima,
= lokiya,

last
middle, central
worldly

4. " I ", " ika ", " ima ", " mantu ", " vantu ", and " v " are used to signify possession.
Examples :Daa
Chatta
Putta
Daa
Putta
Dhiti
Bandhu
Gua
Medh

+
+
+ ika
+ ika
+ ima
+ mantu
+ mantu
+ vantu
+ v

= da,
= chatt,
= puttika,
= daika,
= puttima,
= dhitimantu,
= bandhumantu,
= guavantu,
= medhv,

he who has a stick


he who has an umbrella
he who has sons
he who has a stick
he who has sons
courageous
he who has relatives
virtuous
he who has wisdom

5. "Maya " is used in the sense of made of.


Examples :Aya
Dru
Mana

+ maya
+ maya
+ maya

= ayomaya,
= drumaya,
= manomaya,*

made of iron
wooden
mental

127

Rajata
Suvaa

+ maya
+ maya

= rajatamaya,
made of silver
= suvaamaya, or sovaamaya, golden

* Mana and other words similarly declined, when combined with another word or with the suffix maya,
change their final vowel " a " into " o ". See lesson XIX.
6. " T " is used ta signify collection, state, or quality. The derivatives thus formed are always in the
feminine.
Examples :Gma
Jana
Bla
Dhamma
Manussa

+ t
+ t
+ t
+ t
+ t

= gmat,
= janat,
= blat,
= dhammat,
= manussat,

collection of villages
multitude
ignorance, childhood
state of things, nature
manhood

7. " Tta* " and " ya " are also used to signify state or quality. ** The derivatives thus formed are in the
neuter.
In the case of " ya " the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi
substitute.
Examples :Aroga
Bla
Manussa
Nla
Paita

+ ya
+ ya
+ tta
+ tta
+ tta
+ ya

= rogya,
health, freedom from disease
= blya,
ignorance, childhood
= blatta,
ignorance
= manussatta; manhood
= nlatta,
blueness
= Pitya, and Paicca, wisdom

* Saskrt, tvam; English "dom", Kingdom.


** Sometimes the word " bhva ", which means nature or state, is combined with other words to express
state or quality, e.g., purisabhva, manhood; itthibhva, womanhood, etc.
8. " Tara " and " iya " are used to express the comparative degree, and " tama " and " iha ", the
superlative degree.

128

Examples :-

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

Bla, young, ignorant


Dhamma, religious, righteous
Gua, virtuous
Medha, wise
Pata, noble
Ppa, evil
Appa, little, few
Appa
Pasattha, good
Vuddha, old

SUPERLATIVE

blatara
dhammiya
guiya
medhiya
patatara
ppatara, ppiya
appatara
kaniya, younger
seyya, better
jeyya

balatama
dhammiha
guiha
medhiha
patatama
ppatama, ppiha
appatama
kaniha, youngest
seha, best
jeha

9. " Ka " is, affixed to numerals to denote a group.


Examples :Eka
Dvi
Catu

+ ka
+ ka
+ ka

= ekaka,
= dvika,
= catukka,

one-group; unit; groups of singles


two-group; dyad ; twofold group
four-group; tetrad ; threefold group

These derivatives take either the masculine or the neuter.


10. " Kkhattu " is affixed to numerals to denote the number of times.
Examples :Eka
Dvi

+ kkhattu
+ kkhattu

= ekakkhattu,
= dvikkhattu,

once
twice

11. " Dh " is affixed to numerals, " so " and " th " to others, to form distributive adverbs.
Examples :Eka
Paca
Bahu
Attha

+ dh
+ dh
+ dh
+ so

= ekadh,
= pacadh,
= bahudh,
= atthaso,

in one way
in five ways, fivefold
in many ways, manifold
according to the meaning

129

Sabba
Aa
Sabba

+ so
+ th
+ th

= sabbaso,
= aath,
= sabbath,

in every way
in another way, differently
in every way

These last two classes of derivatives are treated as declinables.


It should be understood that some comparatives and superlatives are formed by prefixing ati, and
atva or ativiya to the positive respectively.

Exe
xxii
Exercise xxii
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

" Rj bhavatu dhammiko. "


" Socati puttehi puttim. "
Tava paiccena mama ki payojana?
Aha mama mtpitare sad dvikkhattu vandmi.
Manussattampi labhitv kasm tumhe pua na karotha?
Eso saddho dyako sabbad sla samm rakkhati.
Sabbesu devamanussesu samm-sambuddho pana seho hoti.
lmesa dvinna svkna aya pana jeyyo seyyo ca hoti.
Tasmi pae vnijo, drumayabhani na vikkiti.
Yo saddho v pao v ya ya desa gacchati so tattheva pjito hoti.
Mahrao kanihaputto imasmi rahe seharjabhagriko hoti.
Amhka antevsikna kaiyo pana venayiko, kaniho pana bhidhammiko.
Lokiyajan puappa katv sugatiduggatsu uppajjitv bahudh kyikasukhadukkha bhujanti.
" Tesa saccena slena - khantimettabalenaca
Te pi tva anurakkhantu - rogyena sukhena ca. "

Vocabulary: Pali-English

130

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

What is the good of your manhood if you do no good to others?


Every bodily deed is mind-made.
His eldest brother is the most virtuous boy in the school.
The great multitude sat in the hall in different ways.
Health is the best wealth.
It is a Buddha who understands the nature of a Buddha in every way.
I went to see the treasurer several times.
All ships are not made of iron.
What is the use of worldly goods to monks and nuns?
He advised me in every way to strive to attain Buddhahood.
Twice I wrote to him, but he did not send a reply even once.
My youngest brother is the wisest of all.
The righteous and wise men are very few.
Wooden beds are better than iron* beds.

* Use the Ablative case.

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

131

Lesson XXIII
sson
Kitaka
rba
ivativ
Kitaka Verbal Derivatives
Words formed by adding suffixes to verbal roots are called kitaka.
There are several such suffixes which are used in various senses.
A few of the important ones are given below:
1. " A " is affixed to roots to form masculine abstract nouns, to denote agent, instrument, etc. The initial
vowel undergoes vuddhi substitute.
Examples :Bh

+a

Budha
Dusa
Ji
Kh
Lubha
Muha
Pata
Pada
Ruja

+a
+a
+a
+a
+a
+a
+a
+a
+a

= bhava,
= bhava,
= bodha,
= dosa,
= jaya,
= khaya,
= lobha,
= moha,
= pta,
= pda,
= roga,

becoming, existence
nature, condition
understanding
anger, hatred
victory
destruction
covetousness, greed, lust
ignorance, delusion
fall
foot (by which one walks)
disease

2. " A " is also affixed to roots when the words forming their objects are prefixed to them.
The verbal derivative thus formed is afterwards compounded with the preceding word. The initial
vowel of the root sometimes undergoes vuddhi substitute.
Examples :-

132

Anna
Bala
Dhamma
Dina
Kumbha
Ratha
Ml

+ d
+ d
+ dhara
+ kara
+ kara
+ kara
+ kara

+a
+a
+a
+a
+a
+a
+a

= annada,
= balada,
= dhammadhara,
= dinakara,
= kumbhakra,
= rathakra,
= mlkra,

giver of food
strength-giver
one versed in the Doctrine
maker of the day, (sun)
potter
coach-builder
garland-maker

3. " A " is also added to roots when words other than their objects are prefixed to them. Sometimes the
final syllable is dropped.
Examples :Pdena
Bhujena
Kammato
Vane
Vrimhi

+ p
+ gamu
+ jana
+ cara
+ jana

+a
+a
+a
+a
+a

= pdapa,
= bhujaga,
= kammaja,
= vanacara,
= vrija,

tree (lit. drinking with the foot).


snake (lit. going zigzag).
action-born
forest-wanderer
water-born, aquatic

4. In the case of " aka " the initial vowel of the root frequently undergoes vuddhi substitute, and
monosyllabic roots ending in " a " take an augment " y ", and those ending in " i ", and " u " change
into aya and ava respectively before the suffix.
" Aka " and " tu " are affixed to roots to denote the agent of the action.
In the case of " tu " the initial vowel of monosyllabic roots undergoes viuddhi substitute and the
final syllable of others are sometimes changed into " t ".
Examples :D
Ni
Sa
Bhuji
Gamu
Jana
Kara

+ aka
+ aka
+ aka
+ aka
+ aka
+ aka
+ aka

= dyaka,
= nyaka,
= svaka,
= bhojaka,
= gamaka,
= Janaka,
= kraka,

giver, supporter
leader
hearer, disciple
eater
goer
father (producer)
doer

D
Ni
Su

+ tu
+ tu
+ tu

= dtu,
= netu,
= sotu,

giver
leader
hearer

133


Bhara
Gamu
Kara
Vc

+ tu
+ tu
+ tu
+ tu
+ tu

= tu,
= bhattu,
= gantu,*
= kattu,
= vattu,

knower
husband (supporter)
goer
doer
speaker

* Here " m " is changed into " n ".


5. " Ana " and " ti " are affixed to roots to form neuter and feminine abstract nouns respectively.
Examples :D
N
Su
Gamu
Kara
Mara (to die)

+ ana
+ ana
+ ana
+ ana
+ aa
+ ana

= dna,
= nayana,
= savana,
= gamana,
= karaa,
= maraana,

giving, alms
leading
hearing
going
doing
death, dying

Before " ti " sometimes the final syllable of the root is dropped, and at times it is changed into " t
".
Gamu
G (to soing)
Muca
P
Ramu (to sport)
Sara (to remember)
Su
h
Thu (to praise)

+ ti
+ ti
+ ti
+ ti
+ ti
+ ti
+ ti
+ ti
+ ti

= gati,
= gti,
= mutti,
= pti,
= rati,
= sati,
= suti,
= hiti,
= thuti,

gait, condition of birth


song
release
drinking
sport, attachment
recollection, memory
hearing
state
praise

6. " Anya " and " ya " are affixed to roots in the sense of ought to be, fit to be, fit for, worthy of. If the
root ends in " a " and " ", the suffix " ya " is changed into " eyya ".
Examples :Kara
P

+ anya
+ anya

= karaya,*
= pnya,

134

ought to be done
fit to be drunk, (water)

Pja
Su
D
Gha

+ anya
+ anya
+ ya + eyya
+ ya
+ya + eyya

+ ya + eyya

= pjanya,
worthy of offering
= savanya,
fit to be heard
= deyya,
fit to be given
= (gahya, becomes) gayha, fit to be taken
= eyya,
ought to be known, should be
understood
= peyya,
ought to be drunk, drinkable

* After " r " the dental " n " is changed into cerebral " ".
Som regu fo
gul
Some irregular forms:Bhuji
Mada
Khda
Garaha
Vada
Yuja

+ ya
+ ya
+ ya
+ ya
+ ya
+ ya

= bhojja,
= majja,
= khajja,
= grayha,
= vajja,
= yogga,

fit to be eaten, edible


fit for intoxication, intoxicating
edible
blamable
fit to be said, (fault)
suitable

7. " I " and " ana " are affixed to roots in the sense of disposed to, in the habit of. The initial vowel
undergoes vuddhi substitute.
Examples :Brahma cara

= brahmacr,

Dhamma vada +

= dhammavd,

Sacca vada
Sdhu sla
Ppa kara
Kudha
Bhsa
Ghusa
Kampa

one who is in the habit of leading a noble life


(celibate).
one who is in the habit of expounding the
Doctrine.
one who is disposed o speak the truth, truthful.
good-natured one
evil-doer, one who is disposed to evil
disposed to anger, angry
garrulous
sounding, noisy
shaky

= saccavd,
= sdhusl,
= ppakr,
= kodhana,
= bhsana,
= ghosana,
= kampana,

+
+
+
+ ana
+ ana
+ ana
+ ana

135

8. The infinitives, which are also treated as verbal derivatives formed by adding " tu " to the roots, are
compounded with " kama " in the sense of desirous of , wishing by dropping their niggahita.
The Desideratives thus formed are declined like compound words.
Examples :Bhujitu kma

Gantu kma
Pacitu kma
Ktu kma

= bhujitukma,
bhujitukmena,
bhujitukmassa,
= gantukma,
= pacitukma.
= kattukma,

wishing to eat
by one who wishes to eat
to one who wishes to eat
desirous of going, wishing to go
wishing to cook
wishing to do

It should be understood that infinitives and all kinds of participles which have already been dealt
with, are also treated as kitakas.
Exe
xxiii
Exercise xxiii
A
1.

" Ki dado balado hoti - ki dado hoti vaado.


Ki dado sukhado hoti - ki dado hoti cakkhudo? "
2. " Annado balado hoti - vatthado hoti vaado
Ynado sukhado hoti - dpado hoti cakkhudo. "
3. Maggo atthi maggiko natthi, gamana atthi
gamako natthi, kamma atthi krako natthi.
4. " Dhammapti sukha seti. "
5. " Dhammacr sukha seti - asmi loke paramhi ca. "
6. " Sabbappassa akaraa "
7. " Ppna akaraa sukha ".
8. Sabbadna dhammadna jinti
Sabba rasa dhammarasa jinti,
Sabba rati dhammarati jinti,
Tahakkhayo sabbadukkha janti. "
9. Yo svako kyena v vcya v cetas v kicipi ppa kamma na karoti so hoti Dhammadharo,
Dhammavd.
10. Tava thutiy me payojana natthi.

136

11.
12.
13.
14.

Saccavdino sad pjany honti.


Sampattivipattsu akampanacitto hohi.
Sdhusl svak dhammasavanatthya gantukm nagarato nikkhamisu.
Bhsanadrak paitehi grayh honti.
Vocabulary: Pali-English

B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

By the destruction of lust, hatred and ignorance one obtains deliverance.


This potter is making iron vessels.
Evil-doers and well-doers should be known by their actions.
The expounders of the Doctrine should be reverenced by all.
Of what use is his praise to the disciples?
I do not know his going or coming.
There is medicine for bodily diseases but not for mental diseases.
The coach-builder wishing to make a chariot felled* the tallest tree in his garden.
Who knows that our death will come tomorrow.
By his gait I know that he is a good-natured person.
The speech of truthful persons should be heard.
This garland-maker is not an evil-doer.
No evil action should be done in thought, word, or deed by expounders of Truth.
The supporters wishing to go to hear the Doctrine approached the disciples who were reverenced by
them.

* Use the causal of pata, to fall (ptesi).

Vocabulary: English-Pali

Table of Contents

137

Lesson XXIV
sson
(Comb nat
mbi
RULES OF SANDHI (Combinations)
By Sandhi* is meant the combination of two letters that come in immediate contact with each other.
This combination may take place by elision, substitution, augment, etc.
* Formed of " sa ", together, with " dh " to join.
In Pi there are three classes of Sandhi, viz :1. Sara sandhi Vowel Combinations
Vow Combinations
mbin ons,
2. Vyajana sandhi Consonant Combinations and
Consonant Combinations
sonan
mbin ons,
3. Niggahita () sandhi Niggahita Combinations
Niggahita Combinations
ahit
mbin ons.
1. Sara sandhi Vowel Combinations
Sar andhi
Vow Combinations
mbin
1. When two vowels come together, the preceding vowel is often dropped. e.g.,
Loka - agga
Pa - indriya
Tni - imni
Sabbo - eva

= Lokagga,
= paindriya,
= tnimni,
= sabbeva,

chief of the world


faculty of wisdom
these three
verily all

2. Sometimes the following vowel is dropped, if it is preceded by a dissimilar vowel. e.g.,


Chy - iva
Iti - api
Pto - eva

= chyva,
= itipi,
= ptova,

like a shadow
such indeed
early morning

3. When the preceding dissimilar vowel is dropped, the following " i " and" u " short or long, are
substituted by " e " and " o " respectively. e.g.,
Upa - eto
Suriya - udaya

= Upeto
= suriyudayu,

constituted
suriyodaya, sunrise

4. When the preceding vowel is dropped, the following vowel is sometimes lengthened. e.g.,

138

Buddha - anussati
Gacchmi - iti
Bahu - upakro
Sace - aya
Idni - aha

= Buddhnussati,
= gacchmti,
= bahpakro,
= sacya,
= idnha,

reflection on the Buddha


that I go
very helpful
if this
now I

5. Sometimes the preceding vowel is lengthened when the following vowel is dropped. e.g.,
Lokassa - iti
Vi - atikkama
Sdhu - iti
Jvitahetu - api

= lokassti,
= vtikkama,
= sdhti,
= jvitahetpi,

thus to the world


transgression
thus good
even for the sake of life

6. When te, me, ye are followed by a vowel, " y " is sometimes substituted for their final " e ". e.g.,
Me - aya
Te - aha
Ye - assa

= myaya, myya,
= tyaha, tyha,
= yyassa, yyssa,

this by me
I to thee
those to him

7. When " i ", " " and " u ", " o " are followed by a dissimilar vowel * " y " and " v "are sometimes
substituted for them respectively. e.g.,
Vi - kato
Su - gata
Anu - eti
Ko - attho
So - aya

= vykato,
= svgata,
= anveti,
= kvattho,
= svaya, svya,

proclaimed
welcome
follows
what good
he this

* For instance a and are similar vowels, a and i are dissimilar vowels.
8. " Ti " of ati, iti, and pati, when followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " cc ". e.g.,
Ati - anta
Ati - eti
Ati - odto
Iti - eta
Pati - harati

= accanta,
= acceti,
= accodto,
= icceta,
= paccharati,

exceedingly
surpasses
very white
thus that
brings back

9. Abhi, followed by a vowel is sometimes changed into " abbha ". e.g.,

139

Abhi - uggato

= ubbhuggato,

arose

10. " Adhi ", followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " ajjha ". e.g.,
Adhi - gama

= ajjhgama,

attained

11. Sometimes " t, d, n, m, y, r, , v " are inserted before a vowel. e.g.,


Ajja - agge
Atta - attha
Ito - yati
Idha - hu
So - eva
Ni - antara
Cha - abhi
Ti - agika

= ajjatagge,
= attadattha,
= itonyati,
= idhamhu,
= soyeva,
= nirantara,
= chaabhi,
= tivagika,

from to-day
self-good
comes from here
here they say
he himself
without an interval, intermittent
six kinds of higher knowledge
three factors

Vya jan
ya
onsona
onant ombinations
bina
2. Vyajana Sandhi - Consonant Combinations
1. The vowel preceding a consonant is sometimes lengthened. e.g.,
Te - assa
Municare
Su - akkhto
Jyati soko

= tyssa,
= muncare,
= svkkhto,
= jyatsoko,

those to him
the sage would wander
well-expounded
grief arises

2. Sometimes the vowel preceding a consonant is shortened. e.g.,


Yadi v svake
Tah - khayo

= yadivasvake,
= tahakkhayo,

or if towards the disciples


destruction (of) craving

3. Before a consonant the final " o " of the pronominal stems " eta " and " ta " is changed into " a ". e.g.,
Eso dhammo
So muni

= esa dhammo,
= sa muni,

that nature
he (is) a sage

4. The consonant following a vowel is sometimes duplicated. e.g.,

140

A - pamdo
Vi - a

= appamdo,
= via,

diligence
conciousness

5. When an aspirated consonant is duplicated the preceding one is changed into the unaspirated form of the
same consonant. e.g.,
Ni - bhaya
sa - dhammo

= nibbhaya,
= saddhammo,

fearless
noble Doctrine

3. Niggahita () Sandhi - Niggahita Combinations


Niggahit
Sandhi Nigga ita
binations
hi
nation
1. The Niggahita preceding a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group; e.g.,
Ta khaa
Sa jta
Ta a
Ta hna
Aha te
Sa nipto
Sa bodhi
Sa mna

= takhaa,
= sajta,
= taa,
= tahna,
= ahante,
= sannipto,
= sambodhi,
= sammna,

that instant
born
that knowledge
that place
I to thee
union
enlightenment
honour

2. The Niggahita preceding " e " and " h " is changed into " ". Before " e " the substituted " " is
duplicated. e.g.,
Ta - eva
Ta - hi

= taeva,
= tahi,

itself
it indeed

3. The Niggahita preceding " y " is sometimes changed into " ", " y " is afterwards dropped, and the
substituted " " is duplicated. e.g.,
Sa - yamo

= saamo,

restraint

4. The Niggahita, followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " m ", and into " d " if it is affixed to "
ta " and " eta ". e.g.,
Ta - aha
Eta - avoca

= tamaha,
= etadavoca,

that I
this he said

141

5. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a vowel is dropped. The initial vowel of the following word not
followed by a double consonant, is lengthened, and the final vowel of the preceding word is dropped.
e.g.,
Adsi aha,
Eva aha,

adsi - aha,
eva - aha,

ads - aha,
evaha,

adsha,
evha,

I gave
thus I

6. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a consonant is also dropped. e.g.,


Buddhna - ssana

= Buddhnassana,

message of the Buddhas

7. Sometimes a Niggahita is inserted before a vowel or a consonant. e.g.,


Cakkhu udapdi
Ava - siro

= cakkhu udapdi,
= avasiro,

the eye arose


head downwards

8. Sometimes the vowel following a Niggahita is dropped, and the Niggahita is afterwards nasalised. e.g.,
Ida api
Ki iti
Cakka iva

= idampi,
= kinti,
= cakkava,

this too
what is
like a wheel

Table of Contents

142

Lesson XXV
sson
of the
Uses of the Cases
The Nomi ati
min
Pah
The Nominative Case (Paham)
1. The Nominative case, when used by itself, expresses the crude form of a word; e.g.,
naro,
nr,
phala,

man,
woman,
fruit.

2. The subject of a verb, whether active or passive, is expressed by the Nominative; e.g., .
Purisio gacchati,
Buddhena Dhammo desiyate,

man goes.
the Doctrine is preached by the Buddha.

3. The complement of intransitive verbs is also expressed by the Nominative; e.g.,


So rj ahosi,
Eso drako hoti,

he became a king;
he is a boy.
The Vocati
(la
lap
The Vocative case (lapana)

The Vocative Case is used to express the Nominative of Address; e.g.,


Putta, idhgaccha!
Bho Gotama,

son, come here.


O venerable Gotama!
The ccu ati
(Du
Dut
The Accusative Case (Dutiy)

1. The Accusative denotes the object; e.g.,


Aha lekhana likhmi,

I am writing a letter.

2. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the Accusative. e.g.,
Idha so temsa vasi,
Dvha atikkanta,
Yojana dgho pabbato,

here he lived for three months.


two days are passed.
the mountain is one league long.

143

3. Verbs of motion take the Accusative; e.g.,


So gma gacchati,

he goes to the village.

4. The prefixes " anu ", " pati ", " pari " also govern the Accusative; e.g.,
Rukkha anu, rukkha pati, rukkha parivijjotate cando the moon shines by every tree.
Yadettha ma anu siy,
whatever there be here for me.
Sdhu Devdatto mtara anu,
Devadatta is kind to his mother.
Anu Sriputta paav bhikkhu,
monk inferior to Sariputta in wisdom.
Saccakiriya anu pavassi,
it rained according to (his) act of truth.
Nadi Nerajara pati,
near Neranjar river.
5. The Accusative is sometimes used adverbially; e.g.,
Rj sukha vasati,
Sukha supati,
Dukkha seti,

the king lives happily.


sleeps happily.
lives painfully.

6. Sometimes the Accusative is used in the sense of the (a) Ablative of agent, (b) Dative, (c) Genitive, and
(d) Locative; e.g.,
a. Vin* Dhamma,
Sace ma nlapissati,

without the Doctrine.


if he will not speak with me.

b. Upam ma paibhti,

a simile occurs to me.

c. Ta kho pana Bhagavanta,

(of) that Blessed One.

d. Eka samaya Bhagav..........,

on one occasion the Blessed One.

* Sometimes " Vin " governs the Nominative, Instrumental and the Ablative.
7. The root " vasa " preceded by , adhi, anu and upa governs the Accusative; e.g.,
Gma vasati, anuvasati, upavasati,
Vihra adhivasati,

lives in the village.


lives in the monastery.

The Auxi iar


Tat
The Auxiliary Case (Tatiy)
When the construction is passive the agent is expressed by this case; e.g.,

144

cariyena potthaka dyate,


Tena kata kamma,

a book is being given by the teacher.


the action done by him.
The Ins rument
The Instrumental Case (Karaa)

1. The means or the instrument by which an action is done is expressed by the Instrumental Case; e.g:,
Hatthena kamma karoti,
Cakkhun passma,
ena sukha labhati,

he does the work with his hand.


we see with our eye.
one obtains happiness by means of wisdom.

2. The Instrumental is also used to express(a) Cause and reason; e.g.,


Vijjya vasati,
Kamman vasalo hoti,

through knowledge he lives.


by action one becomes an outcast.

(b) Bodily defects; e.g.,


Akkhin ko,

blind in one eye.

(c) A characteristic attribute; e.g.,


Vaena abhirpo,
Gottena Gotamo,
Sippena naakro,

beautiful in appearance.
Gotama by clan.
a basket-maker by profession.

(d) The length of time and space within which an action is accomplished; e.g.,
Ekamsena gacchmi,
Yojanena gacchati,

I shall go in a month.
goes by a league.

(e) The price at which a thing is bought or sold; e.g.,


Satena kta,

bought for a hundred.

(f) The idea of resemblance, equality, rejoicing, deficiency, proficiency, need, use, etc.; e.g.,

145

Pitar sadiso,
Mtar samo,
Kahpaena no,
Dhanena hno,
Vcya nipuo,
Main attho.

like the father.


equal to the mother.
deficit of a farthing, less by a farthing.
destitute of wealth.
proficient in speech.
in need of a jewel.

(g) The conveyance or the part of the body on which a thing is carried; e.g.,
Ssena bhra vahati,

carries the burden on his head.

3. The indeclinables saha, saddhi - with, accompanied by; ala - enough, what use; ki - what, also
governs the Instrumental ; e.g.,
" Nisdi Bhagav saddhi bhikkhusaghena ", the Blessed One sat with the multitude of Bhikkhus.
Bhtar saha,
together with his brother.
Ala te idha vsena,
what is the use of your staying here?
Ki me dhanena,
of what use is wealth to me?
4. Sometimes the Instrumental is used adverbially; e.g.,
Sukhena vasati,

lives happily.

5. The Instrumental is sometimes used in the sense of (a) Accusative, (b) Ablative, and (c) Locative, e.g.,
Tilehi khette vapati,

he sows gingili in the field.

a. Attanva attna, sammannati,

he chooses himself.

b. Sumutt maya tena mahsamaena,

we are wholly released from that great ascetic.

c. Tena samayena,

at that time.
The tiv
(Catutt
tth
The Dative Case (Catutth)

1. The Dative Case is used to express the person or thing to whom or to which something is given; e.g.,
Ycakna dna deti,
Kyassa bala deti,

he gives alms to the beggars.


he gives strength to the body.

146

2. The roots ruca, to please, and dhara, to bear or hold, govern the dative of the person pleased, or held;
e.g.,
Samaassa rucate sacca,
Devadattassa suvaacchatta dhrayate,

the truth is pleasing to the ascetic.


he holds a golden parasol for Devadatta.

3. Verbs implying anger, jealousy, praise, blame, curse, and others having the same sense govern the
dative of the person against whom such a feeling is directed; e.g.,
Tassa kujjha, mahvra,
Devpi tesa pihayanti,
Dujjan guavantna usyanti,
Buddhassa silghate,
Nindanti bahubhnina,
Mayh sapate,

be angry with him, O great hero!


even the Devas hold them dear.
the evil are jealous of the virtuous.
he praises the Buddha.
they blame the garrulous.
he curses me.

4. The indirect object of verbs such as telling, proclaiming, teaching, preaching, sending, writing, etc. is
put in the Dative Case; e.g.,
Te vejjassa kathayisu,
Arocaymi vo Bhikkhave,
Satth Bhikkhna Dhamma deseti,
So tassa lekhana pahii,

they told it to the doctor.


I declare to you, O Bhikkhus
the Teacher is preaching the Doctrine to the Bhikkhus.
he sent a letter to him.

5. The purpose for which anything is done, the result to which anything leads, and the reason for which
anything exists, are also expressed by the Dative; e.g.,
Yuddhya gacchti,
he goes to war.
Nibbnya savattati,
is conducive to Nibbana.
Caratha bhikkhave crika bahu-janahitya, bahu-janasukhya, go ye forth, O Bhikkhus, for the
good and happiness of the many.
Atthya me bhavissati,
it will be for my good.
6. The words hita, good, attha, good, need, payojana, use, and indeclinables like ala, ki, namo,
svgata, govern the Dative; e.g.,

147

lokassa hita,
Dhanena me attho,
ena te ki payojana,
Ala mallo mallassa,
Namo sammsambuddhassa,
Svgata te mahrja,
Svatthi hotu sabbasattna,
Sotthi te hotu sabbad,

good for the world.


I am in need of wealth.
of what use is wisdom to you?
a warrior is fit for a warrior.
praise be to the Fully Enlightened One.
welcome to you, O king!
blessing to all beings.
may happiness ever be to you!

7. Sometimes the place to which the motion is directed is put in the Dative; e.g.,
Appo saggya gacchati,

few go to heaven.
The Ablative Case (Pacam.)
The Abl tiv
Paca

1. The Ablative Case is principally used to denote the place or object from which motion or separation
takes place; e.g.,
Nagar niggato rj,
Rukkhasm phalni patanti,
Assasm patmi,

the king departed from the city.


fruits fall from the tree.
I fall from the horse.

2. The Ablative is used to express the person or thing from whom or from which something is originated,
produced, caused, learnt, received, released, etc.; e.g.,
Pabbatehi nadiyo pabhavanti,
Urasm jto putto,
Ubhato sujto,
Kmato jyati soko,
Corasm bhaya uppajjati,
cariyamh ugguhma,
Siss cariyehi pakra labhanti,
Dukkh pamucantu,
Mutto mrabandhan,

rivers originate from mountains.


the son born from the breast.
well-born from both sides.
grief arises from passion.
fear arises from thieves.
we learn from the teacher.
pupils receive gifts from their teachers.
may they be freed from pain!
released from the bondage of the Evil One.

3. That which one desires to Protect and whose sight one desires to avoid, are also put in the Ablative
Case; e.g.,

148

Kke rakkhanti taul,


Ppa citta nivraye,
Mt pithi antaradhyati putto,

lit. they guard crows from rice.


one should protect the mind from evil.
the son disappears from the parents.

4. The place or time from which another place or time is measured is expressed by the Ablative. The
distance in space is put in the Locative or in the Nominative, and that in time is put in the Locative;
e.g.,
Nagarasm catusu yojanesu araa,
Gmasm rmo yojana,
Imamh msasm pacamse atikkhante,
Ito kappasahasse,

the forest is four leagues from the city.


the monastery is one league from the village.
when five months have elapsed from this.
thousand Kappas hence.

5. Some prefixes and indeclinables also govern the Ablative; e.g.,


" ", as far as
- pabbat khetta,
" Apa ", away from
- apa slya yanti,
" Pati", like, in exchange for - Buddhasm pati Sriputto,
Ghatamasssa telasm patidadti,
" Pari ", away from, without - Paripabbat devo vassati,
" adho ", below
- adhar adho,
" Nn ", different
- te Bhikkh nn-kul,
" Rite ", without - rite saddhamm kuto sukha,
" Vin ", without
" Uddha ", above
" Upari ", above
" Yva", as far as

- vin dhamm,
- uddha pdatal,
- Upari gagya,
- yva brahmalok,

as far as the rock is the field.


they come from the hall.
like the Buddha is Sriputta.
he gives him ghee in exchange for oil.
it rains except on the mountain.
below the hip.
those monks from different families.
where is happiness without the
noble Doctrine?
without the Doctrine.
upward from the sole of the feet.
above the river.
as far as the Brahma realm.

6. The Ablative is also used to denote comparison; e.g.,


Dnato slameva vara,
Slameva sut seyyo,

morality is indeed higher than liberality.


morality is nobler than learning.

7. The Ablative is sometimes used in the sense of the (a) instrumental and (b) Locative; e.g.,

149

(a). " Slato na pasasanti, "


Bhava-paccay jti,
Sakhranirodh avijj nirodho,

they Praise him on account of morality.


birth is conditioned by action.
the cessation of ignorance results from the cessation of
activities.

(b) Puratthimato,

from the east.

8. Sometimes the (a) Accusative and the (b) Genitive are used in the sense of the Ablative; e.g.,
(a) Ki krana,

by what reason?

(b) Ta kissa hetu,

by what cause?

9. Sometimes the Ablative is used after abstract nouns formed from past participles in the sense of
because of; on account of; e.g.,
Kammassa kaatt,
Ussannatt,

by reason of having done the action.


on account of having arisen.
The enit
iti
(Chah
The Genitive Case (Chahi)

1. The Genitive Case is generally used to denote the possessor; e.g.,


Buddhassa dhammo,
Rukkhassa chy,

Buddhas Doctrine.
the shadow of the tree.

2. The Genitive is also used to denote the relationship between two objects; e.g.,
Pupphna rsi,
Bhikkhna samho,
Meghassa saddo,
Suvaassa vao,
Pdassa ukkhepana,
Lokassa hito,

heap of flowers.
multitude of monks.
sound of thunder.
colour of gold.
raising of the foot.
the good of the world.

3. Persons or things over which kingship, lordship, teachership, superiority, etc. are expressed are also put
in the Genitive Case; e.g.,

150

Narna indo,
Manussna adhipati,
Satth deva-manussna,

king of men.
chief of men.
teacher of gods and men.

4. When a person or thing is distinguished from a group the word implying the group is put in the Genitive
or Locative; e.g.,
Buddho seho manussna,
Imesa draknan, or (imesu drakesu) eso pahamo,
Etesa phalna eka gaha,

the Buddha is the chief of men.


he is the first of these boys.
take one of those fruits.

5. Words implying skill, Proficiency, likeness, similarity, distance, nearness, under, above, etc. govern the
Genitive; e.g.,
DhammDhammassa kovido,
skill in knowing the right and wrong.
Kusal naccagtassa,
skilled in dancing and singing.
Gmassa (v gmato) avidure,
not far from the village.
Nibbnassa santike,
in the presence of Nibbna.
Nagarassa sampe,
near the city.
Tassa Purato,
in his presence.
Heh chyya,
under the shade.
Heh, macassa,
under the bed.
Tassopari, above it; jnumaalna upari, above the knees.
Pitussa tulyo,
similar to the father.
Mtu-sadiso,
like the mother.
6. The Genitive is also used with superlatives and words having the same sense; e.g.,
Dhammna caturo pad seh,
Sabbesa sattna Buddho uttamo,
Danto seho manussna,

of things the four Truths are the highest.


the Buddha is the highest of all men.
a self-controlled person is the best of men.

7. Sometimes the Genitive is used in the sense of the (a) Accusative, (b) Auxiliary, (c) Instrumental, (d)
Ablative, (e) Locative; e.g.,
(a) Amatassa dt,
Ppna akaraa sukha,

giver of immortality.
it is happy not to do evil.

151

(b) Rao pjito,

reverenced by the king.

(c) Patta odanassa pretv,

filling the bowl with food.

(d) Sabbe bhyanti maccuno,


Bhto catunna sivisna,

all are afraid of death.


frightened of the four snakes.

(e) Divasassa tikkhattau,


Bhagavato pasann,

thrice a day.
pleased with the Blessed One.
The Locati
Sat
The Locative Case (Sattam)

1. The Locative Case denotes the place or time where anything is or happens; e.g.,
Manuss gharesu vasanti,
Thliya odana pacati,
Khresu jala,

men live in houses.


he cooks rice in a pot.
there is water in milk.

2. The Locative denotes also the time when an action takes place; e.g.,
Tasmi samaye,
at that time.
Syahasamaye gato,
he came in the afternoon.
Phussamsamh tsu msesu veskhamso, three months from Phussa month is the month of
Veskha.
Ito satasahassamhi kappe,
one hundred thousand aeons hence.
3. The reason is sometimes expressed by the Locative; e.g. ,
Dpi cammesu haate,
Musvde pcittiya,

the tigers are killed on account of their skin.


one commits a pcittiya offence, there is a pcittiya with
regard to a lie or through falsehood.

4. The group or class from which a person or thing is distinguished or separated is put in the Locative; e.g.,
Manussesu khattiyo sratamo,
Addhikesu dhvato sghatamo,
yasm nando arahantesu aataro,

the warrior is the bravest of men.


the runner is the fastest of travellers.
Venerable nanda is one of the Arahants.

152

5. The Locative or the Genitive is used with words " adhipati ", lord; " dyda ", heir; " issara ", lord;
" kusala ",skill; " patibh ",bail; " pasuta ", born of; " sakkhi ", witness; & " smi ", master; e.g.,
Lokasmi or (lokassa) adhipati,
lord of the world.
Kammasmi or (kammassa) dydo,
heir of action.
Pahaviya or (pahaviy) issaro,
lord of the earth.
Gtasmi or (gtassa) kusalo,
skill in singing.
Dassanasmi or (dassanassa) paibh,
surety for appearance.
Gosu or (gava) pasuto,
born of cows.
Adhikaraasmi or (adhikaraassa) sakkhi, witness in a case.
Dhammasmi or (Dhammassa) smi,
master of Truth.
6. The Locative is used with the words " sdhu ", good, kind; " nipua ", proficient, skilful; and words
having the sense of "being pleased with, angry with, contented with, being addicted to"; etc., and with
prefixes " adhi " and " upa ", in the sense of exceeding, or master of; e.g.,
Paya sdhu,
Mtari sdhu,
Vinaye nipuo,
Bhagre niyutto,
Dhamme gravo,
Buddhe pasanno,
Appakasmi tuho,
Ksirae na kuppmi,
Adhi devesu Buddho,
Upanikkhe kahpaa,

good in wisdom.
kind towards the mother.
proficient in discipline.
attached to the treasury.
reverence towards the Dhamma.
being pleased with the Buddha.
being contented with little.
I am not angry with the Ksi king.
the Buddha is superior to the gods.
a Kahpaa is greater than Nikkha.

7. Sometimes the Locative is used in the sense of the (a) Nominative, (b) Accusative, (c) Instrumental (d)
Dative, and (e) Ablative; e.g.,
(a) Idampissa hoti slasmi,

this also is his virtue

(b) Bhsu gahetv,


Bhikkhsu abhivadanti,

taking the hands.


salute the monks.

(c) Sama pattesu piya caranti,

the ascetics go for alms with their bowls.

(d) Sanghe, Gotami, dehi,

O Gotami, give to the Sangha.

(e) Kadalsu gaje rakkhanti,

lit. they protect the elephants from the plantain trees.

153

The enit
iti
oca ive Abs
The Genitive and the Locative Absolutes
The Nominative Absolute in English and the Ablative Absolute in Latin are expressed by the Genitive
and Locative Absolutes in Pi. .
(a) When the subject of a participle is different from the subject of the verb it is put in the Locative
Absolute and the participle is made to agree with it in gender, number and case.
(b) If the subject of the participle is the same as that of the finite verb this construction is not used.
(c) Mayi gate so gato, he came when I had gone.
Bhikkhusaghesu bhojiyamnesu gato, he went when the multitude of monks were being fed.
Sabbe magg vivajjenti gacchante lokanyake, when the leader of the world goes, all turn away from
the path.
This construction corresponds to the Nominative Absolute in English and Ablative Absolute in
Latin.
(d) Aha gacchanto tena saddhi na sallapi, as I was going I did not speak with him.
When disregard is to be shown the Genitive Absolute is often used. Sometimes the Locative
Absolute is also used.
Mtpitunna rudantna pabbaji or mtpitsu rudantesu pabbaji, he renounced disregarding
his weeping parents, i.e., he renounced in spite of or not withstanding the weeping of his parents.
(though his parents were weeping, he went forth into homelessness.)
The same construction may be used in the sense of as soon as; no sooner than, by compounding "
eva " with the participle; e.g.,
Tayi gate yeva so gato, he went as soon as you came, or he went just as you had come.

Table of Contents

154

Lesson XXVI
sson
Pas ive Voi
Passive Voice
There are different endings, for the Passive Voice. Sometimes the endings of the Active Voice are
also used in the sense of the Passive.
In forming the Passive Voice " ya " is added between the root and the endings. If the roots end in " a "
and " ", they are often changed into " ".

Examples :-

Rakkha
D
N
Su
Paca

- ya
- ya
- ya
- ya
- ya

- te
- te
- te
- te
- te

= rakkhyate
= dyate
= nyate
= syate
= pacayate

= paccate

mn
Present Tense (Vattamn)
ent ens

SING.
3. te
2. se
1. e

PLU.
ante
vhe
mhe

paccate paccante
paccase paccavhe
pacce paccamhe

Aor
Ajj an
Aorist (Ajjatan)

SING.
3.
2. se
1. a

PLU.

vha
mhe

apacc, pacc
apaccise, paccise
apacca, pacca

155

apacc, pacc
apaccivha, paccivha
apaccimhe, paccimhe

Per
Ten Hy tta
Perfect Tense (Hyattan)

SING.
3. ttha
2. se
1 I

PLU.
tthu
vha
mhase

apaccattha
apaccase
apacci

apaccatthu
apaccavha
apaccamhase

paccata
paccassu
pacce

paccanta
paccavho
paccmase

paccetha
paccetho
pacceyya

paccera
pacceyyavho
pacceyymhe

paccissate
paccissase
paccissa

paccissante
paccissasvhe
paccissmhe

Benedictive (Pacam)
enedi tiv Paca
ed

SING.
3. ta
2. ssu
1. e

PLU.
anta
vho
mase

Subjunctiv
Condi ona Sat
ondit
Subjunctive or Conditional (Sattam)
jun

SING.
3. etha
2. etho
1. eyya

PLU.
era
eyyavho
eyymhe

Futur ens (Bhaviss nti


avis
Future Tense (Bhavissanti)
tu

SING.
3. ssate
2. ssase
1. ssa

PLU.
ssante
ssavhe
ssmhe

(Parokkh and Kltipatti are not treated in this book.)

156

Conjugation
Conjugation of " h ", to be
jug
Present Tense
ent ens

SING.
3. hoti
2. hosi
1. homi

PLU.
honti
hotha
homa

Aor
Ajj an
Aorist (Ajjatan)

SING.
3. ahosi, ah
2. ahosi
1. ahosi,ahu

PLU.
ahesu
ahosittha
ahosimh, ahumh

Futur ens (Bhaviss ni)


avis
Future Tense (Bhavissani)
tu

SING.
3. hessati, hehi
2. hessasi
1. hessmi

PLU.
hessanti
hessatha
hessma

Imperative (Pacam)
mpe tiv Paca

SING.
3. hotu
2. hohi
1. homi

PLU.
hontu
hotha
homa

157

Conditiona Sat
Conditional (Sattam)
it

SING.
3. heyya
2. heyysi
1. heyymi

PLU.
heyya
heyytha
heyyma, heyya

Futur ens (Bhaviss nti


avis
Future Tense (Bhavissanti)
tu

SING.

PLU.

3. hessati, hehiti
2. hessasi, hehisi
1. hessmi, hehmi

hessanti, hehinti
hessatha, hehitha
hessma, hehma

Per
Hy tta
Perfect (Hyattani)

SING.
3. ahuv
2. ahuvo
1. ahuva

PLU.
ahuv, ahuvu
ahuvattha.
ahuvamha
Conjugation
Conjugation of " asa ", to be
jug

Present
ent

SING.
3. atthi
2. asi
1. asmi, amhi

PLU.
santi
attha
asma, amha

158

Aor
Aorist

SING.
3. si
2. si
1. si

PLU.
sisu, su
sittha
simha

Imperative
mpe tive

SING.
3. atthu
2. hi
1. asmi

PLU.
santu
attha
asma

Conditi
Conditional
it

SING.
3. siy, assa
2. assa
1. assa

PLU.
siyu, assu
assatha
assma

Table of Contents

159

SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION


I

BUDDHENIY VATTHU
eni
Story of Buddheni
tory of Buddhen
Jambudpe kira pubbe paliputtanagare sattsti-koi-nihita-dhana eka sehi-kula ahosi. Tassa
pana sehino ek yeva dht ahosi -nmena Buddhen nma. Tassa satta-vassika-kle mt-pitaro
klamakasu. Tasmi kule sabba spateyya tass yeva ahosi.
S kira abhirp psdik paramya vaapokkharatya samanngat devacchar-paibhg piy ca
ahosi manp saddh pasann ratanattayammik paivasati. Tasmi pana nagare sehisenpati uparjdayo ta attano pdaparikatta kmayamn manusse pesesu pakrehi saddhi. S ta
sutv cintesi :- mayha mtpitaro sabba vibhava pahya mat. Maypi tath gantabba. Ki me
patikulena. Kevala citta-vinsya bhavati. May panima dhana Buddha-ssane yeva nidahitu
vaatti cintesi. Cintetv ca pana tesa mayha patikulenatthoti paikkhipi.
S tato pahya mahdna pavattent samaa-brhmae santappesi.
Athparabhge eko assa-vijako assa-vijjya pubbantparanta gacchanto gamma imasmi
gehe nivsa gahi. Atha so vijo ta disv dhtu-sineha patihpetv gandha-ml - vatth lakrdhi tass upakrako hutv gamanakle - "Amma etesu assesu tava ruccanaka assa gahh"
ti ha.
Spi asse oloketv eka sindhavapotaka disv "eta me deh " ti ha.
Vijo - "Amma eso sindhavapotako. Appamatt hutv paijaggh " ti vatv ta paipdetv
agamsi.
Spi ta paijaggamn ksa - gm - bhva atv sammpaijaggant eva cintesi puakaraassa me sahyo laddhoti agatapubb ca me Bhagavato sakala mrabala vidhmetv
Buddhabhtassa Jaya-mah Bodhi-bhmi. Yannnha tattha gantv Bhagavato Jayamah-bodhi
vandeyyanti cintetv bah rajata-suvaa-mldayo krpetv ekadivasa assam abhiruyha ksena
gantv bodhi-mlake hatv - gacchantu ayya suvaaml pjetunti ugghosesi - tenettha:

160

Yato pahyaha Buddha - ssane suddha-mnas


Pasunn tena saccena - mamanuggaha-buddhiy
gacchantu namassantu - bodhi pjentu sdhuka
Soamlhi Sambuddha - putt ariyasvak
Sutv ta vacana ayy - bah Slavsino
gamma nabhas tattha - vandisu ca mahisu ca.
Tato-ppabhuti s kumrik Buddha-ssane atva pasann niccameva assamabhiruyha gantv ariyehi
saddhi Mahbodhi suvaamlbhi pjetv gacchati.
Atha Paliputta-nagaropavane vanacar tassa abhiha gacchantiy ca gacchantiy ca
rpasampatti disv rao kathesu. "Mahrja, evarp kumrik assamabhiruyha gantv nibandha
vanditv gacchati. Devassnura aggamahesi bhavitun " ti.
Rj ta sutv "Tena hi bhane gahatha na kumri Mama aggamahesi karom" ti, purise
payojesi.
Tena payutt puris Bodhi-pja katv gacchanti gahmti tattha niln gahaa-sajj ahasu.
Tad s kumrik assamabhiruyha Mah-Bodhimaa gantv vtargehi saddhi pupphapja katv
vanditv nivatti. Atha tesu eko Dhammarakkhitatthero nma tass evamha: "Bhagini, tva antarmagge
cor gahitukm hit. Asukhahna patv appamatt sgha gacch" ti.
S pi gacchant ta hna patv corehi anubandhit assassa pahiy saa datv pakkami. Cor
pacchato pacchato anubandhisu. Asso vega janetv ksamullanghi. Kumrik vega sandhretu
asakkont assassa pihito parigilitv patant -may katpakra sara puttti ha. So patanti disv vegena
gantv pihiya nisdpetv ksato netv sakahne yeva patihpesi. Tasm
Tiracchnagat peva - sarant upakraka
Na jahantti mantvna - kata hontu pnino.
Tato s kumrik sattstikoi - dhana Buddhassane yeva vapitv yvajva sla rakkhitv tato
cut suttappabuddho viya devaloke nibbatti.
Atitaruavay bho mtugmpi eva
Vividhakusalakamma katv sagga vajanti
Kusalaphalamahanta maamn bhavant
Bhavatha kathamupekk dnamndikamme.

161

II

PNYADINNASSA VATTHU
NY
Story of the Giver of Water
tory of the Giver
Jambudpe aatarasmi janapade kireko manusso rahato raha janapadato janapada vicaranto
anukkamena Candabhg-nadtra patv nva abhiruhitv paratra gacchati. Athpara gabbhinitth
tya evanvya gacchati. Atha nv gag-majjh-patta-kle tassa kammaja vt calisu. Tato s
vijyitumasakkont klant pnya me detha pipsitmh ti manusse yci. Te tass vacana asuant
viya pnya ndasu. Atha so jnapadiko tassa karuyanto pnya gahetv mukhe sici. Tasmi
khae s laddhsss sukhena draka vijyi. Atha te tra patv katipaya-divasena attano attano hna
ppuisu. Athparabhge so jnapadiko aatara-kicca paicca tass itthiy vasana-ghara patv
tattha tattha hianto nivsanana alabhitv nagaradvre sla gantv tattha nipajji.
Tasmi yeva divase cor nagara pavisitv rjagehe sandhi chinditv dhanasra gahetv
gacchant rjapurisehi anubaddh gantv t yeva slya chaetv palyisu. Atha rjapuris gantv
ta jnapadika disv -aya coroti gahetv pacchbha gha bandhitv puna-divase rao
dassesu.
Ra "Kasm bhae, corakammaks" ti pucchito
"Nha, deva, coro, gantukomhi" ti vutte, rj core pariyesitv alabhanto ayameva coro ima
mrethti npesi.
Rjapurisehi ta gha bandhitv ghtahna nette s itth ta tatha nyamna disv
sajnitv kampamna haday muhuttena rao santika gantv vanditv, "deva eso na coro gantuko,
muccatheta, devti" ha. Rj tss katha asaddhahanto yajjeta mocetumicchasi tassagghanaka
dhana datv mucpehti.
S "smi mama gehe dhana natthi. Api ca me satta-puttehi saddhi ma dsi karohi. Eta
muca dev" ti ha.

162

III

DUGGATASSA DNA
Pauper
er har
A Paupers Charity
Ahosi duggato pubbe - Brasi-puruttame
Dna denti nar tattha - nimantetvna bhikkhavo
Jvanto bhatiy soha - dna dente mahjane
Tuhahahe pamudite - eva cintesaha tad
Samuppaa-vatthlakr - dna dent ime jan
Paratthapi pahahva - sampattimanubhonti te
Buddhuppdo aya dni - dhammo loke pavattati
Susldni vattanti - dakkhieyy jinoras
Avahitova sasro - apy khalu prit
Kalya-vimukh satt - kma gacchanti duggati
Idni dukkhito hutv - jvmi kasirenaha
Daiddo kapao dno - appabhogo aniyo
Idni bja ropemi - sukhette sdhu-sammate
Appeva nma tenha - parattha sukhito siy
Iti cintiya bhikkhitv - bhati katvna nekadh
Maapa tattha kretv - nimantetvna bhikkhavo
ysena ads aha - pysa amat yaso
Tena kammavipkena - devaloke manorame
Jtomhi dibbakmehi - modamno anekadh
Dghyuko vaavanto - tejasca ahosaha.

163

IV

SUMANDEVIY VATTHU
Story of Suman Devi
tory of Suman evi
Svatthiya hi devasika Anthapiikassa gehe dve Bhikkhu-sahassni bhujanti; tath Viskhya
mahupsikya. Svatthiya ca yo yo dna dtukmo hoti so so tesa ubhina oksa labhitvva
karonti. Ki kra? Tumhka dnagga Anthapiiko v Viskh v gatti pucchitv ngatti
vutte satasahassa vissajjetv katadnampi ki dna nmetanti garahanti.
Ubhopi te Bhikkhusaghassa ruci ca anucchavikakiccni ca ativiya jnanti. Tesu vicrentesu
bhikkh cittarpa bhujanti. Tasm sabbe dna dtukm te gahetvva gacchanti. Iti te attano ghare
bhikkh parivisitu na labhanti.
Tato Viskh "ko nu kho mama hne hatv bhikkhusagha parivisissat" ti upadhrent puttassa
dhtara disv ta attano hne hapesi. S tass nivesane bhikkhusagha parivisati. Anthapiikopi
Mahsubhadda nma jehadhtara hapesi. S bhikkhna veyyvacca karont dhamma suant
sotpann hutv patikula agamsi. Tato Cullasubhadda hapesi. Spi tattheva karont sotpann
hutv patikula gat. Atha Sumandevi nma kaihadhtara hapesi. S pana Sakadgmiphala
patv kumrikva hutv tathrpena aphsukhena tur hrupaccheda katv pitara dahukm hutv
pakkospesi. So ekasmi dnagge tassa ssana sutvva gantv - "Ki amma Sumane?"ti ha. Spi
na ha- "Ki tta kiihabhtik"ti.
"Vippalapasi, amma?"
"Na vippalapmi, kaihabhtik" ti.
"Bhyasi, amm"ti.
"Na bhymi, kaihabhtik" ti.
Ettaka vatv yeva pana s klamaksi.
So Sotpannopi samno sehidhtari uppannasoka adhivsetu asakkonto Dhtu sarrakicca
kretv rodanto Satthusantika gantv "Ki gahapati dukkh dummano assumukho rudamno
upagatos"ti? vutte "Dht me bhante Sumandevi klakat" ti ha.

164

"Atha kasm socasi? Nanu sabbesa ekasika maraanti."


"Jnmeta bhante. Evarp pana me hirottappasampann dht s maraakle sati
paccupahpetu asakkont vippalamn matti me anappaka domanassa uppajjati" ti.
"Ki pana tay kathita mahsehi?"
"Aha ta bhante Amma Sumane ti mantesi. Atha na ha Ki tta kaihabhtikti. Tato
vippalpasi amm ti? Na vippalapmti kaihabhtik ti. Bhyasi amm ti? Na bhymti
kaiabhtik ti. Ettaka vatv klamkas" ti.
Atha na Bhagav ha. "Na te mahsehi dht vippalap" ti.
"Atha kasm evamh?" ti
Kaihatt yeva. Dht hi te gahapati maggaphalehi tay mahallik. Tva hi Sotpanno. Dht pana
te Sakadgmini. S maggaphalehi mahallikatt evamh" ti.
"Eva bhante!"
"Evan gahapati!"
"Idni kuhi nibbatt, bhante?"
Tusitabhavane gahapatti vutte bhante mama dht idh takna antare nandamn, vicaritv ito
gantvpi nandanahne yeva nibbatt."
Atha na satth "ma gahapati appamatt nma gahah v pabbajit v idha loke ca paraloke ca
nandanti yev"ti vatv ima gthamha.
Idha nandati pecca nandati - katapuo ubhayattha nandati
Pua me katan ti nandati - bhyyo nandati suggati gato.

165

SELECTIONS FROM DHAMMAPADA


Na hi verena verni - sammantdha kudcana
Averena ca sammanti - esa dhammo sanantano.
Yath agra ducchanna - vuhi samativijjhati
Eeva abhvita citta - rgo samativijjhati.
Yathgra succhanna - vuhi na samativijjhati
Eva subhvita citta - rgo na samativijjhati.
Idha socati pecca socati - ppakr ubhayattha socati
So socati so vihaati - disv kamma-kilihamattano.
Idha modati pecca modati - katapuo ubhayattha modati
So modati so pamodati - disv kamma-visuddhimattano.
Idha tappati pecca tappati - ppakr ubhayattha tappati
Ppa me katanti tappati - bhyo tappati duggati gato.
Idha nandati pecca nandati - katapuo ubhayattha nandati
Pua me katanti nandati - bhyo nandati suggati gato.
Appamdo amatapada - pamdo maccuno pada
Appamatt na myanti - ye pamatt yath mat.
Appamdena maghav - devna sehata gato
Appamda pasasanti - pamdo garahito sad.
Acira vataya kyo - pahavi adhisessati
Chuddho apeta-vio - niratthava kaigara.
Yathpi bhamaro puppha - vaagandha ahehaya
Paeti rasamdya - eva gme mun care.
Na paresa vilomni - na paresa katkata
Attanova avekkheyya - katni akatni ca.

166

Yathpi puppharsimh - kayir mlgue bah


Eva jtena maccena - kattabba kusala bahu.
Madhva maat blo - yva ppa na paccati
Yad ca paccati ppa - atha blo dukkha nigacchati.
Selo yath ekaghano - vtena na samrati
Eva nind-pasassu - na samijanti pait.
Na attahetu na parassa hetu - na puttamicche na dhana na raha
Na iccheyya adhammena samiddhimattano - sa slav paav dhammiko siy.
Yo sahassa sahassena - sagme mnuse jine
Eka ca jeyya attna - save sagmajuttamo.
Sabbe tasanti daassa - sabbe bhyanti maccuno
Attna upama katv - na haeyya na ghtaye.
Sabbe tasanti daassa - sabbesa jvita piya
Attna upama katv na haeyya na ghtaye.
Dhamma care sucarita - na ta duccarita care
Dhammacr sukha seti - asmi loke paramhi ca.
Kiccho manussa pailbho - kiccha macchna jvita
Kiccha saddhammasavaa - kiccho buddhna uppdo.
Sabbappassa akaraa - kusalassa upasampad
Sacitta pariyodapana - eta Buddhna ssana.
Yo ca Buddha ca dhamma ca - sagha ca saraa gato
Cattri ariya-saccni - sammappaya passati.
Dukkha dukkhasamuppda - dukkhassa ca atikkama
Ariyacahagika magga - dukkhpasamagmina.
Eta kho saraa khema - eta saraamuttama
Eta saraamgamma - sabbadukkh pamuccati.
Na chu na ca bhavissati - na cetarahi vijjati
Ekanta nindito poso - ekanta v pasasito.

167

Na tena paito hoti - yvat bahu bhsati


Khem avero abhayo - paitoti pavuccati.
Na tvat dhammadharo - yvat bahu bhsati
Yo ca appampi sutvna - dhamma kyena passati
Save dhammadharo hoti - yo dhamma nappamajjati.
Akata dukkata seyyo - pacch tapati dukkata
Kata ca sukata seyyo - ya katv nnutappati.
Sukha yva jar sla - sukh saddh patihit
Sukho paya pailbho - ppna akaraa sukha.
Sabbadna dhammadna jinti - sabba rasa dhammarasa jinti
Sabba rati dhammarati jinti - tahakkhayo sabba dukkha jinti.
Cakkhun savaro sdhu - sdhu sotena savaro
Ghena savaro sdhu - sdhu jivhya savaro.
Kyena savaro sdhu - sdhu vcya savaro
Manas savaro sdhu - sdhu sabbattha savaro
Sabbattha savuto bhikkhu - sabbadukkh pamuccati.
Dhammrmo dhammarato - dhamma anuvicintaya
Dhamma anussara bhikkhu - saddhamm na parihyati.
Yassa kyena vcya - manas natthi dukkata
Savuta thi hnehi - tamaha brmi brhmaa.
VI
Mano pubbagam dhamm - mano seh manomay
Manas ce paduhena - bhsati v karoti v
Tato na dukkhamanveti - cakkava vahato pada.
Mano pubbagam dhamm - manoseh manomay
Manas ce pasannena - bhsati v karoti v
Tato na sukhamanveti - chyva anapyin.

168

pro for
ros
In prose form :Dhamm mano pubbagam (honti), mano seh (honti), manomay (honti), (Yo) ce paduhena
manas bhsati v karoti v, tato dukkha na anveti cakka vahato pada iva.
Dhamm mano pubbagam (honti), mano seh (honti), manomay (honti), (Yo) ce psannena
manas bhsati v karoti v, tato sukha na anveti anapyin chy iva.
Dhamm-dhara, to hold or support. suffix mma. states or conditions.
Pubbagam - pubba + + gam = going before.
Manoseh - mana + seha. -When words of the mano group are compounded with another word, the final
vowel is changed into o.
Manomay - This is a Nominal Derivative (Taddihita) formed from mana and suffix maya which
means-made of.
Paduhena - pa + dusa, to defile, pollute. This is the Perfect Participle of padusa. Here the suffix ta is
changed into ha. Comp. diha from disa, to see; naha from nasa, to perish; daha from dasa, to
sting; iha from isu, to wish.
Bhsati - Present tense of bhsa, to speak.
Karoti - Present tense of kara, to do.
Anveti - anu + eti The present tense of i, to go. Here u is changed into. v.
Cakkava Cakka + iva, This is a Sandhi formed by dropping the following vowel.
Vahato - The Genitive case of vahanta, from vaha, to carry.
Pasannena - The Perfect Participle of pa, + sada, to be Pleased. Here the suffix ta is changed into
nna. Comp. bhinna, from bhidi, to break; chinna from chidi, to cut; channa from chada, to cover.
Anapyin - Na + apyin. Here na is changed into an. Apyin is formed from apa + aya, to go.

Table of Contents

169

NOTES
II

III

IV

V
I

Kira - An Indeclinable used in reference to a report by hearing. It seems, is said.


Nihita - pp. of ni + dh, bear. Deposited, laid aside, set apart
Klamakasu - Kla + akasu - died. Sing. Klamaksi
Spateyya - property, wealth, provisions.
Vaa-pokkharatya - beauty of complexion.
Devacchar - celestial nymph.
Ratana + ttaya + mmik - devoted to the Triple Gem.
Pdaparikatta - state of wife.
Vibhava - wealth.
Pati + kulena - husbands clan.
Kevala - only.
Tato pahya - from that time, thence forth.
Nivsa gahi - took shelter.
Potaka - colt.
Paijagghi - nourish, tend, look after.
Pua + karaassa - Dat. to one who is doing merit.
Vidhametv - having vanquished, having defeated.
Yannnha - How, if I.
Mlake - in the enclosure, yard.
Ugghosesi - shouted.
Ma + anuggaha - have compassion on me.
Soa + mlhi - with garlands of gold.
Nabhas - through the sky.

170

Mahisu - revered.
Tato + ppabhuti - from that time.
Nagara + upavane - in the wood near the city.
Nibandha - frequently.
Devassa + anurpa - suitable to the Deva (King).
Bhane - a term of address used by superiors to subordinates.
Niln - hidden.
Gahana + sajj - ready to seize.
Nivatti - stopped.
Pahiy - with the heel.
Saa + datv - giving a sign.
Vega janetv - accelerating the speed.
ksa ullaghi - rose to the sky.
Sandhretu - to bear.
Parigalitv - having glided off, slipped.
Tiracchnagat - animals.
Mantvna - considering, thinking.
Sutta-ppabuddho - risen from sleep.
Mtugm - women.

II
Janapada - country
Nad + tra - river bank.
Gabbhin + itth - pregnant woman.
Kammaja-vt - pains of childbirth.
Vijyitu-asakkont - unable to give birth.
Pipsit + amhi - I am thirsty.

171

Karuyanto - pitying.
Laddh + asss - having obtained consolation.
Katipaya - few
Paicca - on account of.
hianto - wandering.
Sandhi chinditv - making a break - broke into the house.
Pacchbha - hands on the back.
Gha bandhitv - binding tightly.
gantuko - guest, foreigner, visitor.
npesi - ordered.
ghtahna - place of execution.
Sajnitv - recognising.
Hadaya - heart.
Muhuttena - in a moment.
Asaddhahanto - not believing.
Tassa-agghaaka - its value.

III
Duggato - poor man.
Bhatiy - by wages.
Tuha-hahe - pleased and delighted.
Pamudite - rejoiced
Dakkhieyy - worthy of gifts.
Jinoras - the Sons of the Buddha.
vahito - settled.
Sasro - Existence.
Khalu - indeclinable, indeed.

172

Kalya-vimukka - opposed to good.


Kasirena - with difficulty.
Kapao - poor.
Dno - miserable.
Anhiyo - destitute.
Sdhu + sammate - regarded as good.
Maapa - hall.
ysena - with trouble.
Pysa - milk porridge.

IV
Devasika - adv. daily.
Dnagga - alms-hall.
Vutte - loc. of vutta, from vada, to speak. When said, on being said.
Garahanti - from garaha to condemn, despise.
Ruci - taste, desire, likes.
Anucchavkha-kiccni - anu + chavi - ka = according to ones skin, i.e., befitting, proper, suitable. Kiccni,
deeds, actions, duties.
Ativiya - adj. thoroughly.
Jnanti - know, from , to know, Jna is substituted for .
Tesu vicrentesu - loc. absolute. When they inquire.
Cittarpa - lit. according to the mind, i.e., as they liked or according to ones hearts content.
Parivisitu. - from pari + visa - to feed.
Upadhrenti - nom. feminine singular present participle of upa + dhara, to hold, take up. Reflecting.
hapesi - Aorist causal of h, to stand. Placed.
Veyyvacca karonti - perform duties, render service.
Sotpann - sota, stream; panna, entered. Stream - Winner, the first stage of Sainthood.

173

Patikula - husbands family.


Sakadgmiphala - Fruit of Ones - Returner, the second stage of Sainthood.
Tathrpena aphsukhena - some such illness.
tura - ill.
hrpaccheda - lit. food - cutting, i.e., starving.
Pakkospesi - Aorist causal of pa + kusa = caused to be called; summoned.
Vippalapasi - from vi + pa + lapa, to speak. Speak confusedly, babble.
Klamaksi - lit. did the time i.e., died.
Uppannasoka - arisen grief. Uppanna is the p.p. of u + pada, to go.
Adhivsetu - inf. of adhi + vasa = to bear.
Asakkonto - pres. participle of sakha, to bear. Being unable.
Sarrakicca - lit. bodily duties, i.e. funeral ceremonies, obsequies.
Kretv - Causal past participle of karu, to do.
Rodanto - pres. part. of ruda, to lament, wail.
Assumukho - assu, tears; mukha, face = tearful face.
Klakat - lit. time done i.e., dead.
Ekasika - adv. certain.
Hirottappasampann - hiri = shame, modesty; ottappa = fear; sampann = endowed with.
Paccupahpetu - inf. of pati + upa + h, to gather up.
Mat - p.p. of mara, to die.
Kathita - p.p. of katha, to speak; said, uttered, spoken.
Mahallikatt - abstract noun. Being old.
Nibbatt - p.p. .of ni + vatu born.
Pecca - Ind. p.p. of pa + i, to go. Having gone.
Katapuo - the doer of good.
Gat - p.p. of gamu = gone.

174

V
Verena - by anger.
Sammanti - are pacified - samu.
Sanantano - ancient law - Sana + suffix tana.
Agra - house.
Du + channa - ill - thatched.
Vuhi - rain.
Samativijjhati - penetrates through - sa + ati + vijjha.
Pecca - hereafter.
Kamma - kiliha - defiled actions.
Modati - rejoices - muda.
Visuddhi - purity.
Tappati - is tormented - tapa.
Myanti - die - m.
Maghav - a name given to Sakka, the king of the devas.
Pasasanti - praise - pasasa.
Garahito - is denounced, blamed - garaha + ta.
Adhisessati - will lie - adhi + si.
Chuddho - thrown away.
Apeta - vio - bereft of consciousness.
Ni + attha - useless.

175

Kaingara - charred log.


Bhamaro - bee.
Ahehaya - without injuring.
Paleti - flies - pala.
Vilomni - defects.
Avekkheyya - should reflect - ava + ikkha
Kayir - would make - kara.
Mlgue - different garlands.
Maccena - by man.
Maati - thinks - mana.
Selo - rock.
Eka - ghano - one - solid.
Vtena - by wind.
Samrati - is shaken - sa + ira.
Samiddhi - prosperity.
Sa - so, he.
Sagme - in the battle field.
Jeyya - would conquer - j.
Tasanti - tremble - tasa.
Haeyya - should kill - haa.
Ghtaye - should cause to kill - haa.

Table of Contents

176

Pal Engl
VOCABULARY: Pali-English
B

A
Abhibhavati - (Abhi + bh) overcomes.
Abhibh - m. conqueror.
Abhidhamma - m. Higher Doctrine.
Abhigacchati - (abhi + gamu) goes near to.
Abhijnti - (abhi + ) perceives.
Abhikkamati - (abhi + kamu) goes forward.
Abhimagala - n. great festival.
Abhimukha - facing towards.
Abhi - f. higher knowledge.
cariya - m. teacher.
dara - m. affection, esteem, care.
dya - p.p. having taken.
Adhibhta - p.p. mastered.
Adhigacchati - (adhi + gamu) attains, acquires.
Adhipati - m. chief, master.
Adhisessati - (adhi + si) will lie upon.
Adhisla - a higher morality.
Adhista - adj. very cold.
Adhitihati - (adhi + h) stands upon.
Adhivasati - (adhi + vasa) dwells in.

177

Ag - (gamu) went.
gacchati - ( + gamu) comes.
gatasamao - m. monastery.
Aggi - m. fire.
Aha - n. day.
Aha - pro. I.
hra - m. food.
harati - ( + hara) brings.
Aja - m. goat.
Aj - f. she-goat.
Ajja - ind. to-day.
ksa - m. sky.
Alikavd - m. liar.
ma - ind. yes.
Amacca - m. minister.
Amba - n. mango.
Ambara - n. garment.
Amhka - pro. our.
Amu - Pro. this, that, such.
Aguli - f. finger.
Aa - adj. another
Annada - giver of food.
Aatara - adj. certain.
Antevsiko - m. pupil.
Antima - adj. last.
Anu - pre. like, after, along, under.
Anugacchati - (anu + gamu) follows.
Anulomato - in accordance with.

178

Anunyaka - m. sub-chief.
Anupubba - in due course.
Anurja - m. successor.
Apa - pre. from, away from.
pabbata - n. as far as the rock.
Apagacchati - (apa + gamu) goes away.
pana - n. shop, market.
Apara - adj. other, western, subsequent.
Aparaha - m. afternoon.
Apaslya - from the hall.
Apavda - m. abuse, blame.
Api - ind. over, near to.
Apidhna - n. cover, lid.
Appa - adj. little, few.
Appamda - m. earnestness.
Arahanta - m. Arahat.
rma - m. temple, garden.
roceti - ( + ruca) informs, tells, announces.
rogya - n. health.
Asdhu - m. bad man.
sana - n. seat.
Asi - m. sword.
Asikaaho - m. swordfight.
Asti - eighty.
Assa - m. horse.
Ass - f. mare.
Aavi - f. forest.
Ativiya - adj. very.

179

Atigacchati - (ati + gamu) overcomes.


Atikkamati - (ati + kamu) transgresses.
Atisundara - very beautiful.
Atithi - m. guest.
Atta - m. soul, self.
Attha - m. matter, meaning, good.
Aha - eight.
Ahdasa - eighteen.
Ahama - eighth.
Ahi - n. bone.
Avabhodha - m. understanding.
Avacarati - (ava + cara) traverses.
Avaharati - (ava + hara) takes away.
Avajnti - (ava + ) despises.
Avakkamati - (ava + kamu) descends.
Avamaati - (ava + mana) looks down upon.
vuso - ind. friend, brother.
Aya - n. iron.
Ayomaya - made of iron.
yu - n. age.

B
Bahudh - in many ways.
Bla - m. young.
Blat - f. childhood.
Blatta- n. ignorance.
Balavantu - m. powerful.

180

Bandhumantu - m. he who has relations.


Bhagavantu - m. The Blessed One.
Bhagin - f. sister.
Bhajati - (bhaja) associates.
Bhaati - (bhaa) speaks, recites.
Bhaa - n. goods, article.
Bhagrika - m. treasurer
Bhante - ind. Lord, Reverend Sir.
Bhariy - f. wife.
Bhs - f. language.
Bhsana. - n. speech.
Bhattu - m. husband.
Bhtu - m. brother.
Bhava - n. existence.
Bhavati - (bh) becomes.
Bhveti - (bh) cultivates, develops.
Bhaya - n. fear.
Bhikkhu - m, mendicant, monk.
Bhikkhun - f. nun.
Bhinna - p.p. broken.
Bh - to be.
Bhujaga - m. snake.
Bhujitukma - wishing to eat.
Bhmi - f. ground.
Bhujati - (bhuji) eats, partakes.
Bhta - n. being.
Bja - n. seed, germ.
Brahmacr - m. celibate.

181

Buddha - m. The Enlightened One.


Buddhadesita - preached by Buddha.
Bujjhati - (budha) understands.
C
Cakkhu - n. eye.
Canda - m. moon.
Carati - (cara) wanders.
Catuttha - fourth.
Cattsati - forty.
Catu - four.
Catuddasa - fourteen.
Ceta - n. mind.
Cha - six.
Chatta - n. umbrella.
Chaha - sixth.
Cira - indec. for a long time.
Corabhaya - n. fear from thief.
Corayati - (cura) steals.
Coreti - (cura) steals.
Cuddasa - fourteen.
D
Dakkhia - south.
Dna - n. alms, giving, gift.
Daa - n. stick.
Da - he who has a stick.

182

Draka - m. child.
Drik - f. girl.
Dru - n. wood, fire-wood.
Drumaya - wooden.
Dasa - ten.
Dsa - m. servant.
Dsi - f. servant-maid.
Dtu - m. giver.
Dyaka - m. supporter.
Deseti - (disa) preaches.
Deti - (d) gives.
Deva - m. god.
Devi - f. goddess.
Deyya - that which should be given.
Dhamma - m. Law, Truth, Doctrine.
Dhammacri - m. righteous one.
Dhammadhara - m. versed in the Dhamma.
Dhammasl - f, preaching hall.
Dhammat - f. nature.
Dhammavd - m. speaker of the Truth.
Dhammika - righteous.
Dhana - n. wealth.
Dhvati - (dhva) runs.
Dhenu - f. cow.
Dhtu - f. daughter.
Dhitimantu - m. courageous one.
Dhovati - (dhova) washes.
Dhunti - (dhu) destroys.

183

Dibbati - (diva) enjoys.


Dgha - adj. long.
Dinakara - m. Sun.
Dpa - n. light, lamp.
Dis - f. quarter, direction.
Dihadhammo - m. Saint.
Divasa - m., n. day.
Dosa - m. hatred.
Du - pre. bad, difficult.
Duddama - difficult to tame.
Duggati - f. evil state.
Duhitu - f. daughter.
Duranubodha - difficult of comprehension.
Dutiya - second.
Dvdasa - twelve.
Dvi - two.
Dvikkhattu - twice.

E
Eka - one, certain, some.
Ekdasa - eleven.
Eaka - m. goat.
Eva - ind. just, quite, even, only.
Eva - ind. thus.

184

G
Gacchati - (gamu) goes.
Gahapati - m. householder.
Gma - m. village.
Gmato - gone to the village.
Gamaka - m. goer.
Gamana - n. going.
Gmat - f. collection of villages.
Gag - f. river.
Gantukma - wishing to go.
Grayha - blamable.
Gati - f. state.
Ghara - n. home, house.
Ghaa -m. pot, jar.
Ghosana - noisy.
Gilna - m. sick person.
Gti - f. song.
Go - m. bull.
Gotrabh - n. Sanctified one.
Guavantu - m. virtuous one.

H
Harati - (hara) carries.
Hattha - m. hand.
Hatthi - m. elephant.
Hatthin - f. she-elephant.

185

Have - ind. indeed, certainly.


Hi - indec. indeed.
Hyo - ind. yesterday.

I
Icchati - (isu) wishes, desires.
Idni - ind. now.
Idha - ind. here.
Ima - this.
Itara - adj. different, the remaining.
Ito - ind. hence. ago, from here.
Iva - ind. like.
Isi - m. sage.

J
Janaka - m. father.
Janan - f. mother.
Janat - f. multitude.
Jaya - m. victory.
Jyati - (jana) arises, is born.
Jeha - eldest.
Jetu - m. conqueror.
Jeyya - elder.
Jinti - (ji) conquers.
Jvati - (jva) lives.

186

K
Ka - pro. who, which?
Kadariya - m. miser.
Kammaja - born of kamma.
Kampati - (kampa) shakes, wavers.
Kaha - black.
Kaniha - adj . youngest.
Kaniya - adj. younger.
Ka - f. maiden, virgin.
Kapi - m. monkey.
Kraka - m. doer.
Karaa - n. doing.
Karanya - that which should be done.
Kassaka - m. farmer.
Katama - pro. what, which?
Kata - m. grateful person.
Katara - pro. what, which?
Kattu - m. doer.
Kattukma - wishing to do.
Kavi - m. poet.
Kyika - bodily.
Khdati - (khda) eats, chews.
Khaggavisakappa - m. like a rhinoceros.
Khajja - eatable.
Khaati - (khaa) digs.
Khanti - f. patience.
Khetta - n. field.
Khippa - ind. quickly.

187

Khra - n. milk.
Khuddaka - adj . small.
Ki - ind. why? what? pray.
Kati - plays.
Kodha - m. anger.
Kodhana - irritable.
Koi - f. hundred lakhs.
Kuddla - m., n. spade.
Kujjhati - (kudha) gets angry.
Kumbhakra - m. potter.
Kujara - m. elephant.
Kpa - m. well.

L
Labhati - (labha) receives.
Lakkha - lakh.
Lekhana - n. letter.
Likhati = (likha) writes.
Lobha - m. greed.
Loka - m. world.
Lokahita - beneficial to the world.
Lokika - worldly.
Loika - mixed with salt.

188

M
Maccha - m. fish.
Maccu - m. death.
Madhu - m. honey.
Magga - m. road.
Maggika - m. traveller.
Mahanta - adj. big.
Mahes - f. queen.
Majja - n. intoxicant.
Majjhima - adj . middle.
Mlkra - m. garland-maker.
Mama - pro. my, mine.
Mana - mind.
Mna - n. pride.
Maca - m. bed.
Mai - m. jewel.
Manomaya - mental.
Manusatta - n. manhood.
Maraa - n. death.
Msa - m., n. month.
Mtula - m. uncle.
Mtuln - f. aunt.
Mayha - pro. .my, mine.
Medha - adj . wise.
Medhv - m. wise man.
Medhvin - f. wise woman.
Mitta - m., n. friend.
Mukha - n. face, mouth.

189

Muni - m. sage.
Mutti - f. deliverance.

N
Nagara - m. city.
Ngarika - urban.
Nma - n. name, mind.
Namo - ind. honour.
Narapati - m. king.
Nr - f. woman.
Nara - m. man.
Ntha - m. lord, refuge.
ti - m. relative.
Nattu - m. nephew.
tu - m. knower.
Nv - f. ship, boat.
Nvika - m. navigator.
Nava - nine.
Navama - ninth.
Navuti - ninety.
Netu - m. leader.
Nirhra - without food.
Nca - mean, low.
Nicaya - n. accumulation.
Nidahati - (ni + daha) lays aside.
Nidhya - ind. p.p. having left aside.
Nigacchati - (ni + gamu) goes away.

190

Nigama - m. town, market


Nharati - (n + hara) takes away, removes.
Nikkhamati - (ni + kamu) departs.
Nikkhaati - (ni +khaa) buries.
Nla - adj. blue.
Nrasa - sapless, tasteless.
Nroga - healthy.
Nisdati - (ni + sada) sits.
Nittaho - arahant (Desireless One).
Nivattati - (ni + vatu) ceases.

O
Odana - m. rice, cooked rice.
Oj - f. essence.
Osadha - m. medicine.
Osadhasl - f. dispensary.
Ovda - m. advice.

P
Pabala - very strong.
Pabbata - m., n. rock.
Pacati - (paca) cooks.
Pacchbhatta - after meal.
Pacchima - west.
Pda - m,. n. foot

191

Paharati - (pa + hara) strikes.


Pakkamati - (pa + kamu) sets out, goes away.
Pakkhipati - (pa + khipa) throws in, puts in.
Pibhs - f. pi-language.
Pana - ind, but, however, further.
Paca - five.
Pacadasa - fifteen.
Pacadh - fivefold.
Pacama - fifth.
Paita - m. wise man.
Paha - m. question
Pata - noble.
Pacama - fifth.
Paarasa - fifteen.
Pa - f. wisdom.
Pakra - m. present.
Pasa - fifty.
Ppa - n. evil.
Ppaka - adj . evil.
Ppakr - m. evil-doer.
Pputi - (pa + apa) arrives.
Para - adj. other, different.
Par - ind. away, aside, back, opposed to.
Parbhava - m. decline, ruin.
Parjaya - defeat.
Parakkamati - (para + kamu) strives.
Pari - pre. around, about, complete.
Pariccheda - m. limit, extent, chapter.

192

Paridahati - (pari + daha) puts on.


Paridhvati. - (pari + dhva) runs about.
Parikkhipati - (pari + khipa) throws around.
Parisuddha - complete purity.
Pasattha - good.
Ptarsa - m. morning meal.
Patati - (pata) falls.
Pahama - first.
Phasl - f. school.
Pati - m. husband, lord.
Pati - pre. again, against, back, towards.
Patideti - (pati + d) gives in return.
Paikkamati - (pai + kamu) retreats.
Pailekhana - n. letter in reply.
Pailoma - backwards.
Paipad - f. course, conduct, practice.
Patirja - hostile king.
Patirpa - counterfeit, suitable.
Paisota - against the stream.
Paivadati - (pai + vada) answers.
Pto - ind. early in the morning.
Pavisati - (pa + visa) enters.
Pya - n. water, milk.
Payti - (pa + y) goes forward.
Payojana - n. use, need.
Pema - m. attachment, love.
Pta - adj. yellow.
Pha - n. chair, bench.

193

Pti - f. joy.
Pitu - m. father.
Potthaka - n. book.
Pubba - adj. first, foremost, eastern.
Pubbaha - m. forenoon.
Pucchati - asks.
Pjeti - offers.
Pua - n. merit, good.
Puakr - m . good-doer.
Puppha - n. flower.
Purato - ind. in the presence of.
Puratthima - east.
Putta - m. son.
Puttika - he who has sons.

R
Rja - m. king.
Raja - n. dust.
Rajatamaya - made of silver.
Rjin - f. queen.
Rakkhati - protects.
Ratha - m. cart. chariot.
Rathakra - charioteer.
Rati - f. attachment.
Ratta - adj. red.
Raha - n. country, kingdom, realm.
Ratti - f. night.

194

Roga - m. disease.
Rukkha - m. tree.
Rundhati - (rudhi) obstructs.

S
S - she.
Sabba - all.
Sobbad - ind. everyday.
Sabba - m. All Knowing One.
Sabbaso - in every way.
Sabbath - in every way.
Sacca - a truth.
Sad - ind. always.
Saddh - f. faith, devotion, confidence.
Sdhu - m. good man.
Sdhu - adj. good.
Sdhuka - ind. well.
Sahya - m. friend.
Sl - f. hall.
Samgacchati - (sa + + gamu) assembles.
Samaa - m. holy man, ascetic.
Sambuddha - self-enlightened.
Sameti - meets together.
Sm - m. husband, lord.
Samm-Sammbuddha - m. Fully Enlightened One.
Sammukha - face to face with.
Sa - pre. with, together, self.

195

Sagha - m. collection, The Order.


Saharati - (sa + hara) collects.
Sakhipati - (sa + khipa) condenses.
Sakilissati - (sa + kilisa) is defiled.
Sara - n. lake.
Saraa - n. refuge.
Satta - seven.
Sahassa - thousand.
Sata - hundred.
Sattadasa - seventeen.
Sattama - seventh.
Sahi - sixty.
Sattati - seventy.
Satthu - m. teacher.
Syamsa - m. evening meal, dinner.
Sen - f. army.
Seta - adj . white.
Seha - adj. excellent, chief.
Sla - n. morality, precept, virtue.
Sladhana - wealth of virtue.
Sira - n. head.
Sta - adj . cold, cool.
Siy - would be.
So - pro. he.
Soka - m. grief.
Soasa - sixteen.
Sotu - m. hearer.
Sovaamaya - golden.

196

Su - pre. good, well, thoroughly, excess.


Subhvita - p.p. thoroughly practised.
Sda - m. cook.
Sudubbala - very weak.
Sudesita - well preached.
Sugati - f. good or happy state.
Sujana - m. good man.
Sukara - easy to do.
Sukhita - adj. happy, healthy.
Sunakha - m. dog.
Suti - (su) hears.
Suve - ind. tomorrow.
T
Tad - ind. then.
Taka - n. pond pool.
Tama - n. darkness.
Tah - f. craving.
Tapa - n. asceticism, control.
Tarati - (tara) crosses.
Tarua - adj . young.
Tsa - f. their.
Tassa - m., n., pro. his.
Tass - f. pro. her.
Tatiya - third.
Tava - m., f., n., pro. your.
Teja - n. majesty.

197

Terasa - thirteen.
Tesa - m., n., pro. their.
Ti - three.
Tia - n. grass.
Tisati - thirty.
Tumhka - m., f., n., pro. Plu. your.
Tuyha - m., f., n. pro. Sing. your.

U
Ucca - adj . high.
Ucchindati - (u + chidi) cuts off.
Udaka - n. water.
Udaya - m. rise, beginning.
Uggacchati - (u + gamu) rises.
Ukkhipati - (u + khipa) throws upwards.
Uha - adj. hot.
Upa - pre. near, towards, next.
Updna - attachment, clinging.
Upadhvati - (upa + dhva) runs up to.
Upagacchati - (upa + gamu) goes near.
Upagaga - near a river.
Upakahati - (upa + kaha) drags down.
Upakaa- into the ear.
Upanagara - near a city, suburb.
Uparja - m. viceroy.
Upsaka - m. devotee (male).
Upaskh - minor branch.

198

Upasakamati - (upa + sa + kamu) approaches.


Upsik - f. devotee. (female).
Ura - n. shoulder.
Uttara - adj. higher, superior, northern.
Uttarati - (u + tara) ascends.

V
V - ind. either, or.
Vc - f. word.
Vceti - (vaca) reads, recites.
Vadati - (vada) speaks.
Vadh - f. young wife.
Vanavsa - residence in the forest.
Vandati - (vanda) salutes.
Vaa - m. appearance, colour, praise.
Vapati - sows.
Vassa - m., n. year, rain.
Vattha - n. cloth, raiment.
Vattu - m. talker.
Vaya - n. age.
Vyamati - strives, tries.
Vejja - m. doctor, physician.
Vibhava - m. power, free from existence.
Vicarati - (vi + cara) wanders about.
Vicchindati - (vi + chidi) cuts off.
Vigata - separated.
Vihaati - perishes.

199

Vhi - m. paddy.
Vikkhipati - scatters.
Viloma - reverse.
Vimala - stainless.
Vimukha - averted.
Vimutti - f. perfect release.
Vipassati - (vi + passa) sees clearly.
Vsa - twenty.
Visama - uneven.
Vsati - twenty.
Visikh - f. street.
Visoka - sorrowless.
Visujjhati - (vi + sudha) is purified.
Viya - ind. like.
Vuddha - adj . old.
Vykaroti - (vi + + kara) expounds.

Y
Y - pro. who, which, that.
Ycaka - m. beggar.
Yad - ind. when.
Ygu - m. rice-gruel.
Yasa - n. glory.
Yathbala - according to strength.
Yathkamma - to order.
Yathsatti - according to ones ability.
Yathvuddha - according to seniority.

200

Yva - ind. till, so long.


Yvadattha - as one wishes.
Yvajva - till life lasts.
Yogga - suitable.

Table of Contents

201

English Pali
VOCABULARY: English-Pali
B

Y
A

Abandons - jahati.
About - matta.
Above - upari.
Abuse - upavda. m.
Accumulation - nicaya.
Acquires - adhigacchati.
Action - kamma. n.
Advice - ovda. m.
Affection - dara. m.
After - pacch. ind.
Afternoon - aparaha. m.
Again - puna. ind.
Against - pati. ind.
Age - yu. n.
Ago - ito. ind.
All - sabba. adj.
All-Knowing One - sabba. m.
Alms. - dna.
Also - api, ca. ind.
Always - nicca. ind.

202

And - ca. ind.


Anger - kodha. m.
Angry (gets) - kujjhati.
Announces - roceti.
Another - aa. pro.
Answers - paivadati.
Appearance - vaa. m.
Approaches - upasakamati.
Aquatic - jalaja.
Arahant - arahanta.
Arises - uggacchati.
Arises (is born) - jyati, uppajjati.
Army - sen. f.
Around - pari. ind.
Arrives - pputi.
Article - bhaa. n.
Ascends - ruhati.
Ascetic - samaa, m.
Asceticism - tapa. m.
Asks - pucchati.
As long as - tva. ind.
Assembles - samgacchati.
Associates - bhajati.
Attachment - pema. m., rati. f.
Attains - adhigacchati.
Aunt - mtulni. f.
Avaricious person - kadariya. m.
Averted - vimukha.

203

Away - apa, ava, par, ni. pre.

B
Back - puna. ind
Backwards - pailoma.
Bad - du. pre.
Bad man - asdhu. m.
Becomes - bhavati.
Becoming - bhava. m.
Bed - maca, m.
Beggar - ycaka. m.
Beginning - udaya. m.
Behind - pacch. ind.
Bench - pha. n.
Beyond - pra. ind.
Big - mahanta. adj.
Bird - sakuna. m.
Black - kaha. adj.
Blamable - vajja.
Blame - apavda. m.
Blessed - bhagavanta.
Blessings-bestower - sivakara. m.
Blue - nla. adj.
Blueness - nlat. f. nlatta. n.
Boat - nv. f.
Bodily - kyika.
Bone - ahi. n.

204

Book - potthaka, m., n.


Born (is) - jyati.
Brings - harati.
Brother - vuso. (A form of address).
Brother - bhtu. m.
Buddha - Buddha. m.
Bull - go. m.
Buries - nikhaati.
But - pana. ind.
Buys - kiti.

C
Care - dara. m.
Carries - harati.
Cart - ratha. m.
Chair - pha. n.
Chapter - pariccheda. m.
Chariot - ratha. n.
Chews - khdati.
Chief - adhipati. m. seha. adj.
Child- draka. m.
Childhood - blat. f.
City - nagara. n.
Clear - vippasanna.
Climbs - ruhati.
Cloth - vattha. n.
Coach-builder - rathakraka.

205

Cold - sta. adj.


Collection - samha. m.
Collects - saharati.
Colour - vaa. m.
Comes - gacchati.
Compiles - sagahti.
Complete - sampua.
Condenses - sakhipati.
Condition - bhva. m.
Condition (of birth) - gati. f.
Conduct - paipad. f. cra. m.
Conqueror - abhibh. m.
Conquers - jinti.
Consent - anumati. f.
Control - dama. m.
Cook - sda. m.
Cooks - pacati.
Cook (wishing to) - pacitukma.
Cooked rice - odana. n.
Cool - sta. adj.
Counterfeit - patirpa
Country - raha. n.
Courageous - dhitimantu. m.
Course - paipad. f.
Cover - apidhna, pidhna. n.
Covetousness - abhijjh. f.
Cow - dhenu. f.
Craving - tah. f.

206

D
Darkness - andhakra. m.
Daughter - dhtu. f,
Day - divasa. m., n.
Death - maccu. m.
Declares - vadati.
Defeat - parjaya. m.
Defiles - sakilissati.
Deliverance - mutti. g.
Delusion - moha. m.
Departs - nikkhamati.
Descends - okkamati.
Despises - avajnti.
Destroys - dhunti.
Destruction - khaya. m.
Devotee (male) - upsaka. m.
Devotee (female) upsik. f.
Devotion - saddh f.
Different - nn.
Difficult - dukkara.
Digs - khaati.
Dinner - syamsa. m.
Direction - dis. f.
Disappears - antaradhyati.
Disciple - svaka. m.
Disease - roga. m.
Dispensary - osadhasl. f.
Do (wishing to) - kattukma.

207

Doctor - vejja. m.
Doctrine - Dhamma. m.
Doer - kraka. m.
Dog - sunakha. m.
Doing - karonta. .pres. p.
Down - heh. ind.
Drags down - upakahati.
Drinks - pibati, pivati.
Drinkable - peyya.
Dust - raja. n.
Dwells - viharati.

E
Ear - sota. n.
Early - pubba. adj.
Earnestness - appamda. m.
East - puratthim.
Easy (to do) - sukara.
Eat (wishing to) - bhjitukma.
Eater - bhojaka.
Eats - bhujati.
Edible - khdanya.
Eight - aha.
Eighteen - ahadasa, ahrasa.
Eighty - asta.
Either - v.
End - anta. m.

208

Enlightened one - Sambuddha. m.


Especial - visesa.
Essence - sra. n.
Esteem - dara. m.
Even - api. ind.
Evening - syaha. m.
Evening-meal - syamsa. m.
Everyday - sabbad.
Evil - ppa. n.
Evil doer - ppakr. m.
Evil State - duggati. f.
Excellent - seha. adj. suhu. ind.
Exhortation - ovda. m.
Existence - bhava. m.
Expounds - vykaroti.
Extent - pariccheda. m.
Eye - cakkhu. n.

F
Face - mukha. n.
Falls - patati.
Faith - saddh. f.
Farmer - kassaka. m.
Father - janaka. m. pitu. m.
Fear - bhaya. n.
Few - appa. adj .
Field - khetta. n.

209

Fifteen - pacadasa, paarasa.


Fifth - pacama.
Finger - aguli. f.
Fire - aggi. m.
Firewood - dru. n.
First - pahama.
Fish - maccha. m.
Five - paca.
Flower - puppha. n.
Folds - saharati.
Follows - anugacchati.
Food - hra. m.
Foot - pda. m. .
Foremost - pubba. adj.
Forenoon - pubbaha. m.
Forest - aavi. f. vana. n.
Forest (residence in) - vanavsa.
Forty-nine - ekna pasa.
Four - catu.
Fourteen - cuddasa, catuddasa.
Fourth - catuttha.
Freed - mutta. p.p.
Freedom - mutti. f.
Friend- vuso, mitta. n., m. sahya. m.
Fruit - phala. n.
Further - puna. ind.

210

G
Gait - gati. f.
Ganges - gag. f.
Garden - rma. m.
Garland-maker - mlkra. m.
Garment - ambara. m. vattha. n.
Germ - bja. n.
Gets - labhati.
Gets (angry) - kujjhati.
Gift - dna. n.
Girl - drak. f.
Giver - dyaka. m.
Giver (of food) - annada.
Gives - deti.
Giving - dna. n.
Glory - yasa. n.
Goal - attha. m.
Goat - aja. m.
Goat (she ) - aj. f.
God - deva. m.
Goddess - dev. f.
Goes - gacchati.
Goes about - vicarati.
Goes away - apagacchati.
Goes forward - abhigacchati.
Going - gamana. n.
Golden - sovaamaya.
Good - sundara. adj.

211

Good doer - puakr. m.


Good man - sujana. m.
Goods - bhaa. n.
Grass - tia. n.
Grateful-person - kata. m.
Great - mahanta. adj.
Greed - lobha. m.
Grief - soka. m.
Ground - bhmi. f.
Grows - vahati.
Gruel-rice - ygu. m.
Guest - atithi. m.

H
Hall - sl. f.
Hand - hattha. m.
Happy - sukhita. adj.
Happy state - sugati. f.
Hatred - kodha. m.
He - so.
Head - sira. n.
Health - rogya. n.
Healthy - nroga.
Heard - suta. p.p.
Hearer - sotu. m.
Hearing - sutv. ind. p.p.
Hears - suti.

212

Hence - ito. ind.


Here - idha. ind.
High - ucca. adj.
Higher - uttara.
Hinders - bdhati.
His - tassa. pro.
Holy man - samaa. m.
Home - ghara. n.
Horse - assa. in.
Hospital - gilnasl. f.
House -ghara. n.
Hundred - sata.
Hundred millions - dasakoi.
Hundred thousands - satasahassa.
Husband - smi. m.

I
I - aha. pro.
Ignorance - blatta. n.
Immediately - khippa. ind.
In - anto. ind.
Indeed - have, hi, eva. ind.
Informs - roceti.
Intoxicating - majja.
Iron - aya. n.
Iron-made - ayomaya.

213

J
Jar - ghaa. n.
Jewel - mai. m.
Joy - pti. f.

K
Kindness - karu. f.
King - rj. m.
Kingdom - raha. n.
Knower - tu. m.
Knowledge - a. n.
Knowledge, higher - abhi. f.
Knows - jnti.

L
Lake - taka. m.
Lakh - lakkha.
Lamp - dpa. m.
Language - bhs. f.
Last - antima. adj.
Law - dhamma. m.
Lays aside - nidahati.
Leader - nyaka. m.
Leading - nayanta. pres. p.
Learns - sikkhati.

214

Letter - lekhana. n.
Lid - pidahana.n.
Lie - mus. f.
Lier - alikavd. m.
Light. dpa. n.
Like - viya, iva. ind.
Limit - pariccheda. m.
Little - appa. adj.
Lives - jvati.
Long - cira, dgha. adj.
Lord - ntha. m., Issara. m.
Low - nca. adj.
Lust - rga. m.

M
Maiden - ka. f.
Majesty - teja. n.
Man - nara. m., manussa. m.
Mango - amba. m.
Manhood - manussatta. n.
Mankind - paj. f.
Mare - ass. f.
Market - pana. n.
Master - adhipati. m.
Mastered - adhibta.
Matter - attha. m.
Medicine - osada. n.

215

Meaning - attha. m.
Meets together - sameti.
Memory - sati. f.
Mental - mnasika.
Merchant - vija. m.
Merit - pua. n.
Middle - majjhima. adj.
Milk - khra. n.
Mind - mana. n. citta. n.
Minister - amacca. m.
Miser - kadariya. m.
Monastery - rma, vihra. m.
Monk - bhikkhu. m.
Monkey - kapi. m., vnara. m.
Month - msa. m., n.
Moon - canda. m.
Morality - sla. n.
Morality, higher - adhisla. n.
Morning - pto. ind.
Morning meal - ptarsa. m.
Mother -janan. f., mtu. f.
Mountain - pabbata. m., n.
Mouth - mukha. n.
Multitude - janat. f.
My - mama, mayha. pro.

216

N
Name - nma. n.
Name (by) - nma. ind.
Nature - dhammat. f.
Navigator - nvika. m.
Near - santike. ind.
Need - payojana. n.
Nephew - nattu. m.
Night - ratti. f.
Nine - nava.
Nineteen - ekna vsati.
Ninety - navuti.
Ninety-nine - ekna sata.
Noisy - ghosana.
No - na, nahi.
Not - na.
Now - idni.
Nun - bhikkhun. f.

O
Ocean - jalanidhi. f., samudda. m.
Offers - pjeti.
Old - vuddha. adj.
Once - ekakkhattu.
One - eka.
Only - eva. ind.

217

Or - v. ind.
Other - apara. adj.
Our - amhka. pro.
Over - upari. pre.
Overcomes - abhibhavati.

P
Paddy - vhi. m.
Palace - psda. m.
Plays - kati.
Pi language - pibhs. f.
Park - rma. m.
Partakes - bhujati.
Path - paipad f., magga. m.
Patience - khanti. f.
Perceives - abhijnti.
Perishes - vihaati.
Physician - vejja. m.
Poet - kavi. m.
Pond - taka. m.
Pool - taka. m.
Pot - ghaa. n., kumbha. m.
Potter - kumbhakra. m.
Powerful - balavantu. m.
Practice - paipad. f.
Praise - vaa. m.
Preaches - deseti.
Preaching hall - dhamma sl. f.
Precept - sla. n.

218

Presence - sampa. m.
Protects - rakkhati.
Pupil- sissa. m.
Purified (is) - parisujjhati.

Q
Quality - vaa. m.
Quarter - dis. f.
Queen - mahes. f.
Question - paha. m.
Quickly - khippa. ind.

R
Raiment - vattha. n.
Rain - vassa. m., n.
Realm - raha. n.
Receives - labhati. gahti.
Resites - bhaati.
Recollection - sati. f.
Red - ratta. adj.
Refuge - saraa. n. ntha. m.
Relative - ti. m., bandhu. m.
Relatives (having) - bandhumantu. m.
Release - mutti. f.
Remaining - sesa. m.
Removes - nharati, avaharati.

219

Retreats - paikkamati.
Reverend Sir - bhante.
Reverse - pailoma.
Reward - pakra. m.
River - gag. f., nad. f.
Rice - odana. m., n.
Road - magga. m.
Rock - pabbata. m., n.
Runs - dhvati.

S
Sage - muni. m.
Saint - Arahanta. m.
Salt - loa. n.
Salt, mixed with - loika.
Salutation - namo. ind.
Salutes - vandati.
Sapless - nrasa.
Scatters- vikkhipati.
School - phasl. f.
Sea - samudda. m.
Seat - sana. n.
Second - dutiya.
Seed - bja. n.
Sees - passati.
Seizes - gahti.
Self - atta. m.

220

Self Enlightened - Sambuddha.


Sells - vikkiti.
Sends - peseti.
Separated - vigata.
Servant - dsa. m.
Servant maid - ds. f.
Seven - satta.
Seventeen - sattadasa.
Seventh - sattama.
Seventy - sattati.
Shaky - kampana.
Ship - nv. f.
Shop - paa. n.
Shoulder - ura. n.
Sick - gilna.
Sick person - gilna.
Silver (made of) - rajatamaya.
Sister - bhagin. f.
Sits - nisdati.
Six - cha.
Sixteen - soasa, sorasa.
Sixth - chaha.
Sixty - sahi.
Sky - ksa. m.
Slave - dsa. m.
Sleeps - supati.
Snake - sappa. m., uraga. m.
Some - eka.

221

Son - putta. m.
Song - gta. n.
Soul - atta. m.
South - dakkhia.
Sows - vapati.
Spade - kuddla. m., n.
Speaks - vadati.
Sport - k. f,
Spreads - pattharati.
Stainless - vimala.
State - bhva. m.
Steals - coreti, corayati.
Stick - daa. n
Street - visikh. f.
Strength giver - balada.
Strikes - paharati.
Strives - parakkamati.
Subsequent - apara. adj.
Such - amu. pro.
Suitable - yogga.
Sun - suriya. m.
Superior - uttara. adj.
Supporter - dyaka. m.
Surrounds - parikkhipati.
Sword - asi. m.
Sword fight - asikaaha. m.

222

T
Taken - gahita. p.p.
Takes - gahti.
Talker - vcaka. m.
Tasteless - nirasa.
Teacher - cariya. satthu. m.
Tells - roceti.
Temple - rma. m.
Ten - dasa.
That - amu. pro.
Thief - cora. m.
Their - tesa. m., n. tsa. f. pro.
Then - tad. ind.
They - te. pro.
Third - tatiya.
Thirteen - terasa, teasa.
Thirty - tisati, tis.
This - ima, amu, pro.
Thoroughly - samm.
Thousand - sahassa.
Thousand millions - koi sata
Three - ti.
Throws - khipati.
Till - yva. ind.
To-day - ajja. ind.
Tomorrow - suve. ind.
Too - api. ind.
Trader - vija. m.
Transgresses - atikkamati.

223

Travels - vicarati.
Traveller - maggika. m.
Traverses - avacarati.
Treasurer - bhagrika.
Treats - sagahti.
Tree - rukkha. m.
Tries - vyamati.
Truth - dhamma. m., sacca. n.
Truthful - saccavd.
Twelve - dvdasa, brasa.
Twenty - vsati, vsa.
Twice - dvikkhattu.
Two hundred - dvi sata.

U
Uncle - mtula. m.
Under - heh. ind
Understanding - a. n.
Uneven - visama.
Until - tva. ind.
Urban - ngarika.
Use - payojana. n.

V
Very - eva . ind.
Viceroy - uparja. m.

224

Victory - jaya. m.
Village - gma. m.
Virtuous - guavantu. m.

W
Wander - carati.
Washes - dhovati.
Water - udaka. n.
Water born - jalaja.
Way - magga. m.
We - amhe. pro.
Wealth - dhana. n.
Welfare - attha. m.
Well - kpa. m.
West - pacchima.
Western - apara. adj.
What - katama. pro.
When - yad. ind.
Whence - kuto. ind.
Where - kuhi. ind.
Which - ya. pro.
While - yad. ind.
Who - ya. pro.
Why - ki. ind.
Wicked - dussla, duha.
Wife - bhariy. f.
Wife - (young) - vadh. f

225

Wisdom - pa. f.
Wise man - medhv. m.
Wise woman - medhvin. f.
Wish - icch. f.
With - saddhi. ind.
Without - vin. ind.
Woman - nr. f.
World - loka. m.
Writes - likhati.

Y
Year - vassa. m., n.
Yellow - pta. adj.
Yes - ma. ind.
Yesterday - hyo. ind.
Young - bla, tarua. adj.
Younger - blatara. adj.
Your - tava, tuyha, Sing. tumhka. Plu. pro.

Table of Contents

226

Guide Exe
Guide to Exercises
id
II.
III.

B.
B.

IV. A.

B.

V.

B.

VI. A.

B.

VII. A.

13.
8.
9.
14.
12.
13.
16.
20.
7.
8.
9.
10.
14.
16.
7.
10.
14.
8.
11.
12.
17.
1.
3.
4.
5.
10.
15.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Janako drakehi gma gacchati.


Mya takasm ruhma.
assa ruhma.
pabbatsm pabbata.
in ponds and seas.
I see the sun in the sky, but not the moon.
Yes, he, too, goes now, I, too, am going.
The merchants are wandering in the villages in chariots with the travellers.
Kassak, kad tumhe puna idha gacchatha?
vicaranti.
Idni maya kse suriya ca canda ca na passma.
Kasm sama sad pabbatesu na vasanti.?
always = nicca.
ma, tepi gacchanti.
hra bujanti.
Aha dsena potthakni ghara pesemi.
pdena
haritu = to carry.
She is the teachers wife.
There is no dispensary in the street to treat the sick.
We converse with the teachers in the Pi language.
Kayo, ajja tumhe rma gantu icchatha?
Idha visikhya osadhaslyo na honti.
Janaka, aha idni Pibhsya sallapitu jnmi.
Maya gagya nvyo na passma.
Gilnaslya giln na honti
Jntha tumhe
was born
preached.
The child went to the school in the early morning.
gave.

227

B.

VIII. A.

B.

IX. A.

5.
6.
11.
13.
14.
16.
18.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
11.
12.
17.
18.
4.
5.
6.
15.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
8.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
3.

For a long time they did not come to our house.


The girls stood in front of their father.
tumhe yeva = you yourselves.
did not receive.
I myself.
We were your teachers pupils.
Like the ascetics we too heard the Doctrine with faith.
supi.
ahsi.
Aha tassa mittassa lekana likhitu slya phe nisdi.
Maya ptova gagya nahyimh
Mayameva hyo gilne sagahimh.
Draka, kasm tva tuyha cariyassa purato ahsi?
Kasm tumhe tumhka janako viya Dhamma na suittha?
Kuhi tumhe hyo syamsa bhujittha?
na harisu.
Ahameva hyo pto gilnna osadha adsi.
I was the chief of their temple.
We with the laymen brought water form the river, and threw into the fire.
The king took the sword in hand and mounted the horse.
Having heard the Doctrine, faith in the Buddha arose in the laymen.
Munino janako narapati ahosi.
Gahapatayo, kasm tumhe tumhka drake phasla gantu na ovadittha?
Maya narapati disv agamimh.
Aha gantv kavino vadi.
Hyo eva aha lekhana likhitv mayha patino pesesi.
potthaka sagahitv.
Amhka tayo atithino ghare vasitv ptova nikkhamisu.
suimh.
Narapati rma katv muino pjesi.
Aha atithhi saddhi ptarsa bhujitv mayha tayo passitu agami.
kiitv adsi.
Kasm tva aggissa purato hatv kapin saddhi aki?
Munimh Dhamma sutv narapatissa saddh uppajji.
Tomorrow, the king will enter the forest and see the sage.

228

B.

X.

A.
B.

XI. A.
B.

XII. A.

B.

XIII. A.

6.
7.
8.
9.
6.
9.
10.
11.
12.
14.
15.
1.
8.
10.
11.
12.
7.
4.
8.
15.
13.
15.
16.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
11.
12.
1.
2.
3.
5.

will build.
will become.
will reach.
will go.
Munayo, kad tumhe mutti labhitv l okassa dhamma desessatha?
ovda gahetv
Aha kavi bhavissmi.
Aha narapatino purato hassmi.
Khantiy.
Mayameva
The wise man guards earnestness like an excellent treasure.
Dhammacrino ppa akatv duggatsu na uppajjissanti.
seha dhanava.
Brahmacrsu medhvino honti.
Hatthi disv ajyo bhayena palyisu (or dhvisu).
Narapati mahesiy saddhi hyo nagara ppui.
You stand here till I go.
Mitta, yvha gacchmi tva m gacchasi.
Yva maya aaviy dru harma tva te idha tihantu.
vuso, yva maya gacchma tva m ygu bhikkna detha.
kareyymi, I would make.
Jine, one should conquer.
Strive quickly (and) be wise.
always = nicca.
Bhante, ta paha pucchitu iccheyymi.
Sdhu, may saddhi eva m kujjheyysi.
Yva tava lekhana labheyymi tva aha tuyha mitta passitu na gaccheyymi.
to overcome = abhibhavitu
Sace tva mayha ovda sueyysi tay saddhi aha have gaccheyymi.
Yva maya saccni bujjheyyma tva maya duggatsu na uppajjeyyma.
Tva khippa gantv me lekhana hareyysi.
Who (are) you?
Who (is) he?
Who (is) your teacher?
What do you question him?

229

B.

XIV. A.

6.
8.
9.
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
23.
1.
2.
4.
10.
12.

14.
16.
17.
2.
3.
4.
5.
8.
12.
13.
15.
19.
20.

B.

1.

What is this woman to you?


To which mendicant shall we send that book?
Of what use to me is their wealth?
Who knows what he will do?
Of which fruit is that?
He who sees the Doctrine sees the Buddha........
What you wish, tell it to him.
Whatever they do that alone they take and go to the other world.
In whatever direction he lives in that direction also they too wish to live.
He does not know to do anything.
K es?
Ki tassa nma?
Nanu eso tava ti?
Etena tassa v tass v ki payojana.
Sehi, tava dhanena ki payojana? Tva ta sabba gahetv para loka na
gacchasi. Tasm suhu bhujhi. Tava dhanassa m rati karohi. Tena soko jyati. Tava
dhanena pua karohi. Gilnna gilnaslyo ca drakna phaslyo ca
bhikkhna bhikkhunna rme ca karohi. Yad tva para loka gacchasi tad tni
tni puni gahetv gacchasi.
Ya icchasi so ta vadatu.
Ya tava cakkhun passasi sabba aesa m vadeyysi.
Yesu nagaresu pait vasanti tesu maya vasitu icchma.
He came when I went.
What did he do? (it. What was done by him?)
Extolling his virtues he approached me.
Whilst I was going on the way I saw a bird seated on that tree.
Today, I should go by that road.
When you go to the other world, good or evil done by you goes with you.
Standing or sitting or going or sleep ing I (lit. do) extend (my) loving-kindness towards all
beings.
Not knowing what should be done they stood in front of me.
We saw them bathing in the river.
Leaving aside the cudgel towards all beings, not hurting any of them he would not wish
for a son. Whence a friend? One should wonder alone like a rhinoceros.
Ida tay kata.

230

XV. A.

B.
XVI. A.
B.

XVII. A.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
1.
2.
3.
1.
5.
9.
13.
3.
6.
7.
10.
11.
15.
18.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Skh tena chinn.


Aha visikhya gacchanta purisa passi.
S muni vandant ahsi.
Tasmi phasla gate aha ghara gato.
Kapayo patitni phalni khdisu.
nisdanti
Tay na nahtabba.
Ya kattabba ta so karotu.
Eva tay ta dahabba.
May likhitni potthakni tesa na dtabbni.
Aggimhi khitta mai mama sahy passisu.
Bhikkhi desita dhamma suanto (aha) bhmiya nisdi.
Guavantehi bahu pua kattabba.
Vejjena dinna osadha pibante gilne manuss passisu.
What is this?
Whose are these?
Of what use is this to you?
Ko eso drako?
Ida may kata.
He gave his three sons twelve fruits, four for each.
At least the five precepts should be observed by laymen.
Amhka dve chakkhni atthi, api ca eka mukha.
Imesa pakrna ki tva gaheyysi?
Drako tni ambni kiitv eka bhujitv, dve ghara hari.
dve satni.
Ito sattame divase.
So paca satni datv sahassa alabhi.
Eknatisatime vasse gharasm nikkhamitv cha vassni vyamitv c attri saccni
bujjhitv paca-tisatime vasse so Buddho abhavi. Buddho hutv so paca-cattsa
vassni dhamma desesi.
This is not my soul.
We shall mention that matter to the Blessed One.
Walk in the right, O king.
Self indeed is ones refuge for who else could refuge be?
He who protects oneself protects others, he who protects others protects oneself.

231

10.
13.
14.
B.

1.
2.
3.
6.
7.
8.
13.
15.
XVIII.A. 1.
2.
7.
12.
B.
3.
4.
7.

XIX. A.

B.

XX. A.

12.
14.
1.
2.
5.
2.
8.
11.
12.
7.
9.
12.
13.
14.

gat, came.
me-atthi - lit. to me have - Sons have I, wealth have I thus the fool perishes. Self inde ed
is not for self. Whence sons, whence wealth?
By self alone is evil done, by self is one defiles. By self is not evil done. By self is one
purified.
Aha attano pati.
So attna ovadi.
pesit.
It is not good = na sundara.
Guavant nicca sabehi pjit.
good = attha
Ekacce rjno aesa rahna lobhena vihaanti. (nassanti)
dibbati
Praise be to the teacher.
Make us also hear the Doctrine heard by you.
aggi dpetha = kindle a fire.
bodhento = causing to understand.
taught and made = uggahpetv kresi.
made to give = dpesi.
Sad mayha mt ca pit ca sabbesu sattesu metta bhvetv amhepi tath ktu
ovadanti.
caused to erect = kresu.
Bhikkhu bhmi na khaeyyu v na khapeyyu.
That the teacher said.
The Blessed One spoke thus.
Meaning indeed is the guide the Lord said.
gahetabb.
caused to give = dpetv.
conquered = jin.
have no = natthi.
vejjakamma - medical work.
stodaka - cold water.
One should ever live with a heart of love towards bipeds and quadrupeds.
I have never before seen Saints or heard the doctrine of the teacher.
Men and women experiencing pain and pleasure wander in the three fold existence.

232

16.
7.
9.
12.
13.
15.
16.
XXI. A.
1.
3.
6.
8.
11.
13.
B.
1.
3.
5.
7.
14.
XXII. A. 13.
14.
B.

B. 14.
XXIII.A. 1.
2.
4.
8.
12.
13.
B.
1.
6.
14.

Saddhcetas - with a heart of faith. Samaadhamma = duties of a monk.


village-school = gmaphasl.
well-water = kpodaka. sea-water = samuddodaka.
Etni macaphni ajja dsadshi dhovitni.
Desireless One = nittaho.
Aha setahatthiyo v nlasse v na dihapubbo.
gift of truth = Dhammadna.
Stop not proceed.
yathbuddha = according to seniority.
yathkamma = according to deeds.
His pupils wandering in villages and hamlets arrived in the city at sunrise.
paitasotna = to the wise hearers.
Sattasattha = seven weeks.
in due course = yathkkamena.
Suriyatthagateyeva yathkkamena to upanagara samppuisu.
come together = samgacchanti.
It is not right = na vaati.
Candodaye tamo antaradhyati.
lokiyajan = worldlings.
By the power of their truth, virtue, pat ience and loving-kindness may they protect you in
health and happiness.
Drumayamac ayomayamacehi sundaratar.
Giver of what is a giver of strength........
dpado = giver of lights.
He who drinks the Dhamma lives happily.
Tahakkhayo = he who has destroyed craving.
Amidst prosperity and adversity be unshaken in mind.
dhammasavaatthya = for the purpose of hearing the Dhamma.
Rga-dosa-mohakkhayena mutti labhanti.
coming = gamana.
Dyak dhammasavaatthya gantukm tehi pjita-svake upasakamisu.

Table of Contents

233

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